ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Sleep quality; Chronic pain; Temporomandibular disorder; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; STOP-Bang; Epworth Sleepiness Scale
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:11:14 CEST)
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate and compare sleep quality between patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder and healthy controls, and to analyze the association of sleep quality with disease characteristics, obstructive sleep apnea risk factors, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Methods: Chronic temporomandibular disorder patients (n=503) and 180 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included, who completed well-organized clinical report and answered questions on sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), sleep apnea risk factors (STOP-Bang questionnaire), and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale). Results: Mean global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in the patients (6.25±2.77) than in healthy controls (6.25±2.77) (p<0.001). Poor sleep was significantly more prevalent in the patient group (56.9%) than in healthy controls (22.2%) (p<0.001). Compared with healthy controls, chronic temporomandibular disorder patients had a higher likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea. (STOP-Bang total score ≥3; 7.2% vs. 16.1%; p<0.01) and higher excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale score ≥10; 12.8% vs. 19.7%; p<0.05). Age (odds ratio=2.551; p<0.001), female sex (odds ratio=1.885; p=0.007), total Epworth sleepiness scale score (odds ratio=1.839; p=0.014), and headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (odds ratio=1.519; p=0.049) were the most powerful predictors of poor sleep (global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ≥5) in chronic temporomandibular disorder patients. Conclusion: Chronic temporomandibular disorder patients had sleep quality impairment. Various factors, including peripheral and central factors, affect the patient's sleep quality. Therefore, in addition to sleep quality and sleep-related problems, the underlying central mechanism for poor sleep quality should be assessed when treating chronic temporomandibular disorder patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0753.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: sleep disorders; primary care; vitamin B12; insomnia symptoms; excessive daytime sleepiness; sleep quality
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:00:17 CEST)
Despite Vitamin B12's recognized importance for the nervous system, there's still a lack of research on the association between Vitamin B12 and sleep, especially in primary care settings. We assessed Vitamin B12 levels in adult primary health care users and investigated correlations with sleep quality, insomnia and sleepiness. In this cross-sectional study, 512 consecutive participants were included. Information regarding anthropometrics, socio-demographics, and medical history was obtained. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to quantify excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), insomnia symptoms, and sleep quality, respectively. Median Vitamin B12 was 342 (266, 446) pg/mL. After adjustments, Vitamin B12 levels<342 pg/mL showed significant associations with insomnia symptoms [OR (95% CI) 2.434 (1.331–4.452), p=0.004], especially in elderly, non-obese and female participants, with EDS only in obese participants [OR (95% CI) 3.996, (1.006-15.876), p=0.039]. Nonetheless, there was no significant association between B12 levels and poor sleep quality (OR 1.416, 95% CI 0.678-2.958, p=0.354). In conclusion, our results show that lower Vitamin B12 was associated with insomnia symptoms and sleepiness in specific groups of participants. However, further research with objective measurements of sleep is crucial to assess the relationship between sleep and Vitamin B12.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1712.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: dance; psychological inflexibility; sleep; chronotype; student
Online: 26 October 2023 (13:40:05 CEST)
Dance, as a performance activity, is associated with various problems. Among these challenges, sleep disturbances are notably prevalent. This study aimed to explore the potential relationship between sleep characteristics—specifically chronotype and subjective sleep quality—and psychological inflexibility in dance students. This research adopted a cross-sectional design using non-probabilistic sampling. One hundred and fourteen dance students, with a mean age of 23.87 years, participated in the study. Assessment tools included the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Composite Scale of Morningness. The results revealed no gender differences in psychological inflexibility or chronotype, although women report poorer sleep quality. Differences emerged in both subjective sleep quality and chronotype when students were grouped according to low, medium, or high levels of psychological inflexibility. Those with low inflexibility, as opposed to those with high inflexibility, report better sleep quality, with no differences observed between medium and high inflexibility groups. Students with high-medium levels of psychological inflexibility showed a higher risk (OR = 6.373 times higher) of experiencing poor sleep quality compared to those with low psychological inflexibility. In terms of chronotype, the low inflexibility group is inclined to be more of a morning type than the medium and high inflexibility groups, with no differences between the latter two groups. Students categorized as having low inflexibility tend to have a longer history of dancing under the guidance of a teacher and dedicate more hours and days per week to rehearsal. The findings are discussed in terms of their educational implications for dance students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1542.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: sleep quality; fatigue; university students; exam period
Online: 21 June 2023 (11:40:44 CEST)
The aim of our study was to assess university students’ sleep quality and fatigue before and during the academic exam period and identify potential associated factors. A Web-based survey was completed by 940 students of 20 different Tertiary Institutions including demographics, sleep habits, exercise, caffeine, tobacco, alcohol use, subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI) and fatigue (Fatigue severity scale – FSS) at the beginning of semester and at examination period. During exam period, PSQI (8.9 vs 6.1, p<0.001) and FSS scores (36.9 vs 32.7, p<0.001) were significantly elevated compared to pre-exam period. Increase of PSQI score was associated with age (β=0.111, p=0.011), presence of chronic disease (β=0.914, p=0.006), and depressive symptoms (β=0.459, p=0.001). Increase of FSS score was associated with female gender (β=1.658, p<0.001), age, (β=0.198, p=0.010), increase in smoking (β=1.7, p=0.029), coffee/energy drinks consumption (β=1.988, p<0.001), decreased levels of physical exercise (β=1.660, p<0.001), and depressive symptoms (β=2.526, p<0.001). In conclusion, our results show that sleep quality and fatigue are affected in university students during exam periods. Potential factors were identified which may lead to development of strategies for better quality of sleep, and wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: physical activity; sleep; inhibitory performance; mediating effects
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:51:54 CEST)
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance). Methods. 180 healthy university students (age: 20.15 ± 1.92 years) from the East China Normal University were recruited in the present study. PA level, sleep parameters, and inhibitory control performance were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), and a Stroop test, respectively. Data were analyzed using structual equation modeling. Results. A higher level of PA was linked to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency were associated with better inhibitory control performance. The mediation analysis revealed that subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediated the relationship between PA level and inhibitory control performance. Conclusion. Our results are in accordance with the literature and buttress the idea that a healthy lifestyle that involves a relatively high level of regular PA and adequate sleep patterns is beneficial for cognition (e.g., inhibitory control performance). Furthermore, our study adds to the literature that sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediates the relationship of PA and inhibitory control performance expanding our knowledge in the field of exercise-cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Covid-19 lockdown; sleep quality; parental education; SENDO project
Online: 10 March 2023 (13:36:42 CET)
Abstract: Introduction: Covid-19 lockdown has caused important changes in children's routines, especially in terms of nutrition, physical activity, screen time, social activity, and school time. Regarding these changes, recent studies show that Covid-19 lockdown was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression in children. The objective of this study was to assess changes in sleep quality in Spanish children during lockdown decreed by the Spanish government between March and June 2020. Methodology: We compared the BEAR score of 478 participants in the SENDO project at the periods before, during and after lockdown. We used hierarchical models with two levels of clustering to account for the intra-cluster correlation between siblings. Interaction of time with and a set of a priori selected variables was assessed by introducing the interaction term into the model and calculating the likelihood ratio test. Results: Mean scores in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the periods before, during, and after lockdown were 0.52 (sd 1.25), 1.43 (sd 1.99) and 1.07 (sd 1.55), respectively, showing a worsening of sleep quality as a result of confinement. Parental level of education was found to be an effect modifier (p for interaction=0.004). Children whose parents had higher education (university graduates or higher) showed a smaller worsening than those without. Conclusion: We found that the mean score in the BEAR questionnaire significantly worsened during lockdown and significantly improved after it. However, it did not reach the initial level. The mean score in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the period after lockdown was significantly higher than before.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Sleep, Office workers, office workstation, wellbeing, stress, physical activity, wearables, digital health, sleep quality index, tracking sleep quality, workstation types, accelerometry, heart rate variability
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:33:23 CEST)
Study Objective: This study examined office workstation types’ impact on objective health-related metrics including stress, physical activity (PA), and sleep quality. We propose a sensor-based sleep quality index (SB-SQI) to fill a needed gap for objective sleep quality measurement over short timescales. Methods: We monitored 231 office workers using chest-worn sensors for 72 hours, yielding 11,736 hours of usable data from 163 participants (mean age 43.4, 56% women). SB-SQI was based on a validated algorithm estimating sleep-onset latency, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency, using the scoring method from the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We examined the relationships between SB-SQI, office workstation type (open-bench seating, cubicle, and private office), work-hours stress (standard deviation of heart rate variability), and after-work PA (relative duration of moderate-to-vigorous activity). Results: The sensor-derived poor-sleep ratio of the private office workers was higher than with other office workstation types (81% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.023). PSQI revealed a similar but insignificant trend with a lower effect-size. Among good-sleepers, open-bench seating workers had 22% (p = 0.018) less stress during work hours than others. A significant association between work-hours stress and after-work hours PA (r = 0.331, p = 0.000) was observed irrespective of office workstation type, with the highest PA level observed for open-bench seating workers. Conclusions: Office workstation type had a significant impact on work-hours stress, affecting PA after work hours, which influenced sleep quality. SB-SQI could be more sensitive than PSQI in determining the impact of office workstation types on sleep quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: self-esteem; quality of sleep; eating; nursing
Online: 18 December 2018 (12:12:23 CET)
In recent decades, organizational research has given special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and wellbeing of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource which influences wellbeing at work and psychological wellbeing of nurses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of eating in the effect of sleep quality on self-esteem in nursing professionals. The sample of 1073 nurses were administered the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The results show that poor sleep quality and type of eating directly and indirectly affect self-esteem. More so, poor sleep quality deteriorated self-esteem through emotional eating, and even though emotional eating facilitated disinhibited eating, this relationship had no significant effects on self-esteem. The findings of this study suggest that hospital management should implement employee health awareness programs on the importance of healthy sleep and design educational interventions for improving the quality of their diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1797.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Sleep; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Quality of Life; Family Quality of Life
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:12:23 CEST)
Study Objectives: To (1) investigate the prevalence of sleep disorder symptoms in caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and (2) the relationships between caregiver sleep problems and their health-related quality of life and family quality of life. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of caregivers (N=62) of children ages 6 to 11 years old diagnosed with ASD receiving care at a regional autism research and resource center. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the Sleep Habits Questionnaire (SHQ), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-12, and the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (FQOL). Caregivers with longer sleep duration reported better mental health and better family quality of life. Caregivers who reported insomnia symptoms, non-restorative sleep, and insufficient sleep were more likely to report poorer mental health than caregivers who did not report these sleep disorder symptoms. Caregivers with obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome experienced worse physical quality of life. Conclusions: The physical and mental health of the primary caregiver is essential to the support of the child with ASD and to the functioning of the family. The study findings point to the importance of future research and interventions to enhance sleep health in order to improve quality of life for caregivers of children with ASD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Post-COVID-19; Pandemic; Women's Sleep Patterns; Quality
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:39 CET)
