ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0207.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: smart anti-theft system; intruder detection; unsupervised activity monitoring; smart home; partially/fully covered faces
Online: 11 July 2018 (16:47:59 CEST)
The proposed research methodology aims to design a generally implementable framework for providing a house owner/member with the immediate notification of an on-going theft (unauthorized access to their premises). For this purpose, a rigorous analysis of existing systems was undertaken to identify research gaps. The problems found with existing systems were that they can only identify the intruder after the theft, or cannot distinguish between human and non-human objects. Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) combined with the use of Internet of Things (IoT), Cognitive Internet of Things, Internet of Medical Things, and Cloud Computing are expanding smart home concepts and solutions, and their applications. The primary objective of the present research work was to design and develop IoT and cloud computing based smart home solutions. In addition, we also propose a novel smart home anti-theft system that can detect an intruder, even if they have partially/fully hidden their face using clothing, leather, fiber, or plastic materials. The proposed system can also detect an intruder in the dark using a CCTV camera without night vision facility. The fundamental idea was to design a cost-effective and efficient system for an individual to be able to detect any kind of theft in real-time and provide instant notification of the theft to the house owner. The system also promises to implement home security with large video data handling in real-time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0611.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart Grid (SG); Advanced Metering Infrastructures (AMI); Smart Meters (SM); Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Online: 8 September 2023 (15:30:19 CEST)
The smart grid system, an improvised form of the traditional grid, is considered a critical cyber-physical system. Due to its complex combination of smart and legacy technologies, this technology is characterized by a wide range of features such as full duplex communication, advanced metering infrastructure, remote monitoring, and control. However, despite this system’s substantial environmental and socio-economic impact on modern life, it poses severe security vulnerabilities due to its integration and interconnected and interdependent cyber-physical components. Based on the rapid development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), academics and industries have investigated relevant techniques to enhance and strengthen the security measures of the SG system. The intrusion detection system is a countermeasure, a powerful safeguard against various cyber-attacks and threats. The contribution of the IDSs to the SG paradigm is examined in this study. A comprehensive review has been presented in this study, highlighting different techniques, basic ideas, and analyses. Besides discussing the contemporary pertinent research studies, the shortcomings of the existing IDS for the SG system are also identified with a recommendation for future research direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1586.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: smart cities; TAM; decision making; fuzzy logic; smart tourism; customer journey
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:52:09 CEST)
Due to the irruption of new technologies in cities such as mobile applications, geographic infor-mation systems, Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT) or Artificial Intelligence (AI), new approaches to citizen management are being developed with the aim of adapting citizen services to this new en-vironment. These new services can enable city governments and businesses to offer their citizens a truly immersive experience that facilitates their day-to-day lives and ultimately improves their quality of life. In this sense, it is important to emphasize that all investments in infrastructure and technological developments in smart cities will be wasted if the citizens for whom they have been created eventually do not use them for whatever reason. To avoid these kinds of problems, the citizen's level of adaptation to the technologies should be evaluated. However, although much has been studied about new technological developments, studies to validate the actual impact and user acceptance of these technological models are much more limited. This paper tries to fill this gap presenting a new model of recommender system based in the most cited and used model in the scientific and academic literature: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and using the most cited and agreed upon criteria in the existing literature. To accomplish the objective, this study in-troduces a novel recommender system that utilizes a fuzzy 2-tuple linguistic model in conjunction with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to prioritize and personalize the relationship between tourists and smart cities. The methodology proposed in this paper was tested and validated in a case of study through different clusters to derive global recommendations tailored to each specific cluster. The main findings reveal that the use of technology is closely linked to the ability to enjoy personalized experiences in the realm of Smart Cities and Smart Tourism. As future works, authors recommend extending the recommender system model to any cluster of tourists using the proposed methodology and evaluate also other kind of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) in supporting the citizens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0437.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain application; permissioned blockchain; equipment maintenance; smart manufacturing
Online: 28 October 2023 (12:47:42 CEST)
In the realm of smart manufacturing, equipment plays a pivotal role, impacting the efficiency and quality of production. Ensuring equipment availability and optimal performance is crucial, necessitating effective maintenance strategies. This paper addresses the complexities of smart device maintenance, which often involves collaboration between multiple entities like device owners, manufacturers, suppliers, and external maintenance services. To enhance this cooperative maintenance, we propose a novel maintenance system based on permissioned blockchain technology, offering superior security and reliability compared to conventional cloud-based platforms. Our contributions include developing an integrated maintenance system framework for smart manufacturing, which facilitates interactions among diverse stakeholders. Additionally, we have developed a prototype of this maintenance system, serving as a practical model for real-world application. Our research primarily demonstrates the practicality and advantages of using permissioned blockchain for maintenance systems in the manufacturing sector, paving the way for more secure, efficient, and collaborative maintenance practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: JSON-LD; Linked Data; Smart Meters; Transactive Energy
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:20:10 CEST)
This paper shows the proposal of the use of linked data for smart metering systems. The aim of linked data in smart grid applications such as smart metering systems is to give semantic knowledge of the energy transactions between all participators in the power markets. In combination with other technologies like blockchain, the linked data could improve decentralization and security in the world's energetic future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0034.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain technology; security; Machine learning; Smart System
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:53:16 CET)
Blockchain and Machine Learning gives the best solutions together in performing various tasks in the Smart Health care system. With these two new emerging technologies, that have materialized in the last decade. In this paper, we proposed secure, transparent and intelligent methods in the Internate of medical things industry using Machine learning models and blockchain technology to enhance security level and train our models to improve diagnostic, prevention, treatment of the patient, patient rights, patient autonomy and equality in the health care system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0172.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Fertilization System; Horticulture; Machine Learning; Hydroponics; Smart Farm
Online: 14 June 2020 (13:00:27 CEST)
We present an automated system for nutrient solution management. Prior arts usually measure only pH and EC of the nutrient solutions for maintenance. When EC drops, they just simply add concentrated nutrient to the horticulture bed. Such approach can maintain the density of nutrient solution but cannot maintain the rates of individual ion particles. To prevent nutrition related disorders, fertilization methods with ion selective electrodes are widely introduced. This trend measures individual ion concentration of nutrient solution to maintain appropriate nutrient composition by supplying only insufficient ions. Many researchers have suggested ISE based automated fertilization systems. However, they failed to control a chemical artifact called ion interference effect, which becomes greater at higher density. Our system measures individual concentration of multiple ions and add only deficient nutrients, while handling the ion interference effect issue. To ensure the performance of ion selective electrodes, the system also performs fully automated 3-point calibration 24 times a day. A machine learning algorithm is applied on the sensory parts to remove ion interference effect which make measurement of complex solution with ISE almost impossible. With automated calibration and signal processing technology, the system robustly and continuously maintains nutrient condition for plants. We suggest applying this system on closed hydroponic systems such as smart farms or plant factory, to reduce water consumption and to provide more appropriate environment for the crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart light control; microcontroller; light sensor; motion sensor; energy saving
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:50:31 CEST)
In this work, an energy-saving smart light controlling system has been proposed that can main-tain the desired intensity of light in a room automatically. Unlike the conventional light control system, the proposed system splits a large room into several zones and analyzes the light inten-sity of each zone; hence, the controlling unit adjusts the light intensity to the desired level. The main controlling unit consists of a light sensor, a motion sensor, a relay with a driver unit, an LCD display, etc. for controlling light efficiently to reduce the power waste. The sensors meas-ure the intensity of light, based on the standard light intensity data chart the controller units make a decision how many light bulbs are needed to be switched ON/OFF in a particular zone. Moreover, the system automatically switched-OFF all light bulbs when there is nobody in the room. Proteus design suite 8.0 is used to design and simulation of the proposed system. Moreo-ver, the PCB layout is designed using ExpressPCB version 7.5.0. The proposed system is capable of minimizing the power loss by up to 44% in comparison to the conventional light manage-ment system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: SMA actuators; smart isolation systems; soundproofing devices; active seals; expanding cells
Online: 29 October 2018 (15:44:19 CET)
The work at hand focuses on an adaptive system aimed at improving the soundproof performance of car door seals at specific working regimes (cruise), without interfering with the conventional open-closure operations. The idea addresses the necessity of increasing the seal effectiveness, jeopardized by aerodynamic actions more and more important as the speed increase, generating a pressure difference between the internal and the external filed, in the direction of opening the door. To recover this effect, an expanding mechanism was integrated within the seal cavity, driven by an SMA actuator. The material was activated (heated) by Joule effect; its compactness, intrinsic of smart materials, contributed to arrive to a final system characterized by a high level of integrability (expanding cells). In this paper, the development process is described together with the verification activity, aimed at proving the functionality of the realized device. Starting from the industrial requirements, the most appropriate solution was identified highlighting the working principle and the main design parameters involved. Then, the envisaged system was designed and its executive digital mock up (CAD) was released. Prototyping and laboratory validation showed the reliability of the numerical models and the associated predictions. On this basis, the integration task within the actual reference car was faced. To demonstrate the isolation effect of the proposed system, an experimental campaign was finally organized in an anechoic room, achieving significant results on the concept value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Smart Sensor; Sensing System; Wearable Sensor; Health Monitoring; Encryption
Online: 2 June 2023 (02:36:36 CEST)
Programmable Object Interfaces are increasingly intriguing researchers because of their broader applications, especially in the medical field. In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), for example, the patients’ health can be monitored using clinical nano sensors. Exchanging such sensitive data requires a high level of security and protection against attacks. To that end, the literature is rich with security schemes that include the advanced encryption standard, secure hashing algorithm, and digital signatures that aim to secure the data exchange. However, such schemes elevate the time complexity rendering the data transmission slower. Cognitive Radio technology with a medical body area network system involves communication links between WBAN gateways, server and nano sensors rendering the entire system vulnerable to security attacks. In this paper, a novel DNA-based encryption technique is proposed to secure medical data sharing between sensing devices and central repositories. It has less computational time throughout authentication, encryption, and decryption. Our analysis of experimental attack scenarios shows that our technique is better than its counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0695.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: respiratory health; ammonia; ventilation; smart farming
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:08:36 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of employing audio and vision technologies as an integrated monitoring system to monitor the health and behavior of pigs under different environmental conditions and to associate these factors. A total of 81 growing pigs ((Landrace x Largewhite) x Duroc) with distinct weight categories (10.47 ± 2.57 kg and 28.81 ± 5.03 kg) were distributed into two distinct housing conditions: Control (characterized by low NH3 levels and low stocking density) and Treatment (marked by elevated NH3 levels and varying stocking densities). Each house was installed with a SoundTalks monitor for automated daily evaluation of respiratory health status (ReHS), and a camera with a microphone to facilitate manual tracking of respiratory symptoms and behavioral patterns. Results showed that the Treatment group encountered significantly high room temperature, NH3 concentration, and carbon dioxide levels, resulting in compromised growth performance—a phenomenon further exacerbated in high stocking density conditions. Pigs within the treatment exhibited increases (p < 0.05) in lateral and total lying behaviors, and incidences of ear and tail injuries, increases screaming frequency, conjunctivitis incidences, coughing frequency, elevated respiration rates, and a decrease in ReHS. The environmental conditions affect the behavior and health of the pigs. Moreover, the behavioral patterns of the pigs are associated with their health conditions. The SoundTalks system did not trigger any warnings during the experimental period. Nevertheless, trend analysis indicated a significant reduction in respiratory health in the treatment. In conclusion, this study underscores the efficacy of merging audio and visual technologies to holistically monitor pig health and behavior, enabling enhanced management strategies. Findings emphasize that monitoring the ReHS trend serves as a pivotal marker for identifying respiratory health problems, complementing the system's innate alarm functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0378.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel; smart construction; environment; communication; worker monitoring
