ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Twitter; Spatiotemporal analysis; Mega-events; Olympic Games
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:25:23 CEST)
Olympic Games have a huge impact on the cities where they are held, both during the actual celebration of the event and before and after it. This study presents a new approach based on spatial analysis, GIS, and data coming from Location Based Social Networks to model the spatiotemporal dimension of impacts associated with the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Geolocalized data from Twitter are used to analyze the activity pattern of users from two different viewpoints. The first monitors the activity of Twitter users during the event -the arrival of visitors, where they came from, and the use resident and tourist made of different areas of the city. The second assesses the spatiotemporal use of the city by Twitter users before the event, compared to the use during and after the event. The results not only reveal which spaces were the most used while the Games were being held but also changes in the urban dynamics after the Games. Both approaches can be used to assess the impacts of mega-events and to improve the management and allocation of urban resources such as transport and public services infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0413.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: LGN; pRF; spatiotemporal; retinotopic; flicker; isoluminance; clustering
Online: 26 June 2018 (11:51:27 CEST)
We developed a temporal population receptive field model to differentiate the functional and hemodynamic responses in the human LGN. The hemodynamic response of the human LGN is dominated by the richly vascularized hilum, a structure that serves as a point of entry for blood vessels entering the LGN and supplying the substrates of central vision. The location of the hilum along the ventral surface of the LGN and the resulting gradient in the amplitude of the hemodynamic response across the extent of the LGN has made it difficult to segment the human LGN into its more interesting magnocellular and parvocellular regions that represent two distinct visual processing streams. Here, we show that an intrinsic clustering of the LGN responses to a variety of visual input reveals the hilum, and further that this clustering is dominated by the amplitude of the hemodynamic response. We introduce a temporal population receptive field model that includes both a sustained and transient temporal impulse response. When we account for the hemodynamic amplitude, we demonstrate that this temporal response model is able to functionally segregate the residual responses according to their temporal properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0094.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: GIR; TIR; NLP; spatiotemporal information; temporal inference
Online: 22 October 2016 (10:55:08 CEST)
Historic expeditions are events that are flavored by exploratory, scientific, military or geographic characteristics. Such events are often documented in literature, journey notes or personal diaries. A typical historic expedition involves multiple site visits and their descriptions contain spatiotemporal and attributive contexts. Expeditions involve movements in space that can be represented by triplet features (location, time and description). However, such features are implicit and innate parts of textual documents. Extracting the geospatial information from these documents requires understanding the contextualized entities in the text. To this end, we developed a semi-automated framework that has multiple Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing components to extract the spatiotemporal information from a two-volumes historic expedition gazetteer. Our framework has three basic components, namely, the Text Preprocessor, the Gazetteer Processing Machine and the JAPE (Java Annotation Pattern Engine) Transducer. We used the Brazilian Ornithological Gazetteer as an experimental dataset and extracted the spatial and temporal entities from entries that refer to three expeditioners’ site visits and mapped the trajectory of each expedition using the extracted information. Finally, one of the mapped trajectories was manually compared with a historical reference map of that expedition to assess the reliability of our framework. The reference map was manually prepared in previous research work by others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0215.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: RfA1; engineered peptides; spatiotemporal tunable; cyto/nucleoplasmic location
Online: 17 February 2022 (13:29:41 CET)
Proteins, as gifts from nature, provide structure, sequence, and function templates for designing biomaterials. Here, we reported an engineered toolkit derived from a natural block copolymer, RfA1. RfA1 is composed of positively charged polyelectrolyte linker regions interspersed with highly conserved polyampholyte motifs. These linkers and motifs are constructional fragments and ready-to-use building blocks for synthetic design and construction. One functional and editable feature of RfA1 derivatives is their preferential distribution to cytoplasm or nucleoplasm, in a fragment-replication-determined manner. Based on this property, a prices spatiotemporal Tet-on demo was established, which effectively transports cargo peptides into nuclei at selective time points. Moreover, the functional homogeneities of either motifs or linkers were also verified, making them standardized building blocks for synthetic biology. In summary, this study provides a modularized, orthotropic and well-characterized toolkit for precise and spatiotemporal regulation of protein nucleocytoplasmic localization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0025.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Influenza; epidemiology; spatiotemporal; seasonality; global; transmission; infectious disease
