ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0033.v1
Online: 2 August 2018 (05:20:58 CEST)
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a prototypical angiogenic agent with a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis. Experimental studies have shown that Shh is upregulated in response to ischemia. Also, Shh may be found on the surface of circulating microparticles (MPs) and MPs bearing Shh (Shh+ MPs) have shown the ability to contribute to reparative neovascularization after ischemic injury in mice. In this study, the plasma number of Shh+ MPs in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and control subjects without PAD. We found significantly higher number of Shh+ MPs in plasma of subjects with PAD, compared to controls, while the global number of MPs – produced either by endothelial cells, platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes – was not different between PAD patients and controls. Interestingly, the concentration of Shh protein unbound to MPs – which was measured in MP-depleted plasma – was not different between subjects with PAD and controls, indicating that, in the setting of PAD, the call for Shh recapitulation does not lead to secretion of protein into the blood but to binding of the protein to the membrane of MPs. These findings provide novel insights on the mechanisms through which the Shh signaling is reactivated during ischemia in humans, with potentially important fundamental and clinical implications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0110.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: Sonic Hedgehog; endothelial cells; endothelial progenitor cells; canonical signaling; non-canonical signals; extracellular vesicles
Online: 17 September 2018 (08:45:16 CEST)
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic and postnatal vascular development and in maintaining the homeostasis of organs. Under physiological conditions, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a secreted protein belonging to the Hh family, regulates endothelial cell growth, promotes cell migration, and stimulates the formation of new blood vessels. The present review highlights recent advances made in the field of Shh signaling in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The canonical and non-canonical Shh signaling pathways in EPCs and endothelial cells (ECs) related to homeostasis, Shh signal transmission by extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes containing single-strand non-coding miRNAs, and impaired Shh signaling in cardiovascular diseases are discussed. As a promising therapeutic tool, the possibility of using the Shh signaling pathway for the activation of EPCs in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases is further explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; Doppler frequencies; multi-chromatic analysis; micro-motion; Pyramid of Khnum-Khufu; sonic images
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:45:58 CEST)
A problem with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is that, due to the poor penetrating action of electromagnetic waves inside solid bodies, the capability to observe inside distributed targets is precluded. Under these conditions, imaging action is provided only on the surface of distributed targets. The present work describes an imaging method based on the analysis of micro-movements on the Khnum-Khufu Pyramid, which are usually generated by background seismic waves. The results obtained prove to be very promising, as high-resolution full 3D tomographic imaging of the pyramid's interior and subsurface was achieved. Khnum-Khufu becomes transparent like a crystal when observed in the micro-movement domain. Based on this novelty, we have completely reconstructed internal objects, observing and measuring structures that have never been discovered before. The experimental results are estimated by processing series of SAR images from the second-generation Italian COSMO-SkyMed satellite system, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0088.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Microbiome; sound exposure; noise pollution; microalgae; artificial light; bioacoustics; ecosystem health; light pollution; photo-sonic restoration hypothesis
Online: 2 February 2021 (13:12:10 CET)
Globally, anthropogenic sound and artificial light pollution have increased to alarming levels. Evidence suggests that these can disrupt critical processes that impact ecosystems and human health. However, limited focus has been given to the potential effects of sound and artificial light pollution on microbiomes. Microbial communities are the foundations of our ecosystems. They are essential for human health and provide myriad ecosystem services. Therefore, disruption to microbiomes by anthropogenic sound and artificial light could have important ecological and human health implications. In this mini-review, we provide a critical appraisal of available scientific literature on the effects of anthropogenic sound and light exposure on microorganisms and discuss the potential ecological and human health implications. Our mini-review shows that a limited number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of anthropogenic sound and light pollution on microbiomes. However, based on these studies, it is evident that anthropogenic sound and light pollution have the potential to significantly influence ecosystems and human health via microbial interactions. Many of the studies suffered from modest sample sizes, suboptimal experiments designs, and some of the bioinformatics approaches used are now outdated. These factors should be improved in future studies. This is an emerging and severely underexplored area of research that could have important implications for global ecosystems and public health. Finally, we also propose the photo-sonic restoration hypothesis: does restoring natural levels of light and sound help to restore microbiomes and ecosystem stability?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; blood-brain barrier; endothelial cell; laminin; multiple sclerosis; pericyte; perivascular macrophage; sonic hedgehog; vascular smooth muscle cell
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:35:25 CET)
Pericytes are increasingly recognized as being important in the control of blood-brain barrier permeability and vascular flow. Research on this important cell type has been hindered by widespread confusion regarding the phenotypic identity and nomenclature of pericytes and other perivascular cell types. In addition, pericyte heterogeneity and mouse-human species differences have contributed to confusion. Herein we summarize our present knowledge on the identification of pericytes and pericyte subsets in humans, primarily focusing on recent findings in humans and nonhuman primates. Precise identification and definition of pericytes and pericyte subsets in humans may help us to better understand pericyte biology and develop new therapeutic approaches specifically targeting disease-associated pericyte subsets.