ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: mobile app, software quality anti-patterns
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:16:35 CET)
As the time passes the modification in technology world lead to the evaluation in mobile application as well. With evaluation in mobile industry it is an open challenge for software quality researcher that how to enhance software quality to meet the needs of changes? Quality assurance play a key role in differentiating good application from bed application. With the continuous evaluation of mobile application developing process should be quick and efficient to comply with user requirements and satisfaction. While the listed requirement leads to bad design choices known as antipatterns, which in turn affect the reliability of the code. A tool based method PAPRIKA is used in the proposed re-search to identify and monitor these antipatterns together with a two-step assessment model for software quality assurance and object oriented software quality matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Software Quality Metrics; closed source software; open source software; Kahane’s Approach; UCP (Use Case Points) model and William’s Models
Online: 5 December 2019 (08:37:56 CET)
The complexity of software is increasing day by day due to the increase in the size of the projects being developed. For better planning and management of large software projects, estimation of software quality is important. During the development processes, complexity metrics are used for the indication of the attributes/characteristics of the quality software. There are many studies about the effect of the complexity of the software on the cost and quality. In this study, we discussed the effects of software complexity on the quality attributes of the software for open source and closed source software. Though, the quality metrics for open and closed source software are not distinct from each other. In this paper, we comparatively analyzed the impact of complexity metrics on open source and private software. We also presented various models for the management of the project complexity such as William’s Model, Stacey’s Agreement and Certainty matrix, Kahane’s Approach and UCP Model. Quality metrics here refer to the standards for the measurement of the quality of software which contains certain attributes or characteristics of the software that are related to the quality of the software. Certain quality attributes addressed in this study are Usability, Reliability, Security, Portability, Maintainability, Efficiency, Cost, Standards and Availability, etc. Both Open source and Closed source software are evaluated on the basis of these quality attributes. This study also recommended future approaches to manage the quality of project Open source and Closed source software and specify which one of them is mostly used in the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0721.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: software quality; fuzzy logic; ISO standard; quality model; usability
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:52:15 CEST)
The success of a software product depends on several factors. Given that different organizations and institutions use software products, the need to have a quality and desirable software according to the goals and needs of the organization makes measuring the quality of software products an important issue for most organizations and institutions. To be sure of having the right software. It is necessary to use a standard quality model to examine the features and sub-features for a detailed and principled study in the quality discussion. In this study, the quality of Word software was measured. Considering the importance of software quality and to have a good and usable software in terms of quality and measuring the quality of software during the study, experts and skilled in this field were used and the impact of each factor and quality characteristics. It was applied at different levels according to their opinion to make the result of measuring the quality of Word software more accurate and closer to reality. In this research, the quality of the software product is measured based on the fuzzy inference system in ISO standard. According to the results obtained in this study, it is understood that quality is a continuous and hierarchical concept and the quality of each part of the software at any stage of production can lead to high quality products.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: SACDM; SOS; SQA; key factors software quality assurance; Scrum; stakeholder
Online: 9 December 2019 (07:37:30 CET)
The main moto of this study is to examine and study on behavior of Software Quality Assurance (SQA) issues of project stakeholders in a Scrum environment and their consequences. This inductive case study identifies SQA principles relevant to Meeting User Expectations. The Stakeholders in the Scrum project having lack of Concrete Guidance on Scrum’s SQA approaches, methods, and techniques. The insufficiency of concrete guidelines in Scrum needs a management squad to develop concepts that can include implementing practices from other methodologies and wisely modifying the system structure to incorporate the practices adopted, ensuring improvement in the processes, and creating a shared ownership environment. Through explaining the incompleteness of Agile approaches with special attention to the lack of concrete instructions in Scrum, the study uses techniques to customize literature and advocate for Scrum’s versatility. The study uses strategies to adapt literature and argue for Scrum’s simplicity by illustrating the incompleteness of Agile approaches with special attention to the lack of concrete instructions in Scrum methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software quality, Adaptive Neural Fuzzy, ISO standard, quality model, Inference system
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:31:56 CEST)
Computer systems are involved in many critical human applications today, so that a small error can lead to serious and dangerous problems. These errors can be from an error in the incorrect design of the user interface to an error in the program code. The success of a software product depends on several factors. Given that different organizations and institutions use software products, the need to have a quality and desirable Software according to the goals and needs of the organization makes measuring the quality of software products. an important issue for most organizations and institutions, To be sure of having the right software. It is necessary to use a standard quality model to examine the features and sub-features for a detailed and principled study in the quality discussion. In this study, the quality of Word software was measured by Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System. In recent years, powerful systems called fuzzy inference systems on The basis of adaptive neural network (ANFIS) has been used in various sciences. Using the power of neural network training and the linguistic advantage of fuzzy systems, these types of systems have been able to realize the advantages of the two in terms of analyzing very powerful complex processes. Considering the importance of software quality and to have a good and usable software in terms of quality and measuring the quality of software during the study. It was applied at different levels to make the result of measuring the quality of Word software more accurate and closer to reality. In this research, the quality of the software product is measured based on the adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system in ISO standard. According to the results obtained in this study, it is understood that quality is a continuous and hierarchical concept and the quality of each part of the software at any stage of production can lead to high quality products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Complexity Analysis & Mitigation; Software Architecture & Design, Safety; Quality; Fragility; Failure Obviation
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:45:48 CET)
Studies have found critical software malfunctions responsible for some of the worst accidents in recent times. These malfunctions are often only minor defects that snowball into large problems; a few lines of code is all it takes. Complexity, safety, quality, and resilience are among the key attributes defining a software’s operational success. There are many leading factors for complexity, such as increases in the product size, the rate of requirement changes, and the number and type of stakeholders, and failure to manage these issues efficiently always has the same consequence, i.e., massive failure and sometimes technological catastrophe. This work analyzes some of the architecture, design, and implementation guidelines used as detection and mitigation techniques. It also discusses the safety considerations, as considering how the steam industry has handled safety issues could offer some guidance for ensuring safety. Complexity in such systems also causes some of the worst side effects from the quality auditor's perspective. While failures in the software are hard to predict, one of the most significant ways of showing preparedness is practicing software resilience. New mitigation areas, such as the fragility spectrum and failure obviation, and their usage for building a safer system are analyzed. Also discussed are various architecture styles in practice and the dramatic effect human factors can have on the success of the software being developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0728.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Agile Software Development; Agile Methods; Software Team Productivity; Normality; Statistical Model
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:14:51 CEST)
Agile methods promise to achieve high productivity and provide high-quality software. Agile software development is the most important approach that has spread through the world of software development over the past decade. Software team productivity measurement is essential in agile teams to increase the performance of software development. Due to the prevalence of agile methodologies and increasing competition of software development companies, software team productivity has become one of the crucial challenges for agile software companies and teams. Awareness of the level of team productivity can help them to achieve better estimation results on the time and cost of the projects. However, to measure software productivity, there is no definitive solution or approach whether in traditional and agile software development teams that lead to the occurrence of many problems in achieving a reliable definition of software productivity. Hence, this study aims to propose a statistical model to assess the team’s productivity in agile teams. A survey was conducted with forty software companies and measured the impact of six factors of the team on productivity in these companies. The results show that team effectiveness factors including inter-team relationship, quality conformance by the team, team vision, team leader, and requirements handled by the team had a significant impact on the team’s productivity. Moreover, the results also state that inter-team relations affect the most on software teams’ productivity. Finally, the model fit test showed that 80% of productivity depends on team effectiveness factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: sustainability; software sustainability; information and communication technology; software design; sustainability requirement; software sustainability analysis; software sustainability guidelines; karlskrona manifesto
Online: 31 May 2018 (09:44:28 CEST)
Like other ICT communities, sustainability in software engineering is a major research and development concerns. Current research focusses on eliciting the meanings of sustainability and proposing approaches for its engineering and integration into the mainstream software development lifecycle. However, few concrete guidelines that software designers can apply effectively are available and applicable. Such guidelines are needed for the elicitation of sustainability requirements and testing software against these guidelines. This paper introduces a sustainability design catalogue to assist software developers and managers in eliciting sustainability requirements, and then in measuring and testing software sustainability. The paper reviews the current research on sustainability in software engineering which is the grounds for the development of the catalogue. Four different case studies were analyzed using the Karlskrona manifesto on sustainability design. The output from this research paper is a software sustainability design catalogue through which a pilot framework is proposed that includes a set of sustainability goals, concepts and methods. The integration of sustainability for/in software systems requires a concrete framework that exemplifies how to apply and quantify sustainability. The paper demonstrates how the proposed software sustainability design catalogue provides a step towards this direction through a series of guidelines.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0456.v1
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:08:12 CEST)
Antifragility, a concept pioneered by Nassim Nicholas Taleb, has undergone significant development over the past decades. In his work, Taleb describes antifragility as the opposite of fragility—a system that not only withstands stress and volatility but actually thrives and improves as a result. However, many existing systems, including those in Information Technology (IT) and complex economic models, tend to fail under stress. This paper aims to explore the potential implementation of antifragility principles into software architecture. By embracing the concept of an- tifragility, software systems could be designed to not only withstand stressors but also harness them to enhance their robustness and performance. The authors recognize that traditional approaches to software architecture often focus on minimizing failure points and ensuring stability. While these approaches are valuable, they often neglect the dynamic nature of real-world systems and fail to adapt to unforeseen challenges. The paper proposes an alternative perspective that considers stress as an opportunity for improvement. By introducing antifragile elements into software architec- ture, such as decentralized decision-making, self-healing mechanisms, and adaptive resource allocation, the authors argue that software systems can become more resilient, responsive, and capable of capitalizing on stress-induced dis- ruptions. To validate their ideas, the authors present case studies and practical examples of how antifragile software architectures could operate in various domains. They also discuss potential challenges and trade-offs associated with implementing antifragility, such as increased complexity and resource requirements. By shedding light on the possi- bility of embracing antifragility in software architecture, this paper seeks to inspire further research and innovation in creating more adaptive and robust software systems that thrive in the face of stress and uncertainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Software Process Analysis, Software Process Improvement, Data Prove-nance
Online: 4 September 2018 (16:30:51 CEST)
Companies have been increasing the amount of data that they collect from their systems and processes, considering the decrease in the cost of memory and storage technologies in recent years. The emergence of technologies such as Big Data, Cloud Computing, E-Science, and the growing complexity of information systems made evident that traceability and provenance are promising approaches. Provenance has been successfully used in complex domains, like health sciences, chemical industries, and scientific computing, considering that these areas require a comprehensive semantic traceability mechanism. Based on these, we investigate the use of provenance in the context of Software Process (SP) and introduce a novel approach based on provenance concepts to model and represent SP data. It addresses SP provenance data capturing, storing, new information inferencing and visualization. The main contribution of our approach is PROV-SwProcess, a provenance model to deal with the specificities of SP and its ability in supporting process managers to deal with vast amounts of execution data during the process analysis and data-driven decision-making. A set of analysis possibilities were derived from this model, using SP goals and questions. A case study was conducted in collaboration with a software development company to instantiate the PROV-SwProcess model (using the proposed approach) with real-word process data. This study showed that 87.5% of the analysis possibilities using real data was correct and can assist in decision-making, while 62.5% of them are not possible to be performed by the process manager using his currently dashboard or process management tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Digital Smile Design; digital dentistry; dentistry software; dentistry design software
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:46:39 CEST)
Without impacting the dental sciences, breakthroughs in technology and applications could not be accomplished. In the advancement of technology and information technology, dentistry and dental materials have been fully active, so much so that they have revolutionized dental techniques. Material & methods; We want to produce the first series of articles in this review on the use of digital techniques and software, such as Smile Concept Digital. The goal is to gather all the findings on the use of this program and to highlight the fields of use. The analysis included forty-nine articles, the latter discussing the use of Digital Smile Design and the area of use. The research aims to classify the dental fields are using "digitization." Change is constant in this field and will be increasing Interest in dentistry by recommending the speed and reliability of outcomes for care planning. Conclusion: As seen in the study, the digital workflow facilitates recovery that is reliable both from an aesthetic and functional point of view. The current area of use of Digital Smile Design techniques in the different branches of medicine and dentistry as well as knowledge have emerged from this research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0478.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Software development; SDLC; Secure software development challenges; security development lifecycle
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:48:42 CEST)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze and discuss the secure software development practices currently being adopted in the industry along with their significance, as well as to identify the challenges faced by developers when undertaking measures and techniques in writing secure software. It is a well-known fact that software security has been the top priority of many software companies such as Google and Facebook to thwart attackers and protect user data in this world full of cybercriminals. Understanding how most software companies in the industry operate to ensure security helps developers to identify strengths and weaknesses in their current security frameworks. Hence, by researching into previous literature and papers that are relevant to the topic and by conducting an interview with a professional in the field, this paper provides insights on the most popular secure software development framework and practices in the world as well as problems faced by companies when adopting these practices. Several security practices and activities that are required to create secure software are discovered alongside the problems that arise when companies are trying to apply these practices. This paper also proposes a few solutions that can be used to resolve these problems, which can be easily understood and implemented by software companies to transition into a truly secure software development environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0846.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: search based software engineering; software product lines; feature models; multi-objective optimization algorithms
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:01:53 CEST)
Currently, software development is more associated with families of configurable software rather than the single implementation of a product. Due to the numerous possible combinations in a software product line, testing these families of software product lines (SPLs) is a difficult undertaking (SPL). Moreover, the presence of optional features makes the testing of SPLs impractical. Several features are presented in SPLs, but due to the environment's time and financial constraints, these features are rendered unfeasible. Testing subsets of configured products is thus one approach to solving this issue. In order to reduce testing effort and get better results, alternative methods of testing SPLs are required, such as the combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) technique. Unfortunately CIT method produces unscalable solutions for large size SPLs with excessive constraints. The CIT method costs more because of feature combinations. The optimization of the various conflicting testing objectives, such as reducing the cost and configuration number, have also been considered. In this article, we have proposed a search-based software engineering solution using multi-objective optimization algorithms (MOEAs). In particular, the research is applied to different types of MOEA methods; Indicator-Based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), NSGAIII, and Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2). The results of the algorithms are examined in the context of distinct objectives and two quality indicators. The results revealed how feature model attributes, implementation context and the number of objectives affect the performance of the algorithms.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1746.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: SCADA; scientific software; Kotlin language
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:38:10 CEST)
In this article, we discuss problems that exist in modern SCADA systems and present a Controls-kt (formerly DataForge-controls) software development kit, that allows both to create a control system from scratch and provide integration with existing systems via Magix specification and connector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0008.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: geocode; geomarker; software privacy; geolocation
Online: 1 March 2023 (03:20:45 CET)
Motivation: DeGAUSS is a software application for geocoding and geomarker assessment that circumvents barriers related to cost and reproducibility presented by conventional approaches. Most importantly, DeGAUSS safeguards protected health information (PHI), such as a mailing address. Implementation: DeGAUSS is implemented as a family of software containers with R code, geospatial software libraries, and geographic data. The containers are available in online repositories and accessed by users through the command line. It is free and open-source software under continuous development. General Features: DeGAUSS operates locally, ensuring that PHI is not passed over the internet, and reproducibly, which allows for easier operation in multi-site studies. In addition to geocoding, software containers are available for many geomarkers commonly utilized in epidemiological studies, including data related to the census, meteorology, land cover, greenspace, roadways, access to care, and air pollution. Availability: This software is freely available via “GitHub Container Registry” at https://degauss.org/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0880.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Autonomous underwater vehicles; IoT; Maritime communication; Software-Defined Networking; Software-Defined Radio; Unmanned aerial vehicles.