Online: 12 July 2023 (04:35:37 CEST)
Due to the inherent risks associated with tunnel construction, including potential collapse, various types of work activities, and challenging visibility and communication conditions, safety management in tunnel projects requires significant investment in terms of cost and time. In this research, we propose and demonstrate a novel smart construction system that utilizes worker location monitoring technology to enhance safety in tunnel construction. The system comprises a wearable beacon integrated into safety helmets, scanners strategically placed at regular intervals inside the tunnel, environmental sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, and air quality, and mobile devices for collecting and analyzing data on workers and the environment. Through a field demonstration conducted in a Korean tunnel construction site, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed system, which demonstrated real-time monitoring of workers and reliable communication capabilities, leading to improved safety and cost-efficiency in tunnel construction. By implementing the proposed system, we achieved a significant reduction of 37% in monthly construction costs and 77% in annual construction costs compared to conventional methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0092.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: communication standards; cyber security; intrusion detection system; smart grid; topology control; Wireless sensor networks
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:26:10 CEST)
An existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are small micro electrical mechanical systems which are accomplished to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Public Safety System (SPS); Microservices; Blockchain; Smart Contract; Internet of Things (IoT); Security
Online: 28 July 2020 (05:45:04 CEST)
Thanks to rapid advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) and Edge-Fog-Cloud Computing technologies, Smart Public Safety (SPS) system has become feasible by integrating heterogeneous computing devices and different types of networks to collaboratively provide seamless public safety services. While SPS facilitates convenient exchanges of surveillance data streams among device owners and third-party applications, the existing monolithic service oriented architecture (SOA) architecture is unable to provide scalable and extensible services in a large-scale heterogeneous network environment. Moreover, traditional security solutions rely on centralized trusted third-party authority, which not only can be a performance bottleneck or the single point of failure, but it also incurs privacy concerns on improperly use of private information. Inspired by blockchain and microservices technologies, this paper proposed a BLockchain-ENabled Decentralized Smart Public Safety (BlendSPS) system. Leveraging hybrid blockchain fabrics, a microservices based security mechanism is implemented to enable decentralized security architecture, and it supports immutability, auditability and traceability for secured data sharing and operations among participants of the SPS system. An extensive experimental study verified the feasibility of the proposed Blend-SPS that possesses security and privacy proprieties with limited overhead on IoT based edge networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0738.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: parking management system; smart parking; multi-objective method; decision-making method
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:04:41 CET)
Due to the tremendous progress in the automotive industry, the growth of the urban population, the number of vehicles is increasing and this creates parking challenges. Intelligent parking management systems offer an optimal solution for finding empty parking space so that drivers can quickly find their car parking space. To solve these problems, it is necessary to design an intelligent parking system, in addition to providing comfort to drivers, which is also economically viable. This paper proposes an intelligent multi-storey car parking system with the help of RFID technology and examining user preferences that can effectively solve car parking problems. The proposed method is a multi-objective decision-making method to reduce the problem of car parking, which is called MODM-RPCP. Therefore, the proposed MODM-RPCP method can allocate the best space for their stopping place by using the decision-making system and based on the priorities considered by the users. The simulation results show that the MODM-RPCP reduces the average booking time more than 19.2% and 27.1%, and decreases the response time of central parking management server more than 20.1% and 29.78% compared to MOGWOLA and ODPP approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1243.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Security; Cyber-Physical Systems; Education; Power Systems; Real-Time testbed Smart Grids
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:22:05 CEST)
The increased adoption of information and communication technology for smart grid applications will require innovative cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds to support research and education in the field. The groundbreaking CPS testbeds with realistic and scalable platforms have progressively gained interest in recent years, with electric power flowing in the physical layer and information flowing in the network layer. However, CPSs are critical infrastructures and not designed for testing or direct training, as any misbehaving in an actual system operation could cause a catastrophic impact on its operation. Based on that, it is not easy to efficiently train professionals in CPSs. Aiming to support the advancement and encourage the training of industry professionals, this paper proposes and develops a complete testbed with commercial tools. The testbed can reliably replicate the performance of smart grid systems and the main potential cyber threats that electric grids may face. The complex interdependencies between the cyber and physical domains are discussed in detail, and different case scenarios are presented, providing insightful guidelines for key features and design decisions for future smart grid testbeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: AGC; SMART method; Jaya optimization; PID controller; two-area power system
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:52:50 CET)
Automatic generation control (AGC) plays a vital role in creating an equilibrium between generated output power and load demand, in order to maintain frequency at desired value. This study focuses on performance analysis of simple-multi attribute rating technique (SMART) assisted proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller design for AGC of two interconnected power systems. PID controller is designed by minimizing frequency variations, area control errors for area-1 and area-2, and tie-line power deviation. An objective function is framed considering error minimization of aforementioned factors as sub-objectives. The construction of objective function involves using the integral of time-multiplied absolute error (ITAE) for frequency deviations for area-1 and area-2, ITAE for deviation in tie-line power, and ITAEs for area control errors for area-1 and area-2 as sub-objective functions. By assigning appropriate weights to these sub-objective functions, an overall objective function is formed. This study determines these weights in an organized manner using SMART method, rather than randomly/equally assigning them. Overall objective function is minimized using Jaya algorithm. To demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed Jaya-based PID controller, its performance is analysed and compared with controllers tuned using other optimization algorithms, including sine cosine, Luus-Jaakola, teacher-learner based optimization, Nelder-Mead simplex, and elephant herding optimization. Considering six different case studies that consider a range of load variations, responses for fluctuations in frequency and tie-line exchange are plotted. Statistical and non-parametric analysis performed further provide additional insights into the performance of Jaya-based PID controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1385.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: smart drug delivery system; nanomaterials; poly(methacrylic acid); photoluminescence
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:39:42 CEST)
Nanomaterials such as pH-responsive polymers are promising for targeted drug delivery systems, due to the difference in pH between tumor and healthy regions. However, there is a significant concern about the application of these materials in this field due to their low mechanical resistance, which can be mitigated by combining these polymers with mechanically resistant inorganic materials such as mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Mesoporous silica has interesting properties such as high surface area and hydroxyapatite has been widely studied to aid in bone regeneration, providing special properties adding multifunctionality to the system. Furthermore, fields of medicine involving luminescent elements such as rare earth are an interesting option in cancer treatment. The present work aims to obtain a pH-sensitive hybrid system based on silica and hydroxyapatite with photoluminescent and magnetic properties. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption methods, CHN elemental analysis, Zeta Potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrational sample magnetometry (VSM), and photoluminescence analysis. Incorporation and release studies of the antitumor drug doxorubicin were performed to evaluate the potential use of these systems in targeted drug delivery. The results showed the luminescent and magnetic properties of the materials and showed suitable characteristics for application in the release of pH-sensitive drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart sensor; multi-agent system; modular architecture; Blade Health Monitoring; system on chip
Online: 1 July 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
Blade Health Monitoring (BHM) is often necessary in power plants and in aviation to prevent excessive blade vibration and cracks. This article proposes a network of blade tip timing sensors operated in a distributed BHM system. A number of cooperating agents is implemented in smart conditioning units which can autonomously operate in an adverse environment and communicate with other nodes via a serial interface. The project uses special versions of reduced instruction set chips that are able to operate near the hot section of the engine. Due to the limited number of types of microprocessors available in the extended temperature range grading, it was necessary to fully utilize the limited hardware resources and implement preemptive multitasking. For this purpose, a custom operating system and communication protocol were designed. The protocol hosts the middle layer which hides the implementation of the distributed system. The presented architecture ensures the sufficient computational capacity in individual nodes of the network operated in adverse conditions. It is scalable and resistant to transmission errors.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0415.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: urban public transport system; smart city; natural computing; collective computation; ant colony optimization
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:34:47 CET)
The management and proper use of the Urban Public Transport Systems (UPTS) constitutes a critical field that has not been investigated in accordance to its relevance and urgent idiosyncrasy within smart cities realm. Swarm Intelligence is a very promising paradigm to deal with such complex and dynamic systems. It presents robust, scalable and self-organized behaviour to deal with dynamic and fast changing systems. The intelligence of cities can be modelled as a swarm of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves), ubiquitously embedded intelligence, sensors and tags, and software. In this paper, a new approach based on the use of the Natural Computing paradigm and Collective Computation is shown, more concretely taking advantage of an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm variation and Fireworks algorithms in order to build a system that makes the complete control of the UPTS a tangible reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy, Internet of Thinks, renewable energy storage, smart city
Online: 21 November 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Transportation, environmental conditions, quality of human life within smart cities, and system infrastructure have all needed practical and dependable smart solutions as urbanization has accelerated in recent years. In addition, the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) provides access to a plethora of cutting-edge, all-encompassing apps for smart cities, all of which contribute significantly to lowering energy consumption and other negative environmental impacts. For smart cities to meet the challenge of using less energy, the authors of this research article suggest planning and implementing an integrated power and heat architecture that puts renewable energy infrastructure and energy-storage infrastructure at the top of the list. To address these issues, we describe a smart proposed NEOSRD architecture that uses a distributed smart area domain to optimize renewable demand energy in a smart city across a wide area network. The energy requirements of desalination procedures are negligible when compared to the total local energy consumption and transportation, a feat accomplished by the proposed NEOSRD system. Here, the computational model shows how the established system is a valuable response to our problems and a cost-effective strategy for creating smarter structural elements that cut down on overall smart cities' energy costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0183.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: smart healthcare; asthma attack; user context; route context; safe route; air quality index; heatmap visualization
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:40:50 CEST)
Recently, there has been growing interest in using smart eHealth systems to manage asthma. However, limitations still exist in providing smart services and accurate predictions tailored to individual patients’ needs. This study aims to develop an adaptive ubiquitous computing framework that leverages different bio-signals and spatial data to provide personalized asthma attack prediction and safe route recommendations. We proposed a smart eHealth framework consisting of multiple layers that employ telemonitoring application, environmental sensors, and advanced machine-learning algorithms to deliver smart services to the user. The proposed smart eHealth system predicts asthma attacks and uses spatial data to provide a safe route that drives the patient away from any asthma trigger. Additionally, the framework incorporates an adaptation layer that continuously updates the system based on real-time environmental data and daily bio-signals reported by the user. The developed telemonitoring application collected a dataset containing 665 records used to train the prediction models. The testing result demonstrates a remarkable 98% accuracy in predicting asthma attacks with a recall of 96%. The eHealth system was tested online by ten asthma patients, and its accuracy achieved 94% of accuracy and a recall of 95.2% in generating safe routes for asthma patients, ensuring a safer and asthma-trigger-free experience. The test shows that 89% of patients were satisfied with the safer recommended route than their usual one. This research contributes to enhancing the capabilities of smart healthcare systems in managing asthma and improving patient outcomes. The adaptive feature of the proposed eHealth system ensures that the predictions and recommendations remain relevant and personalized to the current conditions and needs of the individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0611.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bluetooth; Bluetooth low energy; COVID-19; Contact tracing; Weight-based matching method; smart phones
