REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0470.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: social support; depression; stroke
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:25:24 CET)
Research has shown a protective association between social support and depression, depression among stroke patients, and health impacts of depression. Yet not much is known on the effect of social support on depression among stroke patients. This review aims to summarize the current research examining the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed to find original peer-reviewed journal articles from 2016 to Mar. 12, 2023 that examined the association between social support and depression among stroke patients. The search terms were depression and "social support" and stroke, which lead to 172 articles. After abstract review, seven observational studies that studied the target association among stroke patients were selected. One additional study was found using PsycINFO as a complementary source with the same search strategy and criteria. Overall, a negative association was found between social support and depression among stroke patients in seven studies, with more social support leading to lower rates of depression post-stroke. One study found that social support was positively related with depression, but the result was nonsignificant. Overall, the results of recent studies suggest that social support is negatively associated with depression among stroke patients. In most studies, this association was statistically significant. The findings suggest the importance of improving social support perceived by stroke patients in the prevention of depression after the occurrence of stroke.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0332.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Decision Making Process; Social Networks; Social Commerce; Social Support
Online: 21 January 2022 (14:53:08 CET)
The introduction of social commerce ushered in a new era in business-consumer interaction. As a result, more power has passed from the vendor to the buyer, primarily fueling e-commerce acceptance. As a result, understanding consumer behaviour in the context of social commerce adoption has become essential for businesses looking to persuade customers by using the power of social ties and support.Furthermore, such social ties will facilitate trust as the most promising benefit while reducing perceived risk, which has always been a critical problem with online commerce. This study proposes a paradigm for understanding the impact of social commerce on the stages of the consumer decision-making process: need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behaviour, with a focus on social support. In this respect, relevant literature in the subject of social commerce either (1) lacks an adequate explanatory model, (2) has a solid theoretical base, or (3) contains practically complex theories with insufficient empirical data. The research model applies the Social Commerce Constructs (SCC): recommendations and referrals, forums and communities, and ratings and reviews to study the respective influence on the consumer decision-making process phases. This paper aims to understand the influence of social commerce on an integrative model that incorporates all customer choice phases while expecting new knowledge. Furthermore, it is advised that this conceptual model be empirically verified to evaluate the practical consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0462.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; dating violence; school social climate; school social support
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:07:46 CEST)
(1) To analyse the potential association between school social support CECSCE and school social climate CASSS and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe; (2) Cross-sectional design. We recruited 1,555 participants age 13-16 from secondary schools in Spain, Italy, Romania, Portugal, Poland and UK. The analysis in this text concerns student with dating experience (n=993) (57.2% of girls and 66.5% of boys). The association of the exposure to physical and/ or sexual dating violence, control dating violence and fear was measured by calculating the prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variance. All the models were adjusted by country and by sociodemografic variables; (3) The results show that the average values of all types of social support are significantly lower in young people who have suffered any type of dating violence or were scared of their partner. The likelihood of suffering physical and/or sexual dating violence decreased when CECSCE increased [PR (CI95%): 0.96 (0.92; 0.99)]. In the same way, the likelihood of fear decreased when CASSS classmates increased [PR (CI95%): 0.98 (0.96; 0.99)]; (4) There is an association between school social support and school social climate and experiences of dating violence among adolescents in Europe. Our results suggest that in the prevention of dating violence, building a supportive climate at schools and building / using the support of peers and teachers should be important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0126.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Suppport; Tuberculosis; Nursing; Information Support
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:27:39 CEST)
Background Tuberculosis is a type of infectious disease that can cause death if treatment is not completed. the duration of tuberculosis treatment can reach 6 to 8 months so it really requires discipline when doing treatment. This makes tuberculosis patients in dire need of health information and social support which is very helpful in providing motivation, health information, and monitoring treatment from nurses. Aim of this literature review is to provide an overview of the The Role Of Nurses In Providing Social Support In Tuberculosis Treatment: Literature Review. Method is a literature review research, this study uses electronic database searches using keywords according to research questions from the online library PubMed, Content Science, and Science Direct. Result it was found that the role of nurses in the aspect of social support, namely in providing motivation, supervision, comfort, empathy, and information. this is very necessary for patients with tuberculosis at the time of treatment. Conclution social support is needed by tuberculosis patients who are currently undergoing treatment to provide motivation, health information, and as a nurse's supervision of patient adherence to tuberculosis treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; passion; positivity; social support; athletes.
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:19:23 CET)
The Burnout syndrome is a negative experience for the athlete development and it has been demonstrated that it gets worse when a sport is practiced in an obsessive way. The interventions about a positive vision through the sport could be a protective factor to boost the athlete’s wellbeing. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mediator effect from social support, the relationship between the burnout, positivity and passion in young Mexican athletes. The sample was composed by 452 Mexican athletes, males and females from 12 to 18 years of age (M = 16.29, SD = 1.66). Participants answered the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire, The Scale of the Social Support Perceived by Athletes, the Passion Scale and the Positivity Scale. The results of structural equation modeling showed the model presented a good adjustment (χ2 = 813.507; df = 229; χ2 /df = 3.552; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.91; IFI = 0.93; NFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07). The positivity and harmonious passion presented direct and indirect effects over the burnout, being the perceived social support the mediator variable of the indirect effects. However, the effect of the obsessive passion mediated by the perceived social support did not resulted significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Insomnia; Mental health; Physical health; perceived social support; Postpartum Depression
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:30:00 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD) can predispose to physical and mental health problems in women. However, PPD is associated with health and perceived social support but their causal relationship is unclear. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the association of PPD with insomnia, mental health, and physical health. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 320 (52.8 %) young and middle aged postpartum women, in the outpatient departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Government Maula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarter in Sargodha, Pakistan. The Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale, Pittsburg sleep quality index, Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale, Patient health questionnaire, and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure study variables. Results revealed a significant positive relationship of PPD with physical health (r= .45, p=.001), while a negative relationship with insomnia (r= -.24, p<.001), and perceived social support (r= -.38, p=.001). Results further confirmed that perceived social support played a moderating role (β = .97, p=.01) in the relationship between PPD and mental health among females. This study concluded that perceived social support has an important role in PPD and women’s health. The study also concluded that poor health is a risk indicator for identifying aid in the early stages of postpartum among women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breast milk immunoactive factors; cortisol; maternal stress; social support
Online: 15 April 2021 (11:07:47 CEST)
Possible alterations of maternal immune function due to psychological stress may reflect immunoactive factor levels in breast milk. This study aimed to assess the association between maternal distress and breast milk levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), IgM, IgG, and lactoferrin (LF). We hypothesized this association is moderated by maternal social support achieved from others during lactation. The study group included 103 lactating mothers and their healthy 5-months-old infants. Maternal distress was determined based on the State Anxiety Inventory and the level of salivary cortisol. Social support was assessed using Berlin Social Support Scales. Breast milk samples were collected to test for SIgA, IgM, IgG, and LF using the ELISA method. Milk immunoactive factors were regressed against maternal anxiety, social support, salivary cortisol, and infant gestational age using the general regression model. Maternal anxiety was negatively associated with milk levels of LF (β=-0.22, p<0.05) and SIgA (β=-0.29, p<0.01), while social support was positively associated with milk IgG (β=0.25, p<0.05). Neither anxiety nor social support was related to milk IgM. No association was found between the level of maternal salivary cortisol and immunoactive factors in milk. Our results suggest that maternal psychological well-being and social support may affect milk immune properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social support; psychological well-being; happiness; emotional intelligence; life satisfaction
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:02:51 CET)
The well-being in the people is a key aspect of the field of psychology. Hence, it is important to an-alyse the variables that are related to life satisfaction and happiness as perceived by individuals and that, therefore, increase their overall well-being. The main objective of this study was to ana-lyse the predictive capacity of emotional intelligence and perceived social support on both the level of life satisfaction and perceived happiness. A total of 380 psychology students completed the Trait Meta Mood Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. The results show that both emotional intelligence and social support are related to and predictive of subjective happiness and life satisfaction. The importance of developing the components of emotional intelligence and promoting an adequate social network in young people is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social support; emotional maturity; anxiety; online learning
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:26:27 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia makes a significant impact both physically and psychologically. One month after the President of the Republic of Indonesia announced about the COVID-19 patient cases, the Indonesian Child Protection Commission data during April 2020, depicted that 76.7% of children were not happy to participate in distance learning because 81.8% were only given assignments by the teacher and 73.2% felt they had a heavy task and had a short period of time to complete. This reaction is an indicator of the children’s anxiety about distance learning. The anxiety that occurs in these students is assumed to depend on their social support and emotional maturity. When students get optimal family support and are able to control their emotions in the face of a pandemic, they can reduce anxiety in facing online learning. The subjects of this study were 202 junior high and high school students. The results showed that social support and emotional maturity simultaneously affect anxiety in online learning (Freg = 45.066, p = 0.00 <0.01). These results can be used as a basis for providing psycho-education to increase family support and emotional maturity to reduce anxiety in online learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1008.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; fatigue; parents; social support; spirituality
Online: 15 November 2023 (13:47:07 CET)
The high demands of caring for and raising a child with autism spectrum disorder on a daily basis fatally lead parents to the appearance of physical and mental fatigue. This study aimed to assess the effect of social support and spirituality on the fatigue of parents with children with autistic spectrum disorder. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample was conducted in Schools of Special Education in Attica (Greece). The sample consisted of 123 parents who completed The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT Sp-12) to measure the levels of fatigue, social support, and spirituality, respectively. Demographic data were, also, recorded. Data analysis was applied using IBM SPSS 21.0. The mean age was 47.3 years old, 81.3% were women, and 38.9% stated much / very much religious. The mean of total FAS was 28.4 (SD±7.5), of total FACIT Sp-12 was 31.5 (SD±8.7), and of total MSPSS 5.1 (SD±1.1). Higher levels of total MSPSS and FACIT Sp-12 were associated with lower total FAS (r= -0.50, p <0.001 and r= -0.49, p<0.001 respectively). Social support and spirituality are significant predictors of fatigue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social media; Community; Facebook; Twitter; Google; Information; Interaction
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:03:09 CEST)
Background: Caregivers often use the internet to access information related to stroke care to improve preparedness, thereby reducing uncertainty and enhancing the quality of care. Method: Social media communities used by caregivers of people affected by stroke were identified using popular keywords searched for using Google. Communities were filtered based on their ability to provide support to caregivers. Data from the included communities were extracted and analysed to determine the content and level of interaction. Results: There was a significant rise in the use of social media by caregivers of people affected by stroke. The most popular social media communities were charitable and governmental organizations with the highest user interaction – this was for topics related to stroke prevention, signs and symptoms, and caregiver self-care delivered through video-based resources. Conclusion: Findings show the ability of social media to support stroke caregiver needs and practices that should be considered to increase their interaction and support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0606.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: PKU; Phenylketonuria; social media; Facebook; healthcare professionals; dietitians; support
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:16:16 CEST)