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:05:52 CET)
Influenza epidemics in temperate regions display dynamics that are characterized by pronounced seasonal peaks during the winter. The general lack of influenza cases during the off-season may result from the virus physically disappearing at the end of the season, in which case it must be imported annually. Alternatively, it may result from persistent asymptomatic carriers or unnoticed local transmission chains that develop into local epidemics as conditions become conducive. Here I attempt to understand these differing explanations by analyzing the global distribution of the four major subtypes that comprise influenza over a period of 18 years based on FluNet data, the surveillance network and database compiled by the WHO, and the NCBI influenza data resource, a repository of relevant genetic information. Examining the annual proportion of each subtype, I find considerable variations in subtype annual proportions between the regions. Moreover, I find that seasonal influenza subtypes can remain confined to specific temperate regions, without showing measurable global presence. These results indicate that although largely undetected during the off-season, influenza is likely to persist locally, and imply a ‘local-global’ model where annual influenza epidemics are a mixture of local strains undergoing reactivation together with an influx of global variants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0164.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fine particulate matter; exposure assessment; machine learning; spatiotemporal; high resolution
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:46:46 CET)
Currently available nationwide prediction models for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) lack prediction confidence intervals and usually do not describe cross validated model performance at different spatiotemporal resolutions and extents. We used 41 different spatiotemporal predictors, including data on land use, meteorology, aerosol optical density, emissions, wildfires, population, traffic, and spatiotemporal indicators to train a machine learning model to predict daily averages of PM2.5 concentrations at 0.75 sq km resolution across the contiguous United States from 2000 through 2020. We utilized a generalized random forest model that allowed us to generate asymptotically-valid prediction confidence intervals and took advantage of its usefulness as an ensemble learner to quickly and cheaply characterize leave-one-location-out CV model performance for different temporal resolutions and geographic regions. Using a variable importance metric, we selected 8 predictors that were able to accurately predict daily PM2.5, with an overall leave-one-location-out cross validated median absolute error of 1.20 ug/m3, an R2 of 0.84, and confidence interval coverage fraction of 95%. When considering aggregated temporal windows, the model achieved leave-one-location-out cross validated median absolute errors of 0.99, 0.76, 0.63, and 0.60 ug/m3 for weekly, monthly, annual, and all-time exposure assessments, respectively. We further describe the model’s cross validated performance at different geographic regions in the United States, finding that it performs worse in the Western half of the country where there are less monitors. The code and data used to create this model are publicly available and we have developed software packages to be used for exposure assessment. This accurate exposure assessment model will be useful for epidemiologists seeking to study the health effects of PM across the continental United States, while possibly considering exposure estimation accuracy and uncertainty specific to the the spatiotemporal resolution and extent of their study design and population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Lyme disease; Quebec; Spatiotemporal patterns; front wave velocity; clusters; emergence
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:38:26 CEST)
Lyme disease is a growing public health problem in Québec. Its emergence over the last decade is caused by environmental and anthropological factors that favour the survival of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease transmission. The objective of this study was to estimate the speed and direction of Lyme disease emergence in Québec and to identify spatiotemporal risk patterns. A surface trend analysis was conducted to estimate the speed and direction of its emergence based upon the first detected case of Lyme disease in each municipality in Québec since 2004. A cluster analysis was also conducted to identify at-risk regions across space and time. These analyses were reproduced for the date of disease onset and date of notification for each case of Lyme disease. It was estimated that Lyme disease is spreading northward in Québec at a speed varying between 18 and 32 km/year according to the date of notification and the date of disease onset, respectively. A high rate of disease risk was found in seven clusters identified in the south-west of Québec in the sociosanitary regions of Montérégie and Estrie. The results obtained in this study improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in Québec, which can be used for proactive, targeted interventions by public and clinical health authorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: spatiotemporal; time series; bi-temporal; ground-based LiDAR; tree growth