Online: 13 October 2023 (10:07:48 CEST)
The rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) has opened up exciting possibilities for new applications. One such novel application is the modernization of maritime communications. Effective maritime communication is vital for ensuring the safety of crew members, vessels, and cargo. The maritime industry is responsible for the transportation of a significant portion of global trade, and as such, the efficient and secure transfer of information is essential to maintain the flow of goods and services. With the increasing complexity of maritime operations, technological advancements such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), and the Internet of Ships (IoS) have been introduced to enhance communication and operational efficiency. However, these technologies also bring new challenges in terms of security and network management. Compromised IT systems, with escalated privileges, can potentially enable easy and ready access to operational technology (OT) systems and networks with the same privileges, with an increased risk of zero-day attacks. In this paper, we first provide a review of the current state and modalities of maritime communications. We then review the current adoption of Software-Defined Radios (SDRs) and Software-Defined Networks (SDNs) in the maritime industry and evaluate their impact, as IoT enablers, on the future of maritime industry operations, safety, and security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1797.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Visualization, Bioinformatics, Proteins, Software, Web services
Online: 25 May 2023 (10:19:44 CEST)
Motivation: The visualization of biological data is a fundamental technique that enables researchers to understand and explain biology. Some of these visualizations have become iconic, for instance: tree views for taxonomy, cartoon rendering of 3D protein structures, or tracks to represent features in a gene or protein, for instance in a genome browser. Nightingale provides visualizations in the context of proteins and protein features. Results: Nightingale is a library of re-usable data visualization web components that are currently used by UniProt and InterPro, among other projects. The components can be used to display protein sequence features, variants, interaction data, 3D structure, etc. These components are flexible, allowing users to easily view multiple data sources within the same context, as well as compose these components to create a customized view. Availability: Nightingale examples and documentation are freely available at https://ebi-webcomponents.github.io/nightingale/. It is distributed under the MIT license, and its source code can be found at https://github.com/ebi-webcomponents/nightingale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: transposable elements; genome annotation; software evaluation
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:07:14 CEST)
Background: Transposable elements (TEs) constitute the vast majority of all eukaryotic DNA, and display extreme diversity, with thousands of families. Given their abundance and diversity, TEs discovery and annotation becomes challengeable. At present, tools and databases have built libraries to mask TEs in genomes based on de novo- and homology-based identification strategies, but no consensus criteria about which tools should be used have been proposed. Results: In the de novo-based strategy, we compared performances of TE libraries developed by four commonly used tools, including RepeatModeler, LTR_FINDER, LTRharvest, and MITE_Hunter, by using a simulated genome as a standard control. The results showed that the performance of RepeatModeler decreased as it was combined with either LTR_FINDER or LTRharvest. Combination of RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter showed better performance than RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter alone. In the homology-based strategy, we evaluated different sources from a taxonomic point of view to build an accurate TE library. When we selected a library from databases to identify TEs for Arabidopsis thaliana genome, the library from a genus genetically closer to Arabidopsis achieved better performance than other genera with further genetic distance. Without the Arabidopsis, combination of top three genera closer to Arabidopsis showed better performance than combination of all genera. Conclusion: This study proposes a series of recommendations to perform an accurate TE annotation: 1) For de novo-based strategy, RepeatModeler and MITE_Hunter are suggested to build a TE library; 2) For homology-based strategy, it is recommended to use library of genus genetically close to the species rather than use combined library from all genera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Software runtime entropy; failure prediction; indicator
Online: 20 September 2019 (10:49:11 CEST)
With the development of computer science and software engineering, software becomes more and more complex. Traditional software reliability assurance techniques including software testing and evaluation can't ensure software reliable execution after being deployed. Software failure prediction techniques based on failure indicators can predict software failures according to abnormal indicator values. The latter can be collected using runtime monitoring techniques. An essential part of this method is finding proper indicators which have strong correlation with software failures. We propose a novel type of indicators in this work named software runtime entropy, which takes both software module execution time and call times into consideration. Three common open source software, grep, flex and gzip are used as study cases for finding the relationships between the indicators and software failures. Firstly, a series of fault injection experiments are conducted on those three software respectively. The decision tree algorithm is used to train those data to build the correlation models between software runtime entropy and software failures. Several common measures in machine learning domains such as accuracy, recall rates, and F-measure are used to evaluate the models. The decision tree models can be used as failure mechanisms to assist the failure prediction work. One can examine the value of runtime entropy and make a warning report when it ranges from the normal interval to abnormal one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0486.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Traffic Engineering
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:24:28 CET)
The digital society is an outcome of the Internet which has nearly made everything connected and accessible no matter where or when. Nevertheless, despite the fact that conventional IP networks are complicated and very hard to manage, they are still widely adopted. The already established policies make the network configuration/reconfiguration a complex process that reacts to errors, load, and modifications. The prevailing networks are vertically integrated which makes things more and more complicated: Data planes and control are strapped together. Software-defined networking is a model that is meant to solve this issue by splitting the vertical integration and detaching the network’s control logic from the implicit routers and switches; this could be achieved by reinforcing centralization of network control and making the network programmable. In this work, we worked to implement MPLS networks with SDN, to enhance the traffic engineering over the network, and to minimize the network delay and latency, with minimum cost using three of the different SDN networks. The experiment results showed the advantage of the proposed approach for reducing the network delay, comparing with previous studies. Where the average of network delay in our approach reaches to 3.01 milliseconds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1712.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: software tools; bioinformatics; cancer prognostics; predictive modelling
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:23:11 CEST)
Precision medicine approaches often relies on complex and integrative analysis of multiple biomarkers from “omics” data to generate insights that can help either diagnostics, prognostics or therapeutical decisions. Such insights are often made using Machine learning (ML) models that make sample classification for a particular phenotype (yes/no). Building such models is a challenge and time-consuming, requiring advanced coding skills and mathematical modelling expertise. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a methodological solution that has the potential to facilitate, optimize and scale model development. In this work, we developed an AI-based, user-friendly and code-free platform (https://digitalphenomics.com) that fully automates the development of predictive models from quantitative “omics” data. Here, we show the application of this tool with the development of cancer survival prognostics models using real-life data from breast, lung and renal cancer transcriptomes. We report and compare their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve Area Under the Curve (AUC). Further, we report the associated sets of genes (biomarkers) and their expression pattern that are predictive of cancer survival. Moreover, we made our models available as online tools to generate prognostic predictions based on the gene expression of the biomarkers. In conclusion, we demonstrated that our tool is a robust user-friendly solution to develop bespoke predictive tools from “omics” data which facilitate precision medicine introduction to the point-of-care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1781.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things; Software Defined Networking; Cybersecurity.
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:32:41 CEST)
Security in IoT systems is extremely important, as an intrusion into an IoT device or network can affect not only our domestic lives, but also industrial assets, with the potential to cause enormous damage. We discuss IoT security issues as defined by the OWASP Foundation, focusing on network related aspects. After a brief description of SDN in general and OpenFlow in particular, we discuss how SDN technologies can greatly help in designing and deploying more secure IoT networks by enhancing the cryptographic capabilities of devices, isolating devices or networks, blocking access to unwanted services, redirecting traffic to deep inspection systems, monitoring packet flows and devices, etc. These capabilities can be implemented using open-source OpenFlow controllers such as Faucet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0398.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Generative Software Development; Code Generation; Complexty Space
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:32:07 CEST)
This survey proposed an evaluation model to analyze and examine different approaches to generativity. In addition to problem domain concepts, the following concepts were used to define this model: Complexity and complexity management, and Systematics view to achieve unified and integrated insight into disparate evaluation criteria. The research's approach to the said concepts is first introduced. Then, the evaluation model is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0082.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Shoreline Evolution; Open-Source Software; GIS; Modeling
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:46:48 CET)
This paper presents the validation of the End Point Rate (EPR) tool for QGIS (EPR4Q), a tool built-in QGIS Graphical Modeler to calculate the shoreline change by End Point Rate method. The EPR4Q tries to fill the gap of user-friendly and free open-source tool for shoreline analysis in Geographic Information System environment, since the most used software - Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) - although is a free extension, is suited for commercial software. Besides, the best free open-source option to calculate EPR called Analyzing Moving Boundaries Using R (AMBUR), since it is a robust and powerful tool, the complexity and heavy processes can restrict the accessibility and simple usage. The validation methodology consists of applying the EPR4Q, DSAS, and AMBUR on different examples of shorelines found in nature, extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey Open-File. The obtained results of each tool were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient. The validation results indicate that the EPR4Q tool created acquired high correlation values with DSAS and AMBUR, reaching a coefficient of 0.98 to 1.00 on linear, extensive, and non-extensive shorelines, guarantying that the EPR4Q tool is ready to be freely used by the academic, scientific, engineering, and coastal managers communities worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0070.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: software training; simulation workflows; SimPhoNy; Simphony-Remote
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:27:18 CET)
Hands-on type training of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is characterized by assisted application and combination of multiple simulation software tools and data. In this paper, we present recent experiences in establishing a cloud-based infrastructure to enable remote use of dedicated commercial and open access simulation tools during an interactive on-line training event. In the first part, we summarize the hardware and software requirements and illustrate how these have been met using cloud hardware services, a simulation platform environment, a suitable communication channel, common workspaces and more. The second part of the article focuses (i) on the requirements for suitable on-line hands-on training material and (ii) on details of some of the approaches taken. Eventually, the practical experiences made during three consecutive on-line training courses held in September 2020 with 35 nominal participants each, are discussed in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0029.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: VANET; software-defined networking; mobile edge computing
Online: 5 December 2018 (12:26:50 CET)
VANET networks are a class of peer-to-peer wireless networks that are used to organize communication between cars (V2V), cars and infrastructure (V2I) and between cars and other types of nodes (V2X). These networks are based on the DSRC, 802.11 standards and are mainly intended for organizing the exchange of various types of messages, mainly emergency ones, to prevent road accidents or alert when road accident occur, or control the priority of the driveway. Initially it was assumed that cars would only interact with each other, but later, with the advent of the concept of Internet of things (IoT). Researchers began to analyze connectivity with other devices, which in general will allow to combine various road users and other devices that can used in the creation of intelligent transport infrastructure in a single smart city management system. Infrastructure is necessary for the provision of services, monitoring and management of the VANET network. As infrastructure objects it is proposed to use stationary objects of Roadside unit (RSU). The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of mobile edge computing to decrease the load to the base station and latency between RSU clouds and provide a real experiment using software defined networking and mobile edge computing for RSU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0609.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Enterprise Application Integration; EAI; Loose Coupling; External Data Coupling; Software Architecture; System Integration; Legacy Systems Integration; Software Units.