Background: The diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU) in an infant is a devastating and overwhelming event for their parents. Providing appropriate information and support is paramount, especially at the beginning of a child’s life. Investigating if parents are receiving the right support is important for their continued care. Methodology: An online survey was distributed to explore parents’ perceptions of current support and information provided by their healthcare provider and to rate sources of other support (n=169 participants). Results: Dietitians received the highest (85%) rate of “very helpful” support. Overall, parents found Facebook to be helpful for support, but had mixed reactions when asked if healthcare professionals (HCPs) should provide advice as part of the groups. When rating the most effective learning methods, the top three were: 1:1 sessions (n=109, 70%), picture books (n=73, 50%) and written handouts (n=70, 46%). Conclusion: Most parents were happy with the support and information they received from their dietitian, but required more support from other HCPs. Facebook groups provide parents with the social support that HCPs and their family may be unable to offer, suggesting a place for social media in future PKU care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gratitude; prosocial behavior; social support; basic psychological needs; adolescence
Online: 18 May 2023 (14:58:48 CEST)
Prosocial behavior is vital for positive social development among adolescents, contributing to improved peer relationships, emotional well-being, and social competence. Gratitude, a positive emotion arising from recognizing and appreciating benefits received from others, has been identified as a potential contributor to adolescent prosocial behavior. This study aimed to investigate the mediating roles of social support and basic psychological needs in the relationship between gratitude and prosocial behavior among adolescents. A total of 390 middle school students participated in a longitudinal study, completing questionnaires assessing gratitude, social support, basic psychological needs, and prosocial behavior at two time points with a six-month interval. The results indicated that gratitude positively correlated with social support, basic psychological needs, and prosocial behavior. Structural equation modeling revealed that social support and basic psychological needs partially mediated the relationship between gratitude and adolescent prosocial behavior. Moreover, a chain-like mediation effect was observed, wherein social support influenced basic psychological needs, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of gratitude in fostering prosocial behavior among adolescents and highlight the mediating roles of social support and basic psychological needs in this relationship.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: social support; anxiety; depression; quality of life; breast cancer
Online: 6 April 2021 (11:31:59 CEST)
Background: Breast cancer is the second type of cancer diagnosed in women and is the first cancer in women worldwide. Breast cancer also causes high morbidity and mortality in women and becomes a heavy burden due to the incidence of disability due to the disease. Purpose: This literature review aims to examine how social support affects anxiety, depression and quality of life in breast cancer sufferers. Method: The data were obtained by searching for reputable and trustworthy journals. have high quality criteria, namely Scopus, Proquest, Science Direct, Elsevier, Pubmed. Journals or articles used in this review literature are searched using keywords and Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT, or AND NOT). Keywords in this review literature are as follows: social support OR family support, quality of life OR Quality, anxiety OR depression, AND Cancer OR cancer treatment OR Chronic disease. Results: The results of this literature review show that there is a significant influence between the social support received by breast cancer patients on the improvement of their quality of life. The social support provided is also able to reduce anxiety and depression in breast cancer sufferersConclusion: Social support given to breast cancer patients is proven to have an effect on improving the quality of life, reducing anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Chromobacterium vaccinii; biofilm; sharing goods; social cheater; bog microbiome; bacterial genome, violacein, cold adaptation, IDBac, QS mutant
Online: 12 September 2020 (12:04:38 CEST)
Chromobacterium species are common in tropical and subtropical zones in environmental water samples and believed to «tropical» species. Here we describe an environmental case of resident Chromobacterium vaccinii in biofilms associated with Carex spp. roots in Moscow region, Russia (warm-summer humid continental climate zone). We performed broad characterization of individual properties as well as surrounding context for better understanding the premise of C. vaccinii survival during winter season. Genome properties of isolated strains propose some insights into adaptation to habit and biofilm mode of life, including social cheaters carrying ΔluxR mutation. Isolated C. vaccinii differs with previously described strains in some biochemical properties and some basic characteristics like fatty acid composition as well as unique genome features. Despite potential to modulate membrane fluidity and presence of several genes responsible for cold shock response, isolated C. vaccinii didn`t survive during exposure to 4 °C, while in initial complex biofilm it was able to survive for months in vitro at 4 °C. Surrounding bacterial community within the same biofilm with C. vaccinii represented a series of psychrophilic bacterial species which may share resistance to low temperatures with other species within biofilm and provide C. vaccinii opportunity to survive during cold winter season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social support; older persons; smokers; NHMS 2018; community survey
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:17:11 CEST)
Background Globally the average age of the worlds’ population of older persons continues to upsurge and social support becomes increasingly relevant. Overall, in Malaysia, social support and networking prevalence was found to be lower among older persons at 30.76%. In view of the scarce data on social support and its association with smoking status and its associated factors among the older Malaysian population this study was conducted. Methods Data from the National Health and Morbidity (NHMS) 2018 survey on health of older Malaysian adults was analyzed. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected were sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, and social support. A validated Malay language, interviewer-administered questionnaire of 11-item Duke Social Support Index was applied for assessing social support among the elderly. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for social support were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. Results A total of 3923 elderly respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of good social support was significantly higher among the 60-69 years old respondents compared to the > 80 years old (73.1%, 95% CI :69.3% -76.5% vs 50.1 %, 95% CI:41.7 %- 58.6%).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of poor social support were 1.7 times (aOR: 1.72 % ,95%CI: 1.19 -2.48) higher for the respondents aged > 80 years old, than those aged 60-69 years. Respondents with no formal education were 1.93 higher odds of poor social support than the respondents with tertiary education (aOR: 1.93%, 95%CI: 1.13,3.30). Respondents with income < RM 1000 were 1.94 times more likely to have poor social support compared to respondents with income > RM 3000 (aOR: 1.94, 95% CI : 1.21 -3.13). Former smokers have good social support compared to current smokers (73.6% ,95% CI: 67.7-78.7 vs 65.1 %, 95%CI:58.4 -71.2). For current smokers, the odds of poor social support were 42.0% higher than for non-smokers (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05 -1.91. Conclusion There is poor social support among the older persons who are current smokers, advancing age, no formal education and low income However, further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exact effects of the studied variables. These findings could assist the policymakers to develop strategies at the national level to enhance social support among the older smokers to ensure cessation of smoking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dementia; depression; loneliness; activities of daily living; social support; life satisfaction
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:55:52 CET)
As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in daily activities of living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9 %) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: newborn screening; genome sequencing; ethical; legal; social implications (ELSI); NBSTRN; public health; databases; online tools; Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP)
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:28:14 CEST)
Rapid advances in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic disorders has increased the number of conditions that could be detected through universal newborn screening (NBS). However, addition of conditions to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) and implementation of nationwide screening has been a slow process taking several years to accomplish for individual conditions. Here we describe web-based tools and resources developed and implemented by the newborn screening translational research network (NBSTRN) to advance newborn screening research and support NBS stakeholders. NBSTRN’s tools include the Longitudinal Pediatric Data Resource (LPDR), the NBS Condition Resource (NBS-CR), the NBS Virtual Repository (NBS-VR), and the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Advantage. Research programs including the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System (IBEM-IS), BabySeq, EarlyCheck, and Family Narratives Use Cases have utilized NBSTRN’s tools, and in turn contributed research data to further expand and refine these this resource. Additionally, we discuss ongoing tool development to facilitate expansion of genetic disease screening in increasingly diverse populations. In conclusion, NBSTRN’s tools and resources provide a trusted platform to enable NBS stakeholders to advance NBS research and improve clinical care for patients and their families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Men's Health; COVID-19; Mental Disorders; Stress, Psychological; Social Support
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:13:48 CET)
Objective: to analyze the relationships between sociodemographic variables, intolerance to uncertainty (INT), social support and psychological distress (i.e., indicators of Common Mental Disorders [CMDs] and perceived stress [PS]) in Brazilian men during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: a cross-sectional study with national coverage, of the web survey type, and conducted with 1,006 Brazilian men during the period of social circulation restriction imposed by the health authorities in Brazil, for suppression of the coronavirus and control of the pandemic. Structural equation modeling analysis was performed. Results: Statistically significant direct effects of race/skin color (λ=0.268; p-value<0.001), socioeconomic status (SES) (λ=0.306; p-value<0.001), household composition (λ=0.281; p-value<0.001), PS (λ=0.513; p-value<0.001) and INT (λ=0.421; p-value<0.001) were evidenced in the occurrence of CMDs. Black-skinned men, with higher SES, living alone and with higher PS and INT levels presented higher prevalence values of CMDs. Conclusions: high levels of PS and INT were the factors that presented the strongest associations with the occurrence of CMDs among the men. It is necessary to implement actions to reduce the stress-generating sources, as well as to promote an increase in resilience and the development of intrinsic reinforcements to deal with uncertain threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1890.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gratitude, enjoyment of life, life satisfaction, social support, aging, older adults, Saudi Arabia
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:19:32 CEST)
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, and the mediation role of social support and enjoyment of life among older individuals. The Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test, the Enjoyment of Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale were administered to a sample of 260 older individuals aged between 60 and 80. The main findings revealed a positive association between gratitude and life satisfaction, and social support was a partial mediator in this relationship. Although enjoyment of life was not a direct mediator in the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction, the final model indicated a significant serial pathway from gratitude to social support and then through enjoyment of life-to-life satisfaction. In conclusion, enhancing gratitude, promoting enjoyment of life, and social support in older individuals might increase their life satisfaction, which in turn might contribute to their successful aging
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1752.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Tourism Planning, Support System; Web-Geographic Information Systems (Web-GIS), Virtual Reality (VR) Space; Dynamic Information; Social Media
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:25:23 CEST)
It is important that both static and dynamic information is efficiently used to create a suitable tourism plan. However, collecting, accumulating and managing dynamic information can cost tourists time, money and energy. The present study developed an original tourism support system was designed and developed with the purpose of reducing the burden of tourists who are unfamiliar with the tourist destinations in particular. An original tourism planning support system and web-geographic information systems (Web-GIS) were integrated into a single system, and two original functions were implemented. The system was operated targeting Osaka City, Japan for a period of one month. The information concerning 529 sightseeing spots was collected from tourism-related web media and then saved to the database of the system beforehand. During the operation period, a cumulative total of 160 users accessed the system. Based on the questionnaire survey results, most of the main functions were highly rated regardless of users’ travel experiences to the operation target area. Additionally, based on the access log analysis results, it was clear that the use of the system was in line with the purpose of the present study, as the number of visits to the page for the main functions were high.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; mindfulness-based stress reduction; mindfulness-based stroke recovery; stroke recovery; social support for stroke survivors; medical education; stroke rehabilitation
Online: 12 September 2020 (11:29:22 CEST)
Decades of research suggest that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training supports a greater capacity to live with chronic medical conditions and contributes to lowering stress levels. This paper introduces a model for a Mindfulness-Based Recovery from Stroke (MBRfS) for promoting stroke recovery, informed by the lived experience of the author (a stroke survivor and certified MBSR instructor), the research literature regarding MBSR training, and the specific challenges of stroke recovery. Four themes emerged from the autoethnographic analysis that informed the proposed model: Readiness to accept the stroke event and the acquired brain injury; Navigating uncertainties of stroke recovery with awareness and self-responsibility for outcomes; Trusting the inherent wisdom of the body as a stroke recovery “teacher”; and Increased capacity to integrate complex emotions with self-compassion, and a sense of wholeness. A four component MBRfS model is offered, which consists of an integration amongst a modified MBSR framework, emergent attitudinal themes, and insights from the autoethnographic vignettes. The MBRfS model offers a path for providing participants with a supportive experience within stroke recovery. Recommendations and suggestions for future studies are offered to support the development of MBRfS for stroke survivors and their caregivers, as well as contributing to health care providers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: LGBTQ+ youth; peer victimization; identity development; social support; outness; mixed methods
Online: 9 March 2022 (02:27:55 CET)