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:42:49 CEST)
Infectious disease like COVID-19 will have a great impact on human society. An effective prevention and control measure is to quickly isolate the source and reduce the population’s exposure to the infection. Therefore, it is very important to quickly trace and identify the virus carrier and its close contacts in order to effectively suppressing transmission. This article provides a method, system and storage medium for locating the source of infection based on big data. We adopt the method of combining Bluetooth and GPS positioning to track the action trajectory of each individual. The method stores the close contact and location information locally and update on the cloud platform for an appropriate period of time. The method and system can provide personal risk levels and regional risk levels through related algorithms. When entering a high-risk area or if the personal risk level within the Bluetooth interconnection range is greater than the set threshold, an alarm function is provided. We can also generate reports on the spread of the epidemic over a period of time. As a result, the system can quickly locate the source of infection and close contacts, providing a reference for quick and highly efficient epidemic prevention and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Active and Assisted Living; smart speakers; information support system; health care system; sufferer monitoring system; dementia
Online: 6 March 2019 (12:21:55 CET)
Age-in-place can reduce the progress of dementia syndrome and improve the quality of life of the sufferers and their families. This work proposes an innovative information home support system to be established at the houses of people suffering from dementia. The main innovation of the system are its transparent character that overcomes the need for training of the sufferer, as well as the exploitation of a well-known technique for dementia, namely music therapy. It addresses the need of people suffering from dementia as well as their familiars to be recognized by them and have better interaction and collaboration. The system offers a ubiquitous recognition system, just by using smart devices like smart-phones or smart-wristbands. When a familiar person is detected in the house, then a sound file is reproduced on smart speakers placed in the house, in order to trigger the memory, based on the principles of music therapy. The system reproduced the appropriate time at 100% of the cases and the benefits of music therapy are evident daily. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first system of its kind ever reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Chronoamperometry, Potential Sweep Methods, Reconfigurable Embedded Potentiostat, Portable Potentiostat, Programmable-System-on-a-Chip, Wireless electronics, Smart Instrumentation, Electrochemical low current detection, slave-master setup
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:03:40 CEST)
Under the main features required on portable devices in electrochemical instrumentation is to have a small size, low power consumption, economically affordable, and precision in the measurements. This paper describes the development of a programmable Embedded Potentiostat System (EPS) capable of performing electrochemical sensing over system-on-a-chip platforms. Furthermore, the study explains a circuit design and develops some validation of the entire system. The hardware validation is performed by electrochemical experiments such as Double Step Chronoamperometry (DSC), Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV); moreover, a comparison of the experimental signals between a commercial potentiostat and the EPS was done by analysis of errors on the response signal. Results illustrate that the EPS is capable of handling currents in the range of absolute values of 86.44 to 3000 nA, and having control voltages in the range of ± 2 V. The device can support from 50 to 2000 samples per second. The EPS capabilities were compared with other compact potentiostats. The programmable EPS is an original approach which hugely reduces the hardware complexity and leads the way to create new applications for Point-of-Care or industrial developments with a reusable full electronics module.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0120.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: HVAC model predictive control, demand response, EnergyPlus, particle swarm optimization (PSO), renewable energy, smart grids
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:58:25 CEST)
A new model predictive control (MPC) algorithm is used to select optimal air conditioning setpoints for a commercial office building, considering variable electricity prices, weather, occupancy and lighting. This algorithm, Cost-Comfort Particle Swarm Optimization (CCPSO), is the first to combine a realistic, smooth representation of occupants’ willingness to pay for thermal comfort with a bottom-up, non-linear model of the building and air conditioning system under control. We find that using a quadratic preference function for temperature can yield solutions that are both more comfortable and lower-cost than previous work that used a ``brick wall'' preference function with no preference for further cooling within an allowed temperature band and infinite aversion to going outside the allowed band. Using historical pricing data for a summer month in Chicago, CCPSO provided a 3\% reduction in costs vs. a ``brick-wall'' MPC approach with similar comfort and 13\% reduction in costs vs. a standard night setback strategy. CCPSO also reduced peak-hours demand by 3\% vs. the ``brick-wall'' strategy and 15\% vs. standard night-setback. At the same time, the CCPSO strategy increased off-peak energy consumption by 15\% vs. the ``brick-wall'' strategy. This may be valuable for power systems integrating large amounts of renewable power, which can otherwise become uneconomic due to saturation of demand during off-peak hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Energy management; smart grid; sustainability; heuristic optimization algorithm; peak to average rations; user comfort
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:19:02 CEST)
The use of smart grids has enabled a number of planning methods to be developed to optimize energy costs, Peak to Average Ratios (PARs), and consumer satisfaction for load management in industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors. From a technical point of view, achieving optimal outcomes requires Demand Side Management (DSM). In smart grids, utility companies and electric users communicate two-way using digital technology to make a sustainable and economic system. This paper proposes a novel framework within which an Energy Management Controller (EMC) keeps track of each appliance, its operational time, and the costs associated with them. Customers of smart grids are motivated to shift their Off-Peak Hours (OPH) from Peak Hours by presenting incentives in OPH. The metering devices would also save customers costs by preventing load shifting between high- and low-cost periods. In addition, the study proposes the bacterial foraging algorithm and grasshopper optimization algorithm for lessening power price and PAR without compromising user comfort (UC) through appliance planning. The simulation results on a practical test system advocate the high effectiveness and reliable performance of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart service systems, Service systems, Service Science, Port Supply Chain Management
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:17:51 CEST)
This paper proposes a re-conceptualization of the port supply chain as a smart service system, according to the theory of the Service science. Starting from a short literature review about the port supply chain approach and the Service science, a new comprehensive framework is provided to better understand the seaport dynamics and the creation of competitive port supply chains. The methodology used is the case study approach. The authors examined the port of Salerno (Italy), and re-conceptualized it as a smart port service systems. Both theoretical and practical implications are provided to enrich the literature about the port supply chain and to support the port operators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0001.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart attendance system; attendance monitoring system; students’ absenteeism; Bluetooth Low Energy technology; beacon-based application
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:07:13 CET)
Student attendance serves many other important purposes aside from monitoring. In certain universities, the attendance of students in a course is also used as one of the requirements for students to be allowed to sit for the final examination. Traditionally, among most Malaysian Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL), attendance recording is usually done using pen and paper, or uses simple web-based system that is time consuming and difficult for faculty periodic monitoring. To address the identified drawbacks, this research aims to develop a Smart Attendance for Faculty Monitoring System using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology to assist faculty in recording, managing and monitoring students’ attendance and class schedules effectively. The system is developed for Android-based devices using an agile methodology consists of iteration and incremental approaches. Thus, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system, a survey was conducted on 140 respondents involving lecturers and students of Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA (KUPTM). Respondents were selected using purposive sampling. The descriptive analysis showed that 87.9% of the respondents strongly agreed that the system is effective in assisting lecturers to record attendance, manage class schedules and student attendance as well as to assist faculty in monitoring students’ absenteeism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Android; arduino; bluetooth; hand-gesture recognition; low cost; open source; sensors; smart cars; speech recognition
Online: 3 January 2019 (14:32:23 CET)
Gesture recognition has always been a technique to decrease the distance between the physical and the digital world. In this work, we introduce an Arduino based vehicle system which no longer require manual controlling of the cars. The proposed work is achieved by utilizing the Arduino microcontroller, accelerometer, RF sender/receiver, and Bluetooth. Two main contributions are presented in this work. Firstly, we show that the car can be controlled with hand-gestures according to the movement and position of the hand. Secondly, the proposed car system is further extended to be controlled by an android based mobile application having different modes (e.g., touch buttons mode, voice recognition mode). In addition, an automatic obstacle detection system is introduced to improve the safety measurements to avoid any hazards. The proposed systems are designed at lab-scale prototype to experimentally validate the efﬁciency, accuracy, and affordability of the systems. We remark that the proposed systems can be implemented under real conditions at large-scale in the future that will be useful in automobiles and robotics applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0604.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city ecosystem; urban economy; smart city; entrepreneurship; smart economy
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:08:09 CEST)
As digital technology has become an integral part of urban’s daily operations; the urban landscape is constantly evolving with the needs of its society. This new reality allowed Municipalities to exert a higher influence in the national and local economy. Through deliberate planning and executing initiatives, they can ignite the local financial ecosystem to growth. In line with this, the paper aims to understand the possibilities available to the Greek Municipalities to exploit the smart city benefits to foster economic development. It is essential to understand the role of different factors including the strategy during the planning and implementing phases of initiatives concerning economy and innovation in a smart city. To achieve this, a tailor-made questionnaire and advanced statistical techniques are applied. The main findings highlight the importance to plan initiatives aligned with the needs of the municipality and the business environment. The existence of a smart city strategy has a catalytic effect on the final impact of the implemented initiatives on the urban environment. A systematic analysis of the smart cities’ dynamics and the new state of the urban environment can help the local actors focus on the value creation and public service provision, fostering innovation and profitability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart city; smart campus; open data
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:39:24 CEST)
Universities, like cities, have embraced novel technologies and data-based solutions to improve their campuses with ‘smart’ becoming a welcomed concept. Campuses in many ways are small-scale cities. They increasingly seek to address similar challenges and to deliver improved experiences to their users. How can data be used in making this vision a reality? What can we learn from smart campuses that can be scale up to smart cities? A short research study was conducted over a three-month period at a public university in the United Kingdom employing stakeholder interviews and user surveys, aiming at gaining insight into these questions. Based on the study, the authors suggest that making data publicly available could bring many benefits to different groups of stakeholders and campus users. These benefits come with risks and challenges such as data privacy and protection and infrastructure hurdles. However, if these challenges can be overcome, open data could contribute significantly to improving campuses and user experiences, and potentially set an example for smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: assessment model; sustainable city; crowdsourced data; design science; smart cities; general system theory
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:26:08 CEST)
Historically, the lack of comprehensive and real-time data is the main challenge in city sustainability assessments. However, with the increase in the availability of crowdsourced data over the last decade, a rich and real-time data source provides detailed images of urban systems. This has opened up new opportunities for practitioners, including geographers, social researchers, and data scientists, to gather and utilize social media data as a core source for studying cities and assessing their sustainability. This paper proposes an assessment model for the sustainability of cities based on crowdsourced data and the principles of General System Theory. The model aims to utilize crowdsourced data for the analysis and decision-making processes to enhance the sustainability and resilience of smart future cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Smart Scenic; environmental disasters management; organization transformation; system design; Big Data; Internet of Things
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:19:35 CEST)
Abstract: Intensity of natural and man-made disasters is increasing day by day. Disaster is one of the major threats that affects the sustainable development of tourist attractions. Big data and Internet of Things(IoT) will greatly improve the disaster management. Based on the Big Data and IoT, a tourism attraction disaster management system is designed, divided into several stages namely pre-disaster early warning prevention, disaster mitigation, recovery and reconstruction after disaster and updating disaster planning. Then, the system flow is analysed, as well as the system structure is constructed. Additional, system function and its operation flow are introduced, including disaster warning, disaster relief, disaster assessment, real-time monitoring and supporting disaster planning functions. Finally, an application case is introduced. Research intends to improve tourism area disasters management.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: smart system; context aware services; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); information communication technologies (ICTs); cargo transportation.