The study aimed to evaluate the after-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep quality and patterns of women across different cultural settings within Iraq, spanning the period of 2022. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a diverse cohort of women from multiple provinces in Iraq. The survey measured various parameters, including sleep duration, onset latency, and disturbances. The post-pandemic period has seen a notable decline in sleep quality among the female population. Contributing factors include psychological stress, lifestyle changes due to the pandemic, and ongoing socio-economic challenges. The impact on sleep quality exhibited variation across different cultural groups, indicating a significant cultural influence on the pandemic's psychological aftermath. The study concludes that the post-pandemic phase has adversely affected the sleep health of women in Iraq, with cultural factors playing a critical role in these changes. There is a pressing need for culturally sensitive public health strategies to address sleep disturbances and mitigate their long-term effects on women's health. Public health initiatives should be tailored to address the specific cultural contexts within Iraq to improve sleep health among women. Further research is warranted to explore the long-term consequences of disturbed sleep patterns and the effectiveness of different intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cardiorespiratory fitness; VO2 peak; sleep quality, physical activity
Online: 11 March 2021 (16:04:34 CET)
Abstract: Background: Recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been postulated as an adverse health outcome related to poor sleep quality. However, studies investigating the relationship between CRF with subjective sleep quality index are scarce. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate the association between CRF and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) in apparently healthy people. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between reported physical activities (PA) and PSQI. Methods: 33 apparently healthy male participants volunteered to participate. CRF (VO2 peak) was measured via cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a treadmill. A short form of the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure PA, and PSQI was used for sleep quality index. Results: There was no correlation between CRF and PSQI total score or any component of the PSQI. Also, there was no correlation between IPAQ and PSQI total score. Categorical data analysis of the two questionnaires revealed that 45.5% of the participants reported low physical activity and poor sleep quality. Conclusions: There was no association between CRF, reported PA with subjective sleep quality index. The use of objective tools for assessing the quality and quantity of sleep should be recommended for future studies as it may clarify the association between CRF and sleep quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: sleep, socioeconomic status, stress, circadian rhythm, allostatic load, mood disorder, social class
Online: 26 October 2018 (16:32:56 CEST)
Sleep disorders (SD) have a complex aetiology, and socioeconomic status (SES) as determined by social class, household income, ethnicity and education plays an important role in their development. As SD are associated with cognitive impairment and mood disorders, they in turn impact SES. Socioeconomic status also influences allostatic load caused by chronic accumulation of stress throughout life. Environmental and psychological stressors have a direct effect on SD, and they are modulated by SES, in combination with comorbidities like obesity and cardiovascular disease. This review explores the recent theories about the influence of SES on the development of SD in the general population, whether or not occurring with comorbidities, and also focusses on the interplay between socioeconomic status, circadian rhythms, aging and clinical outcomes like metabolic diseases and cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0617.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Sleep duration; sleep latency; sleep efficiency; health behaviour
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:17:01 CEST)
Growing evidence suggests sleep plays an important role in the development of healthy adolescents, with increased interest in the associations between sleep and mental health. Higher duration and quality of sleep has been suggested as a mechanism for increased wellbeing in adolescents. Cross sectional data was collected from 5,661 Irish adolescents. 55% of Irish adolescents reported meeting the guidelines for adolescents of 8-10 hours per night. This was found to decrease with age. Higher duration and quality of sleep was positively associated with wellbeing and negatively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. A higher frequency of physical activity was associated with longer duration and higher quality of sleep. 9-10 hours of sleep was associated with the highest levels of wellbeing and lowest symptoms of anxiety and depression. The relationship between physical activity and increased wellbeing may be impacted by physical activity leading to higher durations and quality of sleep.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1897.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: subiculum; wake; sleep; REM sleep; NREM sleep; vigilance state
Online: 27 September 2023 (14:29:31 CEST)
This review provides an overview of the current understanding of the neural systems involved in regulating wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS), and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) in mammals. Specifically, we focus on the anatomical connections between the subiculum, a component of the hippocampal formation, and the regions responsible for regulating the sleep-wake cycle. The subiculum exhibits direct connections with key areas involved in sleep regulation, such as the lateral hypothalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus, basal forebrain, ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, ventrolateral tegmental area, and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Additionally, second-order projections from the subiculum are received by the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and locus coeruleus, suggesting potential involvement of the subiculum in the regulation of circadian rhythms, particularly the circadian sleep-wake cycle. We also discuss alterations in the subiculum observed in individuals with sleep disorders and sleep-deprived mice, underscoring the significance of investigating neuronal communication between the subiculum and pathways promoting both sleep and wakefulness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1383.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Mindfulness based stress reduction; mental health; mindfulness; sleep quality; post COVID period
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:16:48 CEST)
(1) Background: COVID-19 had devastating effects on both physical and mental well-being, prompting the need for interventions. This study aimed to explore the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mental health, mindfulness, and sleep disorders in COVID-19 survivors.; (2) Methods: In this interventional parallel study, the sample was selected university students in nursing and midwifery faculties using total population sampling. The intervention included providing counseling on mindfulness methods by trained experts. General health, mindfulness and sleep quality questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS22, descriptive and interferential statistic. A significance level of 0.05 was considered; (3) Results: In this study, the mean age of the students was 20.29 ± 2.03 years. 69.5% of the participants were female and 96% were single. 71.3% were studying nursing and 67% had a history of Corona infection. The intervention was only effective on general health questionnaire and the mean score of this questionnaire was 1.7 higher than the control group; (4) Conclusions: the study indicated that MBSR intervention improves mindfulness, mental health, and sleep quality in COVID-19 survivors. Regular assessment and use of this intervention can help address long-term challenges and improve overall well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0141.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: bruxism; electromyography; sleep apnea; polysomnography; sleep bruxism; sleep wake disorders
Online: 14 November 2023 (07:55:30 CET)
Background: The gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is Polysmnography (PSG). At the end of the apnea episodes there is frequently a final hy-permotor muscle activity that could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the elec-tromyography portable devices. The aim of this study was to compare the concordance on the number of episodes of SB in a population with OSA, between the diagnosis obtained by PSG, an-alyzed manually by a neurophysiologist and that obtained manually and automatically by a portable electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (EKG) device. Methods: Twenty-three subjects underwent one night of polysomnographic study with simulta-neous recording with the EMG-EKG device. The variables referring to the number of episodes and the SB index measured with both tools and analyzed in the manual and automatic modes were compared. Masticatory muscle activity was scored according to published criteria. The sample was segmented by severity of OSA according to AASM criteria. ANOVA, correlations, and the Bland–Altman plot were used to quantify the agreement between both methods. The concordance was calculated through the ICC. Results: The total events of SB per night in the PSG study were on average (8.17), lower than the one obtained with EMG-EKG manual analysis (14.13) and automatic (29.26). Both the SB PSG and Manual EMG-EKG episodes decrease from non-OSA (PSG = 16 ± 13,55, EMG-EKG = 16,83 ±11,58) to severe OSA (PSG = 3,14 ± 4,26, EMG-EKG = 9,86 ± 8,09). However, in the case of automatic EMG-EKG mode: the number of SB episodes in severe OSA doubled (41,23 ± 12,50) with respect to non OSA (24,50 ± 12,19). On average: the EMG-EKG device Automatic analysis measures 21.08 units more than PSG. The results with the manual EMG-EKG analysis improved. Conclusion: There is no concordance between the results obtained in the PSG neurophysiologic analysis and those obtained by means of the EMG-EKG device automatic and manual analysis for the diagnosis of SB in a population mostly with OSA. The OSA could act as a confusion factor in the diagnosis of SB with the electromyography portable devices, but further study is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Sleep cycle; Sleep pills; Sleep habits; Covid 19; Students; PSQI
Online: 8 March 2023 (08:36:06 CET)
The alterations in sleep among undergraduate students have been a burden to their mental health and academic studies. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale in this study conducted among Georgian and International students. The respondents participated in this study through the University intranet as their responses remained anonymous. The survey comprised the demographic characteristics and sleep health deteriorating wake patterns such as subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. A total of 500 students completed this study, 72% were Georgian students, and 28% were international students. 50.8% of Georgian students were under the age of 20 years, and 74.3% of international students were between 21 and 30 years of age. Most Georgian students reported poor subjective sleep quality, short sleep duration, fewer sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction. However, sleep latency was higher among international students. Both categories of students reported using sleeping pills as the statistical significance was observed between global score and gender, subjective sleep quality, and age grade of Georgian students (p<0.05). This study aimed to evaluate the sleep-wake health quality among international and Georgian undergraduate students at the University of Georgia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0387.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: evolutionary bottleneck; evolution of sleep; sleep variability; function of sleep
Online: 20 July 2020 (10:31:23 CEST)
The Nocturnal Bottleneck explains how mammals evolved from their reptilian ancestors after inverting the chronotype, form diurnal to nocturnal. Pre-mammals traded-off the excellent visual system of their ancestors for improvements in audition and in olfactory telencephalon, needed for efficient orientation in the dark. This was how the mammalian nocturnal telencephalic wakefulness was born. However, the modified visual system of those pre-mammals became sensitive to the dangerous diurnal light and the exposure would involve a high risk of blindness and death. Therefore, pre-mammals had to remain immobile with closed eyes hidden in lightproof burrows during light time. This was the birth of the mammalian sleep. Typical reptiles distribute their wake time cycling between Basking Behavior, to attain the preferred body temperature, and poikilothermic Goal Directed Behavior, to perform life sustaining tasks. These cycles persisted during the new mammalian sleep. However, as the behavioral output had to be blocked during light time, the paralyzed reptilian Basking Behavior and Goal Directed Behavior cycles became the NREM and REM cycles, respectively. This was how NREM and REM cycles remained incorporated within the mammalian sleep. After the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction, the environmental pressure for nocturnal life was softened, allowing high variability in chronotype and sleeping patterns. This permitted some mammalian groups, e.g., primates, to begin the quest for diurnal wake.Concluding, sleep constituted an additional bottleneck in the mammalian evolution. The reduced population of pre-mammals that was able to develop sleep during light time, including NREM and REM, became full mammals and survived; the remainder perished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Subjective sleep assessment; Autism spectrum disorder; REM sleep; NREM sleep
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:21:06 CET)
Sleep disturbances very common in children with autism. That is why it requires instruments that facilitate its evaluation. Goals: Perform the evaluation of sleep from a subjective prospect in a group of children with primary autism and compare to a control group, using the Sleep Habits in Children Survey (CSHQ), In order to determine sleep disturbances, according to the sub-scales results. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study of the sample was carried out. A group with primary Autism n = 21 was selected. For the assessment of the dream we chose (CSHQ). The differences between independent groups were calculated by applying a Mann Whitney U test (p <0.05). Results: The group of children with autism showed the highest values of the total scale (mean = 48.00) wish is congruent with a greate disfuntion of sleep, compared to the control group (mean = 36.47) for p = 0.00. Significant differences were found for all sub scales p = 0.00, with the exception of sub-scale number 7. Conclusions: There is a high presence of sleep disturbances in children with primary autism, which are related to multifactorial causes, with the exception of sleep breathing disorders that did not show statistically significant differences between groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0102.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Physical inactivity; work from home; sleep; Covid-19 and public health.