Research rarely explores LGBTQ+ youth bullying in the context of culture-specific outcomes (e.g., LGBTQ+ identity development) and what can mitigate the impact of peer stressors. This study used a concurrent mixed methods design to explore how experiences of peer victimization predicted LGBTQ+ youth’s identity development (i.e., stigma sensitivity, concealment motivation, and difficult process) and whether social support and outness served as protective, moderating factors. The mixed-methods approach provides a culture-specific context via qualitative inquiry to inform whether the quantitative findings align with how youth qualitatively discuss their experience of bullying, negative outcomes, and social support. Our sample consisted of 349 LGBTQ+ youth 14-17 years old who completed a survey (quantitative sample), and a subset of 39 LGBTQ+ youth who completed a semi-structured interview (qualitative sample). Our quantitative findings indicated that greater overall peer victimization was positively related to LGBIS-revised subscales of stigma sensitivity, concealment motivation, and difficult process, where both outness and social support moderated such relations. Qualitatively, victimized youth also reported stigma sensitivity and concealment motivation, while also endorsing how being out and having a support system played a role in their experience of being victimized. These qualitative findings align with our quantitative findings that classmate support mitigated the effects of peer victimization on difficulty of coming out. Implications for practitioners and researchers are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: proactive policies; land protection; inter-generational solidarity; land sustainability; economic valuation; imputed preferences; imputed expenses; gis; cost-benefit analysis, social discount rate
Online: 31 October 2017 (02:47:04 CET)
Although floods, as well as other natural disasters, can be considered relevant causes of intra-generational inequalities, the frequent catastrophes and the resulting damages to territory reflect the generalized indifference about inter-generational justice. Societal concerns, such as land protection, typically involve the administrative system performing proactive policies in the perspective of inter-generational solidarity, but subsidiarity has made more and more independent the local communities. As a consequence, the attention toward the long run effects – typically concerning the territorial system, as a whole, at the geographical scale – has been dispersed, and the proactive policies coming from the central government has became more ineffective. Regarding the case of the flood happened in 2009 in the Fiumedinisi-Capo Peloro hydraulic basin, in the northeastern part of Sicily, Italy, we propose an economic valuation – carried out by performing the method of the imputed preferences – in order to compare the expenses incurred by the public authorities responsible for protecting the territory to the costs of the rehabilitation of the damaged areas. Some considerations about the economic significance of the proactive policies for the arrangement of territory are addressed according to the role played by the social discount rate in the inter-temporal economic calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0417.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Cultural ecosystem services; urban green space management; Singapore; public participation geographic information system; social media text mining analysis
Online: 27 December 2021 (09:48:44 CET)
Cultural ecosystem services has been increasingly influential in both environmental research and policy decision-making, such as for urban green spaces However, its popular definition conflates the concepts of ‘services’ and ‘benefits’ which made it challenging for planners to employ it directly for urban green space management. One the most widely used definition of this non-tangible ecosystem services are “functions of environmental spaces and cultural activities which may then result in the enjoyment of cultural ecosystem benefits”; yet the latter itself have never found its way into official laws and regulations. In this study, via a case study in Singapore, we propose new evidence to re-evaluate and re-position the two of the most important emerging concepts in managing the green spaces in urban areas. Using the transdisciplinary mixed methods of public participation GIS and social media text mining analysis, a wealth of cultural ecosystem services and their associated benefits were reported. This was especially so with regards to recreational and aesthetic services and experiential benefits. Recommendations to improve the park were also suggested, alongside sharing of methodological considerations for future research. Overall, this paper recommends the employment of the redefined cultural ecosystem services conceptual framework to generate relational, data-driven and actionable insights to better support urban green space management, which is not only useful to Singapore governments but also world-wide relevant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: perceived stress; social support; health anxitety; coping; lockdown; COVID-19; international stu-dents; domestic students
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:22:04 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to examine how modulating variables such as social support, health anxiety, coping, gender, being separated from home, and lockdown can modify or amplify the effect of perceived stress as a starting variable in the point of view of the output variable, dissociation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in online form at two points in time: the beginning and the later stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: We received a total of 1711 responses. Perceived stress moderately correlated with dissociation in both International and Hungarian samples. Health anxiety showed a strong direct and indirect correlation with dissociation. Regarding social support, the support of family significantly decreased the dissociative experiences in the Hungarian sample through mediating the stress and directly as well. In the international sample, the goal-oriented coping strategy had a strong decreasing effect on all dissociation scales in the first measurement, through mediation of perceived stress. As to the Hungarian sample, positive thinking was found to decrease dissociation through decreasing perceived stress. Conclusion: The cause and effect relationship between stress and dissociation may be tinctured by health anxiety, coping and social support, influencing dissociacion directly and indirectly. Social support, mainly support of the family and problem-focused coping strategies seem to alleviate dissociation-provoking effect of stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological well-being; young offenders; social support; pretrial detention; correctional camps; positive and negative feelings; positive and negative affects
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:16:05 CET)
The present article aims at investigating the role of social support in the emotional well-being of young offenders. We hypothesized that perceived social support would be positively related to the emotional well-being of juvenile offenders. The methods were worked out to study perceived and received social support, psychological well-being and emotional state of the juvenile offenders. The entire sample consisted of 56 males aged from 15 to 18 years old (M = 16.5; SD = 0.8). 32 subjects (57%) were in pretrial detention and 24 participants (43%) were in a correctional camp located in the central region of Russia. The study detected that the level of psychological well-being of the respondents from the camp was correlated neither with perceived social support nor with the frequency of seeking assistance from the different sources of support. For the respondents in the pretrial detention, the level of psychological well-being was directly connected to the degree of the perceived support from the friends. The obtained differences might be associated with the influence of social environment in the pretrial detention and in the camps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Frailty; Social Isolation; Social Networks; Social Support; Social Participation; Aging
Online: 2 February 2021 (14:32:33 CET)
This research investigated the effects of social isolation on frailty and health outcomes and tested whether these associations varied across different levels of frailty. We performed a multivariate analysis of data from the first wave of the FRéLE study among 1,643 Canadian older adults aged 65 years and over. We assessed social isolation using social participation, social networks, and support from various social ties, namely, friends, children, extended family, and partner. Frailty predicted disability, comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Less social participation was associated with IADLs, depression, and cognitive decline. The absence of friends was associated with depression and cognitive impairment. Less social support from children and partner was related to comorbidity, depression, and cognitive decline. Overall, social isolation is linked to mental health, rather than physical health. The associations of having no siblings, receiving less support from friends, and participating less in social activities with ADL limitations, depression, and cognitive decline were higher among frail than pre-frail and robust older adults. This study corroborates the pivotal role of social connectedness, particularly the quality of relationships, on the mental health of older adults. Public health policies on social relationships are paramount to ameliorate the health status of frail older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0431.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Resilience; Risky-Opportunity Analysis Method (ROAM); Socio-Ecological Transition; Socio-Technical Transition; Cyber-Physic-Social Systems; Change Management; Risk Management; Critical Infrastructure Resilience; Critical Entities Digitization; Risky-Opportunity (RO); Payment Service Providers (PSP); Stress; Strain
Online: 28 October 2021 (10:13:39 CEST)
Socio-ecologic, socio-economic, and socio-technical transitions are opportunities that require fundamental changes in the system. These will encounter matters associated with security, service adoption by end-users, infrastructure and availability. The purpose of this study is to examine and overcome the risks to take advantage of opportunities through the novel Risky-Opportunity Analysis Method (ROAM). A novel quantitative method is designed to determine when, after making some changes, the risks become acceptable so that the opportunity does not deviate from the objectives. The approach provided a quantitative evaluation of the possible changes in parallel with digitization, towards providing a green Service Supply Chain (SSC). The result of ROAM shows that the most cost-effective change to increase the resilience of the system is a solution (SMS) which is different from that identified by a TOPSIS multi-criteria method. Real-word decisions in change management should tackle the complexity of systems and uncertainty of events during and after transition through a careful analysis of the alternatives. A case-study was carried out to evaluate the alternatives of an ancillary service in the Payment Service Providers (PSP). The comparison of the ROAM results with the traditional TOPSIS of the case-study unveils the priority of the ROAM in practice when the alternatives are Risky-Opportunities. The existing risk assessment tools do not take advantage of risky opportunities. To this aim, the current article introduces the term Risky-Opportunity, and two indexes Stress and Strain of the alternatives that are designed to be employed in the new quantitative ROAM approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: allegiance norm; social desirability; social utility
Online: 3 December 2016 (10:07:44 CET)
In this study we were interested in the behaviors of individuals who preserve the social and organizational environment by ensuring sustainability. More specifically we are interested in allegiants behaviors. Numerous studies have highlighted the normative character of allegiance. To confer an object the status of social norm means to assign value (in terms of desirability and utility) to that object. Therefore we questioned the value attributed to allegiance. 170 employees were questioned on the desirability and utility they attribute to a future work colleague (future peer or future subordinate) starting from the answers the latter was supposed to have given to a questionnaire on allegiance. It was observed that desirability and utility make reference to two independent dimensions, utility being often more important. It was also noted there is greater severity assigned to endo-group targets (future peers) than to exo-group targets (future subordinates). Finally, it was noted there was not so much a valuation of allegiant targets, but rather a rejection of rebel targets, which raises the question of the bi-dimensionality of the valuation-devaluation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0971.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Business model; scaling social impact; social entrepreneurship; social impact; scale; society
Online: 14 August 2023 (04:36:48 CEST)
This paper examines the Business Model (BM) from a socioeconomic system perspective to discern key factors, and understand its interactions resulting in the Scaling of Social Impact (SSI) in Social Entrepreneurship (SE). Previously, studies have explained the importance of BM in relation to SE. However, there is a lack of empirical studies on how BM’s transitions through participation of various actors result in SSI. This research applies qualitative analysis on a single case study of a Japanese social startup, “mymizu”, the first water refill application platform in Japan. The findings show that collaboration amongst different stakeholders on the initial phase of the BM could increase awareness of responsible consumption, convert into actual users for sustainability, and change their behavior. Secondly, members of the society could take on dual roles, both as users and collaborators in the BM, which results in an exponential scaling effect of the social impact. This paper contributes towards adding a participatory stakeholder (PS) to the ecosystem of SSI and building a “regenerative” BM that is relevant in SE towards sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0362.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social identity; social group behaviour; social structure; pro-environmental behaviour; sustainability transitions
Online: 6 November 2023 (14:54:22 CET)
In recent years, change in behaviour towards the environment has gained prominence as a policy tool to influence positive environmental value. Simultaneously, the role played by social identity in promoting pro-environmental action is gaining recognition. Within this work, the intersection between collective group identity and environmental behaviour has received very little attention. Group norms are considered a strong predictor of pro-environmental behaviour, yet the influence of social identity and collective action on environmental action has not been adequately investigated in a multi-ethnic setting. Within this context, this study examines the affective component of social identity influence on pro-environmental action. More succinctly, this study demonstrates how outgroups and in-groups’ relations and broader socio-cultural structures, values, interest, and norms impact environmental and sustainability transitions behaviours. Through interviews with participants across the four dominant social groups in South Africa, this study provides compelling evidence that country wide expressions of social identity and in-group dynamics shapes the individual behaviour regarding environmental and sustainability concerns and further strengthen the individual’s perspective for social environmental transformation. This study advances the need for a social-identity centred approach to foster pro-environmental and sustainability outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0367.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Sustainable Development; Corporate Social Responsibility; Environmental Responsibility.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:48:06 CET)
Social Economy institutions seek to provide answers to social problems, given that they naturally have a socially responsible mission. This study aims to answer the research question: how sustainable practices, namely environmental behaviour, have been adopted by Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS) with the purpose of contributing to Sustainable Development? To achieve this objective, qualitative research was carried out in 31 IPSS, which was framed within the scope of the TFA project (Theoretical framework for promotion of accountability in the social economy sector: the IPSS case). Semi-structured interviews were conducted, with a script based on the literature review, from May to July 2019, with those responsible for the management of these entities. A content analysis was conducted, using the NVivo12 Version 12.6.0 software, which enables data to be coded and categorised, reducing any researcher bias. The results indicate that most entities carry out activities of an environmental nature, related to the reuse of materials, the recycling of waste, the sale of materials for recycling, and user awareness. Several entities expressed financial limitations to the implementation of Environmental Management Systems and their accomplishment. However, the objections presented are not impossible to overcome, according to studies presented in other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Child sexual abuse; Social Networking; Social Support.