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:38:30 CEST)
The issues concerning the development of the smart systems for the management of freight transport are related to many factors which are influencing by properties of such a complex processes and ICT development. We are concerned with the recognition of a wide spectrum of services and provision specifics under conditions of wireless communication networks. Also, we are investigated for the adequate provision of context data with problematic of a definition of such context data and with possibilities to apply formalized artificial intelligence methods for recognition of this context information needs for transportation. In this stage of application of the smart system, we are solving the problem of priority of provision of possible providing services, ensuring of quite optimal quality of data supply channels and restriction of flooding of wireless communication channels. The proposed methodology is based on methods of indication of con-text-aware situations and integration of such data into the situation recognition algorithms. The constructions of smart service provision system are developed for more safety management of transportation. The experimental results are demonstrated on analysis of heterogeneity of smart services, construction of schemas for service provision priorities, and extension of potential of intelligent transport with intellectual recognition possibilities of context-aware information in the transportation process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Intelligent Computation; Machine Learning; Smart City; Smart Building; Smart Solutions
Online: 7 February 2023 (11:12:19 CET)
The complexity and interconnection of smart cities provide huge political, technical, and socioeconomic challenges for the designers, integrators, and organisations who are responsible for the administration of these new entities. A growing number of studies are concentrating their attention on the safety, privacy, and potential dangers that exist within smart cities. These studies are drawing attention to the dangers that are associated with information security as well as the challenges that smart city infrastructure faces in the management and processing of personal data. This state of the art review of the literature analyses a number of issues pertaining to smart homes, offers a helpful synthesis of the important information found in the primary research, and creates a model for the interaction between smart cities. An overview of smart home research incorporating machine learning, including everything from definition to current research state. The state of art begins with a smart home definition, followed by descriptions of smart home elements, typical research projects, smart home network research status, smart home appliances, and difficulties. The term "smart home" refers to a subcategory of "everyday computing" that includes "smart technology" in order to improve a person's level of convenience, health, safety, and security while also reducing their When controlled by artificial intelligence, the applications for the smart home provide users with context-aware settings, services, and remote control, which significantly increases the level of user satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: converged security; resilience assessment; smart security alarm systems; PSIM; SIEM; Converged Security and Information Management System (CSIM)
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:35:07 CEST)
Current research on smart cities is primarily focused on the area of applicability of information and communication technologies. However, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, it is also necessary to pay attention to the resilience and converged security of individual infrastructures. Converged security represents a particular security type based on a selected spectrum of certain convergent security types of, assuming the creation of a complementary whole. Considering the outputs of the analysis of security breaches manifestations, this kind of security makes it possible to detect emerging security breaches earlier (still in the symptom stage), thus providing a more efficient and targeted solution suitable for building smart city infrastructure. In its essence, the article refers the practical application of the theoretical principles of converged security presented in the publication to a functional sample, deployed and tested in practical conditions of selected smart city infrastructure protection and resilience. Considering the nature of the practical application, the convergence of a wider spectrum of smart security alarm systems in the context of resilience assessment is defined. In the beginning, the general principles of security/ safety and the need for their convergence are presented. In this context, the mathematical model called Converged Resilience Assessment method is presented for better understanding. Subsequently, PSIM and SIEM systems are described as a technological concept that can be used for resilience assessment. The most beneficial part is the structural, process and functional description of the Converged Security and Information Management System (CSIM) using the concept of smart security alarm systems converged security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart villages; smart development; sustainability; digitalization; ICT
Online: 6 July 2018 (09:55:57 CEST)
Over the recent decades people’s (rural and urban) communities are facing numerous social and economic changes and challenges. Some of those challenges have been increasingly addressed through the lenses of technological developments and digitalization. In this paper we have made a review of already existing practices while focusing on the existing implementations of the smart village concept and the importance of digital transformation for rural areas. We give special attention to EU policies which we are using as an already existing framework for understanding our own forthcoming examples. We have shown the parallels between the findings and insights from different regions and made an evaluation of presented practices. Our main argument stems from our own previous experiences and experiences of other research approaches, and is grounded on the argument that rural areas are not uniform, and that smart rural development has to be applied in combination with place-based approach. We present the cases of Slovenian pilot practices and support our argument by proposing the FabVillage concept.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart Energy Grids; Critical Infrastructure Protection; Artificial Immune System; Izhikevich Spiking Neural Networks; Clonal Selection Algorithm; Transfer Learning; Ensemble Learning
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:14:03 CEST)
The rate of technical innovation, system interconnection, and advanced communications undoubtedly boost distributed energy networks' efficiency. However, when an additional attack surface is made available, the possibility of an increase in attacks is an unavoidable result. The energy ecosystem's significant variety draws attackers with various goals, making any critical infrastructure a threat, regardless of scale. Outdated technology and other antiquated countermeasures that worked years ago cannot address the complexity of current threats. As a result, robust artificial intelligence cyber-defense solutions are more important than ever. Based on the above challenge, this paper proposes an ensemble transfer learning spiking immune system for adaptive smart grid protection. It is an innovative Artificial Immune System (AIS) that uses a swarm of Evolving Izhikevich Neural Networks (EINN) in an Ensemble architecture, which optimally integrates Transfer Learning methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed innovative system is demonstrated experimentally in multiple complex scenarios that optimally simulate the modern energy environment. In this way, the proposed system fully automates the strategic security planning of energy networks with computational intelligence methods. It allows the complete control of the digital strategies of the potential infrastructure that frames it, thus contributing to the timely and valid decision-making during cyber-attacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0050.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart City; smart technology; internet of things; cloud technologies; mobile applications; innovation system; smart city concept; smart ecosystem
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
The article describes the application of the Smart City concept and the economic opportunities it creates, infrastructure and services, and opportunities to improve governance. The main features of the Smart City concept, development directions and evolution, standards and solutions, factors and obstacles to its implementation have been analyzed by the author. The experience of different countries in the application of digital technologies is discussed. The article provides the scope and structure of the "smart" market, application stages and scenarios. International experience in this field was widely analyzed and examples were given, comparisons were made and suggestions were made. The article talks about smart cities, the construction of which has already begun in Azerbaijan. The application of the smart city concept in Azerbaijan has been studied. It is stressed that the spread of digital technologies for the construction of a smart city in Azerbaijan is a prerequisite. The Network Readiness Index (NRI) identifies the indicators that are holding back Azerbaijan in the ranking for 2021. In our study, based on the growth dynamics for 2017-2020, the forecast was calculated by analyzing the trend in the ICT development index in Azerbaijan for 2022-2025.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0740.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: balance training; real-time visual feedback; smart wearable devices; center of pressure
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:00:33 CEST)
This study aims to explore the effect of real-time visual feedback (VF) information of the pres-sure of center (COP) provided by intelligent insoles on balance training in a one leg stance (OLS) and tandem stance (TS) posture. Thirty healthy female college students were randomly assigned to the visual feedback balance training group (VFT), non-visual feedback balance training group (NVFT), and control group (CG). The balance training includes: OLS, tandem Stance (dominant leg behind, TSDL), tandem stance (non-dominant leg behind, TSNDL). The training lasted 4 weeks, the training lasts 30 minutes at an interval of 1 days. There was a sig-nificant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p<0.05) for OLS. There was no significant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p>0.05) for TS. The main effect of the COP parameters was a significant difference in Times (p<0.05). The COP displacement, velocity, radius, and area in VFT significantly decreased after training (p < 0.05). Therefore, the visual feedback technology of intelligent auxiliary equipment during balance training can enhance the benefit of training. The use of smart wearable devices in OLS balance training may improve the visual and physical balance integration ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0637.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Traditional To Smart cities; Smart Transportation; Mashhad City
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:57:47 CEST)
Background: Smart transport plays a crucial role in urban planning and the transition from traditional to smart cities in developing countries with sustainability requirements.Traditional cities in developing countries often suffer from traffic congestion,air pollution, and inadequate public transportation systems,which can impede economic growth and negatively impact the quality of life for residents. Smart transport solutions can address these challenges by providing more efficient, sustainable.Here is a possible business model for an ITS system in a high-potential city in Iran,Based on IoT analysis, Mashhad city in Iran selected as a high-potential city to be changed to a smart city in the transportation sector.In the localization business model,the Uber smart transportation business model as a successful world experience is considered the base model. Methods: Based on the literature review,various criteria and sub-criteria were identified and determined in designing a new localized transportation business model.A questionnaire was prepared and filled with the help of 11 experts,method IAHP technique; Results:The present study showed the possibility of monthly payments for customers,software development, and the addition of luxury cars are among the most important sub-criteria with high weights;Conclusions: Working with transport companies,schools and universities as key partners solves reaching a strong and sustainable smart transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Climate Change; Climate-Smart; Climate-Smart Agroforestry; Agriculture
Online: 2 March 2021 (11:47:29 CET)
This study assessed stakeholders’ perception on the prospects and challenges of practising Climate–Smart Agroforestry in the Asunafo North Municipal Assembly in the Ahafo Region in Ghana. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect cross-sectional data from 250 cocoa, food and cash crop farmers drawn from four (4) communities using simple random sampling. And nine (9) in-depth interviews were also conducted to elicit key stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholders also held the view that Climate-Smart Agroforestry encourages the use of stress-tolerant crop varieties, increase income, improve soil productivity, diversify farm produce, urges the reduction of input supply and recommends the timely usage of the inputs, ensures better market system for farm produce, cost of production decreases during the practice of Agroforestry, agro-ecological functions and Climate-Smart Agroforestry can best help adapt to the threats of climate change in the agriculture sector. The challenges included insecure tree ownership right, fast-declining soil fertility and long maturity period of Agroforestry trees, land tenure issues, illegal tree logging (chainsaw operators) on farms, lack of practical understanding of the approach, inadequate knowledge and information and inadequate supportive facilities in the study area. The study recommends further studies on the existing forest policy and legislations and its implications on the practice and adoption of Climate-Smart Agroforestry in respond to climate change in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0054.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: smart transport tools; ‘smart’ and sustainable; social-sustainability
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:17:38 CEST)
In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs) are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental dimensions, the concept also contains a social component. Our study asked how smartphone applications (apps) address social sustainability challenges in urban transport, if at all. We focused on transport disadvantages experienced due to low income, physical disability, and language barriers. A review of 60 apps showed that transport apps respond to these equity and inclusion issues in two ways: (a) by employing universal design in general-use apps; including cost-conscious features; and providing language options (b) by specifically developing smartphone apps for persons with disabilities. The article discusses the study by positioning it in the literature of smart cities as well as socially sustainable transport.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Smart building; smart energy grid; smart energy management; neighborhood building stock; sustainable development goals
Online: 14 June 2023 (15:12:33 CEST)
The construction industry has witnessed the increasing use of digital tools and smart solutions, particularly, in the realm of buildings energy automation within the concept of smart cities. While to truly realize the potential benefits of smart cities, a broader scope of smart initiatives is required to support the transition from smart buildings towards smart neighbourhoods, appreciated as the critical unit of urban development. To support this interplay of smart solutions between buildings and neighbourhoods, this article aims to collect and review all smart solutions presented in existing scientific articles, technical literature, and realized European projects. These solutions are classified under two main sections of buildings and neighbourhoods, which are investigated through five domains: buildings energy-related uses, renewable energy sources, water, waste, and open space management. Showcasing the quantitative outcomes demonstrates the potential benefits of implementing smart solutions from buildings to neighbourhoods. Moreover, this research concludes that the true enhancement of energy conservation goes beyond the buildings’ energy component and can be genuinely achieved by integrating intelligent elements of the neighbourhood, due to their strong interdependencies. Future research is recommended to focus on assessing the effectiveness of these solutions towards resource conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0699.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: smart material systems; augmented material; creative practices; fashion design; smart experience; smart aesthetics; technology
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:34:10 CET)
During the last decade, smart materials have increasingly impacted on several niches, among which that of one-off/limited edition experimental fashion. Thanks to their performativity, due to the implementation of Smart Materials Systems, they have reached indeed catwalks as well as museums and galleries. As boundaries between what-is-art and what traditionally was not supposed to be art are now turning into osmotic membranes, zooming on how smart materials are highly contributing to outline the new creative landscape can provide with interesting and compelling issues. Introducing three different areas of experimental fashion, named Multi-sensory dresses, Empathic dresses, and Bio-smart dresses and accessories, respectively covering the world of in-Lab experiments and design collaborations in relation to the application of advanced smart materials systems, the article discuss some of the implications in term of Design Thinking and Design Aesthetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart Mobility Intelligent Traffic Service, Intelligent Transportation System, Real-time Traffic Situation, Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL), Optimal Network-wide Policy
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:16:19 CEST)
Recently, smart mobility intelligent traffic services have become a critical task in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). This involves not only the use of advanced sensors and controllers but also the ability to respond to real-time traffic situations at intersections, alleviate congestion, and generate policies to prevent traffic jams. DRL (Deep Reinforcement Learning) provides a natural framework for processing tasks. In DRL, each intersection can control itself and coordinate with neighbors to achieve optimal network-wide policies. However, comparing approaches remains a challenging task due to the existence of numerous possible configurations. This research performs a critical comparison of various traffic controllers found in the literature. It demonstrates that using a nonlinear approximator for coordination mechanisms and enhancing observability at each intersection are key performance drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0101.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; smart ecosystem; ontology; city smartness
Online: 4 August 2021 (08:38:31 CEST)
The paper is a follow-up of a previous investigation and effort to develop the ontology of the smart city (Komninos, N., Bratsas, C., Kakderi, C., and Tsarchopoulos, P. "Smart city ontologies: Improving the effectiveness of smart city applications". Journal of Smart Cities, vol. 1(1), 1-17. https://www.komninos.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/2015-Smart-City-Ontologies-Published.pdf). Since the publication of this article in 2015, research and literature on smart cities have evolved significantly, as have the technologies for digital spaces and applications that support city functions. These developments are reflected in the present form of the smart city ontology 2.0 we propose. It depicts the building blocks of the smart city ontology (technologies, structure, function, planning), and the object properties and data properties that connect structural blocks and classes. The aim of the SCO 2.0 is to provide a better understanding and description of the smart/intelligent city landscape; identify the main components and processes, the terms used to describe them, their definition and meaning; clarify key processes related to the integration of the different dimensions of the smart city, mainly the physical, social, and digital dimensions. The paper is accompanied by an owl file, developing the ontology through the editor Protégé.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0630.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart Farm; Smart Systems; Machine Learning; Multispectral Image; Clay.