Online: 6 December 2022 (11:33:34 CET)
To examine the association of sleep quality and work from home with physical inactivity (PI) in leisure time during Covid-19 pandemic. A population-based household survey was conducted in two Bra-zilian municipalities from October to December 2020. Leisure-time physical activity (PA) was self-reported, and individuals who practiced less than 150 minutes of moderate PA or 75 minutes of vigorous PA weekly were classified as PI. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). WFH was assessed by: "Currently, how is your work routine regarding location? Associations were investigated using logistic regression and directed acyclic graphs (DAG) for the multivariate models. A total of 1,750 adults were interviewed, 69.1% were PI and 51.9% had poor sleep quality. Furthermore, 79.8% were not in WFH. In multivariate analysis, leisure PI was associated with poor sleep quality (OR:1.59: 95% CI: 1.02-2.48), and not being in WFH (OR:1.62: 95% CI: 1.05-2.50). When performing the combined analysis between these two factors, and who were not in WFH were four times more likely to be PI at leisure (OR=4.22;95%CI:2.05-8.65). The results indicate a high prevalence of PI, with poor quality sleep and non-WFH associated with leisure PI. These combined factors exacer-bated the occurrence of PI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Loss of consciousness; Mental health; Working life; Effort Reward Imbalance; Sleep Dis-orders; Health promotion; Workplace
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:54:17 CEST)
Syncope and presyncope occurring during work can affect safety and impair occupational performance. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of these events among workers. The possible role of sleep quality, mental stress and metabolic disorders in promoting syncope, presyncope and falls in workers is unknown. In the present study, 741 workers (male 35.4%; mean age 47±11 years), employed in different companies, underwent clinical evaluation and blood tests and completed questionnaires to assess sleep quality, occupational distress and mental disorders. The occurrence of syncope, presyncope and unexplained falls during their working life was assessed by an ad hoc interview. The prevalence of syncope, presyncope and falls of unknown origin was 13.9%, 27.0%, and 10.3%, respectively. The occurrence of syncope was associated with an increased risk of occupational distress (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR: 1.62, Confidence Intervals at 95%: 1.05-2.52), low sleep quality (aOR: 1.79 CI 95%: 1.16-2.77) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.43 CI 95%: 1.52-3.87). Presyncope was strongly associated with occupational distress (aOR: 1.77 CI 95%: 1.25-2.49), low sleep quality (aOR: 2.95 CI 95%: 2.08-4.18) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.61 CI 95%: 1.78-3.84), while no significant relationship was found between syncope or presyncope and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that occupational health promotion interventions aimed at improving sleep quality, reducing stressors and increasing worker resilience might reduce syncope and presyncope events in the working population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; children; sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing; sleep quality
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:19:12 CEST)
Sleep-disordered breathing is a significant problem affecting the pediatric population. These conditions can affect sleep quality and significantly affect children's overall health and well-being. Difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavioral patterns characterize autism spectrum disorder. Sleep disturbances are common in children with ASD. This literature review aims to gather and analyze available studies on the relationship between SDB and children with autism spectrum disorder. We comprehensively searched the literature using major search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science). After removing duplicates, we extracted a total of 96 records. We selected 19 studies for inclusion after a thorough title and abstract screening process. A total of 7 articles were ultimately included. This review has analyzed the relationship between autism spectrum disorder and sleep-disordered breathing, particularly Obstructive Sleep Apnea, highlighting an intriguing web of complex associations. Some studies involving children have demonstrated a significant association between autism spectrum disorder and the presence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Furthermore, a heightened risk of developing sleep disturbances, including sleep-disordered breathing, has emerged in children with autism. The risk and prevalence of obesity are increasing in pediatric subjects with autism spectrum disorder. Obesity has been identified as a predictive factor for Sleep-disordered breathing, and Body Mass Index can directly correlate with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in these children. Adenotonsillectomy has proven to be pivotal in improving behavioral issues in autism spectrum disorder children with obstructive Sleep Apnea. In conclusion, this review underscores the complexity of the interplay between autism spectrum disorder and sleep-disordered breathing, emphasizing the importance of further research to understand underlying mechanisms and develop optimal therapeutic and preventative approaches to enhance sleep quality and overall health in children with autism spectrum disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep depth; sleep duration; sleep timing; time zones; COVID-19; aviation
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:18:13 CEST)
Fatigue risk to commercial pilots operating under global pandemic conditions had not been in-vestigated prior to COVID-19. Examining how pilots slept during COVID-19 pandemic-specific flights can provide a precedent for estimating fatigue risk for future public health emergencies. Twenty (n=20) pilots flying across five COVID-19 humanitarian missions between Brazil and China wore a sleep-tracking device (the Zulu watch), which has been validated for the estimation of sleep timing (sleep onset and offset), duration, efficiency, and sleep depth (Wake, Interrupted, Light, or Deep Sleep) throughout the mission period. Pilots also reported sleep timing, duration and subjective quality of their in-flight rest periods using a sleep diary. To our knowledge, this is the first report of commercial pilot sleep behavior during ultra-long-range operations under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Moreover, these analyses provide an estimate of sleep depth during in-flight sleep, which has not been reported previously in the literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0100.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Hospitalized patients, sleep wake dysfunction, sleep disorders, circadian rhythm, sleep apnea
Online: 5 September 2018 (14:49:34 CEST)
Hospitalized patients frequently have disordered and poor-quality sleep due to a variety of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. These include frequent nighttime intrusions, insomnia related to pain and unfamiliar environments, dark conditions during the day with loss of natural light, and disruption of natural sleep cycle due to illness. Sleep wake disturbances can result in deleterious consequence on physical, emotional and cognitive status, which may impact patient satisfaction, clinical recovery, and hospital length of stay. Despite this, clinicians frequently fail to document sleep disturbances and are generally unaware of best practices to improve sleep quality in the hospital. The purpose of this review is to discuss sleep disturbances in hospitalized patients with a focus on causes of sleep disturbance, effect of poor quality sleep, high risk populations, considerations for surveillance and prevention, as well as pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options for treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: amenorrhea; depression; hot flashes; omega-3 PUFA; post-menopause; sleep quality; vasomotor symptoms
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:56:14 CEST)
The menopausal transition often accompanies distressing manifestations, including vasomotor symptoms, sleep disruptions, and depressive syndrome. Omega-3 fatty acids have emerged as a potential intervention to alleviate these symptoms. This review aimed to comprehensively assess the impact of omega-3 supplementation on vasomotor symptoms, sleep quality, and depression among postmenopausal women. We conducted a systematic search focusing on randomized control trials across the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases from inception to August 2023. Among the initial pool of 163 studies, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this review. Four studies suggested potential benefits of omega-3 intake for improving hot flashes and night sweats. Sleep quality outcomes displayed heterogeneity across the studies. Incorporating diverse scales such as the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21, the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 for depression outcomes, the review found inconclusive evidence on omega-3's impact on depression. Overall, the combined analysis of these studies did not provide substantial evidence to support the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in improving vasomotor symptoms, sleep quality, and depression. Further well-designed RCTs with larger participant groups are crucial to validate and generalize these results.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Clear Aligners; Maxillomandibular advancement; sleep apnea; intermaxillary advancement; sleep surgery; sleep medicine
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:20:43 CET)
Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is a surgical intervention that reduces the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea via anterior repositioning of the upper and lower jaws. Pre-operative orthodontic alignment is often a critical component in aiding MMA. Orthodontia are important in intraoperative anchorage for intermaxillary fixation, healthy post-operative occlusion, and post-operative skeletal stability. Sequential clear aligners (SCA) refer to removable orthodontic appliances that are replaced at regular intervals to stimulate dental migration without the use of bonded hardware. These aligners have demonstrated efficacy in aiding orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities, which share some technical similarities with MMA for OSA. Here, we explore the treatment protocol for MMA followed by post-operative SCA treatment. Our experiences show that post-operative orthodontic treatment with SCAs results in similarly successful post-operative surgical outcomes given that the patient’s pre-operative occlusion is stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Sleep habits; Sleep disorders; Students: Academic achievement.