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:24:03 CEST)
This research mapped significant social networks of victims of childhood sexual abuse, identifying relationships between childhood trauma and social bonds in adult life. Ten adult women, aged between 20 and 40 years, in psychiatric care for the consequences of trauma suffered in childhood participated in the research. For data collection, the map of significant social networks was used and analyzed through the structure, functions and attributes of the bonds. The network is composed of people from the Friendship, Family, Community, Work/Study and Health Teams group. The networks of friendships, family, co-workers or studies play a predominant role of emotional support, while the Health Teams also offer emotional support, but primarily provide clinical support in overcoming trauma and its consequences. The network of relationships has specific functions that maintain psychosocial integrity and help women to overcome the abuse suffered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; adolescents; social networks; social desirability
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:43:26 CEST)
Social networks have become an ubiquitous aspect of adolescents' life, providing new ways to connect and communicate with peers. However, little is known about the impact of social net-works on adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI), a crucial skill for social and identity development. The aim of the present study is to explore the time spent and reasons for using social net-works and their relationship with emotional intelligence in adolescents and young adults (15-19 years). After signing informed consent, participants completed a battery of questionnaires offered via secure online form. The results showed that teenagers spend more than 3 h/day on Whatsapp, more than 2 h/day on Instagram and less on Facebook (26m per day); girls prefer to use Whatsapp and Instagram, boys opt for Facebook. Most participants use social media when bored and/or to communicate with friends. Moreover, time spent on social media has a relationship with stress management with some aspects of EI (assertiveness, self-actualization, optimism, etc.). EI and social desirability have a significant relationship, especially in the sphere of adaptability. Based on the results obtained, future perspectives and training are suggested with the aim of adapting to the constant changes in the new technological reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disability; poverty; health; social exclusion; social inequality
Online: 29 September 2018 (06:05:36 CEST)
In this paper, we analyze data from the 2012 Encuesta de Integración Social y Salud (Social Integration and Health Survey) of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spanish National Institute of Statistics) to obtain profiles created by combining disability, poverty and social exclusion. We hypothesize that the probability that people will experience social exclusion increases if they have a disability, chronic illness or limitation in conducting everyday activities, and that this probability is greater for women than for men. To conduct our analysis, we constructed a social exclusion model based on a series of social determinants that acts as a dependent variable. In this context, social exclusion is understood to go beyond the concept of financial poverty. We performed bivariate analyses, in which we calculated the Odds Ratios (OR) for certain variables considered to be predictors of social exclusion. We also performed a means comparison test and an ANOVA test to observe differences between individuals with recognized disability and those without. Finally, we conducted logistic regression analysis to determine which vulnerability profiles are most likely to experience a situation of social exclusion. We also discuss the limitations of our study, and suggest areas in, which the relationships between health, social exclusion and disability can be further investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Social Anxiety Disorder; Social Phobia, Online Survey; Adult, Oman; Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
Online: 8 August 2020 (09:39:49 CEST)
Background: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is among the most common anxiety disorders worldwide with data largely emerging from the Euro-American and Pacific Rim populations. In contrast, there is a dearth of studies among the populations of Arabian Gulf countries including Oman. This study has two interrelated aims: (i) to explore the prevalence of SAD among Omani adults, and (ii) to tease out the links between sociodemographic factors and SAD in Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study via an online survey was conducted among 1019 adult Omani nationals residing in Oman. The presence of SAD was assessed using the Arabic version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Result: Nearly half the participants (45.9%, n=468) endorsed themselves as having features of SAD as defined by LSAS. In the multivariate logistic analysis, participants below 40 years of age were 1.6 times (OR=1.568, p=0.026) more likely to have SAD than those who were 40 and older. Women were 1.3 times (OR=1.348, p=0.038) more likely to endorse SAD than men. Participants who had secondary or undergraduate education were respectively 1.5 times (OR=1.45, p=0.014) and 2.5 times (OR=2.509, p<.001) to have SAD than who were postgraduates. Conclusion: The present data suggest that 45.9% of the participants reached the cut-off for case-ness in LSAS, which is high compared to reports from other populations. As online survey respondents tend to belong to similar demographics, the current results need not be representative of the Omani adult population, which calls for studies that adopt more inclusive survey methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0999.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: paramedic; community paramedicine; social needs; social isolation; equity
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:17:52 CEST)
Introduction: Health and social needs exist along a dynamic continuum. Recognizing that health status is inextricably impacted by social determinants of health, there exists opportunities and a professional responsibility to better understand how community paramedicine can address social needs in effort to reduce healthcare inequities.Aim: The primary objective of this scoping review is to systematically investigate published peer reviewed and grey literature to explore how community paramedicine supports social needs along a health and social continuum.Methods: A scoping review of English language literature was conducted using the JBI Scoping Review methodology. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and grey literature searches in Google Scholar and organisational websites. We used search terms related to community paramedicine and social needs. Results: A total of 30 peer-reviewed and 13 grey literature articles met inclusion criteria. The main findings of this scoping review describe the evolving ways community paramedicine models are addressing health and social needs. A key recommendation across the literature was the need to meaningfully engage communities early in program development to understand how best to implement and co-design an integrated service model that addresses the needs specific to each community, though there was a lack of evidence to guide this approach. There is a notable lack of evidence pertaining to how best to optimize technologies in program design and implementation. The results highlight opportunities to determine best practices for conducting holistic community needs assessments that include equitable stakeholder engagement and enhance education to prepare paramedics for expanded roles.Conclusion: Community paramedicine provides opportunities to better meet the needs of structurally marginalised communities. However, there is a social responsibility and opportunity to engage in community needs assessments to co-design service delivery, advance paramedic education, and enhance interprofessional collaboration to better support social needs and generate upstream solutions for individuals and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Social commerce; Social media; Personified communication; E-commerce
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:01:47 CEST)
The development of mobile internet technology has enabled companies to use social media for E-commerce. Some companies use personified images and languages to communicate with consumers in this context. How does personified communication affect consumer behavior in social commerce? Are consumers willing to accept this new form of communication under social commerce? To answer these questions, this paper explores consumers' willingness to take per-sonified communication in the context of social commerce. It investigates the role of cognitive needs in regulating the internal mechanism and proposes some suggestions for enterprises to improve social media communication. Specifically, this paper presents an improved model based on the TAM model. In our model, perceived interaction is introduced as a new independent variable, and cognitive need is added as a regulatory variable, which is more suitable for social commerce. We conduct a questionnaire survey on the Internet and analyze data using AMOS and SPSS. The results show that perceived usefulness and perceived interaction positively im-pact attitude, which influences consumers' willingness to purchase. Furthermore, the cognitive need as the regulatory variable significantly affects the influencing path from perceived use-fulness to attitude and purchase intention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: omnichannel CRM; social CRM; social media marketing; retail
Online: 2 June 2022 (05:09:15 CEST)
Customers make purchases through a multi-stage, omnichannel process, which now extends to social media. A loyalty loop can be achieved when an existing customer bypasses the initial stages –consider and evaluate– to make a direct purchase. However, to build that loyalty loop, a retailer must embrace techniques and software across social media marketing, social CRM, and omnichannel CRM. Reviewing literature from academic researchers and industry practitioners, this paper identifies emerging industry trends and discusses an illustrative case study of a UK digital retailer. The importance of social media for omnichannel retailing and building loyalty is highlighted and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: opinion game; opinion dynamics; social Interaction; social network
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:48:20 CET)
We introduce a new, and quite general variational model for opinion dynamics based on pairwise interaction potentials and a range of opinion evolution protocols ranging from random interactions to global synchronous flows in the opinion state space. The model supports the concept of topic “coupling”, allowing opinions held by individuals to be changed via indirect interaction with others on different subjects. Interaction topology is governed by a graph that determines interactions. Our model, which is really a family of variational models, has, as special cases, many of the previously established models for the opinion dynamics. After introducing the model, we study the dynamics of the special case in which the potential is either a tent function or a constructed bell-like curve. We find that even in these relatively simple potential function examples there emerges interesting behavior. We also present results of preliminary numerical explorations of the behavior of the model to motivate questions that can be explored analytically
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Twitter; Stakeholder Management; Social Media Communication; Social Media; CSR; Communication Strategy
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:53 CET)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important for companies in recent years. On the one hand, regulatory frameworks require the disclosure of measures for sustainable management. On the other hand, for long-term corporate success, stakeholders must be strategically engaged in the dialog on sustainability aspects. Social media, and Twitter in particular, offer the potential to foster a meaningful stakeholder dialogue on CSR topics. Due to Elon Musk's acquisition in the fall of 2022, this strategic disruption provides an opportunity to systematically capture the platform's past activities and strategies to synthesize practical information that can guide Twitter usage decision making and be used for research to serve as the basis for future comparative longitudinal studies of changes in usage. We conducted a literature review including 42 papers to contribute to the body of evidence on CSR communication strategies on Twitter across industries and countries by deriving interdisciplinary suggestions for strategic CSR-related stakeholder management. Results cover relevant CSR topics, prioritized stakeholder groups for CSR communication on Twitter and successful communication strategies for companies to obtain beneficial results, such as generating social media capital. The results contribute to the strategic planning and implementation of CSR stakeholder management on Twitter and offer starting points for future studies on social media mining and CSR communication strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0363.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: social media; social media metrics; digital marketing; social media marketing strategy; customer sentiment; customer engagement
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:38:24 CEST)
The role of Social Media Marketing (SMM) in marketing strategies is rapidly growing. Because the use of social media is growing, the industry of SMM will grow bigger in the coming years; the pace of this growth is faster than ever. To survive in the modern competitive world, effective use of SMM for a firm is a must; for that, every SMM channel needs to be used to its full potential. For a marketing campaign to be effective, there is a need for some metrics to measure the success of the SMM campaign. These metrics measure if the campaign is successfully implemented or not. This would help firms understand the market, gain a competitive advantage, and ultimately get a positive impact on the overall business. This study categorizes SMM strategy into 4 dimensions and associates 10 broad categories of SMM metrics to these dimensions. The proposed model of this study suggests the application of Social Media Analytics (SMA) ineffective use of metrics to measure SMM campaigns. There are so many SMA Tools available for free and time-efficient data analysis that can lead to faster and better results than manual analysis. Following this model, the importance of SMA tools in devising an effective SMM strategy is highlighted. The implication of this research is towards a better understanding of the application of SMA for any firm to have a solid SMM Strategy, especially small and medium-sized enterprises that have limited resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility; motives; definition; social responsibility managers; Uruguay
Online: 14 August 2023 (15:16:24 CEST)
Knowledge of the motivations of managers to practice Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a critical issue for those who promote its adoption. The understanding of these reasons is complicated by the fact that there are different ways of defining this responsibility, raising the question of whether there is any relationship between reasons for adopting it and how to define it. To address this issue, a classification of these reasons was constructed and related to a classification of the different ways of defining CSR. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to a non-probability sample of Social Responsibility managers, which included indicators for both classifications. It was found that these managers present all types of motives, with proactive outweighing reactive motives and that there is a significant degree of correlation between the ways of defining CSR and the reasons for doing so. This suggests that managers present coherence in their objectives (motives) and means (practices of Social Responsibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0405.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: models of using internet; bonding social capital; social identity
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:58:40 CEST)
In this research, we are attempting to review the relationship between users' models of using internet and bonding social capitals in Iran. The theoretical framework of the research are based on theoretical approaches of Dearnly and Feder, Velleman, Katz in the field of internet and models of using it and views of Putnam, Woolcock regarding social capital. The method used in this research is a qualitative – quantitative mixed method and the sampling method which has been used in the qualitative method is the purposive sampling method (theoretical sampling) and in the quantitative method, a combination of clustering, systematic and stratified sampling method in proportion with age and gender has been used. The statistical population of all persons who are 15 years old and more in Kerman city has been estimated to be 515114 persons in 2019 and the research sample has been estimated to be about 400 persons. Research results indicate that the rate of citizens' usage of internet in Kerman city is very low (less than 5 hours per week). Other results of the research indicate that regarding the model based on information associated with news, mostly filtered and unpermitted news sites such as VOA, BBC and other networks have been used. Research data regarding social identity is indicative of formation of identity evolutions in the contemporary society of Iran. The results of the path model test of the research indicate that news and economic information based models have about (0.11) direct and positive impact and ethnic identity has a direct and positive impact (0.189) and group identity has about (-0.131) impact and entertainment based model has about (0.130) impact on social capital. The results of variables' indirect impacts have also been expressed in the research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social media ethics; Social media; data misuse; data integrity
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:05:09 CET)
The present high-tech landscape has allowed institutes to undergo digital transformation in addition to the storing of exceptional bulks of information from several resources, such as mobile phones, debit cards, GPS, transactions, online logs, and e-records. With the growth of technology, big data has grown to be a huge resource for several corporations that helped in encouraging enhanced strategies and innovative enterprise prospects. This advancement has also offered the expansion of linkable data resources. One of the famous data sources is social media platforms. Ideas and different types of content are being posted by thousands of people via social networking sites. These sites have provided a modern method for operating companies efficiently. However, some studies showed that social media platforms can be a source for misinformation at which some users tend to misuse social media data. In this work, the ethical concerns and conduct in online communities has been reviewed in order to see how social media data from different platforms has been misused, and to highlight some of the ways to avoid the misuse of social media data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: social capital; food security; hunger; knowledge sharing; social networks