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:17:34 CEST)
Integrating systems acquired from third parties and legacies has become of great necessity in companies. This is mainly due to the need to exchange information between entities, such as banks, suppliers, customers, allies, etc. Therefore, it is essential to guarantee the integrity of the data and keep the integration up to date with the changes that can occur. Furthermore, reducing the transaction risk and avoiding losing information is necessary. Implementing this complex task involving technological and business challenges requires appropriate architecture implementation. This article presents an architecture named Dynamic Canonical Data Model through agnostic messages. The contribution involves treating the low link in integrating software units, also called the integration of loosely coupled software units. In particular, it focuses on internal data and external data integration. The proposal reduces their integration, maintenance time, and cost, maximizing their scalability and promoting reuse. To illustrate their components, a case study undertaken at the Mexican Logistics Company Paquetexpress is presented. The company has evaluated different enterprise application integration systems over 26 years to achieve a standardized integration. The article describes an architecture designed and implemented for this delivery company in a real-world case. The implementation’s source code was registered in the National Registry of Copyrights of Mexico.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: scope creep; software engineering; software project management; work breakdown structure; agile method; traditional methodology; functional point analysis; stakeholders
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:20:06 CET)
Scope, time, and cost permanently effects each other and most of Information Technology projects fails due to these three factors. Scope shifting mostly occur due to time and cost. At project start, lack of understanding of project and product scope is focal involvement that leads to unsuccessful projects. Complete software scope definition determines quality of project. Defining the customer requirement and the definite scope of project has key role for implementation of project management. The complications originates when systems are developed from impractical expectations and misunderstanding requirements. These problems are cause of many changes, occurs in system development and leads to poor scope management. Scope creep is one of the momentous prompting parameter on the success of project. The failure in manage scope creep leads for 80 percent of software projects failure. However, using agile approach the impact of scope creep on projects become insignificant. A correctly distinct scope tends us to develop a quality product, within identified plans and decided cost to the stake-holders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0217.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Software protection, Privacy, Innovation and Technology, Web Services Modeling, Distributed Objects, Services Software, Cryptographic Controls, Authentication, Data Encryption
Online: 26 March 2018 (13:18:20 CEST)
This paper presents a method for a decentralised peer-to-peer software license validation system using cryptocurrency blockchain technology to ameliorate software piracy, and to provide a mechanism for software developers to protect copyrighted works. Protecting software copyright has been an issue since the late 1970's and software license validation has been a primary method employed in an attempt to minimise software piracy and protect software copyright. The method described creates an ecosystem in which the rights and privileges of participants are observed.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: harmony search; meta-heuristic; parameter optimization; software defect prediction; just-in-time prediction; software quality assurance; maintenance; maritime transportation
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:27:46 CET)
Software is playing the most important role in recent vehicle innovation, and consequently the amount of software has been rapidly growing last decades. Safety-critical nature of ships, one sort of vehicles, makes Software Quality Assurance (SQA) has gotten to be a fundamental prerequisite. Just-In-Time Software Defect Prediction (JIT-SDP) aims to conduct software defect prediction (SDP) on commit-level code changes to achieve effective SQA resource allocation. The first case study of SDP in maritime domain reported feasible prediction performance. However, we still consider that the prediction model has still rooms for improvement since the parameters of the model are not optimized yet. Harmony Search (HS) is a widely used music-inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithm. In this article, we demonstrated that JIT-SDP can produce the better performance of prediction by applying HS-based parameter optimization with balanced fitness value. Using two real-world datasets from the maritime software project, we obtained an optimized model that meets the performance criterion beyond baseline of previous case study throughout various defect to non-defect class imbalance ratio of datasets. Experiments with open source software also showed better recall for all datasets despite we considered balance as performance index. HS-based parameter optimized JIT-SDP can be applied to the maritime domain software with high class imbalance ratio. Finally, we expect that our research can be extended to improve performance of JIT-SDP not only in maritime domain software but also in open source software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1408.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: industrial software industry; total factor productivity; fsQCA; path
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:31:08 CET)
The high-quality development of the industrial software industry is of strategic significance to enhancing the core competitiveness of the manufacturing industry and promoting the high-quality development of China's industrial economy. By integrating the "capital- technology-environment-human" production factor theory and configuration perspective, this paper constructs a comprehensive analysis framework that drives the total factor productivity (TFP) of the industrial software industry. It uses 40 typical industrial software firms as case samples and uses fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) was used to empirically explore the influencing factors and complex mechanisms that achieve high-quality development of the industrial software industry. It is found that: (1) a single industrial factor is hardly a necessary condition to drive industrial software industry; (2) there are four paths to achieve high TFP, which are summarized as "technology-human-environment" balanced driving type, "capital-human-environment" balanced driving type, "technology-capital" dual driving type, and "capital" single driving type. There are four driving mechanisms. There are also four not-high TFP configurations with asymmetric characteristics; (3) under certain conditions, the combination of capital factors, capital factors, environmental factors and human factors can drive TFP in a "all roads lead to Rome". In this process, the government's attention plays a more universal role. The study not only expands the application scenarios of fsQCA, but also provides decision guidelines for the practice of strategic emerging industrialization represented by industrial software industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1211.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: software integration; middleware; data centric workflows; computational phylogenetics
Online: 19 October 2023 (04:47:55 CEST)
Epidemiological surveillance and phylogenetic studies rely nowadays on processing and analysing huge volumes of data. Processing tasks consist on running and refining a series of intertwined computational tasks. And, despite of existing several web applications for data processing and interactive visualization for phylogenetic studies, integrating many different tools and algorithms, their execution is total or partially on the client side, making them unsuitable for dealing with huge volumes of data. Studies are often also not easy to reproduce. On the other hand, in recent years, data-centric workflow systems have been proposed, allowing to deal better with increasingly larger datasets. The integration of these systems within phylogenetic tools will allow to scale them as required, and will contribute also to promote studies reproducibility. We propose then the FLOWViZ middleware for facilitating the integration of a state of the art data-centric workflow system, Apache Airflow, within web applications for phylogenetic analyses. This framework abstracts contracts and a core API for defining tools and workflows, where tools are assumed to be containerized. FLOWViZ has been tested and evaluated within the PHYLOViZ web application, a tool supporting phylogenetic inference and data visualization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Software testing; Automated testing; Attitudes; Principle Component Analysis
Online: 17 August 2023 (13:03:19 CEST)
Software testing is an integral yet time-consuming component of software development, and even with capable software testing resources (technology and people), it is still regarded as problematic. Test automation is widely being utilised within the software industry to provide increased testing capacity to ensure high product quality and reliability. In this paper, we are specifically addressing automated testing whereby test cases are manually written. Test automation has its benefits, drawbacks, and impacts on different stages of development. Furthermore, there is often a disconnect between non-technical and technical roles, where non-technical roles (e.g., management) predominantly strive to reduce costs and delivery time whereas technical roles are often driven by quality and completeness. Although it is widely understood that there are challenges with adopting and using automated testing, there is a lack of evidence to understand the different attitudes toward automated testing (AtAT), focusing specifically on why it is not adopted. In this paper, the authors have surveyed practitioners within the software industry from different roles to determine common trends and draw conclusions. A two-stage approach is presented, comprising a comprehensive descriptive analysis and the use of Principle Component Analysis. In total, 81 participants were provided with a series of 22 questions and their responses are compared against job role types and experience levels. In summary, 6 key findings are presented covering expertise, time, cost, tools and techniques, utilisation, organisation, and capacity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0285.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile; agility; lean; software; culture; digital; continuous improvement
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:26:47 CEST)
This manuscript explores the significance of continuous improvement in software development and digital product management, highlighting its role in addressing challenges and achieving superior results in today's dynamic business landscape. Drawing on Lean Thinking and Agile principles, the paper emphasizes the importance of customer focus, multidisciplinary collaboration, respect for people, inspection and adaptation, experimentation, incremental delivery, and continuous feedback in driving continuous improvement. It identifies key problems associated with the lack of continuous improvement, including quality issues, stagnation, inefficiency, lack of learning, lack of participation and collaboration, and lack of adaptability. To overcome these challenges, the paper proposes a solution that leverages agile events and interactions, such as sprint retrospectives and daily scrum meetings, and introduces a "kaizen board" as a visual tool to manage and monitor the continuous improvement process. The manuscript highlights the benefits of continuous improvement in terms of quality enhancement, efficiency gains, improved customer satisfaction, and adaptability to change. It stresses the need for fostering a culture of learning and constant adaptation, and provides insights on applying continuous improvement across different dimensions: product, process, team, and culture. The paper concludes by emphasizing the significance of commitment and active participation from all team members for achieving sustainable progress and success in digital transformation efforts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: precision agriculture; open source software; open source technologies
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:11:51 CET)
Agricultural production needs technologies that assist the management of natural resources, for example, the collection of real-time data on soil, water, weather, crops, and biodiversity conditions. Sensor technology solutions and open-source software are appropriate for promoting more sustainable agricultural production. Among the advantages of using open-source technologies and software is its potential for extension, collaboration, customization, flexibility, maintenance cost, transparency, speed, and better security. Given the above, the objective of this research was to find, in different electronic databases, exclusively open-source software for precision agriculture, offering a systematic review, and addressing considerations and challenges. This survey considers up-to-date open-source software available in repositories such as GitHub and GitLab, to understand its characteristics and application formats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: airborne wind energy; optimal control; open-source software
Online: 1 December 2022 (08:54:28 CET)
In this paper we present AWEbox, a Python toolbox for modeling and optimal control of multi-aircraft systems for airborne wind energy (AWE). AWEbox provides an implementation of optimization-friendly multi-aircraft AWE dynamics for a wide range of system architectures and modeling options. It automatically formulates typical AWE optimal control problems based on these models, and finds a numerical solution in a reliable and efficient fashion. To obtain a high level of reliability and efficiency, the toolbox implements different homotopy methods for initial guess refinement. The first type of methods produces a feasible initial guess from an analytic initial guess based on user-provided parameters. The second type implements a warmstart procedure for parametric sweeps. We investigate the software performance in two different case studies. In the first case study we solve a single-aircraft reference problem for a large number of different initial guesses. The homotopy methods reduce the expected computation time by a factor of 1.7 and and the peak computation time by a factor of 8, compared to when no homotopy is applied. Overall, the CPU timings are competitive to timings reported in the literature. When the user initialization draws on expert a priori knowledge, homotopies do not increase expected performance, but the peak CPU time is still reduced by a factor of 5.5. In the second case study, a power curve for a dual-aircraft lift-mode AWE system is computed using the two different homotopy types for initial guess refinement. On average, the second homotopy type, which is tailored for parametric sweeps, outperforms the first type in terms of CPU time by a factor of 3. In conclusion, AWEbox provides an open-source implementation of efficient and reliable optimal control methods that both control experts and non-expert AWE developers can benefit from.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0030.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Quantum Computing; Software Security; Quantum Algorithm; Quantum Security.