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:03:37 CEST)
The present work proposed a low-cost portable device as an enabling technology for Smart Farms using multispectral imaging and Machine Learning in soil texture. Clay is an important factor for the verification and monitoring of soil use due to its fast reaction to chemical and surface changes. The system developed uses the analysis of reflectance in wavebands for clay prediction. The selection of each wavelength is performed through an LED lamp panel. A NoIR microcamera controlled by a Raspberry Pi device is employed to acquire the image and unfold it in RGB histograms. Results showed an good prediction performance with R2 of 0.96, RMSEC of 3.66% and RMSECV of 16.87%. The high portability allows the equipment to be used in a field providing strategic information related to soil sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; smart citizen; participation; smartmentality; open data; metaphor
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:03 CET)
The goal of the paper is to investigate the expected participation and mentality of smart citizens in smart cities. The key question is the role of the human factor in smart environments globally studied through a research corpus of the mainstream summaries, trend reports, white papers and visions of business – governmental – university research co- operations. Foremost, a short review of the changing scholarly trends is presented as a theoretical framework. Concerning its key ideas, the corpus based findings are recapped and analysed by content networks and the most referred city strategies. Besides, a critical approach reveal further required factors and risks to investigate. The ultimate goal is to understand how the smart city landscape is shaped by citizen-based strategies, open data, empowerment and responsibility. Accordingly, the paper closes with theoretical, practical and metaphor-based recommendations to support the business and political decision making, and also, the emerging scholarly trends in the context of upcoming technological-structural changes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1922.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: system of rice intensification; alternate wetting and drying; greenhouse gas emissions; agricultural methane emissions; food security; climate-smart agriculture
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:48:51 CET)
Rice provides ~20% of human dietary energy and, for many people, a similar share of their protein. Rice cultivation, however, produces significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, comparable to those from the aviation sector. The main GHG from rice production is methane, mostly a result of conventional rice cultivation (CRC) keeping rice fields continuously flooded during the crop cycle. There is extensive evidence that alternate wetting and drying (AWD) of rice fields substantially reduces methane emissions. AWD is one component of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), an agroecological approach to the management of plants, water, soil and nutrients practiced by millions of farmers in both lowland irrigated rice and upland rainfed cultivation. Thirteen countries have included SRI in their Nationally Determined Contributions to GHG reduction or climate change mitigation. This article reviews 16 field studies of the net reduction in GHG emissions from the adoption of AWD, eight from the adoption of SRI, and two that compared SRI and AWD. Where available, the review includes data on yield and therefore on carbon dioxide-equivalent GHG emissions per kilogram of rice produced. The evidence indicates that AWD and SRI offer a similar and substantial reduction (~35–41%) in GHG emissions per hectare compared with conventional rice cultivation. However, SRI offers ~66% greater yield than CRC, and therefore greater reduction in emissions per kilogram of rice, ~54% more than AWD. The limited data directly comparing SRI and AWD support this finding. SRI also appears to have greater potential to sequester carbon in the soil. SRI lowers rice farmers’ costs of production, adds to their income and can make climate-friendly methods more attractive. Both AWD and SRI are greatly preferable to current conventional practices, but SRI offers opportunities to contribute to food security while directly addressing the drivers of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0475.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, Lighting control, Smart lighting control, Green buildings, Building automation, Daylight harvesting
Online: 29 August 2022 (08:09:55 CEST)
This paper is an extension to previous work that introduced successful classical-control for indoor lighting system that simultaneously control LED system and roller curtain to achieve accurate light intensity for indoor lighting applications. In this paper, Multi Input Multi Output Fuzzy Logic Controller (MIMO FLC) is proposed to replace the classical-controller. Detailed method is provided to illustrate the steps to design the required MIMO FLC that has two fuzzy input, two fuzzy output and forty-five fuzzy rules with mamdani fuzzy engine. The proposed MIMO FLC is simulated in Matlab using Simulink tools. The results are illustrated, analyzed and compared with the classical-control. The response showed very close performance to the classical-controller. The maximum average error and the maximum error with respect to “Desired Lux” inside the room is -6% and -10% respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Smart City; Smart City Assessment; Developing Economies; PRISMA; Assessment Tools
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:31:05 CEST)
There are limited research articles focusing on Smart City Assessment (SCA) applications since it is a relatively new field of research and practice. However, numerous studies have been conducted and published to date, particularly in developing countries, with the broad objective of building theoretical frameworks that are centered on smart city assessments. This scoping review systematically provides an examination on the available literature on SCA, with a goal of synthesizing smart city assessments in developing economies. In order to improve the quality and transparency of the reviews and meta-analysis, as well as to reduce the risk of bias, this paper adopted the PRISMA scoping review research design to analyze 25 journal articles. Results showed that conceptual modeling appears to be the most common method identified while industrial development emerged as the most common objective identified in the MFO Model. On the other hand, ISO 37122:2019 was the most prevalent framework used in the collected sample size with 6 journal articles followed by IoT-Enabled Smart City Framework with 5 journal articles while Smart Cities Index Framework obtained 3. Meanwhile, India emerged as a leader in the global Smart City movement followed by Malaysia and Africa. The Qualitative Research Design approach was the most common among the literatures while social science was the most common subject area among the 25 journals being studied. More so, sustainability and renewable energy are the two most important assessment categories in SCA tools. By collating and evaluating different criteria and metrics in existing SCA, cities can learn from their successes and failures, adjust their strategies, and share best practices with other cities. This can foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation in urban governance, and ultimately lead to more livable, resilient, and prosperous cities for all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0227.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: smart cities; smart citizen; public governance; digital platforms; citizen participation
Online: 13 December 2022 (06:15:41 CET)
This research seeks to understand the impact of digital platforms on the governance of smart cities. It uses the Scaffold of Popular Participation to classify digital platforms and better understand participatory governance in cities, its benefits and complications, correlating them with the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda. It was also possible to list points of attention for the development of digitization in the public sector, including in Brazil. It concluded that the digitization of public services is in progress, pressured by the civil body for greater transparency and participation. In addition, the platforms must be guided by civil inclusion in the discussion of public policies, by the training of intelligent citizens and by sustainable guidelines that guide the themes addressed. In contrast, platforms can also facilitate deception and popular manipulation, which represents a high risk if used for this purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart environment; smart sensors; distributed architectures; object detection; information integration
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:45:21 CET)
Objects recognition is a necessary task in smart city environments. This recognition can be used in processes such as the reconstruction of the environment map or the intelligent navigation of vehicles. This paper proposes an architecture that integrates heterogeneous distributed information to recognize objects in intelligent environments. The architecture is based on the IoT / Industry 4.0 model to interconnect the devices, called Smart Resources. Smart Resources can process local sensor data and send information to other devices. These other devices can be located in the same operating range, the Edge, in the same intranet, the Fog, or on the Internet, the Cloud. Smart Resources must have an intelligent layer in order to be able to process the information. A system with two Smart Resources equipped with different image sensors has been implemented to validate the architecture. Experiments show that the integration of information increases the certainty in the recognition of objects between 2\% and 4\%. Consequently, in the field of intelligent environments, it seems appropriate to provide the devices with intelligence, but also capabilities to collaborate closely with other devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: smart library; smart city; library marketing; public library; academic library
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:13:31 CEST)
Can the smart city provide a new perspective for public and academic libraries? How does the smart city impact the libraries as cultural and scientific assets? And how can libraries contribute to the development of the smart city? An overview of recent library models, like the learning center or the green library, reveals affinities with the concept of the smart city, especially regarding the central role of information and the integration of technology, people and institution. From this observation, the paper develops the outline of a new concept of the smart library which can be described on four dimensions, i.e. smart services, smart people, smart place and smart governance. However, the smart library concept does not constitute a unique model or project but a process, a way how to get things done, less linear, less structured, more creative and innovative. Also, smartness may not be a solution for all library problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: climate change; decoupling; energy reductions; future; renewable energy; smart cities; smart grids; smart transport; sustainability; technological solutions
Online: 3 April 2023 (07:52:17 CEST)
Our planet faces several serious and urgent challenges to sustainability, not just climate change. Most researchers argue that technological solutions can solve these problems. This review paper first examines the prospects for decoupling environmental damages in general from economic growth, considered at the global level, then looks at whether the recent advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can help. It is argued that although absolute decoupling might have occurred in some countries, even after accounting for energy-intensive imports, it has not occurred at the global level, which is the relevant level for global sustainability problems. This conclusion is strengthened by the very high correlation over the past three decades found between GDP and several parameters relevant for sustainability, particularly for atmospheric CO2 ppm and ecological footprint as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). ICT innovations relevant to energy use include smart grids and smart cities, especially smart urban transport. A review of recently published papers shows no definite findings of energy or carbon reduction, although some innovations show energy/carbon reduction potential, if given strong policy support. However, the needed policies could well give marked reductions even without ICT approaches. Overall, it is concluded that Earth’s sustainability challenges will necessitate deep energy reductions, which in turn require profound sociopolitical changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: sustainability; smart cities; Internet of Things (IoT); multi-agent deep reinforcement learning; smart waste management; smart sensors
Online: 10 November 2022 (04:49:09 CET)
Ever-increasing need for improving the livability of a city and improve outcomes for its residents, over the last decade, the adoption of technology to develop urbanised societies around the world has given rise to the need for developing smart cities. The speed at which the world population is growing, the use of Internet of Things in smart cities have really advanced the quality of life. One significant area of concern within the smart city framework is waste management. If the waste within a city is not adequately managed, then it leads to issues in the health of the citizens. Additionally, the waste management has such a high impact on the environmental footprint, hence the need to have a smart way of managing waste is of critical importance. Through our research, we analyse the challenges of waste management within a city to understand the impact of the problem on to the citizens and overall city operations. We then investigate ways in which we can solve these problems using the emerging technologies, such as the Internet of Things, to collect valuable data of large volumes arriving at an astronomical rate, then apply multi-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithms to harness the power of big data to extract meaningful information and actionable insights. We ingest data generated by our Internet of Things into our algorithm for three main purposes including providing the notifications to an external system, for example, a map navigation engine out of the scope for this project but a future extension for route optimisation and waste vehicle tracking; extracting and reporting the actionable insights from the underlying data; and consuming the extracted data for predictive forecasting to draw out the unknown patterns of waste fill levels within various geographical locations and again send out triggers and notification to external systems for example a waste collection authority who can efficiently schedule the waste collection vehicles and optimise the route. To achieve the above mentioned outcomes, we propose a framework that is agnostic of the hardware that it connects to and can effectively interface with a wide variety of hardware keeping a level of abstraction in the architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Smart Assembly; Smart contract; Assembly line; Assembly 4.0; Assembly system; Block-chain; Digital twin; Industry 4.0; Smart manufacturing
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:24:09 CET)
The final assembly of appliances and automotive industries is a rigorous process, that has limited capabilities of full traceability associated with: (1) the parts installed, (2) their fabrication processes, and (3) the assembly work. This is also the case for each of its sub-assemblies The many parts and sub-assemblies that compose the final assembly, make full traceability a challenging fit, that is almost unsurmountable. Such full traceability along the entire supply-chain is not existent today and must be based on documentation of most assembled parts, assembly tasks, and inspection tasks that compose the full assembled product. In addition, security measures are needed to prevent hostile hacking and unauthorized approach to the assembly documentation throughout the entire supply chain. The related documentation and repeated verifications require considerable effort and have many chances for human errors. So, automating these processes has a great value. This article expounds a framework that harnesses block-chain and smart-contract technology to offer traceable and protected documentation of the assembly process. We expand the concept of a Bill-Of-Assembly (BOA) to incorporate data from the bill of materials (BOM), the associated assembly activities, the associated activities’ specification parameters and materials, and the associated assembly resources (machines and/or operators). The paper defines the operation of the BOA with blockchain and smart-contract technology, for attaining full traceability, safety, and security, for the entire assembled product. Future research could extend the proposed approach to facilitate the usage of the BOA data structure in constructing a digital twin of the entire simulated system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0672.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Services; Applications; Context Awareness; Data Availability; Personalization; Privacy; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 9 June 2023 (05:34:18 CEST)
Smart Living, an increasingly prominent concept, entails incorporating sophisticated technologies in homes and urban environments to elevate the quality of life for citizens. A critical success factor for Smart Living services and applications, from energy management to healthcare and transportation, is the efficacy of human action recognition (HAR). HAR, rooted in computer vision, seeks to identify human actions and activities using visual data and various sensor modalities. This paper extensively reviews the literature on HAR in Smart Living services and applications, amalgamating key contributions and challenges while providing insights into future research directions. The review delves into the essential aspects of Smart Living, the state of the art in HAR, and the potential societal implications of this technology. Moreover, the paper meticulously examines the primary application sectors in Smart Living that stand to gain from HAR, such as smart homes, smart healthcare, and smart cities. By underscoring the significance of the four dimensions of Context Awareness, Data Availability, Personalization, and Privacy in HAR, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners striving to advance Smart Living services and applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Multimodality; Real-time processing; Interoperability; Resource-constrained processing; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:54:40 CEST)