Online: 13 October 2021 (08:26:58 CEST)
Sleep deprivation (failure to get enough sleep) is a public health issue that can negatively impact our body including cognitive function. Many studies have been done in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the impact of poor sleep and academic performance but almost all of them were done at university level. To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and general degree of academic achievement in school students. This is a cross-sectional, school-based study, conducted at Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A total of 957 participants (615 male and 342 female) were recruited from a state school. The study used a standardized, confidential, validated self-administered questionnaire to assess sleep quality and habits. By using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS 22), achievement of the students was significantly related to the following parameters; laziness and fatigue after wake-up time and during school time, lack of concentration during school time, difficulty in complete tasks during school time and inability to maintain wakefulness during school time. Furthermore, students with poor academic degrees reported more significant incidence of sleeping at school, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep related disorder than good academic degrees. Students with poor sleep quality have lower school grades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: iron; blood donation; restless legs syndrome; quality of life; sleep; fatigue
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:32:59 CEST)
Background: Besides anemia, iron deficiency may cause more subtle symptoms including those of the restless legs syndrome (RLS), the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or sleeping disorders. Objective: The aim of this pre-planned secondary analysis was to compare the frequency and severity of symptoms associated with iron deficiency before and after (intravenous or oral) iron supplementation in iron deficient blood donors. Methods/Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, single centre trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01787526). Setting: Tertiary care center in Graz, Austria Participants: 138 female and 38 male whole blood and platelet apheresis donors aged ≥18 and ≤65 years with iron deficiency (ferritin ≤30ng/ml at the time of blood donation). Interventions: Intravenous iron (1 g ferric carboxymaltose, n=86) or oral iron supplementation (10 g iron fumarate, 100 capsules, n=90). Measurements: Clinical symptoms were evaluated by a survey before iron therapy (visit 0, V0) and after 8-12 weeks (visit 1, V1) including questions about symptoms of RLS, CFS, sleeping disorders, quality of life and symptoms like headaches, dyspnoea, dizziness, palpitations, pica and trophic changes of fingernails or hair. Results: We found a significant improvement in the severity of symptoms for RLS, fatigue and sleep quality (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant decrease of headaches, dyspnoea, dizziness and palpitations was reported (p<0.05). There was no difference between the type of iron supplementation (intravenous versus oral) and clinical outcome data. Conclusion: Iron supplementation in iron deficient blood donors may be an effective strategy to improve symptoms related to iron deficiency and the wellbeing of blood donors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; psychosis; sleep; sleep disturbances; sleep disorders; integrative medicine; acupuncture; add-on therapy
Online: 23 February 2018 (04:59:52 CET)
Background: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that has a large impact on patients’ lives. In addition to Western medicine, the use of additional treatments, such as acupuncture, in treating the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms is increasing. Methods: We conducted a systematic review on the use of acupuncture as an add-on treatment for patients with schizophrenia that are in regular care, with a special focus on the treatment of the often accompanying co-morbid sleep disorders. In this study, we searched the Medline, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ERIC databases with a cut-off date of December 31, 2017, thereby following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol. Results: Our search resulted in 26 eligible studies. Most studies showed limited evidence for the use of acupuncture as add-on therapy in the treatment of clinical symptoms, but beneficial effects have been reported in the treatment of co-morbid sleep disorders. Conclusions: Limited evidence was found for the use of acupuncture as add-on therapy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; however, positive results were found in the treatment of sleep disorders, but this result needs to be confirmed in large, randomized, controlled trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sleep quality; road traffic noise; actimetry; indoor noise; noise measurements; noise annoyance; noise sensitivity; time of day
Online: 9 September 2019 (08:45:43 CEST)
It is unclear which noise exposure time window and noise characteristics during nighttime are most detrimental for sleep quality in real life settings. We have conducted a field study with 105 volunteers wearing a wrist actimeter to record their sleep during seven days, together with concurrent outdoor noise measurements at their bedroom window. Actimetry recorded sleep latency increased by 5.6 minutes (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 9.6 minutes) per 10 dB(A) increase in noise exposure during the first hour after bedtime. Actimetry assessed sleep efficiency was significantly reduced by 2-3 percent per 10 dB(A) increase in measured outdoor noise (Leq, 1h) for the last three hours of sleep. For subjectively reported sleepiness, noise exposure during the last hour prior to wake up was most crucial with an increase in the sleepiness score of 0.31 units (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.54) per 10 dB(A) Leq,1h. Associations for estimated indoor noise were not more pronounced than for outdoor noise. Considering noise events in addition to equivalent sound pressure levels (Leq) only marginally improved the statistical models. Our study provides evidence that matching the nighttime noise exposure time window to the individual’s diurnal sleep-wake pattern results in a better estimate of detrimental nighttime noise effects on sleep. We found that noise exposure at the beginning and the end of the sleep is most crucial for sleep quality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cyclic alternating pattern; sleep texture; sleep apnea; polysomnography
Online: 31 May 2023 (05:32:49 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is multi-faceted world-wide distributed disorder exerting deep effects on the sleeping brain. In the latest years strong efforts have been dedicated to find novel measures assessing the real impact and severity of the pathology, traditionally trivialized by the simplistic apnea/hypopnea index. Due to the unavoidable connection between OSA and sleep we reviewed the key aspects linking the breathing disorder with sleep pathophysiology, focuings on the role of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). Sleep structure, reflecting the degree of apnea-induced sleep instability, may provide topical informations to stratify OSA severity and foresee some of its dangerous consequences such as excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive deterioration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Evolution of sleep, NREM sleep, REM sleep, Rhombencephalic-spinal wake, Diencephalic wake, Cortical wake
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:11 CET)
Three types of wakefulness appeared along the vertebrate’s phylogeny and ontogeny: spinal-rhombencephalic in fish, brainstem-diencephalic in reptiles and cortical in mammals, in which the paralyzed spinal-rhombencephalic wake and the brainstem-diencephalic wake remain as REMS and NREMS The spinal-rhombencephalic and cortical types of wake are inherently anti-homeostatic. Animals must forage, reproduce, and survive to predation disregarding the environmental circumstances, hence temporarily forgetting the homeostatic regulation. After fulfilling the vital functions, the brainstem-diencephalic wake recovers the homeostatic control. The phasic signs of REMS are adaptive in immature mammals, serving for demanding heat, milk and defense to their mother. These advantages outweigh the REMS' poikilostasis in infants. The adults’ poikilostasis of REMS is harmless in thermoneutral environments but is mal-adaptive in aquatic environments in which REMS is reduced or even disappears. These exceptions explain the anomalous examples of REMS. An on-off hypothalamic switch homeostatically regulates the entrance and exit from REMS. Furthermore, the vital phasic signs of REMS depend on a second pontine proportional homeostatic control. Altogether, they regulate the expression of REMS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: wearable sensor; pulse oximetry; sleep disturbance; blood oxygenation; haptic feedback; home care; oxygen concentration
Online: 18 November 2021 (14:32:09 CET)
The study reports about a case of a lung cancer patient with increasing difficulties in falling asleep and frequent periods of wakefulness. Severe dyspnea related to pneumonitis caused as a side effect of immunotherapy worsened the situation. Eventually, fear of falling asleep developed, including panic attacks and anxiety of choking, which was shown to lead to nights of complete wakefulness. The patient did not only sleep poorly; he did not sleep at all at night for several days, as evidenced by the notes he made during the night. Polygraphy showed no evidence of sleep-disordered breathing, but frequent periods of wakefulness and reduced basal saturation around 90% during sleep due to lung changes such as extensive functional failure of the left upper lobe with position-dependent shunts. The authors hypothesized that the symptoms described were causally related to a drop in oxygen saturation in the patient's blood. Therefore, they pursued the goal of finding a measurement technique that is as inexpensive as possible and that the patient can operate without outside assistance and great effort. So the patient started using a low-cost wearable device that allows simultaneous measurements of blood oxygen content, pulse rate and movement intensity. It consists of a finger ring with pulse oximetry sensor and a wristband with the control unit containing a vibration motor. The described device reliably warned of disturbances in oxygen concentration in the blood during the night with its vibration alarm. By use of that device during the whole night at home, the events of reduced oxygen saturation and the anxiety symptoms were reduced. Sleep disturbances with sudden awakenings did not occur when using the device. The patient benefited from the security gained in this way and slept much more peacefully, and he could spend nights without waking up again. In conclusion, wearable oximeters with vibration alarm can be recommended for patients’ home care in lung cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: sleep; anesthesia; rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; NREM sleep; sharp-wave ripples (SWRs); dreaming; consciousness
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:12:47 CEST)
Sleep is still considered a mystery, despite intense scientific investigation. Here we present the first complete biological theory of sleep. The role of sleep is to restore the optimal homeostatic state, which is essential for tissue performance and health. Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) restores cortical and most other brain neurons, via relaxed global activity managed by thalamocortical circuits. The role of REM sleep is to restore acetylcholine (ACh) neurons, which support focused responses and hence cannot participate in global oscillations. Sleep enhances learning and memory via state restoration and ACh-affected paths. NREMS induces a lack of consciousness because global synchronous activity prevents focused responses, which are essential for consciousness. Dreams result from focused neural firing during sharp-wave ripples and REMS, and have a sense of reality because they involve the same neurons representing focused perceptual responses during wake. Anesthetics utilize a variety of mechanisms that prevent focused responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep apnea; professional drivers; snoring; screening; sleep disordered breathing
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:15:13 CEST)