Online: 5 October 2022 (09:52:43 CEST)
The development of quantum computers seeks software developers' attention regarding security in the era of Information Technology, software security is the primary goal for our quantitative assessment of software security in the development cycle of software. Security assessment of software is identifying the key security factors of the software. A security elective provides ex-tensive strategies and calculations to ensure product safety. The security assessment is the key factor in surveying, administering, and controlling security to further enhance the nature of safety. It should be acknowledged that assessing security early on in the development process is beneficial in identifying worms, hazards, flaws, and threats. The definition and portrayal of Quantum Computing (QC) in software security will be discussed in this study. Researchers use cryptography calculations to secure our financial institutions, medical devices, military weaponry, planes, ships, vehicles, and pilots. Here authors of this study use the Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Situation (FTOPSIS) to quantitatively assess the weight/rank of the quantum enable security alternatives like (Diffie-Hellman key-exchange algorithm, Quantum key distribution algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm, Special Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm, Grover’s Algorithm and Quantum key distribution algorithm in GHZ state) with security factors like (Confidentiality, Integrity, Authenti-cation, Privacy, Reliability, Maintainability, Authorization, Integrity, Possessions, and Availability). Additionally, they critically analyze and select the six alternatives of quantum-based security algorithms. The nature of safety infers the ability to execute a thing on time in this exploration study, specifically 'software security'.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0513.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sea-Level Rise; GIS; Open-Source Software; Modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (12:39:09 CET)
Sea-level rise is a problem increasingly affecting coastal areas worldwide. The existence of Free and Open-Source Models to estimate the sea-level impact can contribute to better coastal man-agement. This study aims to develop and to validate two different models to predict the sea-level rise impact supported by Google Earth Engine (GEE) – a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale environmental data analysis. The first model is a Bathtub Model based on the uncertainty of projections of the Sea-level Rise Impact Module of TerrSet - Geospatial Monitoring and Modeling System software. The validation process performed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain (S Brazil) resulted in correlations from 0.75 to 1.00. The second model uses Bruun Rule formula implemented in GEE and is capable to determine the coastline retreat of a profile through the creation of a simple vector line from topo-bathymetric data. The model shows a very high cor-relation (0.97) with a classical Bruun Rule study performed in Aveiro coast (NW Portugal). The GEE platform seems to be an important tool for coastal management. The models developed have been openly shared, enabling the continuous improvement of the code by the scientific commu-nity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0421.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sea-Level Rise; GIS; Open-Source Software; Modeling
Online: 18 February 2021 (13:52:49 CET)
Sea-level rise is a problem increasingly affecting coastal areas worldwide. The existence 15 of Free and Open-Source Models to estimate the sea-level impact can contribute to better coastal 16 management. This study aims to develop and to validate two different models to predict the 17 sea-level rise impact supported by Google Earth Engine (GEE) – a cloud-based platform for plan-18 etary-scale environmental data analysis. The first model is a Bathtub Model based on the uncer-19 tainty of projections of the Sea-level Rise Impact Module of TerrSet - Geospatial Monitoring and 20 Modeling System software. The validation process performed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal 21 plain (S Brazil) resulted in correlations from 0.75 to 1.00. The second model uses Bruun Rule for-22 mula implemented in GEE and is capable to determine the coastline retreat of a profile through the 23 creation of a simple vector line from topo-bathymetric data. The model shows a very high correla-24 tion (0.97) with a classical Bruun Rule study performed in Aveiro coast (NW Portugal). The GEE 25 platform seems to be an important tool for coastal management. The models developed have been 26 openly shared, enabling the continuous improvement of the code by the scientific community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0418.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security patterns; Software patterns; Systematic literature review (SLR)
Online: 16 November 2020 (12:13:53 CET)
Security patterns encompass security-related issues in secure software system development and operations that often appear in certain contexts. Since the late 1990s about 500 security patterns have been proposed. Although the technical components are well investigated, the direction, overall picture, and barriers to implementation are not. Here, a systematic literature review of 240 papers is used to devise a taxonomy for security pattern research. Our taxonomy and the survey results should improve communications among practitioners and researchers, standardize the terminology, and increase the effectiveness of security patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0410.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Agile software development; DevOps; Cloud Computing; Continuous Delivery
Online: 16 November 2020 (10:39:44 CET)
DevOps is an emerging practice to be followed in the Software Development life cycle. The name DevOps indicates that it’s an integration of the Development and Operation team. It is followed to integrate the various stages of the development cycle. DevOps is an extended version of the existing Agile method. DevOps aims at continuous integration, Continuous Delivery, Continuous Improvement, faster feedback and security. This paper reviews the building blocks of DevOps, challenges in adopting DevOps, Models to improve DevOps practices and Future works on DevOps
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0681.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Quantum mechanics; DFT; Pseudopotential; Total energy calculation; Software
Online: 30 August 2020 (17:37:33 CEST)
We present software on total energy calculation by quantum mechanics first principle method with a graphic user interface (GUI). Total energy calculation in this software is based on numerical analysis of time-dependent density functional (the used numerical method is finite difference time domain). QUMEC package has been equipped by common exchange-correlation energy terms with electron spin polarization calculation. With this package, users can calculate the total energy of the free particle, bulk materials, and materials with free surfaces at the atomic scale. The package is tested by several physical subjects, i.e., the surface energy of nano-LiCoO2 and diffusion constant of lithium atoms in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0564.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Li-ion battery; computer simulation; numerical method; software
Online: 26 August 2020 (07:45:40 CEST)
This code provides computational facilities to simulate current versus time during the charging of Li-ion cells at desire constant voltage by considering multiscale physical phenomena. This code only considers a powder of active materials (at microscale or nanoscale) and a small part of electrolyte around it as a half cell. Then it is extended to a complete cell by applying correct boundary conditions. This code is very useful by modifying code parameters to understand the effect of the complex shape of active materials powder (surface area and powder size), kind of electrolyte, and the applied voltages on the charging response of Li-ion cell. As a summary, a microscale approach to the design of Li-ion cells has been provided via this code.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; Disease Modelling; SIR Model; R software
Online: 1 July 2020 (08:40:40 CEST)
The crux of the paper is to present a detailed analysis of COVID-19 data which is available on global basis. This analysis is performed using some specific package of R software. It provides various insights from the data and help to understand the current status of this pandemic in India so that effective measures can be formulated by policymakers. These insights include global summary of this disease, growth rate of this pandemic and performance of SIR model for the given global data. The analysis has been presented in different tables and graphs to understand the outputs of the problem in a more detailed point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0207.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Software Development; Citizen Programming; JSON Schema; Data Engineering
Online: 28 May 2020 (03:04:35 CEST)
A novel software engineering platform called the Dynamic Nuchwezi Architecture Platform (DNAP) is introduced, specified and its novelties explained. The unique features of this platform are explained and several new concepts and abstractions upon which its implementation, usage, and analysis are hinged also elaborately discussed. The motivations for this new approach to building especially tools used in data engineering are spelled out and the platform is contrasted against other existing technologies of a similar kind. Finally, it is shown what known limitations DNAP suffers, as well as what room for further research and improvement there is in this field.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: molecular graphics; protein visualization; software tools; virtual reality
Online: 12 January 2020 (16:26:54 CET)
Molecular visualisation is fundamental in the current scientific literature, textbooks and dissemination materials, forming an essential support for presenting results, reasoning on and formulating hypotheses related to molecular structure. Visual exploration has become easily accessible on a broad variety of platforms thanks to advanced software tools that render a great service to the scientific community. These tools are often developed across disciplines bridging computer science, biology and chemistry. Here we first describe a few Swiss Army knives geared towards protein visualisation for everyday use with an existing large user base, then focus on more specialised tools for peculiar needs that are not yet as broadly known. Our selection is by no means exhaustive, but reflects a diverse snapshot of scenarios that we consider informative for the reader. We end with an account of future trends and perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: queuing problem; TRIZ; Arena software; average waiting time
Online: 8 October 2018 (11:28:17 CEST)
A university canteen is a queueing system characterised by non-stationary time of arrival with limited resources where the arrival rate is time dependent and has different pattern of arrival for different time interval. This means at certain time of the day, the arrival rate is much higher than other time and for a university canteen, the arrival rate of customer during the lunchtime is much higher and the food (resources) is limited. Non-stationary time dependent queueing system is not easily modelled mathematically hence such queueing systems are modelled using simulation tools such as ARENA. In order to model a non-stationary time dependent queueing system with limited resources and solve queueing problems using ARENA, researchers have to depend on their knowledge and experience in identifying the appropriate and relevant parameters for the system and make modifications to these parameters of the system to solve queueing problems by means of trial and error. Hence, this research work explores the potentials of applying a systematic problem solving tool, TRIZ to help users to make better decisions in deriving solutions to improve a non-stationary time dependent queueing system with limited resources. A case study was carried out to minimize the waiting time of the customers at the cafeteria of the Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), which has queueing problems for years during lunchtime. TRIZ was applied in this case study and the results showed that TRIZ can assist researchers to derive a solution model that lead to shorter waiting time without incurring additional cost and resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0059.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: code smells; code fault-proneness; bugs; software evolution
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:56:48 CEST)
Context: Code smells are associated with poor design and programming style that often degrades code quality and hampers code comprehensibility and maintainability. Goal: Identify reports from the literature that provide evidence of the influence of code smells on the occurrence of software bugs. Method: We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to reach the~stated goal. Results: The SLR includes selected studies from July 2007 to September 2017 which analyzed the source code for open source and proprietary projects, as well, as several code smells and anti-patterns. The results of this SLR show that 24 code smells are more influential in the occurrence of bugs according to 16 studies. In contrast, three studies reported that at least 6 code smells are less influential in such occurrences. Evidence from the selected studies also point out tools, techniques and procedures applied to analyze the influence. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first SLR to target this goal. This study provides an up-to-date and structured understanding of the influence of code smells on the occurrence of software bugs based on findings systematically collected from a list of relevant references in the latest decade.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAV; Drone; monitoring; Multisensor; platform; software framework; beacons
Online: 19 August 2016 (10:42:58 CEST)
This paper present a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source , is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of their exploration and data-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility of the system are illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperatures in a lake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Car Acceleration; Traffic Accidents; Road Design; CAV Software Development
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:12:33 CET)
Acceleration rates of vehicles are crucially important statistics needed in two main aspects: first, they are essential to incident reconstructor professionals as having a verified database on where basing the cinematic reconstructions is definitely difficult and moreover, they are useful in order to understand how to create the safest possible environment on the road. This key topic gives es-sential information for road design like intersection schemes, acceleration and deceleration lane length as well as traffic simulation modelling and furthermore, to educate vehicle drivers when entering the traffic flow and to provide limit acceleration values needed to develop autonomous vehicle’s software in order to guarantee a comfort drive. Literature reports tons of linear acceleration stats mainly referred to vehicle performances claimed by car manufacturers, but these data don’t recreate real drivers’ behaviour when entering the road by turning left or right or crossing an intersection. This work aims to integrate the most reliable data from literature with a hybrid and an electric vehicles statistic, adding also two contemporary thermal engine vehicles, extracted conducting probes that recreates real road environment. The entirety of these experiments reconstructs the scenario in which a car is entering the traffic of a two-lanes road, from a stationary position at a stop sign and the acceleration rates are collected using a M.E.M.S. (Microelectromechanical system). Finally, the space needed between the car that is about to enter or crossing the road and the car that is approaching the intersection is calculated, basing the computations on the acceleration values extracted from the probes. These spaces are pictured, as a way to give a concrete idea to readers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1698.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: radiological detection; alpha-emitting radionuclides; UAS software architecture; UAS
Online: 26 October 2023 (14:53:52 CEST)
The protection of first responders from radioactive contamination that may result from a radiological accident is of great importance and complexity. The complexity of detecting and quantifying such radioactive contamination is very high when it comes to the dispersion of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the environment. This work presents the development of an un-manned aerial monitoring system that integrates an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) and a novel optical alpha radioluminescence detection system to scan and obtain information about the alpha-emitting radionuclides contaminated area on a 3D map. This manuscript describes a flexible hardware and software architecture for optical detection of alpha-emitting sources. The UAS is equipped with 4G/LTE air-ground communications and onboard computation to geolocate and send to the ground control station (GCS) the measured data in real-time and thus react to any anomaly detected during the mission. A GCS has also been developed for the correct visualization of the radioactive samples in a 3D map. This article shows the results obtained from the calibration of the detector in the laboratory as well as from the different flights performed on UV LEDs and a 100 MBq 241Am source to demonstrate the feasibility of the system in a realistic scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0969.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: software engineering; test code refactoring; test smells; mutation testing
Online: 16 October 2023 (13:35:47 CEST)
Evaluating mutation testing behavior can help decide whether refactoring successfully maintains the expected initial test results. Moreover, manually performing this analytical work is both time-consuming and prone to errors. This paper extends an approach to assess test code behavior and proposes a tool called MeteoR. This tool comprises an IDE plugin to detect issues that may arise during test code refactoring, reducing the effort required to perform evaluations. A preliminary assessment was conducted to validate the tool and ensure the proposed test code refactoring approach is adequate. By analyzing not only the mutation score but also the generated mutants in the pre- and post-refactoring process, results show that the approach is capable of checking whether the behavior of the mutants remains unchanged throughout the refactoring process. This proposal represents one more step toward the practice of test code refactoring. It can improve overall software quality, allowing developers and testers to safely refactor the test code in a scalable and automated way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0896.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: river monitoring; image-based; discharge estimation; open-source software
Online: 11 August 2023 (07:54:42 CEST)