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:56:08 CEST)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been adopted as a feasible technique to digitize trees and forest stands, providing accurate information on tree and forest structural attributes. However, there is limited understanding on how a variety of forest structural changes can be quantified using TLS in boreal forest conditions. In this study, we assessed the accuracy and feasibility of TLS in quantifying changes in the structure of boreal forests. We collected TLS data and field reference from 37 sample plots in 2014 (T1) and 2019 (T2). Tree stems typically have planar, vertical, and cylindrical characteristics in a point cloud, and thus we applied surface normal filtering, point cloud clustering, and RANSAC-cylinder filtering to identify these geometries and to characterize trees and forest stands at both time points. The results strengthened the existing knowledge that TLS has the capacity to characterize trees and forest stands in space and showed that TLS could characterize structural changes in time in boreal forest conditions. Root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) in the estimates for changes in the tree attributes were 0.99-1.22 cm for diameter at breast height (Δdbh), 44.14-55.49 cm2 for basal area (Δg), and 1.91-4.85 m for tree height (Δh). In general, tree attributes were estimated more accurately for Scots pine trees, followed by Norway spruce and broadleaved trees. At the forest stand level, an RMSE of 0.60-1.13 cm was recorded for changes in basal area-weighted mean diameter (ΔDg), 0.81-2.26 m for changes in basal area-weighted mean height (ΔHg), 1.40-2.34 m2/ha for changes in mean basal area (ΔG), and 74-193 n/ha for changes in the number of trees per hectare (ΔTPH). The plot-level accuracy was higher in Scots pine-dominated sample plots than in Norway spruce-dominated and mixed-species sample plots. TLS-derived tree and forest structural attributes at time points T1 and T2 differed significantly from each other (p < 0.05). If there was an increase or decrease in dbh, g, h, height of the crown base, crown ratio, Dg, Hg, or G recorded in the field, a similar outcome was achieved by using TLS. Our results provided new information on the feasibility of TLS for the purposes of forest ecosystem growth monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0488.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Capsule network; differential features; deep learning; micro-expression recognition; spatiotemporal features
Online: 28 November 2022 (03:12:12 CET)
Micro-expression (ME) is one of the key psychological stress reactions. It is a modest, spontaneous facial mechanism. ME has significant applicability in a variety of psychologically-related sectors because to its precision and unpredictability with regard to psychological manifestations. Nevertheless, the current Micro-expression recognition (MER) algorithms have poor accuracy and a limited quantity of ME data, and this study issue has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we present an approach for deep learning based on a Spatio-temporal capsule network (STCP-Net). STCP-Net has four components: a jitter reduction module, a differential feature extraction module, an STCP module, and a fully linked layer. The first two modules are aimed to extract diversifying differential features more precisely and to limit the influence of head jitter. The STCP module is used to extract Spatio-temporal features layer by layer, taking the temporal and geographical connection between features into account. This research runs sufficient trials using the Leave One Subject Out (LOSO) methodology for cross-validation using the CASMEII dataset. The conclusion and analysis demonstrate that the algorithm is innovative and efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0504.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Reaction-diffusion equation; phytoplankton dynamics; Spatiotemporal pattern formation; Chaos; Local Stability
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:31:07 CEST)
In this paper the dynamics of spatially extended infected phytoplankton with the Holling type II functional response and logistically growing susceptible phytoplankton system is studied. The proposed model is an extension of temporal model available , in spatiotemporal domain. The reaction diffusion system exhibits spatiotemporal chaos in phytoplankton dynamics. This is particularly important for the spatially extended systems that are studied in this paper as they display a wide spectrum of ecologically relevant behavior, including chaos. In this system stability of the system is studied with respect to disease contact rate and the growth fraction of infected phytoplankton indirectly rejoin the susceptible phytoplankton population. The results of numerical experiments in one dimension and two dimensions in space as well as time series in temporal models are presented using MATLAB simulation. Moreover, the stability of the corresponding temporal model is studied analytically. Finally, the comparison of the three types of numerical experimentations are discussed in conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0209.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: spatiotemporal modeling; arbovirus transmission; remote sensing; eastern equine encephalitis virus; West Nile virus
Online: 16 May 2022 (12:22:14 CEST)