Online: 29 October 2020 (13:24:11 CET)
Social capital creates a synergy that brings many benefits to members of a community. Thus, the main objective of this article was to examine whether social capital can improve a society's food security. If yes, how? To answer these questions, a systematic literature review was conducted using the Prisma approach. The output of this method led to finding 39 related articles. Precise studying these articles illustrated that social capital improves food security through two mechanisms of knowledge sharing and product sharing (i.e., sharing food products). It revealed that social capital through improving the food security pillars (i.e., food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and food system stability) affects food security. In other words, the interaction among the members of the community results in sharing food products and information among community members, and this facilitates food availability and access to food. There are many shreds of evidence in the literature that sharing food and food product among the community member decreases household food security and provides the healthy nutrition to the vulnerable families and improve the food utilization pillar of food security. In addition, it is disclosed that belonging to the social networks increases the resilience of the community members and decreases the vulnerability of the community that subsequently strengthens the stability of a food system. This study contributes to the common literature on food security and social capital by providing a conceptual model based on the literature. In addition to researchers, policymakers can use the finding of this study to provide solutions to address food insecurity problems.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Loneliness; Social-Emotional; Social Acceptance; Attention Focused
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:28:29 CEST)
The aim of the present research to identify the differences between the social acceptance, attention, and emotional and social loneliness feeling in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal. The sample was analyzed in this study included 39 women age 51 to 69 years with the scope of that 19 of them with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 people had normal cognitive function and healthy in the city of Gorgan in the winter 1395 in the study. Identification of Alzheimer's sufferers and healthy based on the diagnosis of the physician and cognitive status questionnaire (SPMSQ) and they were asked to answer the social acceptance of the scale questionnaire Marlow and Craven, affective and social adults alone feel scale (SELSA-S), Spotlight questionnaire (FAQ). The data using analysis of variance, multivariate factor test method (MANOVA) were studied. The results of this test indicate that it is totally focused attention between petty scale, the Spotlight focused on the notion of social acceptance of social interaction and social-emotional feeling lonely scale in women suffering from Alzheimer's and normal according to the analysis of the one-way variance of a significant difference in the context of manova level (P < 0.001). But in the other scale retail spotlight focused on his research, a significant difference was not observed. According to the results of the research in general can be found stating that to provide family-centered care and the implementation of the health-welfare interventions by relevant organs with different educational, supportive, emotional and consultation approaches, can be effective on health promotion of public health and the actual need in the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:08:10 CEST)
Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adapt to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on spatial problem-solving abilities in horses using a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and horses (n = 16) received a human demonstration or no demonstration. Horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each, which experienced the two treatments in a counterbalanced order. We found that horses did not solve the detour task faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when being confronted with a spatial problem-solving task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0196.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; Social Networking; Social Network Analytic; DistilBERT; Text Similarity; Natural Language Processing; Character Computing
Online: 17 February 2022 (13:15:23 CET)
Social media platforms have been entirely an undeniable part of the lifestyle for the past decade. Analyzing the information being shared is a crucial step to understanding human behavior. Social media analysis aims to guarantee a better experience for the user and risen user satisfaction. For deriving any further conclusion, first, it is necessary to know how to compare users. In this paper, a hybrid model has been proposed to measure Twitter profiles’ similarity and quantifies the likeness degree of profiles by calculating features considering users’ behavioral habits. For this, first, the timeline of each profile has been extracted using the official TwitterAPI. Then, in parallel, three aspects of a profile are deliberated. Behavioral ratios are time-series-related information showing the consistency and habits of the user. Dynamic time warping has been utilized to compare the behavioral ratios of two profiles. Next, the audience network is extracted for each user, and for estimating the similarity of two sets, Jaccard similarity is used. Finally, for the Content similarity measurement, the tweets are preprocessed respecting the feature extraction method; TF-IDF and DistilBERT for feature extraction are employed and then compared using the cosine similarity method. Results have shown that TF-IDF has slightly better performance; therefore, the more straightforward solution is selected for the model. Similarity level of different profiles. As in the case study, a Random Forest classification model was trained on almost 20000 users revealed a 97.24% accuracy. This comparison enables us to find duplicate profiles with nearly the same behavior and content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0633.v1
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:29:12 CEST)
Delay-tolerant networks (DTN) is an approach to deal with scarce network connectivity found in sparse mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) which makes the problem of routing messages a challenging task. DTNs have find their usefulness in many challenging environments such as tactical networks, underwater sensor networks, wildlife monitoring, disaster recovery etc. Pocket Switched Networks (PSNs) have emerged as a new application of the delay tolerant networks where network nodes are computing devices carried by humans. Hence, the study of how humans interact in their day-to-day life, the places they visit frequently, the people they meet frequently, the social groups in which they participate on regular basis etc. can help improve routing process in PSNs. This type of routing inspired from the way humans interact with each other is referred to as social based routing and had been a recent topic of research in the field of DTNs. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the various social-based algorithms that have been designed for Delay Tolerant Networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0494.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: faith-informed advocacy; Christian social work; ethics; values; social justice
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:53:53 CEST)
This article presents the development of a Faith-Informed Advocacy Model that integrates faith-based principles and values into advocacy efforts within Christian social work. Drawing from the intersection of Christian ethics and social work principles, this model provides a framework for Christian social workers to engage in advocacy work that is grounded in their faith and guided by ethical principles. The article includes case studies that illustrate the application of the model in real-world scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: instagram; social networking sites (SNS); social comparison orientation; well-being
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:29:23 CEST)
Social networks are experiencing great popularity, with Instagram currently being the most intensively used network. On these platforms, users are continuously exposed to self-relevant information that fosters social comparisons. A distinction is made between ability-based and opinion-based comparison dimensions. To experimentally investigate the influence of these comparison dimensions on users' subjective well-being, an online exposition experiment (N = 409) was conducted. In a preliminary study (N = 107), adequate exposition stimulus material was selected in advance. The results of the main study indicated that exposition of ability-related social comparisons in the context of social media elicited lower well-being than exposition of opinion-related social comparisons. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for future work were outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social engagement; social rehabilitation; community-based; financial analysis; Momentum Center
Online: 2 May 2023 (05:28:57 CEST)
Cost-effective community engagement is needed to address causes of mental illness related to social issues (i.e. isolation, stigma and lack of purpose) that are typically outside the scope of healthcare. This pilot study evaluated the relationship between clinical healthcare resources and a community-based social engagement organization in a medium-sized community in the midwestern US. Analyses were based on a retrospective longitudinal comparison of clinical visit frequency from two cohorts that joined the Momentum Center for Social Engagement (MC) and either frequently participated (Engaged; n = 9) or had extenuating circumstances limiting participation (Non-engaged; n = 3). The frequency of >1800 visits to the member’s primary mental healthcare provider were compared during the period from November 2016 - May 2021. Engaged MC members reduced frequency of regular visits to their primary mental healthcare provider by 50%, while Non-engaged MC members maintained clinical visit frequency. The financial value of reduced healthcare visits and associated wellbeing improvements was estimated to be $1.0 million, 95% CI: [$0.6-1.4 million], or roughly four times the budget received by the MC from the healthcare provider. Thus, the MC appears to be a valuable approach to improving mental health in conjunction with existing community healthcare services. Clinical implications include considering the unique MC-style community-based support as a component of practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social modernisation; social sustainability; factor analysis; structural equation modelling; Lithuania
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:36:13 CET)
The present paper investigates the 'soft' determinants of social environmental sustainability of the country. A three-dimensional research approach, covering the education system and educational culture; socio-economic integration; and the legal system and the importance of public administration and citizenship, was utilized. A cross-sectional survey of 1,021 respondents and a structural equation modelling were selected as main research tools. Lithuania served as an empirical basis for the research. It was revealed that the most important factors in shaping the modernisation of the country through the lens of social environmental sustainability are the participation of citizens in social communities and social activities. Factors that need improvement are public participation and tolerance for the disabled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: emotional loneliness; social loneliness; nursing homes; older adults; social isolation
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:25:59 CET)
(1) Background: Loneliness, little studied in Nursing Homes (NHs), can affect physical and mental health. We aimed to verify the prevalence of loneliness in 5 NHs and its associated factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study. Older adults aged 65 or over with preserved cognitive status were included. The De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was used to assess overall, social, and emotional loneliness; sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. The chi-square (or Fisher’s) test and logistic regression were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis respectively. (3) Results: The final sample consisted of 65 participants (81.5% female) with a mean age of 84±7.13. Prevalence of overall loneliness was 70.7% (95%CI:58.2-81.4), social loneliness 44.6% (95% CI: 33.1-56.6) and emotional loneliness 46.2% (95% CI: 34.5–58.1). Overall loneliness was associated with lower perceived quality of life (Odds Ratio-OR= 5.52, 95% CI:1.25-24.38) and NH with state subsidized places (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.74); social loneliness with having 0-1 children (OR=0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.77), and emotional loneliness with depression (OR=4.54, 95% CI: 1.28-16.08) and urinary incontinence (UI) (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.23-17.52). (4) Conclusions: Loneliness was present in almost 71% of residents and was associated with the type of NH and poorer quality of life, emotional loneliness with depression and UI and social loneliness with having less than 2 children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: concerns; coronavirus; cross-national study; pandemic; social distancing; social media
Online: 18 February 2021 (11:02:48 CET)
COVID-19 has been a global healthcare concern impacting multiple aspects of individual and community wellness. As one moves forward with different methods to reduce the infection and mortality rates, it is critical to continue to study the impact that national and local ‘social distancing’ policies have on the daily lives of individuals. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness in relation to risk assessment, measures taken against risks, concerns, and social media use, while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The cross-sectional study collected data from 3469 individuals from USA, UK, Norway, and Australia. Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Multiple linear regression was used in the analysis of associations between variables. The results showed that concerns about finances were more strongly associated with social loneliness, while concerns about the future was more strongly associated with emotional loneliness. Longer daily time spent on social media was associated with higher emotional loneliness. In conclusion, pandemic-related concerns seem to affect their perceptions of loneliness. While social media can be used productively to maintain relationships, and thereby prevent loneliness, excessive use may be counterproductive.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: disability; COVID-19; pandemic; social care; lockdown; social distancing; information
Online: 27 January 2021 (13:44:10 CET)
This paper reports on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 69 disabled people in England and Scotland, and with 28 key informants from infrastructure organisations in the voluntary and statutory sectors, about the impact of COVID-19, and measures taken to control it. Participants were recruited through voluntary organisations. As with everyone, the Pandemic has had a huge impact: we discuss the dislocations it has caused in everyday life; the failures of social care; the use of new technologies; and participants’ view on leadership and communication. We conclude with suggestions for urgent short term and medium term responses, so that the United Kingdom and other countries can respond better to this and other pandemics, and build a more inclusive world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0593.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social work; families with children; child welfare services; social mobility
Online: 27 August 2020 (06:05:09 CEST)
Abstract The aim of our study is to analyse the perception of the families and concerned social workers. The research was conducted in an underprivileged and disadvantaged microregion in North Hungary. The main focus was the perception on the available health, educational, child welfare and social services and supports. The starting point was to enquire the target group’s knowledge of these services. The study examines the extent to which social work is able to provide support to disadvantaged, marginalized families with children, and the way how the dysfunctional operation of the system contributes to the perpetuation of the clients’ life conditions. Analysing the quality of these services and supports is crucial to understand the social mobility chance of the children living in this microregion. The results show that without capability and talent development for the children and given the lack of welfare services, the mobility chance and opportunities of these families are extremely low in Hungary.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: opinion game; opinion dynamics; social dynamic; social interaction; consensus; polarization
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:42:50 CET)
In this age of Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, there is rapidly growing interest in understanding network-enabled opinion dynamics in large groups of autonomous agents. The phenomena of opinion polarization, the spread of propaganda and fake news, and the manipulation of sentiment is of interest to large numbers of organizations and people. Whether it is the more nefarious players such as foreign governments that are attempting to sway elections or it is more open and above board, such as researchers who want to make large groups of people aware of helpful innovations, what is at stake is often significant. In this paper, we review opinion dynamics including the extensions of many classical models as well as some new models that deepen understanding. For example, we look at models that track the evolution of an individual’s power, that include noise, and that feature sequentially dependent topics, to name a few. While the first papers studying opinion dynamics appeared over 60 years ago, there is still a great deal of room for innovation and exploration. We believe that the political climate and the extraordinary (even unprecedented) events in the sphere of politics in the last few years will inspire new interest and new ideas. It is our aim to help those interested researchers understand what has already been explored in a significant portion of the field of opinion dynamics. We believe that in doing this, it will become clear that there is still much to be done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0079.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Natural Social Contract; Co-evolutionary governance; Transformative governance; Institutional change; Policy mixes; Transformative Social-Ecological Innovation; Transformative Social Innovation; Social Innovation; Sustainability Transition; Societal Transition