River monitoring has the potential to grow substantially with present-day available affordable and locally sourced hardware. Yet river monitoring networks are still under pressure due to lack of resources, difficulties with maintenance, and rapidly changing conditions which in part may be due to climate change. We advocate that to turn around this trend, monitoring stations must rely on local people, work with locally available devices, work without contact with water and operate through openly available knowledge. River observations with camera videos have this potential. IP cameras, drones or smartphones are widely available as observation platforms. The scientific methods are well established in literature. Yet current attempts to establish scalable open-source software solutions that can be operated anywhere are lacking. In fact, currently available software is either research-oriented, more aimed at incidental observations, is restricted to single-use licenses, entirely proprietary, or restricted to operations through a third-party Software as a Service. To overcome this obstacle, we present OpenRiverCam, a free and open-source software ecosystem for river observations that can fulfill a wide variety of use cases and business cases through a well-documented and simple to use Application Programming Interface, service workflows, cloud scalability and interoperability, and options to extend to several applications within the hydrological, hydrodynamic, environmental and geospatial domains. We demonstrate its current technical abilities through three different case studies that all originate from a user perspective. We discuss the future developments to meet further requirements, which include documentation, widely available training materials and embedding in curricula, and further hardware and software developments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud computing; data storage; users; service provider; software; hardware
Online: 13 July 2022 (04:52:59 CEST)
The popularity of cloud computing is growing owing to its large data storage capacity and high computation power. It provides online, on-demand, scalable application solution, removes hardware and software barriers for non-specialist, rapidly integrates and deploys desired and necessary facilities, supports quick upgrading and addition of features. Users get benefitted with the selection of the appropriate cloud computing platform for their projects. Here, our paper provides a comprehensive overview of the services provided to the users by the most common cloud computing service providers. This paper could be used as a reference while selecting the best service provider based on the requirements of the projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0622.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Monte Carlo Tree Search, Software Design, Markov Decision Process
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:29:08 CEST)
Flexible implementations of Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS), combined with domain specific knowledge and hybridization with other search algorithms, can be a very powerful for the solution of problems in complex planning. We introduce mctreesearch4j, a standard MCTS implementation written as a standard JVM library following key design principles of object oriented programming. We define key class abstractions allowing the MCTS library to flexibly adapt to any well defined Markov Decision Process or turn-based adversarial game. Furthermore, our library is designed to be modular and extensible, utilizing class inheritance and generic typing to standardize custom algorithm definitions. We demon- strate that the design of the MCTS implementation provides ease of adaptation for unique heuristics and customization across varying Markov Decision Process (MDP) domains. In addition, the implementation is reasonably performant and accurate for standard MDP’s. In addition, via the implementation of mctreesearch4j, the nuances of different types of MCTS algorithms are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0306.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: requirements planning; search-based software engineering; verbal decision analysis
Online: 17 April 2020 (17:10:16 CEST)
In the software development process, the decision-maker (DM) has a range of problems inherent to its function. Wrong choices during software planning can bring great risk to the project. Therefore, the planning of software releases to be delivered to the customer should be well done. This is not an easy task because releases are made up of many requirements that contain complex variables that must be considered, such as precedence, cost, requirement stability, among other features that make the requirements-selection process challenging. To make this process less exhaustive, DM can use tools that facilitate this work. In software engineering, we can find fields of research specialists in this context, such as Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE). The SBSE makes use of advanced metaheuristics to search for optimal solutions or the closest to it. In this work, we try to use another field of research to solve this same problem type, the Verbal Decision Analysis (VDA). To do this, we elaborate a workflow that will use the same source data, execute two solutions using the two search fields (SBSE and VDA) and compare the results. In the end, we evaluated and commented on the results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Requirement Change Management; Methodology; Change Management Process; Software System
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:41:40 CET)
During software development requirement gathering is an important phase. Requirements are the basis of software development. The success or failure of any software depends upon level of understanding developed in requirements. During software development requirements keeps on changing due to different reasons. Hence requirements are such a critical phase that leads to the total project failure. So, to understand the impacts and to identify the conflicts with existing requirements, it is important to manage and analyze the requirements well. Requirement change management is the interest of this paper. Different requirement change management techniques has been discussed in this paper and analyzed them well and finally conclude the results accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0552.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Additive Outliers, Models, Simulation, Time Series length, R Software
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:56:57 CET)
It is a common practice to detect outliers in a financial time series in order to avoid the adverse effect of additive outliers. This paper investigated the performance of GARCH family models (sGARCH; gjrGARCH; iGARCH; TGARCH and NGARCH) in the presence of different sizes of outliers (small, medium and large) for different time series lengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500) using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) to adjudge the models. In a simulation iteration of 1000 times in R environment using rugarch package, results revealed that for small size of outliers, irrespective of the length of time series, iGARCH dominated, for medium size of outliers, it was sGARCH and gjrGARCH that dominated irrespective of time series length, while for large size of outliers, irrespective of time series length, gjrGARCH dominated. The study further leveled that in the presence of additive outliers on time series analysis, both RMSE and MAE increased as the time series length increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: object-oriented technique; change detection; eCognition® software; landuse
Online: 29 September 2017 (12:51:40 CEST)
This study compared two object-oriented land use change detection methods—detection after classification (DAC) and classification after detection (CAD) —based on a digital elevation model, slope data, and multi-temporal Landsat images (TM image for 2000 and ETM image for 2010). We noted that the overall accuracy of the DAC (86.42%) was much higher than that of the CAD (71.71%). However, a slight difference between the accuracies of the two methods exists for deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen coniferous forest, mixed wood, upland, paddy, reserved land, and settlement. Owing to substantial spectrum differences, these land use types can be extracted using spectral indexes. The accuracy of DAC was much higher than that of CAD for industrial land, traffic land, green shrub, reservoir, lake, river, and channel, all of which share similar spectrums. The discrepancy was mainly because DAC can completely utilize various forms of information apart from spectrum information during a two-stage classification. In addition, the change-area boundary was not limited at first, but was adjustable in the process of classification. DAC can overcome smoothing effects to a great extent using multi-scale segmentations and multi-characters in detection. Although DAC yielded better results, it was more time-consuming (28 days) because it uses a two-stage classification approach. Conversely, CAD consumed less time (15 days). Thus, a hybrid of the two methods is recommended for application in land use change detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1970.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Software-in-the-loop; custom module; virtual environment; Gazebo plugins
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:43:17 CET)
Software-In-The-Loop (SITL) simulation tools have been extensively used in development of safety-critical software. Utilizing these tools substantially accelerates software development eliminating potential risks and resource costs of physical experiments. This paper investigates the effects of model specific parameters on the development and testing of custom module in PX4 SITL environment. Models of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical takeoff and landing capabilities and steerable sensor platform/gimbal are used as case study for this investigation. The effects of parameters of these aerial vehicle and sensor platform models are taken into consideration in the development of custom module that controls the dynamics of steerable sensor platform mounted on the vehicle model. The work also presents steps necessary to customize PX4 SITL and Gazebo simulation environment to incorporate parameters of the vehicle and sensor platform models in the development and testing process of custom module. Based on these instances, simulation results are obtained and discussed. The results show that reliability of PX4 SITL simulation framework is justified by proper customization and integration of PX4 SITL and Gazebo simulator.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0850.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Cloud Computing; Amazon Web Services (AWS); Software Defined Networks (SDN)
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:32:06 CET)
The reliance on cloud computing services and related technologies has increased due to their many benefits, including resource sharing and the need for organizations to maintain their competitive advantage in the digital market. Also, the pace of cloud growth has significantly increased because of COVID-19. Many companies and businesses have shifted their core processes to the cloud for seamless operations during the pandemic. This migration of legacy systems to the cloud creates many opportunities for businesses. However, on the other hand, it may also bring substantial challenges. Hence, a careful decision is needed to align with company goals. In this paper, we demonstrate the need and advantages of cloud computing, followed by highlighting AWS's characteristics as one of the leading cloud service providers. We also discuss the merger of AWS with SDN to improve cloud data security and performance. The outcomes of this study can provide a data migration strategy and guide decision-makers toward a secure and sustainable migration to a cloud computing environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1771.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: software; gas flux estimation; data processing; automatic chamber; greenhouse gases
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:23:08 CEST)
OpenToolFlux is an open-source software to estimate soil gas fluxes from gas concentration time-series data generated by automatic chamber systems. This paper describes the physical equipment used as well as software design and workflow. The software is a command-line application that imports tabular time-series data from the analyzer following the instructions specified in a configuration file by the user, performs configurable data-cleaning operations, and outputs a data file with volumetric flux estimates as well as diagnostic plots. The software can be configured according to the specifics of physical equipment and experimental setup and is therefore applicable in a wide range of studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0718.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: digital models; Bolton index; orthodontics CAD Software; extra-oral scanner
Online: 23 June 2023 (12:51:27 CEST)
Introduction: Due to the great development of digital technology, through CAD (Computer - Aided Design) and CAM (Computer - Aided Manufacturing) systems, digital models could be used in orthodontic treatment planning decision-making, as there are numerous studies in the literature that support the validity of measurements of digital models of anterior teeth and the total coefficient of Bolton analysis. The aim of the study was to compare the average length value of the current upper and lower arches with that of a hypothetical nickel-titanium wire and the accuracy of the Bolton index measurement. In the present study, 138 dental casts were analyzed using Ortho3Shape software. Using the Ortho3Shape software, it was possible to measure the real and ideal lower arch lengths and, with regard to Bolton analysis, the values of the anterior and total Bolton coefficients. By comparing the values obtained with those of the study by A. Anand Kumar et al. using CBCT and plaster casts, the reliability of the measurements obtained with such CAD/CAM orthodontic software was evaluated. Considering the validity of digital measurements demonstrated by the studies and systematic reviews in the literature, it can be stated that CAD/CAM digital models can be a viable alternative to plaster models in the coming years, as they can facilitate model preservation and retrieval. For future studies and research, it would be preferable to use intra-oral scanners (IOS) in order to ensure greater accuracy, requiring only one step and ensuring a better outcome for the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Tolls; INTEGRATION software; microscopic traffic simulation; traveler value of time
Online: 15 April 2021 (16:52:34 CEST)
Unique analytical challenges arise when drivers, who face a route choice between a toll lane and a set of free lanes, have different values of time. The most complex situation is one in which multiple sub-populations of drivers exist, each with their own unique mean and coefficient of variation of value of time. This situation, when imbedded within a larger network cannot be tackled using existing planning models, and consequently is usually only approximated. This paper examines these different approximations, the resulting numerical solutions and the implications of these approximations on the estimate of the number of expected toll lane users. The paper also shows how this problem can be solved using a combined traffic assignment/simulation model. The first part of this paper develops an analytical formulation for solving the toll lane scenario using the “value of time” representations range from the simplest to the most complex. It is shown that one of the most critical issues is a determination of who the marginal users are of the toll lane, at each level of usage, as the perceived disutility of the last marginal toll lane user depends dynamically upon that driver’s value of time. Analytical formulations based on these different approximations are then solved numerically in the second part of the paper. These numerical solutions show that significant different lane use estimates result, depending upon the representation of value of time. Consequently, it is clear that solving this problem with the fewest approximations is both of theoretical and practical importance. The third part of the paper illustrates the solution to the toll lane problem, with each level of approximation, using a combined traffic assignment/simulation model. The simulated resulting estimates of the toll lane usage for each case matches both the relative and absolute trends found in analytical solutions. However, the solution using the assignment/simulation model is not only much faster and simpler to obtain, but is also scalable both in size and complexity. The additional complexities, that are associated with a less approximate representation of value of time, should therefore be incorporated in all future assessments of toll lane facilities, be they analyzed analytically or through simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0028.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Software Engineering; Model; Model-Driven; Model Driven Development; MDD; MDA
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:47:55 CEST)
In Model-Driven Development (MDD), the models, their generation, and imposing changes on them (model transformation) are used for the development of software. Models provide a framework to start from the imagination and abstraction to create and accomplish the final system. Models create a slow and steady transition from whatness to howness, i.e. from the natural path of the generation of software. For supporting this path, the Logic and Functionality of software must be changeable during its evolution. Here we provide a brief introduction to the concept of Model Driven Development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0079.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; Nigella Sativa; 6LU7; 2GTB; molecular docking; MOE software
Online: 7 April 2020 (08:58:42 CEST)
The spread of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of specific treatment and the urgent situation requires use of all resources to remedy this scourge. In the present study, using molecular docking, we identify new probable inhibitors of COVID-19 by molecules from Nigella sativa L, which is highly reputed healing herb in North African societies and both Islamic and Christian traditions. The discovery of the Mpro protease structure in COVID-19 provides a great opportunity to identify potential drug candidates for treatment. Focusing on the main proteases in CoVs (3CLpro/Mpro) (PDB ID 6LU7 and 2GTB); docking of compounds from Nigella Sativa and drugs under clinical test was performed using Molecular Operating Environment software (MOE). Nigelledine docked into 6LU7 active site gives energy complex about -6.29734373 Kcal/mol which is close to the energy score given by chloroquine (-6.2930522 Kcal/mol) and better than energy score given by hydroxychloroquine (-5.57386112 Kcal/mol) and favipiravir (-4.23310471 kcal/mol). Docking into 2GTB active site showed that α- Hederin gives energy score about-6.50204802 kcal/mol whcih is better energy score given by chloroquine (-6.20844936 kcal/mol), hydroxychloroquine (-5.51465893 kcal/mol)) and favipiravir (-4.12183571kcal/mol). Nigellidine and α- Hederin appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 treatment. Further, researches are necessary to testify medicinal use of identified and to encourage preventive use of Nigella Sativa against coronavirus infection.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software defect prediction; machine learning approach; integrated approach; Deep Forest
Online: 6 December 2019 (04:25:21 CET)
Accurate prediction of defects in software components plays a vital role in administrating the quality of the quality and efficiency of the system to be developed. So we have written a systematic literature review in order to evaluate the four main defect prediction techniques. Defect prediction paves way for the testers to find bugs and modify them in order to achieve input to output conformance. In this paper we have discussed the open issues in predicting software defects and have provided with a detailed analyzation of different methods including Machine Learning, Integrated Approach, Cross-Project and Deep Forest algorithm in order to prevent these flaws. However, it is almost impossible to rule which method is better than the other so every technique can be analyzed separately and the best technique according to the problem at hand can be used or can be altered to create hybrid technique suitable for the cause.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0174.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud computing; big data; fog computing; software-defined; networking; network management; resource management; topology.