Sleep apnea is common in professional truck drivers. As undiagnosed and/or untreated sleep apnea is a risk factor for sleepiness-related traffic accidents, it should be recognized. We develop a new, simple tool to screen sleep apnea in this population. Altogether, 2066 professional truck drivers received a structured questionnaire. 175 drivers had a clinical examination and were invited to sleep laboratory studies, including cardiorespiratory polygraphy. We studied associations of different risk factors with the presence of sleep apnea. We established a new simple screening tool for sleep apnea that was compared to other existing screening tools. 1095 drivers filled in the questionnaire. 172 drivers had successful cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Full data was available for 160 male drivers, who were included in the analyses. The following five risk factors for sleep apnea formed the BAMSA-score (0 to 5): BMI>30 kgm-2, Age>50 years, Male gender, Snoring at least on one night per week and presence of Apneas at least sometimes. BAMSA showed a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 78.8% in detecting AHI≥15, when using a cut point of 4 and the ROC area was 0.823. BAMSA is a sensitive and easy-to-use tool in predicting sleep apnea in male professional drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0369.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; impaired neurogenesis; sleep-wake cycle; non-REM sleep
Online: 20 November 2018 (07:06:35 CET)
Through the use of a simplified model of consciousness this paper illustrates the symptoms of schizophrenia linked to neocortical structures and functions. It makes the case that the bewildering and varied presentation of symptoms in schizophrenia can be analyzed and explained using such models. The model is used to illustrate the central thesis of the paper, that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurogenesis which leads to progressive neurochemical, functional and neurophysiological changes that create the characteristic behaviors of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: workplace health promotion; sleep quality; sleep hygiene; sleepiness; safety; insomnia; sleep deprivation; accidents; near miss; police
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:27:57 CEST)
A workplace sleep health promotion program was implemented in an Italian police unit from 2016 to 2017. Of the 242 police officers in the unit, 218 (90%) agreed to take part in the program. A crossover trial was made in which the police officers were divided into two groups that performed sleep health promotion activities in the first and second year, respectively. The first group of officers showed significant sleep improvements at the end of the first year, while the second group had similar or worse parameters than at baseline. At follow-up, a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of sleep was reported in both groups. Sleep improvements at follow-up were associated with a marked reduction in the frequency of accidents at work and near-misses. All sleep parameters showed a significant association with injuries and near-misses in univariate logistic regression analyses. Before the intervention, sleepiness was the best predictor of injuries (aOR 1.220; CI95% 1.044-1.426) and near-misses (aOR 1.382; CI95% 1.182-1.615). At follow-up, when sleep conditions had improved, insomnia symptoms were the most significant predictors of work accidents (aOR 13.358; CI95% 2.353-75.818). Sleep health promotion can be useful in police officers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: breakthrough cancer pain; cancer-associated pain; cancer; health-related quality of life; sleep disorders; transmucosal fentanyl
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:36:53 CET)
Objectives: To explore the effect of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) treatment on quality of sleep and other aspects of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with cancer pain. Methods: In an observational, multicenter, cohort study, cancer patients from palliative care units, oncology departments, and pain clinics and affected by BTcP were included. Enrolled patients were assessed at the four visits: T0 (baseline), T7, T14, and T28. Well-controlled chronic background pain during the whole study period was mandatory. BTcP was treated through transmucosal fentanyl. Three questionnaires were used to measure the HRQoL: EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Results: In 154 patients, the HRQoL showed a significant improvement for all physical and emotional characteristics in the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL, except for nausea and vomiting (Linear p-value = 0.1) and dyspnoea (Linear p-value =0.05). The ESAS and PSQI questionnaires confirmed these positive results (p<0.0001 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions: This prospective investigation by an Italian expert group, has confirmed that careful management of BTcP induces a paramount improvement on the HRQoL. Because in cancer patients there is a high prevalence of BTcP and this severe acute pain has deleterious consequences, this information can have an important clinical significance
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: eating jetlag; eating window; dietary fibers; melatonin-containing foods; chronotype; social jetlag; sleep duration; light sleep phase; deep sleep phase; REM sleep phase
Online: 10 July 2023 (14:45:33 CEST)
The study examined eating timing, diet, and the ratio of sleep phases in people with social jetlag (SJL). The study involved 83 participants who filled out a questionnaire, and 21 of them took part in the study of sleep phases by electroencephalography during the week. SJL was associated with a higher incidence rate of eating jetlag, eating phase delays, an increase in calorie intake after 9 p.m., a decrease in dietary fiber intake for breakfast, and melatonin-containing product consumption for dinner. Young people with SJL had a reduction in total sleep and light sleep phase duration by 60 and 36 min on work/school days and an increase in total sleep and REM sleep phase duration by 66 and 60 min on weekends, respectively. Young people consuming foods with more than 4234.5 ng of melatonin for dinner, compared with their peers consuming less than 313.2 ng of melatonin, showed a decrease in SJL and sleep debt by 54 and 90 min and an increase in the total sleep and the deep sleep phase duration by 66 and 30 min, respectively. Thus, the consumption of melatonin-containing foods for dinner is associated with a decrease in circadian misalignment and a sleep quality improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0506.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: sleep stage classification; ECG, nested–cycle sleep pattern; stage transition
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:10:07 CET)
：Sleep stage on the whole night is not steady. Sleepers generally pass through three to five cycles. In each cycle, there are occur four typical sleep stages, such as wake stage (WS), light stage (LS), deep sleep (DS), rapid eye movement sleep stage (REM). According to the natural routine, in this paper, we investigate the stage transition and analyze the feature of stage transition using the local cluster Algorithm (LCA). Two-cycle sleep model (TCSM) is proposed to automatically classify sleep stages using over-night continuous heart rate variability (HRV) data. The generated model is based on the characteristics of the nested cycle's sleep stage distribution and the transition probabilities of sleep stages. Experiments were conducted using a public data set including 400 healthy subjects (female 239, male 161) and the model’s classification accuracy was evaluated for four sleep stages: WS, LS, DS, REM. The experimental results showed that based on the TCSM model, the segmentation classification of pure sleep is 5.2% higher than that of the traditional method, and the accuracy of segmentation classification is 11.2% higher than the traditional sleep staging accuracy. The experimental performance is promising in terms of the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates compared with the ones of the state-of-the-art methods. The study contributes to improve the quality of sleep monitoring in daily life using easy-to-wear HRV sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: wrist-worn devices; sleep trackers; activity trackers; sleep classification; polysomnography
Online: 26 July 2019 (17:13:36 CEST)
Commercial sleep devices and mobile-phone applications for scoring sleep are gaining ground. In order to provide reliable information about the quantity and/or quality of sleep, their performance needs to be assessed against the current gold-standard, i.e. polysomnography (PSG; measuring brain, eye and muscle activity). We here assessed some commercially available sleep trackers, namely; a commercial activity tracker: Mi band (Xiaomi, BJ, CHN), a scientific actigraph: Motionwatch 8 (CamNTech, CB, UK), and a much used sleep application: Sleep Cycle (Northcube, GOT, SE). We recorded 27 nights in healthy sleepers using PSG and these devices. Surprisingly, all devices had very poor agreement with the gold standard. Sleep parameter comparisons revealed that specifically the Mi band and the sleep cycle application had difficulties in detecting wake periods which negatively affected the total sleep time and sleep efficiency estimations. However, all 3 devices were good in detecting the most basic parameter, the actual time in bed. In summary, our results suggest that, to-date; available sleep trackers do not provide meaningful sleep analysis but may be interesting for simply tracking times in bed. A much closer interaction with the scientific field seems necessary if reliable information shall be derived from such devices in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1849.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: restless sleep disorder; periodic leg movements during sleep; prematurity; iron deficiency
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:29:19 CEST)
Children with history of prematurity are at higher risk of complications, comorbidities and iron deficiency. In this study we assess the prevalence of restless sleep disorder, as well as that of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) in these children. Retrospective chart review of sleep studies in children aged 1-18 years, with history of prematurity. Only diagnostic studies in children without diagnosis of a genetic syndrome or airway surgery or tracheostomy were included. Three groups were compared, children with PLMS index>5, children with restless sleep disorder (RSD), and children with neither elevated PLMS index nor RSD. During the study, 2,577 sleep studies were conducted. Ninety-two studies fit our criteria and were included in analysis. Median birth age was 31 weeks, interquartile range (IQR) 27-34 weeks. Thirty-two (34.8%) children were referred for restless sleep and 55 (59.8%) for snoring; after polysomnography 18% were found to have PLMS index >5/hour, 14% fit the criteria for RSD. There were no statistically significant differences in polysomnographic parameters between the children with RSD, PLMS and the remaining group, except for lower obstructive apnea/hypopnea index (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA 8.621, p=0.0135) in the RSD group (median 0.7, IQR 0.3-0.9) than in the PLMS (median 1.7, IQR 0.7-3.5), or than in the nonRSD/nonPLMS group (median 2.0, IQR 0.8-4.5). There was elevated frequency of RSD and elevated PLMS in children with history of prematurity that might be linked to the increased risk of iron deficiency in premature infants. These new results add new knowledge on the prevalence of RSD in these children.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Central sleep apnea; adaptive servo ventilation; oxygen therapy; sleep positional therapy
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:28:11 CEST)
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is well known to often improve with non-supine positioning as opposed to su¬pine positioning. Emerging research supports a role for sleep position management in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) as well. We report a case of de novo Complex Sleep apnea Syndrome (CompSAS) in a 78-year-old female, who presented after a car accident due to unclear syncope. Diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) showed a moderate OSA. A CompSAS developed under Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP), while download data of 4 years showed a good adherence. No significant benefit was reported under Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) and BiPAP-ST, while a reduction of CSA in non-supine position was noticed. Oxygen and sleep positional therapy (SPT) were considered resulting in a significant improvement of CSA and sleep quality. Further research on the prevalence of positional CSA is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Consumer Sleep Technologies; Wearables; Sleep-Tracking; Behavioral Economics; Demand Curve Analysis