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:43:04 CET)
The corona (COVID-19) pandemic offers an opportunity for dealing with persistent problems, through a transformative recovery process. It is a crisis that offers opportunities for dealing with three interrelated crises: the ecological crisis (climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource depletion, pollution and ecosystem destruction), the confidence crisis (people losing trust in government, politics, companies, regular news channels, science, each other and the future), and the inequality crisis (the widening of the gap between rich and poor). Our argument is that sustainability transitions will not succeed without a different economy and another social contract with the associated rights and duties of care (for the environment and the well-being of others, including future generations). A different social contract is not only desirable from the point of view of sustainability and fairness, justice and equality, but is also necessary to restore citizens' trust in politics, government, companies and each other. In the paper we discuss mechanisms towards a Natural Social Contract, systemic leverage points for system transformations and possibilities for co-evolutionary governance by actor coalitions interested in transformative change. The combination of those three elements helps to synchronize different agendas and reduce the chance that they will work against each other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0624.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Social Identity; Enduring Mental Health Difficulties; Social Connection; Loneliness; Group Therapy
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:05:01 CEST)
Many people with enduring mental health difficulties (EMHD) have reduced social connections and subsequent experiences of isolation and loneliness. This paper outlines the development and trial of a manualised social-identity-based group therapy intervention to increase social connection and develop social skills to build connections outside of healthcare settings. This intervention was developed in line with the quality intervention development (6SQuID) methodology. The paper describes initial data from a feasibility study (which was ceased prematurely due to COVID-19 restrictions). Semi-structured outcome interviews were conducted with the participants and analysed using thematic analysis. Uptake, retention and acceptability of participants was high. Four primary themes were identified across the dataset: Therapeutic Process, Social Identity, Generic Components of Group Therapy and Impact of COVID-19. Participants experienced positive changes in their social behaviour, mood and avoidance. Some were unsure of the concept of social identity while reporting positive changes. A theoretically coherent manualised treatment was developed and tested on a small scale. This study supports social identity-based CBT groups as a potentially effective way of increasing social connection in those with EMHD. Social identity theory supported participants to positively integrate an area of potential social threat into their self-concept and may offer a positive addition to current psychological interventions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: oil industry; corporate social responsibility; emerging market; social impact; case study
Online: 31 May 2023 (03:13:24 CEST)
This paper analyzes the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and social impact within the oil industry in an emerging market (Peru). Following the emerging literature on the social impact field, and using the case study methodology, the findings show that the expected positive relationship is diverse depending on several factors. Specifically, the results reveal that companies must focus on community and environmental responsibility, together with stakeholders' involvement to achieve social impact. However, when companies are weak in any of the previous factors, then the social impact is only partially accepted or even withdrawn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0383.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Accountability; Management; Non-Profit Organisations; Social Economy; Social Solidarity Institutions; Transparency.
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:32:17 CET)
The Social Economy (SE) emerges as an interesting alternative to deal with social problems that often cannot be met by the services provided by the State. However, one of the concerns relates to the ability of these institutions to meet the demands of stakeholders concerning accountability. In this sense, the present work aimed to determine if the IPSS are prepared to meet the management requirements by increasing their accountability. For that purpose, we conducted qualitative research, with an exploratory focus, with 31 Portuguese Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS). The interviews took place between June and July 2019, with those responsible for managing the entities. The interviews were guided on a semi-structured script based on the literature review. After Content Analysis, it was found that, in most of the institutions interviewed, the board does not use management tools, such as performance analysis, social impact assessment, strategic planning and quality management systems, even recognising the importance of using them. The fact is due to the lack of access or knowledge about its use. In addition, the majority of the IPSS interviewed showed concern about the transparency and ethics of managers. Current strategic management practices are remarkably targeted at companies in the for-profit sector and can compromise the principle of investments in human and social issues. Thus, the introduction of new activities can further reinforce the pressure felt by these institutions in carrying out operational activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0697.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: history education; social studies; scholar research; relevant social problems; global citizenship.
Online: 29 March 2021 (14:40:47 CEST)
In Secondary Education, the focus of History teaching must be on the development of global citizenship. The present research was a study contextualized in the Fiesta de la Historia Youth Congress in Seville (Spain). A documentary analysis with a descriptive and interpretive design was made of 63 projects of inquiry that pupils carried out. The main objectives were to assess the incidence of the proposal in terms of participation, and to determine whether the pupils' projects followed a logic of inquiry about socially relevant problems which favours the construction of global citizenship. The results point to a low incidence of schools participating in this initiative. The projects of inquiry analysed present for the most part themes related to the historical and social heritage of the locality. The proposals are approached as problems of a specific discipline, and are worked on through a method based on a pseudoscientific research process. The findings indicate the need to continue implementing initiatives based on school inquiry that allow the teaching of History to be articulated around relevant social problems, with the objective being to develop citizenship skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: FoMO; Social Cognitive Theory; Social Influence; Self-efficacy; Positive Outcome Expectancy
Online: 21 July 2020 (12:57:49 CEST)
Objectives: This study proposes a model that integrates three determinants of social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain the impact of FoMO on SNS usage. Design: A cross-sectional study is conducted using data for 259 participants recruited from a website. Main Outcome Measures: The analysis focuses on FoMO, social influence, positive outcome expectancy, refusal self-efficacy, and SNS-related behavior cloud-based sites. Data are examined using descriptive analysis and structural equation modeling. Results: The proposed model reported proper goodness of fit. FoMO does not directly or indirectly impact SNS usage through the determinants of SCT. However, social influence and refusal self-efficacy have a direct effect. Conclusions: The roles of the three determinants of SCT vary by stage of SNS usage. FoMO and refusal self-efficacy are more strongly related with SNS addiction. Further research, particularly longitudinal and intervention studies, is needed to examine the effects of specific factors on SNS addiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: pro-environmental behavior, social-ecological systems, conservation, social networks, landscape structure
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:24:16 CEST)
Conservation of natural habitats in human-dominated landscapes is critical for halting biodiversity loss. Maintaining habitat quantity and connectivity requires landscape-level collective action, which results from environmental decisions made by individual land owners. We investigate how individual decision making in a rural collective translates into quantitative differences in landscape-level environmental outcomes. Behavioral science has become a critical domain of knowledge in conservation, but little attention has been paid to how multiple behavioral drivers determine the success of collective environmental action. We developed a social-ecological model for landscape-level conservation using a detailed data set of 600 land owners in New Zealand. With the model, we tested whether the effect of social influence networks on collective conservation action was altered by their interplay with land owners’ personal characteristics, connections to cross-scale actors and local environmental contexts. Interactions between multiple behavioral drivers determined the environmental outcomes of collective action in unexpected ways by modifying, muting or amplifying the effects of single drivers. Importantly, we detected a social-ecological mechanism for rapid change in the extent of protected habitats, which can explain highly successful or failed environmental outcomes of collective conservation. Further, when environmentally desirable and undesirable behaviors spread simultaneously through the social network, homophily and network cohesion hinder desirable environmental outcomes. This effect can be modified by other drivers such as social responses to local environmental change. Thus, understanding how the antagonistic and synergistic effects of behavioral drivers can be best utilized in conservation will benefit biodiversity and ensure benefits that humans obtain from biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0279.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: brain plasticity; cichlids; cleanerfish; social plasticity; social decision making network; zebrafish
Online: 17 January 2019 (03:48:04 CET)
Social plasticity, defined as the ability to adaptively change the expression of social behavior according to previous experience and to social context, is a key ecological performance trait that should be viewed as crucial for Darwinian fitness. The neural mechanisms for social plasticity are poorly understood, in part due to skewed reliance on rodent models. Fish model organisms are relevant in the field of social plasticity for at least two reasons: first, the diversity of social organization among fish species is staggering, increasing the breadth of evolutionary relevant questions that can be asked. Second, that diversity also suggests translational relevance, since it is more likely that “core” mechanisms of social plasticity are discovered by analyzing a wider variety of social arrangements than relying on a single species. We analyze examples of social plasticity across fish species with different social organizations, concluding that a “core” mechanism is the initiation of behavioral shifts through the modulation of a conserved “social decision-making network”, along with other relevant brain regions, by monoamines, neuropeptides, and steroid hormones. The consolidation of these shifts may be mediated via neurogenomic adjustments and regulation of the expression of plasticity-related molecules (transcription factors, cell cycle regulators, and plasticity products).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0343.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: social laser; social energy; social atom; indistinguishability; quantum statistics; quantum information theory; COVID19 protests; pro-war; pro-peace beaming
Online: 24 October 2022 (02:58:50 CEST)
This is a review on social laser theory completed with its new developments and applications. An important methodological step towards similarity with quantum physics is the invention and consistent operation with infons. These are excitations of the quantum social-information field carrying social energy and coarse grained content of communications (their color and quasi-color). We study in more detail interactions of infons with social atoms, the processes of absorption and emission (spontaneous and stimulated). We also analyze the dynamics of iterations of the cascades of infons in the social resonators. The latter are based on social networks coupled to laser's gain medium composed of social atoms. Consideration of the pro-war and pro-peace beams leads to the general discussion on the competing beams of social radiation and the conditions for their creation and coexistence. The role of social networks in lasing is illustrated by the protests during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is highlighted that a human gain medium can approach the state of population inversion with supply of infons of one sort (quasi-color), but the stimulated emission can be induced by injection into the gain medium of infons of a different quasi-color. We call this behavior of social atoms memorylessness. This theoretical property is illustrated with the examples from the modern social-political life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0603.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: assessment; social; determinants; health
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:44:03 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health are conditions in the environments that significantly influence the health of individuals and communities. Various factors like income, socio-economic status, stress, customs, culture, healthcare services largely affect the health status of individuals and communities. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the social determinants of health among residents of Buari Ishola Isibo in Ede North Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross – sectional study was utilized, and multi-stage random sampling method was employed in selecting 60 households of Buari Ishola Isibo in Ede North Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection and data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The respondents’ ages were between 15 – 60 years and above. 29 (48.3%) were between 31 – 60 years old, 31 (52.0%) were males, 40 (66.7%) were married, 57 (95.0%) were Islam and Yoruba. 29 (48.3%) earned 10,000 – 30,000 monthly, 23 (38.3%) had secondary school education, 39 (65.0%) were traders and 27 (45.0%) have 6 – 10 households respectively. Of the 60 respondents, 34 (56.7%) visit government health facility when they are sick, 21 (35.0%) make use of hand dug well in their compound as the source of their water supply, 27 (45.0%) uses flush water closet toilet as the means of disposing off their excreta, 36 (60.0%) lives in concrete with zinc roof house, 27 (45.0%) have between 6 – 10 rooms in their house, 55 (91.7%) sleep in a room and 21 (35.0%) make use of charcoal as source of fuel for their cooking. CONCLUSION: Poverty or lower income affects the health of individuals through a person’s health throughout their life span. Issues that affect social determinants of health of individuals and community in a negative way should be accosted with all seriousness.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Self-versus-other perception; Social cognition; Development of Neural activit; Social processing
Online: 20 October 2023 (13:44:36 CEST)
Although adults and children differ in self-versus-other perception, the developmental perspective on this discriminative ability is missing. We compared neural activation of self-vs-others in 39 participants of 4 different age groups (4 yo. to adulthood). Two brain regions, the MCC and right postcentral gyrus, exhibited respectively non-linear and gradual gains in discriminative abilities for self-vs-others stimuli. These regions play critical roles in self-referential processing, empathy, and social cognition. Nine brain regions showed linear increase for others-vs-self stimuli. These regions are associated with multisensory processing, somatosensory skills, complex visual stimuli, self-awareness, empathy, theory of mind, and social recognition. Understanding the neural basis of self-vs-others discrimination during development can inform when and how social contexts support learning processes during childhood and adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0233.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social media; social robots; negative mood; self-disclosure; intervention design; anthropomorphic design
Online: 16 June 2022 (06:11:48 CEST)
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media are suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on Duan et al. (2021), we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social-media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talk to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e. viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart-home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0400.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human capital; educational signal; education; labour market; social mobility; social reproduction; China
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:37:08 CEST)
Exisitng studies argue life chances are, in part, vertically reproduced. Such a statement is applicable to the Chinese contexts as, but not limited to, parental hukou status, to some extent, determines the life chances their children receive. In this essay, the author would like to introduce human capital theory (HCT) and educational signalling theory (EST), and assess how the applications of each of these two models can enrich the understanding of vertical reproduction of individuals’ social mobility opportunities. The author would also present the limitations of each of these two models when addressing relevant Chinese contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0615.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Latvia; social classes; “resource portfolio”; social capital; degree of the resource capitalization.