Online: 26 February 2020 (15:34:25 CET)
Cloud infrastructure provides computing services where computing resources can be adjusted on-demand. However, the adoption of cloud infrastructures brings concerns like reliance on the service provider network, reliability, compliance for service level agreements (SLAs), etc. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a networking concept that suggests the segregation of a network’s data plane from the control plane. This concept improves networking behavior. In this paper, we present an SDN-enabled resource-aware topology framework. The proposed framework employs SLA compliance, Path Computation Element (PCE) and shares fair loading to achieve better topology features. We also present an evaluation, showcasing the potential of our framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0111.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: pulse volume; signal noise ratio; automated ultrasonic testing; simulation software
Online: 9 May 2019 (12:47:50 CEST)
Titanium’s accelerating usage in global markets is attributable to its distinctive combination of physical and metallurgical properties. The key to best utilizing titanium is to exploit these characteristics, especially as they complement one another in a given application, rather than to just directly substitute titanium for another metal. Titanium alloy are extensively used in aerospace applications such as components in aero-engines and space shuttles, mainly due to their superior strength to weight ratio. For these demanding applications functionality and reliability of components are of great importance. To increase flight safety, higher sensitivity inspections are sought for rotating parts. Increased sensitivity can be applied at the billet stage, the forging stage, or both. Inspection of the forging geometry affords the opportunity to apply the highest sensitivity due to the shorter material paths when compared to those required for billet inspections. Forging inspection is typically performed for titanium (Ti) rotating parts with immersion inspection and fixed-focus, single-element transducers. Increased gain is required with depth because the ultrasonic beam attenuates with distance and diverges beyond the focus position that is placed near the surface. The higher gain that is applied with depth has the effect of increasing the UT noise with depth. The relationships between the UT noise, selection of the examination technique and the smallest detectable defect are presented in this material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cloud computing; security patterns; privacy patterns; software and system architecture
Online: 9 April 2019 (11:46:02 CEST)
Requirements for cloud services include security and privacy. Although many security patterns, privacy patterns, and non-pattern-based knowledge have been reported, knowing which pattern or combination of patterns to use in a specific scenario is challenging due to the sheer volume of options and the layered cloud stack. To deal with security and privacy in cloud services, this study proposes the Cloud Security and Privacy Metamodel (CSPM). CSPM uses a consistent approach to classify and support existing security and privacy patterns. In addition, CSPM is used to develop a security and privacy awareness process to develop cloud systems. The effectiveness and practicality of CSPM is demonstrated via several case studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0008.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: GRASS GIS; g.citation; software citation; open science; OSGeo; credit; rewards
Online: 1 April 2019 (10:19:53 CEST)
The authors introduce the GRASS GIS add-on module g.citation as an initial implementation of a fine-grained software citation concept. The module extends the existing citation capabilities of GRASS GIS, which until now only provide for automated citation of the software project as a whole, authored by the GRASS Development Team, without reference to individual persons. The functionalities of the new module enable individual code citation for each of the over 500 implemented functionalities, including add-on modules. Three different classes of citation output are provided in a variety human- and machine-readable formats. The implications of this reference implementation of scientific software citation for both for the GRASS GIS project and the OSGeo foundation are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest road surface; forest road damage; vibration measurements; vibration software
Online: 19 September 2018 (10:43:25 CEST)
Regarding number of vehicles, forest roads are characterized by low traffic intensity, but on the other hand great values of ground pressure between wheels of timber truck units and forest road surface occur, often with pressures values above 80 kN which additionally causes damage of the upper and lower forest road layer. There are currently several methods for assessing condition of a forest road surface which are mainly used for assessing state of public roads, but can be used in forestry as well. Assessing condition of forest road surface was done by measuring vibrations with a specially developed software for Android OS installed on a Huawei MediaPad 7 Lite. Software measured vibrations in all three axes, coordinates of device, speed of the vehicle and time. Aim of this research was to determine accuracy of collected data so that this method can be used for scientific and practical purposes. Research was carried out on the segment of a forest road during driving a vehicle equipped with a measuring device. Tests were performed in both driving direction of the forest road segment with different measuring frequencies, tyre inflation pressures and driving speeds. Values of vibrations were classified and translated on a map of forest road together with devices’ measured coordinates. Vibration values were compared with places of recorded forest road surface damages. Research results show no significant difference in vibration values between 1 Hz and 10 Hz of measurement frequencies. Based on the analysis of collected data and obtained results, it is clear that it is possible to assess the condition of a forest road surface by measuring vibrations. The greatest values of vibrations were recorded on the most damaged parts of the forest road. Vibrations do not depend on tyre inflation pressure, but ranges of vibrations are decreasing with decreasing driving speed. Accuracy of collected data depends on GPS signal quality, so it is recommended that each segment of forest road is recorded twice so that location of damages on forest road can be confirmed with certainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0025.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: team formation; personality traits; software engineering; data-driven approach; simulated annealing
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:10:35 CET)
Collaboration among individuals with diverse skills and personalities is crucial in producing high-quality software. The success of any software project depends on the team’s cohesive functionality and mutual complementation. This study introduces a data-centric methodology for forming Software Engineering (SE) teams centred around personality traits. Our study analyzed data from an SE course where 157 students in 31 teams worked through four project phases and were evaluated based on deliverables and instructor feedback. Using the Five Factor Model (FFM) and a variety of statistical tests, we determined that teams with higher levels of extraversion and conscientiousness and lower neuroticism consistently performed better. We examined team member interactions and developed a predictive model using extreme gradient boosting. The model achieved a 74% accuracy rate in predicting inter-member satisfaction rankings. Through graphical explainability, it underscored incompatibilities among members, notably those with differing levels of extraversion. Based on our findings, we introduce a team formation algorithm using Simulated Annealing (SA), built upon the insights from our predictive model and additional heuristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0948.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Fuzz testing; Software testing; Grey-box fuzzing; Ensemble fuzzing; Callgraph division
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:31:02 CET)
Ensemble fuzzing in parallel with heterogeneous fuzzers has been proposed to leverage the advantages of diverse fuzzers and improve testing efficiency. However, in current ensemble fuzzing methods, the collaboration among different fuzzers is achieved solely by synchronizing the seeds discovered by each fuzzer. This results in a high likelihood of different fuzzers choosing the same seeds and creating a large number of equivalent testcases, thus reducing overall fuzzing efficiency. Meanwhile, the existing task division method proposed by AFLTeam is highly coupled with the fuzzer specially designed for it, making it challenging to apply to ensemble fuzzing directly. So, in this paper, we proposed a callgraph-based task division method suitable for ensemble fuzzing. Firstly, we divided the target program’s callgraph into subgraphs (subtasks) balancing expected workloads. Then, we divided the global seed corpus into sub-corpora, each corresponding to a subtask, making fuzzers easily accept the subtasks. Finally, we designed synchronization mechanisms for coverage bitmaps and seeds to realize the collaborative fuzzing among different fuzzers, and a cyclic subtask scheduling strategy to fully leverage the benefits of ensemble fuzzing. We have implemented a prototype called TAEF. The evaluation results show that in the best-case scenario, our method has up to 24% more branch coverage than previous work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1118.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Routing Decision; UAV-MEC; Software Defined Network(SDN); Federated Reinforcement Distillation
Online: 18 October 2023 (04:25:06 CEST)
Communication infrastructures may be partially or completely destroyed due to the natural disasters, especially the disruption of a few critical network devices, leading to the collapse of communication services.To address this issue, we constructed a layered, multi-domain data transmission architecture based on a UAV-assisted resilient network. Initially, the UAV controllers perceived the network status and learning the temporal- spatial characteristics of air-to-ground networks links. Subsequently, we developed a multi-domain routing algorithm based on federated reinforcement distillation, called FedRDR, enhancing the generalization capabilities of routing decision model through the augmentation of training data samples.We conducted simulation experiments, and the results indicate that the FedRDR algorithm has an average communication data volume of approximately 45.3KB between each domain controller and server. Compared to parameter transmission through the federated reinforcement learning algorithm, FedRDR can reduce the amount of transmitted parameters by approximately 29\%. Therefore, the FedRDR routing algorithm promotes knowledge transfer, accelerates the training process of intra-domain intelligent agents, and decreases the communication data volume between domain controllers and servers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0707.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: search-based software engineering; adaptive systems; configurable systems; multiobjective evolutionary algorithms
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:46:11 CEST)
Self-adaptive systems are capable of reconfiguring themselves while in use to reduce the risks forced by environments for which they may not have been specifically designed. Run-time validation techniques are required because complex Self-adaptive systems must consistently offer acceptable behavior for important services. The run-time testing can offer further confidence that a Self-adaptive system will continue to act as intended even when operating in unknowable circumstances. This article introduces an evolutionary framework that supports adaptive testing for Self-adaptive systems. To ensure that the adaptive systems continue to operate following its requirements and that both test plans and test cases continuously stay relevant to shifting operational conditions. The proposed approach using the SPEA2 algorithm facilitates both the execution and adaptation of run-time testing operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: MIoTs; Software-defined MIoTs; Security; Signature; Authentication; Multicast; Online English Education
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:07:40 CEST)
With the daily increasing demands for higher-quality services, mobile Internet of Things (MIoT) are facing various challenges, such as communication security, availability, scalability, etc. Its changing topology features bring a lot of trouble when solving the above problems. Though the evolved cellular network is expected to bring promising solutions, some inherent problems in traditional MIoTs may keep hindering its development. Thus, to overcome above problems, we propose a software-defined MIoTs-based model providing communication security and privacy protection under emergencies. In our scheme, the control plane is responsible to compute routes for online learning devices (OLDs), and forward entries for switches. Taking use of information that OLDs and facilities collect, controller is able to coordinate the overall situation. To ensure the authenticity and reliability of messages sent by OLDs, signature and authentication should be provided. We also introduce an emergency-dealing system. It transplants the multicast technology into software-defined MIoTs to generate a Steiner Tree among impacted nodes, so that OLDs will be informed as soon as emergency happening. The security analysis proves that our scheme is able to ensure the communication security in software-defined MIoTs. The evaluation of performance indicates that our scheme outperforms other existing schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0118.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: CPS; IoT; software quality; physical dimension; physical orientation; formal verification; metaprogramming
Online: 3 May 2023 (08:47:27 CEST)
With the rise of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and Cyber-Physical Systems, the demand for more functional and high-quality software has increased tremendously. To meet this need, we must reengineer and reuse existing software, as well as develop new software formal verification methods. One such method is based on physical quantities defined by the System International, which have physical dimensions. The homogeneity of physical dimensions in software code enables us to check the software code in the space of base units, making it the first basis of the new software verification method. However, this method cannot check expressions with angles, angle speed, and other similar features. To address this, a transformation for physical value orientation introduced by Siano allows us to check software code for orientational, stabilization, and other related branches. This makes the orientational homogeneity the second basis of the new software verification method. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed method, we developed special software defect models based on the statistical characteristics of software code. We used a special statistical analysis tool to define the statistical characteristics of modern software and analyzed over 2 GB of C++ GITHUB code for drones. Based on the actual distribution of software characteristics, the proposed method can detect over 60% of latent software defects. Implementing this method can significantly reduce testing time, improve reliability, and enhance overall software quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0545.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Descriptive Geometry; Computer Graphic Parametric Modelling; CAD; CeDG; Dynamic Geometry Software
Online: 31 March 2023 (08:24:51 CEST)
Computer extended Descriptive Geometry (CeDG) is a new approach to solve and build computer models of three dimensional (3D) geometrical systems through descriptive geometry procedures that have demonstrated reliability and accuracy. CeDG may calculate a parametric algebraic exact form for the spatial curves generated in the intersection of two surfaces, as well as of the flattened pattern of any developable surface involved in those encounters. This study presents first the theoretical foundations and methodology to calculate those parametric algebraic curves. Secondly, a compound hopper is defined and modelled through CeDG (implemented in GeoGebra) and CAD (Solid Edge 2023) approaches to evaluate the advantages of CeDG against CAD. The results demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the CeDG technique for surfaces intersection and flattening and the advantages of CeDG against Solid Edge 2023 in solving the hopper case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: public accountant; accounting training; accounting software; abilities; Learning and knowledge technologies.