Smart living, a concept that has gained increasing attention in recent years, revolves around integrating advanced technologies in homes and cities to enhance the quality of life for citizens. Sensing and human action recognition are crucial aspects of this concept. Smart living applications span various domains, such as energy consumption, healthcare, transportation, and education, which greatly benefit from effective human action recognition. This field, originating from computer vision, seeks to recognize human actions and activities using not only visual data but also many other sensor modalities. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature on human action recognition in smart living environments, synthesizing the main contributions, challenges, and future research directions. This review selects five key domains: Sensing Technology, Multimodality, Real-time Processing, Interoperability, and Resource-Constrained Processing, as they encompass the critical aspects required for successfully deploying human action recognition in smart living. These domains highlight the essential role that sensing and human action recognition play in successfully developing and implementing smart living solutions. This paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to explore further and advance the field of human action recognition in smart living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electricity; smart grid; smart meter; power quality measurement; ESP32; low cost
Online: 5 July 2023 (03:44:37 CEST)
Developing a low-cost wireless energy meter with power quality measurement for smart grid applications represents a significant advancement in efficient and accurate electrical energy monitoring.In increasingly complex and interconnected electrical systems, this device is essential in various applications, such as smart grids, enabling real-time energy usage monitoring. In such a context, smart meters expand the possibilities for sustainable and efficient energy use and promote better utilization of energy sources, especially non-renewable ones. According to the 2020 International Energy Agency (IEA) research, non-renewable energy sources represent 65% of the global total. The smart meter developed in this work is built based on the ESP32 microcontroller and easily accessible components, using a user-friendly development platform that offers a cost-effective solution while ensuring reliable performance. The main objective of the smart meter development was to enhance the software and simplify the hardware. Unlike traditional meters that perform electrical parameter calculations using complex hardware circuits, this project performed the calculations directly on the microcontroller. This approach reduced the complexity of the hardware, simplifying the meter’s design. With the high-performance processing capability of the microcontroller, efficient and accurate calculations of electrical parameters were achieved without the need for additional circuits. This software-driven approach with simplified hardware brought benefits such as reduced production costs, lower energy consumption, and increased meter development and updates flexibility. Furthermore, the integrated wireless connectivity in the microcontroller enables the transmission of collected data to remote monitoring systems for later analysis. The developed smart meter offers cost, energy efficiency, and flexibility benefits. It represents an innovative, efficient, and versatile solution for smart grid applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: smart grid; Smart Grid Station; renewable energy sources; energy management system
Online: 10 May 2018 (08:47:19 CEST)
Climate change and global warming are becoming important problems around the globe. To prevent these environmental problems, many countries try to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and manage the consumption of energy. In Korea, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has introduced Smart Grid (SG) technologies to its branch office in 2014. This was the first demonstration of smart grid on a building called Smart Grid Station. This paper treats the achievements of the Smart Grid Station (SGS) by its early target in three aspects. The things are peak reduction, power consumption reduction and electricity fee saving. The authors analyzed the achievements by comparing the data of 2015 with the data of 2014. Through the evaluation, the authors studied the case, proved the advantages of SGS, and suggested the requirements to improve and the direction to go of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Key Words: PV-Wind-Hydro Hybrid Power System, Dynamic Modeling, Load Profile, Grid Extension, smart micro grid, fuzzy logic controller, and mat lab/Simulink
Online: 2 October 2018 (14:03:38 CEST)
ABSTRACT Ethiopia is a developing country, where majority of the population lives in rural areas without access to electricity. 83% of the total population of the country use traditional biomass energy as a basic source of energy. In contrast, the country is endowed with sufficient renewable energy resources which can be used as a standalone electric energy supply system for electrifying remote areas of the country. These resources are mainly micro hydropower and wind which can be used individually or the best combination of one another. The application of hybrid renewable energy system has become an important alternative solution for rural electrification program. The Modeling and control of a hybrid PV-Wind-Hydro DG system is also addressed. Dynamic models for the major system components, namely, wind energy conversion system, PV energy conversion system, hydro, inverter, and overall fuzzy logic controller units are developed. Then, a simulation model for the proposed hybrid power system has been developed using MATLAB /Simulink environment. This is done by creating subsystem sets of the major dynamic component models and then assembling into a single aggregate model. The overall power management strategy for coordinating and/or controlling the different energy sources is also presented in the thesis work. Generally there are 800 households with total electric demand of 71.6KW.To satisfy this demand 52%, 35% and 13% is to be contributed from wind/hydro/solar respectively. To use the power economically fuzzy logic controller is used. The controller monitors the demand and the available sources and then switches to the appropriate power supply according to the written rules. Simulations have been carried out to verify the system dynamic performance using a practical load profile and weather data. The result shows that the overall power management strategy is effective and the load demand is balanced. To complete this work, a grid extension from the closest substation has been compared with hybrid system. Cost of the grid extension is estimated based on the data obtained from EEP office. This is done in order to compare the cost of the designed hybrid power system against the cost of grid extension. The result shows that breakeven grid extension distance to be 23.9km which indicates that grid extension is preferable.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; sidechain; smart grid
Online: 15 December 2019 (13:54:37 CET)
Smart Grid systems have become popular and necessary for the development of a sustainable power grid. These systems use different technologies to provide optimized services to the users of the network. Regarding computing, these systems optimize electrical services by processing a large amount of data generated. However, privacy and security are essential in this kind of system. With a large amount of data generated, it is necessary to protect the privacy of users, because this data may reveal users’ personal information. Today, blockchain technology has proven to be an efficient architecture for solving privacy and security problems in different scenarios. Over the years, different blockchain platforms have emerged, attempting to solve specific problems in different areas. However, the use of different platforms fragmented the market, which was no different in the smart grid scenario. This work proposes a blockchain architecture that uses sidechains to make the system scalable and adaptable. We used three blockchains to ensure privacy, security, and trust in the system. To universalize the proposed solution, we used the OSGP protocol and smart contracts. The results show that architecture security and privacy are guaranteed, making it feasible for implementation in real systems. Although scalability issues regarding the storage of data generated still exists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0038.v1
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:40:29 CEST)
Electricity sector is among the main carbon emissions contributors. This sector has the potential to reduce its carbon emissions through producing electric energy from zero emitting facilities and through the optimization of the consumption in a way to better accommodate low carbon emissions. Hydrogen society per se combined with smart grids, as this is analyzed in this manuscript, can present substantial contribution towards climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: smart grid; SDGs; sustainable energy; smart meters; energy access; sustainability; utilities; development
Online: 17 January 2020 (08:02:49 CET)
Because of the significant enabling role smart meters can play in securing the transition towards sustainable energy distribution, the paper provides insights to support smart meters implementation projects. Energy utilities must propose adequate solutions to manage grid-upgrading projects and, in the meantime, increase efficiency levels. Based on empirical data analysis the paper provides insights aimed at maximize probability of success of smart meters projects. Results show common patterns of variables that may support project undertakers, policymakers and scholar when it comes to analyze projects to predict to maximize opportunities. For smart meters projects to succeed, regulatory stability is essential as long-period investments grids produce benefits for energy utilities, and for society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Climate-smart Agriculture; quantitative data; qualitative data; multi-stage sampling; Key informant interviews; Focus group discussions; Elgeyo Marakwet County; cross-sectional survey
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:13:03 CET)
Enhanced food and nutrition security remains a primary goal for every community. Several interventions have been promoted in dry areas to improve issues on food and nutrition security. However, studies on the level of knowledge, cultural norms, perceptions and attitudes that are key drivers in adoption and uptake to highlight gaps and provide evidence for improvement are limited. This study investigated variables influencing the adoption and implementation of an integrated crop-dairy goat farming system in Elgeyo Marakwet. A descriptive cross-sectional survey entailing qualitative and quantitative approaches among farmers practicing integrated farming was undertaken. A thematic questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data, while key informant interviews and focus groups discussions were used in qualitative research. This study utilized the multi-stage sampling procedure to sample the farmers and sample size was calculated based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using SPSS software while qualitative data utilized N-vivo software The findings show that farmers have knowledge on the integrated farming system. Age, level of education, land size, gender, perceptions and attitudes influence adoption. Small animals like dairy goats are associated to women in this community hence increasing their participation in access, control and decision making of agricultural resources. The key findings of this study provide baseline data that can form evidence to help inform policy on the indicators contributing to adoption of integrated crop-dairy goat systems to enhance food and nutrition security
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0909.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicle; Smart grid; Vehicle to grid; Smart charging; Renewable energy distributed generation
Online: 13 June 2023 (09:39:41 CEST)
- Power grids of the future will likely incorporate more renewable energy distributed generation (REDG), also known as alternative energy systems. REDG units are increasingly being used in electrical transmission networks because to the overall positive effects they have on power networks. REDG systems are the backbone of smart electric networks and are essential to the operation of the smart grid. These REDG systems can additionally improve system reliability by providing some customers with a backup generator in the event of power interruptions. The report offers a thorough evaluation of the existing body of information on the topic of electric vehicles' (EVs') future interactions with the smart grid. The combination of the EVs' potential deployment and the smart grid's conceptual goal presents challenges in electric grid infra-structure, communication, and control. The proposal for connecting EVs to the grid is based on research into cutting-edge smart metering and communication systems. In the context of the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) phenomenon, the possibilities, benefits, and limitations of various EV smart charging systems are also fully examined. There is a fast growing percentage of distributed energy that is wind and solar photovoltaic. Their variable power output, however, introduces fresh challenges for those responsible for organizing, operating, and controlling the power grid. While fluctuations in the electric grid are problematic, they may be mitigated by the entry of EVs into the energy market. As such, we do a comprehensive literature search to learn more about the exciting research gap that needs to be filled and the most recent possible answer that involves EVs. Additionally, we take a close look at the practicality of the sophisticated V2G technology. The smart grid is a developing concept for the world's energy infrastructure, and this study analyzes in depth how EVs interact with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0184.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: urban planning; COVID-19; urban mobility; sustainability; smart cities; smart growth; pandemic; resilience
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:31:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart dashboard; smart governance; slow tourism; Santa Barbara Walk; Sulcis - Iglesiente; Sardinia; Italy
Online: 16 December 2019 (07:11:11 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of acquiring knowledge from a territory and managing it at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories. An important tool to implement it, can be a circular smart dashboard, a decision support system in which the digital data are organized and processed to produce an information output, to be used, after the evaluation by the decision makers, as a new input for the system. The present paper deals with a wider research the authors are involved in, related to the reconversion and valorization of a former mining area towards slow tourism, as the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente area (Sardinia, Italy) . In particular, we here focus on the design proposal of a dashboard, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion. The paper is based on a thorough recognition of the main characteristics of the Walk, both the material ones and the digital, immaterial ones. The SBW represents in fact a network connecting the main points of interest along the Walk. On the contrary, its digital network – consisting of intangible infrastructure and flows - is however fragmented in terms of policies and contents Also a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities can be observed. The goal of this paper is to present and analysis of the area, and to propose an evaluation and planning tool as the design of a circular dashboard of the SBW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain; Internet of thing; · Public key cryptography; hash function; smart home; smart health
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:32:38 CET)
Internet of things security will be a big challenge for the enterprises working behind the build-up of the internet of things, and it’s application. With IoT, another buzzword is blockchain-based cryptocurrency bitcoin. Blockchain technology has proven itself as one of the most secured existing technology. In this paper, we have discussed the signiﬁcant challenges that will come up in identity management due to the heterogeneity of devices. We have proposed a solution for privacy preservation using secure identity management and possible communication methodology by using public key-based cryptography used in the blockchain. We have taken the ecosystem of smart home management and smart health management. At last, we have concluded with the discussion of futuristic applications of blockchain in other applications of the internet of things.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0542.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart-complex; constructive alignment; creative environment; copyright environment; non-verbal environment; Smart-technology
Online: 27 September 2018 (11:24:02 CEST)