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:18:22 CET)
The goal of this report was to examine the behavioral economic demand for consumer sleep technologies with different levels of validation and endorsement. The value or importance consumers place in different validation methods and the organizations conducting the evaluations was also assessed. Survey data were collected from 113 participants on Amazon mTurk. Participants indicated their likelihood of purchasing devices that varied in level of validation across a series of increasing prices. Demand curves were analyzed to determine the relative value of each watch type. Participants also reported how valuable or important different aspects of device validation were to them. Devices that were both evaluated against laboratory measures and endorsed by sleep researchers had the most value, followed by those only evaluated against laboratory measures, and then those not evaluated against any laboratory measures. The unit price at which there was 50% probability of purchase was increased by $25 or $44 for evaluation or endorsement, respectively. Respondents indicated the most valuable features were a measure of sleep duration, that it was most important that devices were validated against measures of sleep from a laboratory or hospital, and that they would put a high value on sleep tracker endorsements from a university or academic institution. Consumer demand is greatest for a device that has been evaluated by an independent laboratory for accuracy in measuring sleep and is endorsed by an academic, medical, or government institution. These results indicate a role for scientific evaluation and endorsement in consumer preference for sleep trackers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: sleep deficiency; insufficient sleep; surgery; surgical complications; attending surgeon; surgical outcomes
Online: 29 July 2022 (06:27:15 CEST)
Background: Sleep deficiency can adversely affect the performance of resident physicians resulting in greater medical errors. However, the impact of sleep deficiency on surgical outcomes, particularly among attending surgeons is less clear. Methods: Sixty attending surgeons from academic and community departments of surgery or obstetrics and gynecology were studied prospectively using direct observation and self-report to explore the effect of sleep deprivation on patient safety, operating room communication, medical errors, and adverse events while operating under two conditions, Post-Call (defined as >2 hours of nighttime clinical duties) and Non-Post-Call. Results: Each surgeon contributed up to five surgical procedures post-call and non-post-call yielding 362 cases total (150 Post-Call and 210 Non-Post-Call). Most common were caesarian section and herniorrhaphy. Hours of sleep on the night before the operative procedure were significantly less Post-Call (4.98 ± 1.41) vs. Non-Post-Call (6.68 ± 0.88, p<0.01). Errors were infrequent and not related to hours of sleep or post-call status. However, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) ratings demonstrated poorer performance while Post-Call for Situational Awareness, Decision Making and Communication/Teamwork. Fewer hours of sleep also was related to lower ratings for Situational Awareness and Decision Making. Decreased self-reported alertness was observed to be associated with increased procedure time. Conclusions: Sleep deficiency in attending surgeons was not associated with greater errors during procedures performed during the next day. However, procedure time was increased suggesting that surgeons were able to compensate for sleep loss by working more slowly. Ratings on non-technical surgical skills were adversely affected by sleep deficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: sleep apnoea; obstructive sleep apnoea; polysomnography; excessive day time sleepiness; obesity
Online: 16 September 2020 (07:19:33 CEST)
Objective: Identify factors associated with excessive day time sleepiness (EDS) in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and analyze the effects that obesity and gender have on excessive daytime sleepiness in such individuals. Methods: A total of 160 people were selected for this study. All the people have completed a clinical evaluation, and whose apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10 events/hour of sleep on polysomnography were included in the study from the Department of otolaryngology. Results: The Mean age was 43.87±11.34 years, mean EDS score was 14.09± 4.91, and mean AHI was 43.88±20.66 events/hour of sleep. Male presented lower mean age, higher EDS scores, and more time in apnoea, whereas females presented with higher mean age, lower EDS scores, and less time in sleep apnea. The EDS score showed best correlation with duration of apnoea (r = 0.448; p < 0.01), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2; r = -0.458; p < 0.01) and AHI (r = 0.484; p < 0.01). The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.41±3.86 kg/m2. Normal, Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese were observed in 20%, 61%, 18%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. Severity of the disease best correlated with BMI (r = 0.421; p < 0.01). Conclusions: OSA is predominant in males (M/F 5:1), and obese population. Females diagnosed with OSA have higher mean age. However, EDS scores and time spent in sleep apnoea is lower in females. Higher BMI is associated with EDS, irrespective of gender.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0138.v1
Online: 9 June 2022 (08:11:21 CEST)
Lack of sleep is a factor that disrupts the receptors' reception of information from the environ-ment and contributes to the emergence of problems with maintaining balance. The main pur-pose of this study was to find out whether Computer Dynamic Posturography could be a useful tool in distinguishing between people who sleep well from people with insomnia. The study participants were 76 male students who were divided into groups based on the results obtained from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire. In each group, postural stability had been tested using three main tests: Strategy Organization Test SOT, Motor Control Test MCT and Ad-aptation Test ADT. The results of the analysis show that the obtained results differ in the exam-ined groups under the SOT test. Among people with insomnia, higher values of the tested pa-rameters were noted, than with people who sleep well, which translates into a worse ability to maintain balance. The greatest impact is observed when using eyesight and a vestibular system to maintain a stable posture. It was confirmed that Computer Dynamic Posturography is used to differentiate between people who sleep well from people with insomnia in the group of men. Lack of sleep significantly disturbs postural stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; coronavirus; subjective sleep quality; risk perception; fear of infection; rumination; perception of collective coordinated defense; collective efficacy beliefs
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:34:47 CEST)
Background: Only few studies have studied the link between risk perception and sleep in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of two distinct risk appraisals—risk perception and perception of collective coordinated defense (PCCD) on Chinese adults’ sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic, and tested COVID-19-related fear and rumination as potential mediators of the relationships. Methods: Data were collected using a self-report online questionnaire from a sample of 224 Chinese adults during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Results: COVID-19 risk perception and PCCD were related to poor sleep quality. Mediation analysis showed that both fear and rumination mediated the relationship between risk perception and sleep quality, whereas only fear mediated the relationship between PCCD and sleep quality. The model showed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 44% of the variance in sleep quality in Chinese adults. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the distinct perceptual processes—risk appraisals in particular—contributed to poor sleep quality in Chinese adults during the COVID-19 public emergencies. These findings would be helpful for policy makers to address the sleep problems induced by psychological consequences of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep fragmentation; obstructive sleep apnea; explicit memory; inflammation; blood brain barrier; cognition; microglia
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:18:23 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF). In murine models, chronic SF can impair endothelial function and induce cognitive declines. These deficits are likely mediated, at least in part, by alterations in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to SF or sleep control (SC) conditions for 4 or 9 weeks, and in a subset 2 or 6 weeks of normal sleep recovery. Presence of inflammation and microglia activation were evaluated. Explicit memory function was assessed with the novel object recognition (NOR) test, while BBB permeability was determined by systemic dextran-4kDA-FITC injection and Claudin 5 expression. SF exposures resulted in decreased NOR performance and in increased inflammatory markers and microglial activation as well as enhanced BBB permeability. Explicit memory and BBB permeability were significantly associated. BBB permeability remained elevated after 2 weeks of sleep recovery (p<0.01) and returned to baseline values only after 6 weeks. Chronic SF exposures mimicking the fragmentation of sleep that characterizes patient with OSA elicits evidence of inflammation in brain regions and explicit memory impairments in mice. Similarly, SF is also associated with increased BBB permeability, the magnitude of which is closely associated with cognitive functional losses. Despite normalization of sleep patterns, BBB functional recovery is a protracted process that merits further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0208.v4
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: sleep; memory; consolidation; napping; fatigue
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:56:59 CEST)
Understanding the complex relationship between sleep and memory is a major challenge in neuroscience. Many studies on memory consolidation in humans suggest that sleep triggers offline memory processes, resulting in less forgetting of declarative memory and performance stabilization in non-declarative memory. However, issues related to non-optimal experimental designs, task characteristics and measurements, and inappropriate data analysis practices can significantly affect the interpretation of the effect of sleep on memory. In this article, we discuss these issues and suggest constructive solutions to address them. We believe that implementing these solutions in future sleep and memory research will significantly advance this field by improving the understanding of the specific role of sleep in memory consolidation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: atopic dermatitis; melatonin; sleep disturbances
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:27:32 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common inflammatory dermatosis, typically with chronic and recurrent course, which significantly reduces the quality of life. Sleep disturbances are considered to be remarkably burdensome ailments in the patients with AD, and are routinely included during assessment of disease severity. Therefore, endogenous substances engaged in the control of circadian rhythms might be important in pathogenesis of AD and, possibly, be used as biomarkers of disease severity or even in development of novel therapies. Melatonin (MT), the indoleamine produced by pineal gland (but also by multiple other tissues, including skin), plays a pivotal role in maintaining the sleep/wake homeostasis. Additionally, it possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which might directly link chronic skin inflammation and sleep abnormalities characteristic of AD. The objective of this work is to systematically present and summarize the results of studies (both experimental and clinical) that investigated the role of MT in the AD, with focus on the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of MT.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0446.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: sleep; allometric scaling; oxidative stress
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:29:53 CEST)