Online: 26 December 2022 (01:46:21 CET)
this article presents the results of implementing existing software tools in the accounting field. The teaching processes regarding the use of Learning and Knowledge Technologies (TAC) in the university environment, and very specifically, in what has to do with the pedagogical integration of the same in the curriculum is deficient and disjointed with the current technological development. Thus, in the different curricula of professional programs of Public Accounting and related, the courses related to computer automation processes are oriented only towards the management of computer science and accounting software and the great diversity of existing applications that would undoubtedly directly benefit the student to know the potential of these in their future accounting practice is not taken into account. Strengthen the various skills of a Public Accountant in training through Learning and Knowledge Technologies (TAC), under the hypothesis of developing skills in the accounting field through TACs. The research was developed using a quantitative approach, an empirical-analytical method, with a type of descriptive research under an experimental design based on G1 x O1 and G2–O2, three phases were defined. In the first phase, the characterization of the existing software tools in the accounting field was carried out. In the second phase, their relevance was determined. In the third phase, performance was evaluated and then classified in a repository. The data obtained were analyzed with parametric analysis techniques through which it was found that the difference in quantitative results in the academic process between the experimental and control groups was statistically significant, which concluded the success of the experimental treatment. The use of CT scans in the classroom by the experimental group resulted in an improvement in their academic performance compared to the control group, strengthening their self-learning processes and facilitating the development of cognitive functions and skills necessary in the exercise of their accounting profession. This research supports and strengthens the work skills developed in the classroom for public accounting students. The tools TAC is developed from the request made by the radiometry laboratory as a first phase and a second phase is necessary for validation with experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Agaricus Bisporus; Button Mushroom; Molecular docking; PyRx software; BIOVIA Discovery studio
Online: 8 September 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
Agaricus bisporus is belonging to family agaricaceae, which is widely acceptable and mostly cultivated among the all mushrooms. It has great nutritional values and it is rich in proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers, minerals and amino acids. It is effective in antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. As it is effective in anticancer property, we check the effects of chemical constituents of Agaricus Bisporus on DNA damaging protein which results its activity PARP inhibiting or vise-versa. We choose the molecular docking technique to check the effects of different chemical constituents of Agaricus Bisporus on DNA damaging protein. For that different PARP inhibitory drugs taken as the standard. We perform the molecular docking of the chemical constituents of Agaricus Bisporus, using 4UND protein with the help of PyRx software and BIOVIA Discovery studio software. Along with that PARP inhibitor drugs also run against the same protein. The results of molecular docking shows the some of the constituents of Agaricus Bisporus has better binding affinity than the standard taken PARP inhibitor drugs. The ergosterol shows the better binding affinity than the niraparib and rucaparib on the same proteins. On other hands the naringenin, quercetin, anthocyanin, folate and myricetin shows the better results than the rucaparib. That means the ergosterol shows the better results as PARP inhibitor than the niraparib and rucaparib.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: extrusion; 52In-48Sn alloy; wire; lead-free solder; rod; simulation; software.
Online: 15 April 2021 (10:27:48 CEST)
In this article, a technology for producing wire and rod solder from 52In-48Sn alloy has been developed and investigated in the conditions of small-scale production. The use of direct extrusion of wire and rods instead of the traditional technology for producing solder, which includes pressing, rolling and drawing, can significantly reduce the fleet of required equipment. Using only a melting furnace and a hydraulic press, solder wires and rods can be produced in various sizes. Shortening the production cycle allows you to quickly fulfill small orders and be competitive in sales. The article developed a mathematical model of direct extrusion, which allows you to calculate: extrusion ratio, extrusion speed and pressing force. The results of modeling the process of extrusion of wire ∅2.00 mm and rods ∅8.0 mm made of 52In-48Sn alloy are presented. The temperature of the solder and the tool is simulation in software QForm based on the finite element method. Experimental results of manufacturing ∅2.0 mm solder wire and ∅8.0 mm rods are presented. The microstructure of the direct extruded solder is a eutectic of phases γ and β. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the 52In-48Sn alloy showed that the solder obtained by direct extrusion has a uniform distribution of structural phases. The developed technology can be used in the manufacture of wires and rods from other low-melting alloys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0535.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Connected vehicles; C-V2X; V2V; INTEGRATION software; traffic simulation; communication modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:38:56 CET)
The transportation system has evolved into a complex cyber-physical system with the introduction of wireless communication and the emergence of connected travelers and connected automated vehicles. Such applications create an urgent need to develop high-fidelity transportation modeling tools that capture the mutual interaction of the communication and transportation systems. This paper addresses this need by developing a high-fidelity, large-scale dynamic and integrated traffic and direct cellullar vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (collectively known as V2X) modeling tool. The unique contributions of this work are (1) we developed a scalable analytical communication model that captures packet movement at the millisecond level; (2) we coupled the communication and traffic simulation models in real-time to develop a fully integrated dynamic connected vehicle modeling tool; and (3) we developed scalable approaches that adjust the frequency of model coupling depending on the number of concurrent vehicles in the network. The proposed scalable modeling framework is demonstrated by running on the Los Angeles downtown network considering the morning peak hour traffic demand (145,000 vehicles), running faster than real-time on a regular personal computer (1.5 hours to run 1.86 hours of simulation time). Spatiotemporal estimates of packet delivery ratios for downtown Los Angeles are presented. This novel modeling framework provides a breakthrough in the development of urgently needed tools for large-scale testing of Direct C-V2X enabled applications.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: containers; virtual machines; cloud; COVID-19; serverless; analytics; software defined infrastructure
Online: 19 February 2021 (11:31:42 CET)
TThe XPRIZE Foundation designs and operates multi-million-dollar, global competitions to incentivize the development of technological breakthroughs that accelerate humanity toward a better future. To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the Foundation coordinated with several organizations to make available data sets about different facets of the disease and to provide the computational resources needed to analyze those data sets. This is paper is a case study of the requirements, design, and implementation of the XPRIZE Data Collaborative, a cloud-based infrastructure that enables the XPRIZE to meet its COVID-19 mission and host future data-centric competitions. We examine how a Cloud Native Application can use an unexpected variety of Cloud technologies, ranging from containers, serverless computing, to even older ones like Virtual Machines. We also search and document the effects that the pandemic had on application development in the Cloud. We include our experiences of having users successfully exercise the Data Collaborative, detailing the challenges encountered and areas for improvement and future work.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software project managemnet; complexity factors; PMBOX; paradigms of complexity; knowledge areas
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:00:18 CET)
Software project complexity increases day by day because the software engineering products is being used in the solution of more technically difficult problem and the size of project continuous to grow. The increase complexity causes to high numbers of software project failures in term of time, cost and quality. The main question regarding to this problem is how to handle or cope with this complexity. There is no single way to handle this, software engineer uses different perspective to handle complexity without affecting the overall project performance. A management perspective recognizes that the success of complex project requires good project management. A technically perspective reveals new paradigms for software development i.e.; object oriented and formal methods etc. and software engineer also look for automation perspective in order to reduce the complexity issues. In this paper we will find out the main software project complexity factors by focusing on the management aspects of software project development and also the problems of managing complexity in software engineering products from these different perspectives. The paper is divided in three main sections; paradigms of software development, project management in term of time, cost and quality and third one is automated support that includes methods and tools used to manage the complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: autogenous intelligence; bootstrap fallacy; recursive self-improvement; self-modifying software; singularity
Online: 14 June 2018 (08:53:23 CEST)
Toby Walsh in “The Singularity May Never Be Near” gives six arguments to support his point of view that technological singularity may happen but that it is unlikely. In this paper, we provide analysis of each one of his arguments and arrive at similar conclusions, but with more weight given to the “likely to happen” probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0138.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: controller; industry network; open flow; software defined networking; programmable logic controller
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:35:22 CEST)
Trends such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 have increased the need to use powerfull network technologies in industrial automation. The growing communication in industrial automation is harnessing the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing and process automation with minimum human intervention. Due to the ongoing evolution of industrial networks from Fieldbus technologies to Ethernet, the new opportunity has emerged to integrate the Software Defined Networking (SDN) technique. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of SDN in the domain of industrial automation. We propose a network architecture called Software Defined Industrial Automation Network (SDIAN), with the objective of improving network scalability and efficiency. To match the specific considerations and requirements of having a deterministic system in an industrial network, we propose two solutions for flow creation: Pro-active Flow Installation Scheme (PFIS) and Hybrid Flow-Installation Scheme (HFIS). We analytically quantify the proposed solutions in alleviating the overhead incurred from the flow setup cost. The analytical model is verified through monte carlo simulations. We also evaluate the SDIAN architecture and analyze the network performance of the modified topology using an emulator called Mininet. We further list and motivate SDIAN features and in particular report on an experimental food processing plant demonstration featuring Raspberry PIs (RPIs) instead of traditional Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). Our demonstration exemplifies the characteristics of SDIAN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: free software; human motion; Kinovea; low cost; reliability; validity; video analysis
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:07:57 CEST)
Clinical rehabilitation and sports performance analysis both require the objectification of movement. Kinovea© is a free 2D motion analysis software that enables the establishment of kinematics parameters. This low-cost technology has been used in sports sciences, as well as clinical field and research work. Although it has been validated as a tool with which to assess time-related variables, this is not yet the case regarding angular and distance variables. The main objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Kinovea software in obtaining angular and distance data at different perspectives of 90°, 75°, 60° and 45°. For this purpose, a figure with 29 points was designed (in AutoCAD) and 24 frames analysed. Each frame was examined by three observers who each made two attempts. For each export data item, 20 angles and 20 distance variables were calculated, with intra- and inter-observer reliability also analysed. To evaluate Kinovea reliability and validity a multiple approach was applied involving the following analysis: -systematic error with a two-way ANOVA 2x4; -relative reliability with ICC and CV (95% confidence interval); -absolute reliability with Standard Error. The results thus obtained indicate that the Kinovea software is a valid and reliable tool that is able to measure accurately at distances up to 5 m from the object and at an angle range of 90°–45°. Nevertheless, for optimum results an angle of 90° is suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: non-homogeneous poisson process; software reliability; weibull function; mean square error
Online: 18 August 2017 (13:05:46 CEST)
The main focus when developing software is to improve the reliability and stability of a software system. When software systems are introduced, these systems are used in field environments that are the same as or close to those used in the development-testing environment; however, they may also be used in many different locations that may differ from the environment in which they were developed and tested. In this paper, we propose a new software reliability model that takes into account the uncertainty of operating environments. The explicit mean value function solution for the proposed model is presented. Examples are presented to illustrate the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model and several existing non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models and confidence intervals of all models based on two sets of failure data collected from software applications. The results show that the proposed model fits the data more closely than other existing NHPP models to a significant extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: intelligent robotics; flexibility; reusability; multisensor; state machine; software architecture; computer vision
Online: 20 April 2017 (04:14:33 CEST)
This paper presents a state machine based architecture which enhances flexibility and reusability of industrial robots, more concretely dual-arm multisensor robots. The proposed architecture, in addition to allowing absolute control of the execution, eases the programming of new applications by increasing the reusability of the developed modules. Through an easy-to-use graphical user interface, operators are able to create, modify, reuse and maintain industrial processes increasing the flexibility of the cell. Moreover, the proposed approach is applied in a real use case in order to demonstrate its capabilities and feasibility in industrial environments. A comparative analysis is presented for evaluating presented approach versus traditional robot programming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1768.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: LiDAR Sensor, Signalized Intersections, Green Time Allocation, Delay Time, Microsimulation, AIMSUN Software
Online: 30 October 2023 (06:39:08 CET)