The definition of a Smart-complex of educational discipline and its technology is given. Attention is focused on the form of the Smart-complex and constructive elements: the creative educational environment, the author's environment, the non-verbal environment, the encyclopedia, the creative / self-realization environment, the monitoring / self-evaluation environment.A feature of the Smart-complex of the academic discipline is the integration into it of the structural equalization block. Constructive alignment (alignment) is based on the design of the student's own learning participation in educational projects. Alignment refers to creating an appropriate learning environment and involves selecting the most appropriate training activities and evaluating each learning outcome. If the result of the training is to develop analytical skills, then for the assessment it is necessary to build questions and scenarios for their development.Two main components of the structural alignment are considered: 1) the first component is based on cognitive psychology and constructivist theory, recognizes the importance of linking new material with the concepts and experiences of students and extrapolation to possible future scenarios in the process of mission activity - they comprehend what they are doing during training; 2) the second component is based on the declaration by the teacher of the correspondence between the planned educational activities and the results of the training of students. This makes planning of educational activities and development of self-assessment criteria for organizing feedback. It is necessary to take into account the impact of Smart-complexes of educational disciplines on three think-tank training networks: 1) effective networks (why learn) - several ways of presenting to give students different ways of obtaining information and knowledge; 2) recognition networks (learning outcomes) - several ways of expressing them to provide them with an alternative for demonstrating what they know; 3) strategic exercises (how to learn) - several ways to increase the motivation for learning to attract their attention to both their own learning project and its technical and historical decision. Smart-complexes of educational disciplines should be: 1) scientific; 2) with user-friendly interface; 3) have a connection with LMS; 4) structured; 5) with visual material; 6) working in Off-line mode; 7) used on various devices in an educational institution, as well as at home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart city; smart city construction; urban sustainability; driving factors; grounded theory; empirical research
Online: 26 August 2016 (11:18:30 CEST)
Driving factors of smart city construction are exploratively studied by grounded theory method based on text sources from journal papers in SCI and CSSCI databases. Initial scale of driving factors about smart city construction is obtained on the basis of above analyses. This paper modifies measuring items of the initial scale with a small sample pretest and reliability test, then forms final items by exploratory factor analysis. According to the above scale, questionnaires are designed to obtain empirical data, and confirmatory factor analysis is used to verify further validity and reliability of the scale. The results show that driving factors of smart city construction include three main dimensions: problem-oriented factors, business- or technology-driven factors and endogenous development requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0292.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things for development (IoT4D); sustainability; smart and futures cities; smart city components (SMART-X); Key Performance Indicators (KPI); cognitive processes
Online: 28 August 2019 (09:57:12 CEST)
A smart city is a futuristic approach that evolves with new technologies. It can start as a simple community and evolve into future cities. In most developing countries, where the population growth is faster, and where the organization and the urbanization are slower, there is a serious need for a framework for progressive change towards sustainable cities. This article discusses the level of intelligence of smart city components and proposes indicators as well as a methodology for measuring intelligence based on the objectives to be achieved as well as a certain number of technical requirements and some cognitive processes implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1879.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; evaluation system; smart city convergence alliance enterprises; data envelopment analysis; operational efficiency
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:13:27 CEST)
This study identified, analysed, and prioritised significant factors for standardising the Korean smart city project evaluation system. We analysed the efficiency and productivity of companies currently providing smart city services to consider both policy and practical aspects. The prioritisation of smart city planning reflects the latest trends in South Korea, where urban planning is moving towards smart city planning. Furthermore, the capacity building of public-private/private-private partnerships indicate the importance of business scalability. This indicates that smart city services are only stabilised when the private sector is involved and leads the project, rather than focusing on public development. The feasibility of building intelligent facilities indicates that smart city projects should be implemented after securing cost-benefit feasibility. The results were used as the basis for building an evaluation system, showing that in smart city convergence alliances, small- and medium-sized enterprises achieved the highest efficiency by reducing inputs to 81% and 86%, under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scales, respectively. As the operational aspect is more problematic than the technical aspect, policy alternatives are necessary for smooth business progress, including increased flexibility of laws and institutions and the activation of policies that temporarily relieve regulations to demonstrate smart city projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: conceptual framework; Information Modelling; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Facility Management; Smart Buildings; Smart Applications
Online: 1 July 2022 (16:48:35 CEST)
The paper is based on the scientific outcome of a PhD Thesis. It introduces the generic, model-based, reusable, and extensible conceptual framework to incorporate Facility Management data based within the three-dimensional model-based design and construction of an asset to enable smart applications, which are introduced. The conceptual framework is composed of empirical data from expert interviews, questionnaires, and factual analysis from 13 projects of varied sizes of public and private clients. It shows which phases need which data, who needs them, and which added value can be generated if intelligent data structuring is used at the beginning of the construction project and bridges the gap between requirement and practice. The term “smart application” is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0226.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Lithium-ion battery; smart materials; phase change material; latent thermal energy storage; bat-tery temperature management system; direct metal laser sintering
Online: 5 June 2023 (03:08:05 CEST)
The broad acceptance of electromobility depends heavily on the performance and service life of the battery technology used. Lithium-ion battery technology is currently the most promising energy storage technology for mobile applications, but the performance and capacity of the cells is extremely temperature sensitive. Especially in these new complex and powerful applications there is a significant need for thermal management. Depending on the ambient conditions, part of the effective battery energy must therefore be used to temper the system. So far, mainly active components have been used for this task. This not only reduces the overall efficiency, but also increases the weight, volume and maintenance requirements of the system. In the present work, an alternative battery temperature management system (BTMS) was developed. A concept based on latent heat storage materials was created, which uses the advantages of thermal energy storage and the design freedom of additive manufacturing technology, and its suitability for use in battery applications was checked. On the one hand, the use of systems for storing thermal energy was researched and, on the other hand, an innovative cooling concept was created considering new production possibilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart Energy Grids; Smart Substation Automation; Process Bus; Interoperability Standards; Industrial Communication Networks; TCP/IP
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
The upgrade of energy infrastructure to those of smart grids, necessarily goes through the provision of integrated technological solutions that ensure the interoperability of their business capabilities and reduce the risk of devaluation of the systems used. The heterogeneity of the infrastructures and the dynamics of their operating environment, requires the continuous reduction of the complexity, the faster execution of the processes and the easy addition of innovative counterparts. Also, the integrated management of the overall ecosystem demands the provision of end-to-end interconnection, quality assurance, the definition of strict security policies, collaborative integration and correlation of events. In this respect, every design detail can be critical to the success or failure of a costly and ambitious project, such as that of smart energy networks. This work presents communication operating standards specific to the smart electricity networks applications, which should be taken into account in the process of planning and implementation of new infrastructures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: smart site; research hotspots; research trend
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:55:12 CEST)
With the development of information technology and the wide application of building information modelling technology, the construction industry continues to make digital changes. Managers are trying to apply smart construction site management to promote the upgrading of production modes. We used CiteSpace software to analyze 1707 articles from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science and Scopus to understand the current research hotspots of global scholars in this field. Results show that: (1) The number of studies on smart construction sites increases rapidly by year. Researchers from China, America and the UK have the most influential studies. (2) The cooperation between researchers and institutions is not close enough. In addition, the directions of research in the field are still scattered; (3) Chinese scholars are good at building intelligent platforms and evaluating intelligent systems from multiple perspectives. International scholars are willing to pursue technological innovation, allowing the continuous development of intelligent construction technology. (4) The applications in this field have not been popularized despite relatively perfect technology and typical cases. Future scholars should gradually improve the theoretical basis and industry standards of smart construction sites, promote the development of intelligent construction technology and establish the evaluation standards of qualified smart sites. This study will provide scholars in this field with the theoretical basis and research directions for further in-depth research, help construction companies to understand the development status and trend of smart construction sites and accelerate the intelligent transformation of construction companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Smart Greenhouse; Optimization; Control; Zero energy
Online: 4 August 2023 (19:16:18 CEST)
The global agricultural sector is increasingly pressured to adopt sustainable practices and reduce its environmental impact. In this context, greenhouses play a crucial role in enabling year-round crop production, ensuring food security, and minimizing reliance on traditional open-field farming. However, the energy consumption associated with greenhouse operations poses a significant challenge to achieving sustainability goals. As a result, there is a growing emphasis on transitioning greenhouses towards near-zero energy consumption. Near-zero energy consumption in greenhouses refers to the ambitious objective of minimizing energy usage to the greatest extent possible while maintaining optimal growing conditions for crops. This goal encompasses reducing energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting, and other operational needs, as well as exploring renewable energy sources to power greenhouse operations. This review article offers a comprehensive overview of greenhouse energy consumption, with the main goal of analyzing the present situation, identifying key challenges, exploring potential opportunities, and proposing future perspectives for decreasing energy usage in greenhouse environments. As the focus on sustainable agricultural practices grows, the need to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses becomes increasingly important. The review critically examines current technological models and strategies applied in smart greenhouse applications, as well as the monitoring of microclimatic conditions inside the greenhouse, encompassing factors such as temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, soil quality, and crop cultivation. Moreover, it aims to present existing literature that investigates the advancement of greenhouses toward achieving significant reductions in energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: regulatory economics; smart grids; wind farms
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:24:23 CEST)
An economic and business history approach is used to show the rise and relative failure of the Spanish wind industry during the period between 2004-2015, when Spain became the fourth country after China, the US and Germany in installed capacity of renewable energies and, in relative terms, the second country after Denmark. This study is unique in that it provides an integrated vision of the reasons for the relative fall of Spain in the world ranking of wind energy producers. The methodology of the economic analysis of industrial policies makes it possible to explain the fall in the relative importance of Spain in the international panorama of wind farms. There were no reasons related to technological obsolescence or inability of the CECRE managing renewable energies to explain the fall.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralized Finance; Oracles; Smart Contracts
Online: 9 July 2021 (15:44:33 CEST)
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) takes the promise of blockchain a step further and aims to transform traditional financial products into trustless and transparent protocols that run without involving intermediaries. Similar to how 2017 was the year of ICOs, 2020 was the year of DeFI with more than $15 billion of total investments. The decentralized platforms utilize oracles to retrieve asset data from the external world, but their choice and management criteria are often unknown to the end-users. If oracles are poorly selected or managed, the funds of a rising number of investors are inevitably in danger. The issue known as “the oracle problem,” which makes real-world applications controversial and debated due to the loss of decentralization, had recently drawn attention to DeFi given the crescent number of related hacks that caused the loss of millions of dollars held in DeFi projects. With a multivocal approach, this paper aims to shed light on the pattern that identifies the oracle problem in DeFi and outline the most promising ways to overcome the related weaknesses. This research supports the view that the oracle problem in decentralized finance bears specific characteristics which require standardization and appropriate economic incentives to be addressed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Planning; resilience; territory; Smart City; Sustainability
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:15:39 CET)
Urban planning is recognized as an interaction between the state and society, which aims to articulate public policies in the territory, facilitating their administration in favor of greater development and well-being of society. However, this interaction becomes complex because consumption demands increase, and the needs of the community exceed the capacity of the urban ecosystem to supply them, hindering its sustainable functionality. With this panorama, it becomes relevant to study urban planning from a sustainable environmental planning perspective, based on four topics: urban planning, sustainability, resilience and smart cities. The methodology used is based on a bibliometric study through a PRISMA adjustment to 87 articles, supported by VOSviewer® to construct and visualize the co-occurrence networks of important terms extracted from a body of scientific literature. The main result is to consider cities with a complex systems approach that works like a gear, that is, there is a connective element between inter- and intra-urban processes. This relationship is the key factor that allows understanding their synchronization, stating that the deepening of each of these topics is crucial to the ideal of a territorial administration through time scales, by means of adaptive cycles, allowing to provide new tools to concepts such as carrying capacity and the measurement of the environmental footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: smart environments; notification management; machine learning
Online: 3 November 2019 (16:12:57 CET)
With the evolution of technology over the years, it has become possible to develop intelligent environments based on the concept of the Internet of Things, distributed systems, and machine learning. Such environments are incorporated with various solutions to solve user demands from services. One of these solutions is UBIPRI middleware, whose central concept is to maintain privacy in smart environments and to receive notifications as one of its services. However, this service is freely performed, disregarding the privacy that the environment employs. Another consideration is that based on the researched related works, it was possible to identify that the authors do not use statistical hypothesis tests in their solutions developed in the presented context. This work proposes an architecture for notification management in smart environments, composed by a notification manager named PRIPRO to assign it to UBIPRI and to aim to perform tests and comparisons between classification algorithms to delimit which one is most feasible to implement in the PRINM decision-making mechanism. The experiments showed that the J48 algorithm obtained the best results compared to the other algorithms tested and compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart City Services; Sustainability; Living Lab
Online: 2 September 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