The irregular timing and spatial variation in zoonotic arbovirus spillover from vertebrate hosts to humans and livestock present challenges to predicting their occurrence from year to year and within their broader geographic range, compromising effective prevention and control strategies. The objective of this study was to quantify effects of landscape composition and configuration and dynamic temperature and precipitation values on the 2018 spatiotemporal distribution of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) and West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) sentinel chicken seroconversion in northeastern Florida using Earth Observation (EO) data and a modeling framework that incorporated joint spatial and temporal effects. We investigated environmental effects using Bernoulli generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMMs) including a site level random effect, and then added spatial random effects and spatiotemporal random effects in subsequent runs. Models were executed using integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) and a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach in R-INLA. GLMMs that included a spatiotemporal random effect performed better relative to models that included only spatial random effects and better than non-spatial models. Results indicated strong spatiotemporal structure in seroconversion for both viruses, but EEEV exhibited more punctuated and compact structure at the beginning of the sampling season, while WNV exhibited more gradual and diffuse structure across the study area toward the end of the sampling season. Percentage of cypress/tupelo wetland land cover within 3500 m of coop sites and edge density of forest land cover within 500 m had a strong positive effect on EEEV seroconversion, while the best fitting model for WNV was the intercept only model with spatiotemporal random effects. Lagged temperature and precipitation variables included in our study did not have a strong effect on seroconversion for either virus when accounting for temporal autocorrelation, demonstrating the utility of capturing this structure to avoid Type I errors. Predictive accuracy on out-of-sample data for EEEV seroconversion demonstrates the potential to develop a temporally dynamic framework to predict arbovirus transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0363.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer; spatiotemporal dynamics of the atmospheric kinetic energy; turbulence; minisodar measurements
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:14:10 CET)
Spatiotemporal dynamics of the atmospheric kinetic energy and its components caused by the ordered and turbulent motions of air masses are estimated from minisodar measurements of three velocity vector components and their variances within the lowest 5–200 m layer of the atmosphere, with a particular emphasis on the turbulent kinetic energy. The layered structure of the total atmospheric kinetic energy has been established. From the diurnal hourly dynamics of the altitude profiles of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) retrieved from minisodar data, four layers are established by the character of the altitude TKE dependence, namely, the near-ground layer, the surface layer, the layer with a linear TKE increase, and the transitive layer above. In the first layer, the most significant changes of the ТКЕ were observed in the evening hours. In the second layer, no significant changes in the TKE values were observed. A linear increase in the TKE values with altitude was observed in the third layer. In the fourth layer, the TKE slightly increased with altitude and exhibited variations during the entire observation period. The altitudes of the upper boundaries of these layers depended on the time of day. The MKE values were much less than the corresponding TKE values, they did not exceed 50 m2/s2. From two to four MKE layers were distinguished based on the character of its altitude dependence. The two-layer structures were observed in the evening and at night (under conditions of the stable atmospheric boundary layer). In the morning and daytime, the four-layer MKE structures with intermediate layers of linear increase and subsequent decrease in the MKE values were observed. Our estimates demonstrated that the ТКЕ contribution to the total atmospheric kinetic energy considerably (by a factor of 2.5–3) exceeded the corresponding МКЕ contribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0404.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatiotemporal Modelling; Ecological Modelling; Sparse Data; Minkowskian Geometry; Time Series Analysis; Spatial Statistics; Isoscapes
Online: 24 December 2021 (11:16:17 CET)
We developed a novel approach in the field of spatiotemporal modelling, based on the spatialisation of time: the Timescape algorithm. It is especially aimed at sparsely distributed datasets in ecological research, whose spatial and temporal variability is strongly entangled. The algorithm is based on the definition of a spatiotemporal distance that incorporates a causality constraint and that is capable of accommodating the seasonal behaviour of the modelled variable as well. The actual modelling is conducted exploiting any established spatial interpolation technique, substituting the ordinary spatial distance with our Timescape distance, thus sorting, from the same input set of observations, those causally related to each estimated value at a given site and time. The notion of causality is expressed topologically and it has to be tuned for each particular case. The Timescape algorithm originates from the field of stable isotopes spatial modelling (isoscapes), but in principle it can be used to model any real scalar random field distribution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0581.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: genetically encoded biosensors; live spatiotemporal imaging; multiparameter imaging; plant immune response; biotic stress; crops
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:33:42 CET)