As urban populations continue to grow, efficient traffic management becomes paramount in reducing congestion, enhancing air quality, and improving overall quality of life. This study addresses the critical issue of intersection efficiency through the implementation of smart green time allocation strategies at a signalized intersection equipped with two LiDAR sensors. This research aims to investigate optimal green time allocations provided by two LiDAR sensors and analyze the LiDAR results by microsimulation in AIMSUN. The research first introduces the concept of LiDAR-equipped signalized intersections and their potential to enhance traffic control precision. Two LiDAR sensors are strategically placed at the intersection of Marlboro Pike and Brooks Dr. in Coral Hills, MD, USA to capture real-time data on vehicle and pedestrian movements. The data are then processed to generate accurate and dynamic traffic profiles, ensuring the responsiveness of the green time allocation system to varying traffic conditions.The heart of this study lies in the integration of AIMSUN microsimulation with LiDAR data. Through meticulous modeling and simulation, the research explores the optimal green allocation at morning, mid-day, and afternoon peak hours’ scenarios to comprehensively assess the impact of LiDAR-enabled dynamic signal control. The findings demonstrate that smart green time allocation, informed by real-time LiDAR data and implemented through AIMSUN microsimulation, significantly enhances intersection efficiency. By adapting signal timings to real-time traffic demands, congestion, travel times, and emissions are reduced. Furthermore, this research highlighted that the optimal green time allocation in morning, mid-day, and afternoon peak hour intervals can improve the delay time by 55.3%, 59.7%, and 55.6%, respectively.In conclusion, this paper sheds light on the potential of LiDAR technology to transform intersection management. Through a case study involving two LiDAR sensors and AIMSUN microsimulation, it reveals the tangible benefits of dynamic signal control in enhancing intersection efficiency and creating more sustainable urban environments. These findings are pivotal in advancing the discourse on modern urban traffic management and promoting data-driven solutions for the challenges of today's cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0221.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: SDG 13; electronic invoicing; software robot; paperless workflow; cloud E-invoice data
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:08:07 CEST)
Taiwan’s Chi Mei Medical Center has a vision of becoming a sustainable organization. They found they violated the sustainable development goal (SDG) 13 (“Climate Action”) since its workflows consume excessive tangible resources and waste much operation time. To fulfill the vision, the Chi Mei Medical Center first introduced electronic invoicing. Implementing this electronic invoicing included adopting cloud E-invoice data and creating a software robot for auditing them. This study presents this software robot and its contributions. The software robot replaces an internal auditor to log into Taiwan’s E-invoice platform, download cloud E-invoice data, and detect the inconsistency between these cloud and on-premise data. Internal auditors of the Chi Mei Medical Center only needed to confirm the detection results. They welcome this software robot since it significantly reduces their work burdens. They approved more software robots for assisting other workflows. Besides, the Chi Mei Medical Center earned profits after eliminating paper invoices. This elimination helped release less carbon. This study concludes that chasing a sustainable organization is unnecessarily equivalent to the requirement of more costs. A software robot represents the last puzzle for constructing a paperless workflow since it can resolve the resistance of existing workers to a new workflow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0413.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Spatial Econometrics; Spatial Weight Matrix; Spatial Autocorrelation; Cross-Section Models; R Software
Online: 7 September 2023 (03:27:25 CEST)
This paper introduces the spatial component in cross-section econometric estimations and specifically, the spatial dependence effect inherent in some of the variables involved in the modelling process. First, the spatial structure of the data from thematic maps is observed and Moran's spatial autocorrelation indicators are presented. Subsequently, the spatial weights matrix is built under different specifications. Finally, several modelling specification strategies are shown and the interpretation of the estimated coefficients. The theoretical concepts are illustrated with examples and their corresponding R software codes. This code and databases are available in a freely accessible repository in the BE2SHARE-EUDAT platform so that they can be easily reproduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0520.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Seismic damage assessment; Artificial Neural Networks; Pattern Recognition; Software Development; RC Buildings
Online: 30 March 2023 (03:09:24 CEST)
In the current manuscript, a novel software application for Rapid Damage Assessment of RC buildings subjected to earthquake excitation is presented based on Artificial Neural Networks. The software integrates the use of a novel deep learning methodology for Rapid Damage Assessment into modern software development platforms, while the developed graphical user interface promotes the ease of use even from non-experts. The aim is to foster actions both in the pre- and post- earthquake phase. The structure of the source code permits the usage of the application either autonomously as a software tool for Rapid Visual Inspections of buildings prior to or after a strong seismic event or as a component of Building Information Modelling systems in the framework of digitizing building data and properties. The methodology implemented for the estimation of the RC buildings’ damage states is based on the theory and algorithms of Pattern Recognition problems. The effectiveness of the developed software is successfully tested using an extended, numerically generated database of RC buildings subjected to recorded seismic events
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0317.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: SBOannotator; ontologies; SBO terms; Python; software; automated assignment; computational modeling; systems biology
Online: 20 February 2023 (03:57:56 CET)
The number and size of computational models in biology have drastically increased over the past years and continue to grow. Modeled networks are becoming more complex, and reconstructing them from the beginning in an exchangeable and reproducible manner is challenging. Using precisely defined ontologies enables the encoding of field-specific knowledge and the association of disparate data types. In computational modeling, the medium for representing domain knowledge is the set of orthogonal structured controlled vocabularies named Systems Biology Ontology ( SBO). The SBO terms enable modelers to explicitly define and unambiguously describe model entities, including their roles and characteristics. Here, we present the first standalone tool that automatically assigns SBO terms to multiple entities of a given SBML model, named the SBOannotator. The main focus lies on the reactions, as the correct assignment of precise SBO annotations requires their extensive classification. Our implementation does not consider only top-level terms but examines the functionality of the underlying enzymes to allocate precise and highly specific ontology terms to biochemical reactions. Transport reactions are examined separately and are classified based on the mechanism of molecule transport. Pseudo-reactions that serve modeling purposes are given reasonable terms to distinguish between biomass production and the import or export of metabolites. Finally, other model entities, such as metabolites and genes, are annotated with appropriate terms. Including SBO annotations in the models will enhance the reproducibility, usability, and analysis of biochemical networks. Availability: The open-source project SBOannotator is freely available under the terms of LGPL version 3.0 from https://github.com/draeger-lab/SBOannotator/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; natural building; conventional building; TRNSYS software; temperature; humidity; energy consumption
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:48:08 CET)
The construction field uses up over one-third of the global energy consumption and contribute to 40% of CO2 emissions according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the 2020 annual reporter of United Nation, Goal 11 (Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable) which discusses sustainable, safe and efficient buildings. Therefore, Morocco has a commitment to this program by publishing the law 47-09 of energy efficiency. This work aims to study the energy efficiency of two types of building, a conventional and a natural building. Conventional building is constructed using concrete, while the natural one uses sand clay and straws. As for the technique of making the natural building, it perpetually follows the same approach accustomed in rural zones of Atlas Mountains in Morocco. In this research we also simulate, temperature and humidity variation inside these buildings using TRNSYS software. Sketch Up software was employed to design these houses. The weather database is used for a typical meteorological year (TMY). In the case of natural building, many building configurations were simulated: roof insulation, floor insulation, different types of glazing and sun protection. What's more, the thermal comfort is revealed to be more conspicuous in the case of natural building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0366.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: neural networks; topology; directed graphs; directed flag complexes; persistent homology; computaional software
Online: 29 November 2019 (03:03:36 CET)
We present a new computing package Flagser, designed to construct the directed flag complex of a finite directed graph, and compute persistent homology for flexibly defined filtrations on the graph and the resulting complex. The persistent homology computation part of Flagser is based on the program Ripser , but is optimised specifically for large computations. The construction of the directed flag complex is done in a way that allows easy parallelisation by arbitrarily many cores. Flagser also has the option of working with undirected graphs. For homology computations Flagser has an Approximate option, which shortens compute time with remarkable accuracy. We demonstrate the power of Flagser by applying it to the construction of the directed flag complex of digital reconstructions of brain microcircuitry by the Blue Brain Project and several other examples. In some instances we perform computation of homology. For a more complete performance analysis, we also apply Flagser to some other data collections. In all cases the hardware used in the computation, the use of memory and the compute time are recorded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0045.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: verbal decision analysis; multi-objective optimization; software release planning; ZAPROS III-i
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:24:02 CEST)
The activity of prioritizing software requirements should be done as efficiently as possible. Selecting the most stable requirements for the most important customers for the development company can be a positive factor when we consider that the available resource does not always encompass the implementation of all requirements. Quantitative methods for reaching software prioritization in releases are many in the field of Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE). However, we show that it is possible to use qualitative Verbal Decision Analysis (VDA) methods to solve this same type of problem. Moreover, we will use the ZAPROS III-i methods to prioritize requirements considering the opinion of the decision-maker, who will participate in this process. Finally, the results obtained in the VDA structured methods were quite satisfactory when compared to the methods using SBSE. A comparison of results between quantitative and qualitative methods will be made and discussed later.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0155.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: component-based software development; dependability attributes; availability; reliability; integrity; confidentiality; safety; maintainability
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:21:45 CEST)
The software industry has adopted component-based software development (CBSD) to rapidly build and deploy large and complex software systems with significant savings at minimal engineering effort, cost, and time. However, CBSD encounters issues on security trust, mainly with respect to dependability attributes. A system is considered dependable when it can produce the outputs for which it was designed with no adverse effect on its intended environment. Dependability consists of several attributes that imply availability, confidentiality, integrity, reliability, safety, and maintainability. Dependability attributes must be embedded in a CBSD model to develop dependable component software. Motivated by the importance of these attributes, this paper pursues two objectives: to design a model for developing a dependable system that mitigates the vulnerabilities of software components, and to evaluate the proposed model. The model proposed in this study is labelled as developing dependable component-based software (2DCBS). To develop this model, the CBSD architectural phases and processes must be framed and the six dependability attributes embedded according to the best practice method. The expert opinion approach was applied to evaluate 2DCBS framing. In addition, the 2DCBS model was applied to the development of an information communication technology (ICT) portal through an empirical study method. Vulnerability assessment tools (VATs) were employed to verify the dependability attributes of the developed ICT portal. Results show that the 2DCBS model can be adopted to develop web application systems and to mitigate the vulnerabilities of the developed systems. This study contributes to CBSD and facilitates the specification and evaluation of dependability attributes throughout model development. Furthermore, the reliability of the dependable model can increase confidence in the use of CBSD for industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML); Cyber vulnerability management; Software Bill of Materials (SBOM); Vulnerability-Exploitability eXchange (VEX); Common Security Advisory Framework (CSAF); Software Supply Chain Cyber Risk
Online: 19 July 2023 (07:16:14 CEST)
One of the most burning topics in cybersecurity in 2023 will undoubtedly be the compliance with the Software Bill of Materials. Since the US president issued the Executive Order 14028 on Improving the Nation’s Cybersecurity, software developers have prepared and bills are transmitted to vendors, customers, and users, but they don’t know what to do with the reports they are getting. In addition, since software developers have identified the values of the Software Bill of Materials, they have been using the reports extensively. This article presents an estimate of 270 million requests per month, just from form one popular tool to one vulnerability index. This number is expected to double every year and a half. This simple estimate explains the urgency for automating the process. We propose solutions based on artificial intelligence and machine learning, and we base our tools on the existing FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable). This methodology is supported with a case study research and Grounded theory, for categorising data into axis, and for verifying the values of the tools with experts in the field. We showcase how to create, and share Vulnerability Exploitability eXchange data, and automate the Software Bill of Materials compliance process with AI models and a unified computational framework combining solutions for the following problems: (1) the data utilisation problem, (2) the automation and scaling problem, (3) the naming problem, (4) the alignment problem, (5) the pedigree, and provenance problem, and many other problems that are on the top of mind for many security engineers at present. The uptake of these findings will depend on collaborations with government and industry, and on the availability and the ease of use of automated tools.