ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Soot; TEM; HRTEM; EELS; soot nanostructure; premixed flames
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:20:59 CEST)
Soot is characterized by a multiscale structural organization and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is the only diagnostic tool giving access to it. However, being a diffraction-based technique, TEM images only aromatic systems and thus, it is particularly useful to combine it with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), able to provide quantitative information about the relative abundance of sp3 and sp2 hybridized carbon. In this paper a method for the EELS spectrum analysis of carbonaceous materials recently developed for electron-irradiated graphite and glassy carbon composition analysis has been applied for the first time on soot samples, in order to test its performance in soot nanostructure study in combination with TEM and High Resolution TEM (HRTEM). Soot samples here analysed were collected in the soot inception region of premixed flames of different hydrocarbon fuels. EELS, in agreement with TEM and HRTEM, showed a quite disordered and heterogeneous structure for young soot, without any significant distinction between soot formed from methane and ethylene fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0317.v1
Online: 28 October 2019 (08:54:48 CET)
The emission of carbon compounds (in the form of soot) to the atmosphere has a significant impact on the environment and human health. Air pollution with combustion products, having a unique combination of physical and chemical properties, is an important component of very fine suspended dust, which is emitted from various sources related to combustion processes. The carbon compounds in the aerosol and deposited in the substrate are found all over the Earth. The paper presents results of comparative research on the content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soot samples obtained as a result of combustion of solid fuels such as hard coal with granulation above 60 mm, coal with a grain size of 25-80 mm, coal with a grain size of 8-25 mm, pellets and dry wood. On the basis of the conducted tests, it was found that the soot obtained in the combustion of coal in different granulation contains more cytotoxic PAHs in comparison to the combustion of wood pellets or dry firewood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0135.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; soot; particulate matter; lung inflammation; functional groups
Online: 5 August 2020 (15:39:00 CEST)
Air pollution has become the world’s single biggest environmental health risk of the past decade, causing about 7 million yearly deaths worldwide. One of the dominant air pollutants is fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a product of combustion. Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with decreased lung function, impaired immunity, and exacerbations of lung disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that many of the adverse health effects of PM2.5 exposure are associated with lung inflammation and oxidative stress. While the physical structure and surface chemistry of PM2.5 are surrogate measures of particle oxidative potential, little is known about their contributions to negative health effects. In this study, we used functionalized carbon black particles as surrogates for atmospherically aged combustion formed soot to assess the effects of PM2.5 surface chemistry in lung cells. We exposed the BEAS-2B lung epithelial cell line to different soot at a range of concentrations, and assessed cell viability, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that exposure to soot with varying particle surface composition results in differential cell viability rates, expression of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress genes, and protein carbonylation. We conclude that particle surface chemistry, specifically oxygen content, in soot modulates lung cell inflammatory and oxidative stress responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Review; Electric Field; Ionic wind; Electric assisted combustion; Soot emission
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:54:38 CEST)
Electric field assisted combustion is an important means to improve fuel combustion efficiency. This paper conducts extensive research on flame characteristics under different forms and different application methods of electric fields, emission of soot particles and simulation status. Different flame parameter measurement methods will lead to different degrees of error, and perfect numerical simulation can make simple predictions on experimental data. Most of the current numerical simulations are in two dimensions, and it is necessary to develop a complete and accurate three-dimensional model to simulate and predict the characteristics of the flame under an electric field. The emission of soot particles is also affected by the electric field, and reasonable electric field parameters can greatly reduce the emission of soot particles. It is recommended to conduct centralized measurement of different fuels under the electric field under high pressure and temperature conditions, so as to be able to develop a wider and more accurate flame dynamics and chemical model under the electric field.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: soot oxidation; catalytic; heterogeneous catalysis; oxygen vacancies; iron doped ceria catalyst; ceria
Online: 1 September 2019 (09:02:29 CEST)
This study investigates the role of oxygen vacancy on Fe-doped CeO2 catalyst activity for soot oxidation. The oxygen vacancy was assessed through Ce3+ content. The Fe content was varied between 0 and 30% for two catalyst preparation methods, co-precipitation (CP) and solution combustion synthesis (SCS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that ceria exists as both Ce4+ and Ce3+, while iron is present only as Fe3+. The catalyst’s activity was evaluated by ignition (T10) and combustion (T50) temperatures using thermogravimetric analysis. Optimum Fe contents yielding the highest activity were found to be 10% and 5% for CP and SCS catalysts, respectively. The surface area and morphology have shown moderate effect on catalyst activity, because catalytic soot oxidation involves solid-solid contact. More importantly, regardless of the fabrication method, it was found that Ce3+ content, which is closely related to oxygen vacancies, plays the most important role in affecting the catalyst activity.