Biosensors are indispensable tools to follow plant’s immunity as its spatiotemporal dimension is key in withstanding the complex plant immune signaling. The diversity of genetically encoded biosensors in plants is expanding, covering new analytes with ever higher sensitivity and robustness, but their assortment is limited in some aspects, such as their use to follow biotic stress response, employing more than one biosensor in the same chassis and their implementation into crops. In this review, we focused on the available biosensors that encompass these aspects. We show that in vivo imaging of calcium and reactive oxygen species is satisfactorily covered with the available genetically encoded biosensors, while on the other hand they are still underrepresented when it comes to imaging of the main three hormonal players of the immune response, salicylic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Following more than one analyte in the same chassis, upon one or more conditions has so far been possible by using the most advanced genetically encoded biosensors in plants which allow to monitor calcium and two main hormonal pathways involved in plant development, auxin and cytokinin. These kinds of biosensors are also the most evolved in crops. In the last section, we gathered the challenges in the use of the biosensors and showed some strategies to overcome them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban-rural gradient; spatiotemporal patterns; landscape metrics; a roadscape transect approach; rapid urbanization; Shanghai
Online: 29 July 2016 (08:06:50 CEST)
Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the urban fringe expanded radically. The results also showed that the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Satellite towns witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more of an effort to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities from a strategic viewpoint. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Land surface temperature; the Flexible Spatiotemporal Data Fusion method; Landsat-like; Building density; urban expansion
Online: 11 September 2018 (11:17:43 CEST)
Satellite-based remote sensing technologies are utilized extensively to investigate urban thermal environments under rapid urban expansion. Current MODIS data is, however, unable to adequately represent the spatially detailed information because of its relatively coarser spatial resolution, while Landsat data can’t explore temporally the refined analysis due to the low temporal resolution. In order to resolve this situation, we used MODIS and Landsat data to generate “Landsat-like” data by using the flexible spatiotemporal data fusion method (FSDAF), and then studied spatiotemporal variation of land surface temperature (LST) and its driving factors. The results showed that 1) The estimated “Landsat-like” data have high precision; 2) By comparing 2013 and 2016 datasets, LST increases ranging from 1.8°C to 4°C were measurable in areas where the impervious surface area (ISA) increased, while LST decreases ranging from -3.52°C to -0.70°C were detected in areas where ISA decreased; 3) LST has a strongly negative relationship with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and a strongly positive relationship with Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI) in summer; and 4) LST is well correlated with Building density (BD), in a complex conic mode, and LST may increase by 0.460°C to 0.786°C when BD increases by 0.1. Our findings can provide information useful for mitigating undesirable thermal conditions and for long-term urban thermal environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0523.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: spatiotemporal neural dynamics; vision; dorsal and ventral streams; multivariate pattern analysis; representational similarity analysis; fMRI; MEG
Online: 23 October 2018 (06:41:16 CEST)
To build a representation of what we see, the human brain recruits regions throughout the visual cortex in cascading sequence. Recently, an approach was proposed to evaluate the dynamics of visual perception in high spatiotemporal resolution at the scale of the whole brain. This method combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with magnetoencephalography (MEG) data using representational similarity analysis and revealed a hierarchical progression from primary visual cortex through the dorsal and ventral streams. To assess the replicability of this method, here we present results of a visual recognition neuro-imaging fusion experiment, and compare them within and across experimental settings. We evaluated the reliability of this method by assessing the consistency of the results under similar test conditions, showing high agreement within participants. We then generalized these results to a separate group of individuals and visual input by comparing them to the fMRI-MEG fusion data of Cichy et al. (2016), revealing a highly similar temporal progression recruiting both the dorsal and ventral streams. Together these results are a testament to the reproducibility of the fMRI-MEG fusion approach and allows for the interpretation of these spatiotemporal dynamic in a broader context.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: transition to/from turbulence; wall-bounded shear flow; plane Poiseuille flow; spatiotemporal intermittency; directed percolation; critical phenomena
Online: 4 November 2020 (09:16:57 CET)
In line with Pomeau’s conjecture about the relevance of directed percolation (DP) to turbulence onset/decay in wall-bounded flows, we propose a minimal stochastic model dedicated to the interpretation of the spatially intermittent regimes observed in channel flow before its return to laminar flow. Numerical simulations show that a regime with bands obliquely drifting in two stream-wise symmetrical directions bifurcates into an asymmetrical regime, before ultimately decaying to laminar flow. The model is expressed in terms of a probabilistic cellular automaton evolving von Neumann neighbourhoods with probabilities educed from a close examination of simulation results. It implements band propagation and the two main local processes: longitudinal splitting involving bands with the same orientation, and transversal splitting giving birth to a daughter band with orientation opposite to that of its mother. The ultimate decay stage observed to display one-dimensional DP properties in a two-dimensional geometry is interpreted as resulting from the irrelevance of lateral spreading in the single-orientation regime. The model also reproduces the bifurcation restoring the symmetry upon variation of the probability attached to transversal splitting, which opens the way to a study of the critical properties of that bifurcation, in analogy with thermodynamic phase transitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0166.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: spatiotemporal database; spatial analysis; seasonal precipitation; spearman correlation coefficient; pacific decadal oscillation; southern oscillation index; north atlantic oscillation