Online: 25 June 2021 (10:51:58 CEST)
The aim of this study is to investigate “resource portfolios” and total capital, as well as the degree of those resources capitalization, which representatives of different social classes in the modern Latvia have at their disposal. The amount and structure of “resource portfolio” and total capital of different social classes studied using the resource-asset-capital approach. The article presents results of the sociological survey of social stratification in modern Latvia on the example of its one region – Latgale (2019, n = 798, representative sample of the adult population), identifying social classes based on two objective (income and education) and one subjective (self-identification of respondents) criteria. Based on the example of the lower working class and the middle class, the authors proved that representatives of these polar social classes have a total capital of different amount, which is determined by two main reasons: 1) the lower working class has statistically significantly smaller “resource portfolio” than the middle class; 2) the lower working class is not so successful as the middle class in activating the resources at their disposal, turning them into their capital. These statistically significant two-level differences have to be considered when pursuing social policies on reducing differences between social classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0635.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: benefit corporation; b corp; institutional logic; hybrid entrepreneurship; social entrepreneurship; social enterprise
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:37:58 CEST)
This paper contributes to the current debate about Benefit Corporations, presenting the development of this organisational model in Italy, the first country to introduce this hybrid form after the US. Grounded on an institutional logic perspective, it provides a picture of the institutional dynamics that have characterised the rise of this new entrepreneurial form outside the US. The analysis provides an in-depth foundational study of the Italian case and highlights the relevant influence of different institutional pressures in explaining the rise of and constraints in the diffusion of Benefit Corporations. Empirically, it combines secondary data, available from different public sources, and primary data collected through interviews with a series of knowledgeable informants. Based upon the analysis, two aspects appear peculiar for the development of Benefit Corporations in Italy: the interplay between the Benefit Corporation legal form and the certified B Corp model, and the rise of tensions between social entrepreneurship and the third sector ecosystem. This paper concludes that the peculiar institutional pressures leading to the birth of Benefit Corporations in Italy may be source of permanent tensions and of concern for the diffusion of the model.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Computational Social Choice; Election Control; Multi-winner Election; Social Influence; Influence Maximization
Online: 7 September 2020 (04:11:59 CEST)
Nowadays, many political campaigns are using social influence (SI) in order to convince voters to support/oppose a specific candidate/party. In election control via SI problem, an attacker tries to find a set of limited influencers to start disseminating a political message in a social network of voters. A voter will change his opinion when he receives and accepts the message. In constructive case, the goal is to maximize the number of votes/winners of a target candidate/party, while in destructive case, the attacker tries to minimize them. Recent works considered the problem in different models and presented some hardness and approximation results. In this work, we consider multi-winner election control through SI on different graph structures and diffusion models, and our goal is to maximize/minimize the number of winners in our target party. We show that the problem is hard to approximate when voters' connections form a graph, and the diffusion model is the linear threshold model. We also prove the same result considering an arborescence under independent cascade model. Moreover, we present a dynamic programming algorithm for the cases that the voting system is a variation of straight-party voting, and voters form a tree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0560.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social media; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Social Computing
Online: 26 August 2020 (04:33:35 CEST)
Social media gives researchers an invaluable opportunity to gain insight into different facets of human life.Researchers put a great emphasis on categorizing the socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals to help predict various findings of interest. Forum uses, hashtags and so on are common tools of conversations grouping. On the other hand, crowdsourcing is a concept that involves gathering intelligence to group online user community based on common interest. This paper provides a mechanism to look at writings on social media and group them based on their academic background. We build upon earlier work where we analyzed online forum posts from various geographical regions in the USA and Canada and characterized the readability scores of such users. Specifically, we collected 1000 tweets from the members of the US Senate and computed the Flesch-Kincaid readability score for the Senators. Comparing the Senators’ tweets to the ones from average citizens, we note the following. 1) US Senators’ readability based on their tweets rate is much higher affirming the gap between the academic performance of US Senators and their average citizen, and 2) the immense difference among average citizen’s score compared to those of US Senators is attributed to the wide spectrum of academic attainment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0541.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social Internet of Things; Social Internet of Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Infrastructure; Vehicle Ad-hoc Network; Social Networks
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:27:27 CEST)
The number of people owning vehicles has been steadily growing, resulting in increased numbers of vehicles on the roads, making roads more congested, and increasing the risk of accidents. In addition, heavy rain, snow, and fog have increased due to abnormal weather caused by global warming. These bad weather conditions can also affect the safety of vehicles and drivers. The need to disseminate safety messages on the social internet of vehicles due to these problems has been steadily increasing. In this paper, we propose an efficient safety message dissemination scheme that focuses on urban environments with high vehicle density and mobility to address these problems. The proposed scheme reduces packet loss by considering frequent cluster departures and subscriptions through an efficient cluster management technique. In a vehicle-to-vehicle environment, the dissemination of safety messages is divided into an intra-cluster and an inter-cluster emergency as well as general safety message dissemination technique. In a vehicle to infrastructure environment, the proposed scheme reduces the number of processing requests and duplicate messages made to roadside units (RSUs) through a request operation process for each vehicle and an RSU scheduling technique. We conducted several performance evaluations of message packet loss and the number of RSU processing requests to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: information field; social energy; social atom; spontaneous and stimulated emission; information excitation; social lasing; Echo Chambers; boson fields; coherence; information tsunami
Online: 17 April 2020 (09:15:09 CEST)
During the last years our society was permanently disturbed by the coherent information waves of high amplitudes. These are waves of huge social energy. Often they are of the destructive character, a kind of information tsunami. But, they can carry as well positive improvements in the human society, as waves of decision making matching rational recommendations of societal institutes. The main distinguishing features of these waves are their high amplitude, coherence (homogeneous character of social actions generated by them), and short time needed for their generation and relaxation. We show that such social phenomenon can be modeled on the basis of the recently developed social laser theory. This theory can be used to model stimulated amplification of coherent social actions. ``Actions'' are treated very generally, from mass protests to votes and other collective decisions, as, e.g., acceptance (often unconscious) of some societal recommendations. We point to the main distinguishing features of the modern society simplifying social lasing: a) transformation of humans into social atoms - lost of individuality; b) generation by mass-media of powerful information fields leading to information overload of social atoms; c) creation of powerful social resonators based on internet Echo Chambers. In this paper, we analyze in very detail their functioning leading to increasing of the power fo the quantum information field as well as its coherence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1739.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: cost benefit analysis; evaluation; land use transport planning; monetization; social exclusion; social goal
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:15:52 CET)
The meaning of a good social outcome in land use transport policy/planning has been relatively underdeveloped, compared to economic and environmental sustainability goals, but this is now changing. Cities are increasingly prioritizing reducing social exclusion, with the allied intent of providing all residents with equitable access to the benefits of their city. However, in jurisdictions that use cost-benefit analysis to guide government decision-making, this poses a challenge: monetization of the benefits of reducing social exclusion is poorly developed. An evaluation gap thus confronts benefit-cost based assessment of initiatives intended to reduce social exclusion, compared to initiatives directed towards societal economic and environmental goals. This is a particular problem for public transport services that primarily enable people at risk of mobility-related social exclusion to access more opportunities in their society (social transit). The benefits of reducing social exclusion associated with these services have not been monetized, so social transit initiatives are poorly placed to argue their merits against competing initiatives where benefit monetization is more advanced (e.g., mass public transport and roads). The paper summarizes Australian research that has developed monetized measures for the value of increased trip making, bridging/bonding social capital, sense of community and several conceptions of wellbeing, and of reducing neighbourhood disadvantage, as these contribute to reducing social exclusion. New Singaporean research on the value of trip making to support reduced exclusion is also presented, affirming the Australian trip values. Trip values are then used in case study examples to show they can make a material difference to the societal worth of initiatives intended to reduce exclusion. Using these trip values, and other pathway values linked to reducing social exclusion, closes or at least substantially reduces the evaluation gap confronting social goal achievement in land use transport policy and planning, strengthening the case for reducing exclusion. These values will assist jurisdictions that are seeking to provide their residents with more equitable access to the benefits of their city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Social networking; adolescents; communication; motives of use; social desirability; gender differences; age differences
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:24:06 CET)
The evolution of digital media in adolescents has changed the patterns and motives of use and the impact on their communication choices in their social and family networks. The objectives of this study are to understand how peers communicate adopting a social network (SN) or by voice and their social desirability. After the informant consent signature, the adolescents completed a series of self-report questionnaires on the use of SN, on communication preferences, and on social desirability through online. Most of the adolescents belonged to the 17-19 age group (83.6%) and were female (68.9%). Adolescents spent more than 3 hours/day on Whatsapp and more than 2 hours/day on Instagram, while the use of Facebook was on average only 35 minutes/day. Females used digital media for longer than males. Adolescents aged 17-19 years choose more Facebook and voice modes compared to adolescents aged 14 and 16 years. The alternative modes of Whatsapp and voice were chosen more than the social networks in their communication strategies, especially for negative topics. Motives for use were, in addition to boredom, related to maintaining one's social sphere with peers. Some educative considerations were made based on these results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0536.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social Media; Female Workplace Bullying, Crowdsourcing; Social Computing
Online: 25 August 2020 (04:13:59 CEST)
Motivated by the #Metoo movement, we explore in this paper people’s perception of female bullying at workplace. We looked at #workplacebullying and found that 1) people were split between identifying the prevalence of workplace bullying against female and the view that such bullying simply does not exist and is a nuisance, 2) The tweets also showed the existence of psychological effects of cyberbullying, and 3) the tweets showed many intervention techniques that can minimize the effects of such bullying. We further explored the top three recurring hashtags mentioned under the #workplacebullying and found that the three top hashtags were #sexism, #feminism and #equality. Our results showed that the above hashtags represent the positive and negative approach to workplace bullying i.e. #feminism hashtag was mostly used by people who denied that workplace bullying against females exist while # sexism was mentioned as the prime cause by people who agree that such bullying exist. #equality overwhelmingly comprises of techniques to minimize workplace bullying against females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0057.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: COVID-19; social distancing model; sentiment analysis; physical distancing; social media; measuring attitudes
Online: 6 April 2020 (12:50:00 CEST)