Why animals sleep is an outstanding open question. Information about the toxic byproducts of aerobic cellular respiration along with the analysis of patterns in animal size, sleep needs, dietary-type, metabolism, number of heart beats, transportation-network design, and transportation energetics/dynamics suggest that the function of sleep is to maximize the time an animal has to perform its life functions given the finite and constant number of lifetime heart beats it has. Sleep slows down metabolism, and the heart rate, thereby decreasing the load of toxic reactive oxygen species in the cell and extending the cell’s lifetime/proper-functioning. I argue that this is used to maximize the time an animal spends in its ‘effective environment’, which is defined as the period in the light cycle (day or night) where the essential life-functions of that animal (like finding resources, finding sex, hunting) are better achieved. Larger, slow-metabolizing animals need less sleep because their large-bodily-networks and slow metabolisms keep their heart rates relatively low, resulting in a lower rate of oxidative damage, and more relative time in the ‘effective environment’ to get their essential life-functions accomplished.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1807.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; choroid; cornea; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome; ocular health; ophtalmology; retina; sleep-disordered breathing
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:25:08 CEST)
Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a respiratory condition identified by the partial or complete obstruction of the upper air passages during sleep. These episodes can lead to complications in neurobehavioral and cognitive domains and cardiovascular issues, especially in children. The involvement of OSA in ocular health during adulthood has been reported, but it remains a topic of debate in pediatric cases. Objective: This review aims to analyze the correlation between OSAS and ocular health in children. Specifically, it investigates the effects of OSA on ocular structures and conditions and explores potential improvements through treatment. Subjects and Methods: The research employed three search engines: PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and WebOfScience. After initial identification, 120 irrelevant articles were excluded. Of these, 10 pertained to the adult population, and 110 focused on the pediatric population. Following a careful selection process and the application of enrollment criteria, six relevant articles were included, all in English, focusing on the effects of OSA on children's eyes. Among these, three studies explored correlations with choroidal alterations, while three investigated retinal and optic nerve changes. Two studies analyzed post-otorhinolaryngological intervention ocular changes. Results: OSA leads to increased intraocular pressure and reduced optic nerve thickness in adults, but treatment alleviates this condition. An immediate correlation between OSA and optic nerve thickness in children does not readily emerge, although age appears to play a role. Pediatric patients with OSA exhibit corneal anomalies and an increase in optic nerve thickness, possibly due to intermittent hypoxia. Studies indicate that OSA can influence retinal vascular density in children, with an increase observed after treatment and reduced choroidal thickness in cases of adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion: This literature review has highlighted how OSA in children can significantly impact ocular health, with observed alterations in the optic nerve, choroid, retina, and cornea. While the direct correlation with the optic nerve may not always be evident, OSA can elevate intraocular pressure and lead to structural changes. However, treatment appears to bring about improvements. The necessity for regular monitoring to detect potential adverse effects underscores the importance of promptly addressing childhood OSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep; academic performance; grade point average; college students; wearable device; longitudinal; nighttime sleep awakening
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:45:37 CET)
Although the relations between sleep and academic performance have been extensively examined, how sleep predicts future academic performance (e.g., 2 -3 years) remains to be further investigated. Using wearable smartwatches and a self-report questionnaire, we tracked sleep activities of 45 college students over a period of approximate half a month to see whether their sleep activities predicted their academic performance, which was estimated by grade point average (GPA). Results showed that both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency in the tracking period were not significantly correlated with the GPA for the courses taken in the semester during sleep tracking (current GPA). However, both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency inversely predicted the GPA for the rest of the courses taken after that semester (future GPA). Moreover, students with more difficulty staying awake throughout the day obtained lower current and future GPAs, and students with lower inconsistency of sleep quality obtained lower future GPA. Together, these findings highlight the importance of nighttime sleep awakening frequency and consistency in predicting future academic performance and emphasize the necessity of assessing the consistency of sleep measures in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep breathing disorders; mandibular advancement; MAD; titratable positioner; drug-induced sleep endoscopy; patient selection.
Online: 28 December 2021 (11:03:45 CET)
Mandibular advancement devices (MAD) are an effective alternative treatment to CPAP. However, different maneuvers have been performed during the performance of drug sleep-induced endoscopy (DISE) to mimic the effect of MAD. Using the Selector Avance Mandibular (SAM) device, we aimed to identify MAD candidates during DISE using a titratable, reproducible, and measurable maneuver. This DISE-SAM protocol may help to find the relationship between the severity of the respiratory disorder and the degree of response, and to determine the advancement required to improve the collapsibility of the upper airway. Explorations were performed in 161 patients (132 males; 29 females) with a mean age of 46.81 (SD = 11.42) years, a BMI of 27.90 (SD = 4.19) kg/m2 and a mean AHI of 26.51 (SD = 21.23). Results showed no relationship between severity and MAD recommendation. Also, there was a weak positive relationship between the advancement required to obtain a response and the disease severity. Using the DISE-SAM protocol, the response and the range of mandibular protrusion were assessed, avoiding the inter-examiner bias of the jaw thrust maneuver. We suggest prescribing MAD as a single, alternative, or multiple treatment approaches following the SAM recommendations in a personalized design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0551.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnoea; intermittent airway obstruction; sleep disorder; magnesium; micronutrient deficiency; metabolic risk factor
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:47:33 CEST)
Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects patients’ quality of life and health. Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral and a potent antioxidant. Mg deficiency can worsen oxidative stress caused by sleep deprivation or disorders. The impact of OSA on serum Mg levels and its health consequences remain unclear. Methods: This study systematically reviewed clinical studies investigating the serum Mg levels of OSA patients and the potential relationships with other biomarkers.Results: Six articles were included for qualitative synthesis; five were used in quantitative analysis. Two out of four studies that compared OSA patients to healthy controls found them to have significantly lower serum Mg levels. Our meta-analysis with three studies shows that patients with OSA had significantly lower serum Mg with an effect size of -1.22 (95% CI: -2.24, -0.21). However, the mean serum Mg level of OSA patients (n=251) pooled from five studies (1.90 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.77, 2.04) does not differ significantly from the normal range. OSA severity appears to affect serum Mg negatively. Serum Mg levels generally improve after treatment, coincide with the improvement of OSA severity. Low serum Mg levels correlate with worsening of cardiovascular risk biomarkers of C-reactive protein, ischaemia-modified albumin, and carotid intima-media thickness. The serum Mg levels also potentially correlate with biomarkers for lipid profile, glucose metabolism, calcium and heavy metals. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation appears to deplete Mg levels of OSA patients, making them at risk of Mg deficiency, which potentially increases systemic inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0506.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: circadian rhythm; sleep disorders; socioeconomic status; stress; allostatic load; health outcome
Online: 10 December 2018 (14:18:30 CET)
The variations in socioeconomic status (SES) between different social classes of a population correspond to differences in accessibility to all resources available and able to improve global health. While SES is now known as one of the main determinants for a good health and a good aging, its influence on sleep disorders (SD) is not well understood. SES is a concept, not directly observable but estimated using indicators like income, education, occupational status and area of living. This theoretical review explores some theories linking environment of people with occurrence of SD, with different patterns associated to SES. A model of interaction is proposed to summarize and conceptualizes these interactions and to promote more research on the topic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Arousal threshold; NREM sleep; REM sleep; auditory system; visual system; olfactory system; pain; OFF periods
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:27:57 CET)
When we are asleep we lose the ability to promptly respond to external stimuli and yet we spend many hours every day in this inherently risky behavioral state. This simple fact strongly suggests that sleep must serve essential functions that rely on the brain going offline, on a daily basis, and for long periods of time. If these functions did not require partial sensory disconnection, it would be difficult to explain why they are not performed during waking. Paradoxically, despite its central role in defining sleep and what sleep does, sensory disconnection during sleep remains a mystery. We have a limited understanding of how it is implemented along the sensory pathways, we do not know whether the same mechanisms apply to all sensory modalities, nor do we know to which extent these mechanisms are shared between non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. The main goal of this contribution is to review some knowns and unknowns about sensory disconnection during sleep as a first step to fill this gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0507.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep education; insomnia; training; circadian rhythms; behavioral sleep medicine, psychotherapy; dissemination; implementation science; mental health
Online: 30 August 2022 (05:07:56 CEST)
Despite the strong links between sleep, circadian rhythms, and mental health, sleep education has been neglected in mental healthcare provider training programs. The current pilot study examined the potential efficacy and acceptability of a sleep education workshop for trainee psychologists, called the Sleep Psychology Workshop. Eleven students completing their Master of Psychology degrees (90% female, 24.4 ± 1.6 years old) attended the Sleep Psychology Workshop as part of their Health Psychology course, delivered as three, two-hour lectures (total six hours). Trainees’ sleep psychology knowledge quiz scores (% correct) demonstrated significant improvement from pre- (M = 60%, SD = .09) to post-workshop (M = 79%, SD = .08), t (6) = -5.18, p = .002. Trainees also reported increased self-efficacy to use common sleep-related assessment instruments and empirically supported interventions to manage sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, along with increased confidence to manage insomnia disorder in clinical practice (all p<.02). Trainees also endorsed the workshop as an acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists via a post-workshop feedback survey, focus group, and six-month follow-up survey. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for the Sleep Psychology Workshop as an effective and acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: screen time; SDQ; sleep; parental control