Online: 16 January 2020 (10:59:53 CET)
Temporary changes in precipitation may lead to sustained and severe drought or massive floods in different parts of the world. Knowing variation in precipitation can effectively help the water resources decision-makers in water resources management. Large-scale circulation drivers have a considerable impact on precipitation in different parts of the world. In this research, the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on seasonal precipitation over Iran was investigated. For this purpose, 103 synoptic stations with at least 30 years of data were utilized. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the indices in the previous 12 months with seasonal precipitation was calculated, and the meaningful correlations were extracted. Then the month in which each of these indices has the highest correlation with seasonal precipitation was determined. Finally, the overall amount of increase or decrease in seasonal precipitation due to each of these indices was calculated. Results indicate the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), NAO, and PDO have the most impact on seasonal precipitation, respectively. Also, these indices have the highest impact on the precipitation in winter, autumn, spring, and summer, respectively. SOI has a diverse impact on winter precipitation compared to the PDO and NAO, while in the other seasons, each index has its special impact on seasonal precipitation. Generally, all indices in different phases may decrease the seasonal precipitation up to 100%. However, the seasonal precipitation may increase more than 100% in different seasons due to the impact of these indices. The results of this study can be used effectively in water resources management and especially in dam operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: excess winter mortality; influenza; latitude; gender; age; respiratory conditions; spatiotemporal effects; female; male; pandemics; seasons; ethnic groups; respiration disorders; coinfection
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:16:39 CET)
(1) Background: To investigate the dynamic issues behind international variation in EWM. (2) A rolling EWM calculation is used to reveal seasonal changes in the EWM calculation and is especially relevant nearer to the equator. (3) Results: In addition to latitude country specific factors determine EWM. Females generally show higher EWM mainly due to respiratory conditions. The EWM for respiratory conditions in England and Wales ranges from 44% to 83% which is about double the all-cause mortality equivalent. Age has a profound effect on EWM with a peak in puberty and then increasing EWM at old age. The gap between male and female EWM seems to act as a diagnostic tool reflecting the infectious/metrological mix in each winter. Additional difference due to ethnicity are also observed. An EWM equivalent calculation for sickness absence demonstrates how additional health-related variables can be linked to EWM. (4) Conclusions: EWM does not reach a peak at the same time each year, especially so in the tropics. Countries midway between the equator and the poles show highest EWM. Differences between the genders are highly significant and seem to vary according to the mix of variables active each winter. Pandemic influenza does not elevate EWM, although seasonal influenza plays a part each winter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis; high to ultra high spatial resolution; high to very high temporal resolution; NDVI; NIR; neural network modelling, Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel
Online: 4 November 2021 (09:35:50 CET)
The salt marshes, lying at the land-sea temperate interface, furnish a plethora of ecosystems services such as biodiversity niche support, ocean-climate change regulation, ornithology recreo-tourism or plant gathering by hand. They undergo significant worldwide losses due to their conversion into crop fields and to their spatial compression between the rising sea-level and the armoring shoreline. Their monitoring however requires to use a suite of remote sensing sensors to embrace the regional scale while capturing the plant details. This research innovatively adopts a multiscale approach using a cascading spaceborne and airborne process, from the 10-m Sentinel-2, through the 3-m Dove, to the 0.03-m unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) imageries. The high to very high temporal resolution of the Sentinel-2 and Dove enabled to cover twenties and tens of km2 over five and four years, respectively, in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) classes, associated with microphytobenthos, low, medium and high salt marsh vegetation, including the opportunistic Elyma genus. The NDVI was then modelled at the UAV scale (a few km2) using a three-layered NN prediction, providing the final near-infrared (NIR), and the intermediate red, green and blue reflectance imageries, calibrated/validated/tested with the Dove reflectance imageries (R2NIR=0.98, R2red=0.88, R2green=0.84, and R2blue=0.90). The 100fold increase in pixel size allowed to detect the decimeter-scale objects of the tidal flats and salt marshes, to enlarge the NDVI class ranges, and hold great promise to model other spectral bands at the UAV scale for further deeply enhancing the salt marsh mapping.