The COVID-19 outbreak has focused attention on the use of social distancing as the primary defence against community infection, yet forcing social animals to maintain that physical distance has presented significant challenges for health authorities and law enforcement. Anecdotal media reports suggest widespread dissatisfaction with social distancing as a policy, yet there is little prior work aimed at measuring community acceptance of social distancing. In this paper, we propose a new approach to measuring attitudes towards social distancing by using social media and sentiment analysis. Over a 4 month period, we found 82.5% of tweets were in favour of social distancing. The results indicate a widespread acceptance of social distancing in the community. We conclude by examining options for estimating the optimal (minimal) social distance required at scale, and the implications for securing widespread community support and acceptance of public health messaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0247.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: security; social sentiment sensor; hackers; social media; statistics; L1 regression; twitter; cyber attacks
Online: 29 March 2018 (07:47:48 CEST)
In recent years, online social media information has been subject of study in several data science fields due to its impact on users as a communication and expression channel. Data~gathered from online platforms such as Twitter has the potential to facilitate research over social phenomena based on sentiment analysis, which usually employs Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning techniques to interpret sentimental tendencies related to users opinions and make predictions about real events. Cyber attacks are not isolated from opinion subjectivity on online social networks. Various security attacks are performed by hacker activists motivated by reactions from polemic social events. In this paper, a methodology for tracking social data that can trigger cyber attacks is developed. Our main contribution lies in the monthly prediction of tweets with content related to security attacks and the incidents detected based on ℓ1 regularization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0058.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smartphone sensing; mobile-social integration; automatic recognition; social data; long-term health monitoring
Online: 10 March 2017 (17:32:31 CET)
Over the past decades, overweight and obesity has become a global epidemic and the leading threat for death. To prevent the serious risk, an overweight or obese individual must apply a long-term weight-management strategy to control food intake and physical activities, which is however, not easy. Recently, with the advances of information technology, more and more people can use wearable devices and smartphones to obtain physical activity information, while they can also access various health-related information from Internet online social networks (OSNs). Nevertheless, there is a lack of an integrated approach that can combine these two methods in an efficient way. In this paper, we address this issue and propose a novel mobile-social framework for health recognition and recommendation, namely, H-Rec2. The main ideas of H-Rec2 include (1) to recognize the individual's health status using smartphone as a general platform, and (2) to recommend physical activity and food intake based on personal health information, life science principles, and health-related information obtained from OSNs. To demonstrate the potentials of the H-Rec2 framework, we develop a prototype that consists of four important components: (1) an activity recognition module that senses physical activity using accelerometer, (2) a health status modeling module that applies a novel algorithm to generate personalized health status index, (3) a restaurant information collection module that collects relevant information from OSN, and (4) a restaurant recommendation module that provides personalized and context-aware recommendation. To evaluate the prototype, we conduct both objective and subjective experiments, which confirm the performance and effectiveness of the proposed system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1934.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Social-Media; Teen; Addiction; Regulations
Online: 30 November 2023 (10:32:12 CET)
In today's digital landscape, the use of smartphones is almost inevitable, and so is the pervasive use of social media (SM), a constantly evolving system that has become an integral part of the daily lives of adolescents. Over the past seven years, the usage of social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter, and TikTok has seen exponential growth among younger audiences. Excess SM use has raised concerns. This paper examines the possible negative consequences of the escalating trend in social media usage, and the implications of social media addiction (SMA), especially platforms featuring short-form video content, among teenagers. The paper also addresses the debate surrounding the validity of the term "addiction" concerning social media overuse and highlights the neurobiological processes associated with addiction, including the activation of dopamine-related brain structures. Furthermore, it discusses the researched structural and functional changes to the adolescent brain, including drawing parallels with substance addictions based on neuroimaging studies. Finally, this review advocates for exploring avenues of regulation to ensure a safer digital future, emphasizing the importance of policy to mitigate unforeseen long-term consequences of SMA and provides recommendations for reasonable and efficient future policy directions, guided by scientific and health concerns rather than political motives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social Responsibility; Concept Analysis; praxis
Online: 13 July 2023 (02:45:51 CEST)
Purpose: Social responsibility has been accepted as a core value of nursing profession, particularly in the area of health disparity, but it seems to be difficult to understand for what is meant by social responsibility. The purpose of this study was to explore ways to define the concept of social responsibility of nursing in order to understand the meaning of social responsibility in the field of nursing profession. Methods: The concept analysis process by Walker and Avant was used to clarify the meaning of social responsibility of nursing. Results: Defining attributes of social responsibility of nursing included praxis, as approach to strategizing for social and structural change of inequity, care for an oppressed group which is under social suffering caused by the privilege and power, and action for health policy change in social and political unequal contexts. The antecedents of social responsibility of nursing included reflectivities in identifying personal characteristics, taking seriously the perspective of other vulnerable population, recognizing social environmental status quo (‘fair or unfair’), developing competences in ethical and moral reasoning with social issues. Consequences of social responsibility of nursing were achieving social justice, as equal access to basic human health need in societal level, equal access to effective nursing practice delivery system and development of health promotion policy for world health administrative practices (“health for all”) in nursing. Conclusion: This study provides a guidance to direct future studies through the procedure of identifying conceptual attributes in the context of social responsibility of nursing. Future studies are suggested to develop instruments for social responsibility as well as development of educational programs to promote social responsibility competences in nursing students and nurses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0275.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Corporate social responsibility
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:59:16 CEST)
At a basic level, entrepreneurship refers to an individual or a small group of partners that intend to create a new business. Entrepreneurship is at forefront of any competitive economy due to the creation of new products and services that comes from new ideas. In other words, entrepreneurship is associated with economic wealth, growth and innovation. The usage of resources in the creation of new businesses needs to be rational because investors normally are risk averse, and nowadays, the purpose of a new business needs to be for a long-term period, and the usage of resources has to take into mind the possible damage to the planet. In other words, entrepreneurs and the sustainability of the planet are interconnected. Beyond this, entrepreneurs need to take care of the corporate social responsibility of each new business, considering the interests of itself, its stakeholders, and the public. Nevertheless, existing research has not shown in full all the research streams, how they interact with each other and their potential knowledge development. Thus, a literature review on social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility in the last decade are opportune. This paper aims to identify research trends in the field through a Systematic Bibliometric Literature Review of social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility research. The review includes 69 articles published in the Scopus® database, presenting up-to-date knowledge on the topic.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0164.v1
Online: 9 November 2022 (02:05:25 CET)
In the age of social media your personal branding is critical to find a job. Information is highly available and handy for everyone looking for a job as well as for people trying to recruit employees at all levels. Currently, there is a first e-impression that encompasses employee education, qualifications, and relationships. This e-impression is given by your social media, specifically those websites that were built to facilitate interactions between employee and employer during the job-hunting process. There are different websites that enable you to establish a social network. For example, meet, Xing, Bark, Opportunity, Lunchmeet, and LinkedIn among others. This article is written by a group of young undergraduate and graduate researchers, who have noticed the importance of social networks to apply for graduate school and industry jobs. This manuscript offers ten simple rules that include resources to facilitate the journey on LinkedIn-like social networks, hoping that you have a successful career description in the most popular professional social networking site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0234.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Disinformation; social networks; bots; model
Online: 18 February 2022 (11:37:09 CET)
Social networks have become the scenario with the greatest potential for the circulation of disinformation, hence there is a growing interest in understanding how this type of information is spread, especially in relation to the mechanisms used by disinformation agents such as bots, trolls, among others. In this scenario, the potential of bots to facilitate the spread of disinformation is recognised, however, the analysis of how they do this is still in its initial stages. Taking into consideration what was previously stated, this paper aimed to model and simulate scenarios of disinformation propagation in social networks caused by bots based on the dynamics of this mechanism documented in the literature. For achieving the purpose, System dynamics was used as the main modelling technique. The results present a mathematical model, as far as disinformation by this mechanism is concerned, and the simulations carried out against the increase in the rate of activation and deactivation of bots. Thus, the preponderant role of social networks in controlling disinformation through this mechanism, and the potential of bots to affect citizens, is recognised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1350.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: echo chamber; filter bubble; digital social networks; social network analysis; polarization; diversity; community discovery
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:51:16 CEST)
Social media platforms are not serving only as tools of communication rather they are acting like intricate systems managing our interactions. A major setback to our interactions occur when the flow of information in these networks gets distorted through polarization. It resembles a society where every debate turns into divide. Our research focuses exclusively on quantifying polarization as well as solving this issue head-on. In order to accurately gauge polarization, we’ve developed a new method that takes into consideration majority of its influencing factors. This helps us in correctly quantifying the polarization value of a given network and then by proposing it as an optimization problem we are attempting to maximally decrease polarization while staying within the set budget. We test our method on synthetic and real-world data sets, and find out that polarization is declining, and diversity is increasing. This proves that our recommendation engine has a penchant for finding the ideal connections between the nodes to start a dialogue. Our research presents a successful tactic to quantifying and reducing polarization in social media networks. The results indicate that our novel metric and intervention technique are effective in dismantling echo chambers, thereby promoting diversity in these networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0763.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Social Life-Cycle Assessment; S-LCA; social impacts; construction industry; literature review; case studies
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:57:13 CEST)
Purpose – The paper aims to view how researchers have operationalized social impact assessment for construction projects over the last ten years. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review was used to investigate case studies in the Social Life-Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) to analyze the application of the methodology. A qualitative study of 19 articles published between 2012 and 2022 was used to collect content on multiple categories impeding S-LCA through case studies in the construction industry. Findings – Our results showed the existence of limitations on the qualitative and quantitative aspects in measuring the social indicators. They were associated with the scoring method and the lack of data in some articles. Social implications – From this review, we understood that S-LCA has flaws in terms of the quality of the measurement, scoring method, and the lack of social data. Lack of social data means social impacts are being neglected and not assessed properly since there are several challenges pointed out throughout literature Originality/value – The originality of this research is that it focuses on case studies in the construction industry. It studies the operationalization of the S-LCA in this specific industry showing the different characteristics and challenges in the last 10 years.