In terms of sustainability, cities become smart when they provide intelligent services to the inhabitants using information and communication technologies without threatening the future of the environment, economy or the society. However, the process of developing such sustainable smart services has certain challenges, especially in understanding the real needs of the people living in the city. Inhabitants of the city or the citizens are the key stakeholders in case of smart services in a city. Active involvement of the people throughout the process is a way to design such services. On the other hand, integrating sustainability, for example including environmental data to the smart city services has been found challenging. Therefore, this research discusses an approach on combining environmental data with regular smart city services and to engage city inhabitants in the process, the approach that is adapted from the concept of living lab methodology. Finally, an application has been developed to represent a smart city service following this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electron insect traps; smart city; IoT
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:35:40 CEST)
We introduce a device for automatic detection and reporting of crawling insects in urban environments. It is a monitoring device for urban pests that complies with the context of smart homes, smart cities and is compatible with the emerging discipline of the Internet of Things (IoT). We believe it can find its place to every room of a hotel, hospital, military camp and residence. This box-shaped device attracts targeted insect pests, senses the entering insect and takes automatically a picture of the internal space of the box. The picture is communicated through the Wi-Fi commonly found in such establishments to an authorized person/stakeholder receiving the picture to take proper action. The e-trap includes strong attractants (pheromone and/or food) to increase capture efficiency. The insect is trapped on the sticky floor of the device. The device carries the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard all entrances of the trap. As the insect enters it interrupts the infrared light source. This triggers a detection event; a picture is taken, and a time-stamp is set before reporting the event through the Wi-Fi. The device can be integrated seamlessly in urban environments and operates unobtrusively to human activities. We report results on various insect pests and depending on the insect species, can reach a detection accuracy ranging from 96-99%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1395.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Soil Nutrients Analysis; Soil Fertility Prediction; smart soil fertility management; smart farming
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:32:32 CEST)
The problem of low soil fertility and limited research in agricultural data driven tools, may lead to low crop productivity which makes it imperative to research in applications of high throughput computational algorithms such as of machine learning (ML) for effective soil analysis and fertility status prediction in order to assist in optimal soil fertility management decision-making activities. However, difficulties in the choice of the key soil properties parameters for use in reliable soil nutrients analysis and fertility prediction. Also, individual ML algorithms setbacks and modelling expert implementation procedures subjectivity, may lead to exploitation of worst fertility level targets and soil fertility status targets classification models performance reported variations. This paper surveys state-of-affair in ML for agricultural soil nutrients analysis and fertility status prediction. Prominent soil properties and widely used classical modelling algorithms and procedures are identified. Empirically exploited fertility status target classes are scrutinized, and reported soil fertility prediction model performances are depicted. The three pass method, with mixed method of qualitative content analysis and qualitative simple descriptive statistics were used in this survey. Observably, the frequently used soil nutrients and chemical properties were organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, and potential Hydrogen, followed by iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Predominant algorithms included Random Forest, and Naïve Bayes, followed by Support Vector Machine. Model performances varied, with highest accuracy 98.93% and 98.15% achieved by ensemble methods, and the least being 60%. Interdisciplinary ML related researchers may consider using ensemble methods to develop high performance soil fertility status prediction models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0398.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: smart sustainability; smart food; Arabic coffee; classification; color information; antioxi-dant information; chemical composition; mobile application
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:47:58 CEST)
This research assesses the classification of Arabic coffee into three primary variations (light, medium, and dark) using simulated data based on actual measurements of color information, antioxidant laboratory tests, and chemical composition tests. Two types of simulated data were generated, with the standard deviation of the measures varied. Multiple classifiers were used for classification. The findings demonstrate the use of color information in accurately distinguishing Arabic coffee types. The different CIE color values, as well as the excellent connection between color information and coffee classes, lead to flawless classification results. However, depending primarily on antioxidant information results in lower classification performance, with variability amongst classifiers due to increasing data complexity. Chemical composition information, on the other hand, possesses outstanding discriminatory strength, allowing faultless classification on its own. Certain characteristics, such as crude protein and crude fiber, show strong correlations and are critical in the classification of coffee types. Based on the findings, it is recommended to create a mobile application that uses image recognition to analyze coffee color while providing chemical composition information. End users, such as consumers, will be able to make informed judgments regarding their coffee preferences owing to this application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0138.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart Grid; Random Forest; Internet of Things; Power management; Machine Learning; Smart Meter; Priority Power Scheduling.
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:01:08 CET)
Presently power control and management play a vigorous role in information technology and power management. Instead of non-renewable power manufacturing, renewable power manufacturing is preferred by every organization for controlling resource consumption, price reduction and efficient power management. Smart grid efficiently satisfies these requirements with the integration of machine learning algorithms. Machine learning algorithms are used in a smart grid for power requirement prediction, power distribution, failure identification etc. The proposed Random Forest-based smart grid system classifies the power grid into different zones like high and low power utilization. The power zones are divided into number of sub-zones and map to random forest branches. The sub-zone and branch mapping process used to identify the quantity of power utilized and the non-utilized in a zone. The non-utilized power quantity and location of power availabilities are identified and distributed the required quantity of power to the requester in a minimal response time and price. The priority power scheduling algorithm collect request from consumer and send the request to producer based on priority. The producer analysed the requester existing power utilization quantity and availability of power for scheduling the power distribution to the requester based on priority. The proposed Random Forest based sustainability and price optimization technique in smart grid experimental results are compared to existing machine learning techniques like SVM, KNN and NB. The proposed random forest-based identification technique identifies the exact location of the power availability, which takes minimal processing time and quick responses to the requestor. Additionally, the smart meter based smart grid technique identifies the faults in short time duration than the conventional energy management technique is also proven in the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0011.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart grid (SG); smart meter (SM); clustering; load pattern; self-organizing map (SOM); advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:31:00 CEST)
Life in the modern century is heavily reliant on an enormous amount of electricity consumption as technology has become the most integral part of daily life. In this context, smart grid systems play a pivotal role to maintain the uninterrupted power supply which needs to be monitored in a timely fashion to keep track of the electric consumers’ usage pattern. The smart meter is the one of smart applications of the smart grid that collects huge amounts of consumer load data on a daily basis which has become a focus for various researchers and analyzers to study load characterization. In this paper, an approach has been proposed to recognize the energy consumption patterns among diverse types of consumers ranging from residential to industrial levels. This approach is worth considering not only for load pattern recognition but also for involving customers in different events such as demand response or peak shaving. In such a way, this analytical mechanism certainly assists in reducing power wastage and saving costs. The proposed methodology is based on a two-fold clustering algorithm with the use of state-of-the-art technology, machine learning. The primary goal is to classify electric customers' data collected from smart meters. Then, analyzing the classified results with an aim to predict power consumption patterns for the customers in the future and making the right energy policy that will benefit both the grid operator and consumers as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0158.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart urban planning; sustainable urban development; mental maps; smart cities; quantitative analysis; environmental psychology; landmark; sustainable society
Online: 17 June 2019 (10:12:15 CEST)
Considering citizens' perceptions of their living environment is very helpful in making the right decisions for city planners who intend to build a sustainable society. Mental map analyses are widely used in understanding the level of perception of individuals regarding the surrounding environment. The present study introduces Aram Mental Map Analyzer (AMMA), an open-source program, which allows researchers to use special features and new analytical methods to receive outputs in numerical data and analytical maps with greater accuracy and speed. AMMA performance is contingent upon two principles of accuracy and complexity, the accuracy of the program is measured by Accuracy Placed Landmarks (APL) and General Orientation (GO), which respectively analyses the landmark placement accuracy and the main route mapping accuracy. Also, the complexity section is examined through two analyses Cell Percentage (CP) and General Structure (GS), which calculates the complexity of citizens’ perception of space based on the criteria derived from previous studies. AMMA examines all the dimensions and features of the graphic maps, and its outputs have a wide range of valid and differentiated information, which is tailored to the research and information subject matter that is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1869.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: biotechnological filter; moss; air pollution; smart city
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
The research considers creating a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters in the Smart City concept. The extent of absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated using the example of the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded by sensors located in the biggest Kazakhstani cities from 06/21/2020 to 06/04/2023 were selected as the basis for calculating the efficiency. In total, there are two hundred twenty sensors in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, the task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. As a result, it is shown that ten filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, 100 filters 5.72%, and 500 filters 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University, considering the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the ISO 37120:2018 standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0110.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Climate change; perception; Climate smart agriculture; Adoption
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:31:38 CEST)
Abstract: Climate change is one of the main barriers for agricultural production and productivity globally. Hence, understanding farmers’ adoption level of CSA practices and determinants is of highly important for policy decisions. Consequently, the study's purpose was to assess adoption level of multiple CSA practices and determinants of climate-smart agriculture practices in the study area. The study was conducted in Welmera Woreda, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. From the Woreda, three kebeles were identified, and 306 respondent farmers were selected. A cross-sectional household survey, focus group discussion, and key informant interviews were used. Multivariate probit model was used to examine adoption determinants of multiple climate-smart agriculture practices. According to the result, Conservation agriculture, integrated soil fertility management, and crop diversification are the most commonly practiced CSA techniques in the study area. Demographic factors result indicated that being male as compared with female farmers, has positive and significant effect on crop diversification and improved livestock feed and feeding practices. Age of farmers significantly and negatively affecting the probability of adoption of improved soil fertility management practices and crop diversification. However, it affects the adoption of agroforestry practices positively and significantly. Based on the result of economic factors, having relatively large farm land size significantly increases the adoption of conservation agriculture, improved soil fertility management, crop diversification, improved livestock feed and feeding practices, and postharvest technology practice. Better farm income increases the likelihood of uptake of improved livestock feed and feeding. Having a large number of livestock positively influences adoption of conservation agriculture and having access to credit services positively influences the implementation of agroforestry, crop diversification, and postharvest technology. In addition, institutional factors such as access to agricultural extension service and training found that significantly and positively influences the adoption of crop diversification; access to participation on farmers’ field day similarly significantly and positively influence the adoption of both conservation agriculture and improved soil fertility management practice. Awareness creation for farmers and experts about climate change and including location specific CSA practices in to agricultural program is crucial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0437.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Incentivization; E-waste; Vector space; Smart contract
Online: 8 May 2023 (04:04:29 CEST)
The adoption of recycling and proper disposal techniques for electronic waste is crucial in advancing sustainable development. The traditional approaches of motivating people for collection of electronic waste are often insufficient due to inadequate methods reaching out, given incentives, calculating appropriate incentives associate to the task of gathering the electronic waste and a lack of transparency in the entire process. Insufficient collection of electronic waste could result in the release of numerous harmful substances into the environment. Prior research studies have been carried out to tackle the issue of electronic waste management in a broad sense. The findings of those studies indicated diverse strategies, each of which is relevant solely to a restricted range of electronic waste reprocessing circumstances. The current study has presented a proposed technique for incentivizing tasks and activities associated to collection of electronic waste through the adoption of vector space technique. Blockchain smart contact technology, has been used to implemented the strategy. The method used involves various well defined mapping of tasks, nature of activities, and their magnitude in order to derived an incentive. Some scenarios for the calculations of incentives are presented, and the findings reveals the based case is by utilizing weighting scale scheme where each tasks and activities are mapped to its associated inventive rather than providing fixed incentive values. Ethereum was used as digital token for each unit of incentive. This concept has contributed in encouraging personal accountability in the management of e-waste collection in order to cultivate sustainable behaviors for a long term solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0169.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Blockchain; smart contract; homomorphic encryption; IER detection
Online: 10 January 2023 (03:01:49 CET)
(1) Background: As Patient-reported outcome measures face challenges with low response rate on surveys, different incentive mechanism have been proposed to achieve a higher response rate. However, it seems that monetary incentives are the only mechanism with proven effect. Nevertheless, it is less likely to be used than other mechanisms due to the monetary cost. (2) Methods: In this research work, a cryptographic scheme for rewarding patients with cryptographic tokens is developed and implemented on the Ethereum test network. (3) Results: The model is able to distribute decentralised tokens to patients who complete the PROMs in a fair, private, decentralised approach. The token can be further used by patients to exchange more healthcare services, encouraging more patients to participate in PROMs. At the same time, an IER detection method is built to improve the quality of PROMs, avoiding the healthcare provider paying for meaningless PROMs from patients who barely participate for incentives. (4) Conclusions: This work provides an privacy-preserving incentive model to increase the response rate for PROMs surveys. Our model prevents patients providing invalid responses to gain rewards.