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:24:13 CEST)
Children's screen time may affect their growth and development. However, different aspects of children and their parents that affect children's screen time has not been investigated in the Japanese context. This study aimed to explore the relationship between relevant factors affecting children's screen time based on their sleep, difficulties, and parental control, among Japanese elementary and junior high school students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents in Japan. Data on screen time duration, parent-child background, strengths and difficulties, sleep variables, and parental control types were collected from 225 households. Path analysis revealed that high Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores (β = 0.167, p = 0.007), sleep duration (β = -0.282, p < 0.001), and parental control (β = -0.205, p < 0.001) were significantly related to children's screen time. Additionally, late parental bedtime negatively correlated with children's sleep duration (β = -0.326, p < 0.001). The findings suggest that children's difficulties, sleep duration, and parental control are associated with children's screen time. This study, together with previous research, provides comprehensive insights to design interventions to decrease screen time in children in the Japanese context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1961.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Sleep; Diet; Mediterranean; Adolescent; Students; Chile
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:43:09 CEST)
the main objective was to determine the association between sleep hygiene and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Chilean schoolchildren from rural public schools in southern Chile. Non-experimental, analytical, cross-sectional study. A total of 265 students (56.6% women, mean age 13.5±1.8) from a rural community in southern Chile were recruited. Sleep habits were evaluated with the Life Habits and Adolescence Questionnaire, section 6: Sleep and Rest; and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with the KIDMED Mediterranean Diet Adherence Questionnaire. Main results indicated that 52.8% of schoolchildren need to improve adherence to the Mediterranean diet and 16.6% have a low-quality Mediterranean diet. A high percentage of schoolchildren have behaviors related to poor sleep hygiene (going to bed late (46%), waking up tired and wanting to continue sleeping (63.8% and having problems falling asleep (42.6%). schoolchildren who got up after 8:30 a.m., those who fell asleep after 12:00 a.m., those who woke up tired and those who had trouble falling asleep had a lower level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet compared to schoolchildren who got up earlier 8:30 a.m., fell asleep before 12:00 a.m., did not wake up tired, and those who did not find it difficult to fall asleep, respectively. In conclusion, having poor sleep hygiene is associated with less adherence to the Mediterranean diet in schoolchildren from rural public schools in southern Chile. It is important to monitor these variables in schoolchildren, as well as to promote healthy lifestyle habits within the educational community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Long covid; Post covid; Sleep disorders
Online: 11 May 2023 (09:42:22 CEST)
Objectives: To examine the long term impact of COVID-19 on sleep patterns and development of sleep disorders. Methods: Using the centralized Massachusetts General Brigham (MGB) Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR), SARS-CoV2 positive patients were surveyed about their sleep patterns before and after the viral infection. Information related to co-morbid conditions and medications were obtained through chart review. Results: Two hundred and forty five completed surverys were analysed. Average age was 53.3 ± 16.3 years, and participants were predominantly Non-Hispanic White (84.1%) and female (74.3%). Average BMI (kg/m2) was 29.9 ± 6.9, and a greater proportion was non-smokers (63.2%). After COVID-19, there was an increase in the percentage of participants reporting difficulty initiating (31 ± 46% vs. 39 ± 49%, P=0.01), and maintaining sleep (43 ± 49% vs. 57 ± 49%, P<0.001), and use of sleep aids (24 ± 43% vs. 30 ± 45% P=0.003) with an incidence rate of 24.3%, 37.4%, and 12.3% respectively. In addition, there was an increase in daytime fatigue and the need for napping (58 ± 49% vs. 36 ± 48%, P <0.0001) with an incidence of 8% and 23% respectively. The sleep symptoms persisted beyond 12 months among 28% of the participants and were predominantly seen among women. Conclusions: Infection with SARS-CoV2 has negative effects on sleep, and a significant proportion of adults experience insomnia and daytime sleepiness beyond 12 months after recovering from the initial infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Sleep deprivation; Cytokines; curcumin; nano – curcumin
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:06:44 CET)
In this review, the following information describes the manifestation of sleep deprivation by human beings and its adverse effect on their health. Sleep deprivation has been demonstrated into namely two types known as REM sleep and NREM sleep affecting our health in so a problematic way that it is making our body immune to many diseases leading to lethal problems. Therefore, great research by many scientists has discovered that the turmeric “Curcuma longa” which is been used in every Indian kitchen since ancient times, has shown a remarkable effect on the problem caused by sleep deprivation but due to its poor solubility and low bioavailability drawn it into a great disadvantage. But the help of the study of nanotechnology and the evolution of curcumin into nano–curcumin made the possibility of the remarkable effect by making the curcumin more potent and enhancing its stability. Immunological changes due to sleep deprivation lead to Alzheimer’s disease, glioma, neuropathic pains, and many more. Therefore, this review has been summarized as it is been providing information related to curcumin and its affection for sleep deprivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0075.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: nap; sleep; motor adaptation; learning; consolidation
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:36:15 CEST)
Daytime napping offers benefits for motor memory learning and is used as habitual countermeasure to improve daytime functioning. A single napping is shown to ameliorate motor memory learning, although the effect of consecutive napping on motor memory consolidation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of daytime napping over multiple days on motor memory learning. Twenty university students were divided into the napping group and no-nap (awake) group. Napping group performed motor adaption tasks before and after napping for three consecutive days, whereas no-nap group performed the task on the similar time schedule as the napping group. In addition, a subsequent retest was conducted one week after the end of the intervention. The speed to complete the task of the napping group was significantly shorter than that of the awake group in the retention test. No significant difference was confirmed for trajectory length to complete the task. Thus, consecutive napping may facilitate motor learning and motor memory consolidation in the long term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: memory; p75NTR; synaptic plasticity; sleep deprivation
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:27:36 CET)
In recent years, many molecular and environmental factors have been studied to understand how synaptic plasticity is modulated. Sleep, as an evolutionary conserved biological function, has shown to be a critical player for the consolidation and filtering of synaptic circuitry underlying memory traces. Although sleep disturbances do not alter normal memory consolidation, they may reflect fundamental circuit malfunctions that can play a significant role in exacerbating diseases, such as autism and Alzheimer’s disease. Very recently, scientists sought to answer part of this enigma and they identified p75 neurotrophic receptor (p75NTR) as a critical player in mediating impairments in hippocampal-dependent associative plasticity upon sleep deprivation. This paper will review the role of the p75NTR, critically discuss the impact and implications of this research as the bridge for sleep research and neurological diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0897.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; sleep; immune system; neuroinflammation; cytokines; mitochondria; neuro-degeneration; melatonin; vitamin D; sleep-based interventions.
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:44:34 CET)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects young adults. The high prevalence of the disease and its impact on patients' quality of life led to priority being given to the etiopathogenesis of the disease to identify possible modifiable factors and consequent effective intervention strategies. Recent hypotheses suggest that the etiopathogenesis of MS is multifactorial and includes factors related to the immune system, neuroinflammation and neuro-degeneration. In this scenario, sleep has a close - although indirect - relationship with MS, through its relationship with each of those factors. In particular, the role of cytokines in immune system impairment and neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurodegeneration all are associated with sleep in different forms. Furthermore, melatonin in relation with vitamin D has a potential therapeutic effect in MS sleep-related problems. Given the growing interest of research in the mechanisms underlying MS and therapies able to alleviate MS-related symptoms at all stages of the disease, a more in-depth study of the role of sleep disturbances and the factors intrinsically related to sleep and MS could be useful both to investigate the etiopathogenetic factors of MS and to develop potential non-invasive intervention strategies for MS treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Pharmacotherapy; Sleep-Wake Disorders; Hypersomnolence; Restless Legs Syndroms; Parasomnias; Sleep-related breathing disorders; Insomnia; Circadian Disorders
Online: 20 October 2023 (03:52:18 CEST)
Biological, environmental, behavioral, and social factors can influence sleep and lead to sleep disorders or diseases. Sleep disorders are common, numerous and heterogeneous in terms of their etiology, pathogenesis, and symptomatology. Management of sleep-wake circadian disorders (SWCD) includes education to sleep hygiene, behavioral strategies, psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), particularly), instrument-based treatments (i.e. positive airway pressure therapy, hypoglossal nerve stimulation), and pharmacotherapy. Depending on the disease, therapy varies and is executed sequentially, or can be a combination of several forms of therapy. Drugs used for SWCD include traditional sleep or wake-promoting agents, chronotherapeutic agents. Recently, novel medications, which are more precisely acting on specific neurochemical systems (i.e. orexin system) important for sleep and wake, are also increasingly being used. In this review, the pharmacotherapy of common sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorder, central disorders of hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm sleep wake disorders, parasomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders) embedded in the overall therapeutic concept of each disorder is presented. There is also an outlook on possible future pharmacotherapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; Metabolomics; Triglycerides; Phosphocholines; Ceramides; Apnea Hypopnea Index; Polysomnography; Lipid metabolism; Multilevel Sleep Surgery
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:19:05 CEST)
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is caused by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Corrective surgeries aim at removing obstructions in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. OSA is associated with increased risk of various metabolic diseases. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgery on the plasma metabolome. Methods: This study included 39 OSA patients who underwent Multilevel Sleep Surgery (MLS). Clinical and anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and 5 months after surgery. Results: The mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly dropped from 22.0 ± 18.5 events/hour to 8.97 ± 9.57 events/hour (p-Value <0.001). The Epworth’s sleepiness Score (ESS) dropped from 12.8 ± 6.23 to 2.95 ± 2.40 (p-Value <0.001) indicating success of the surgery in treating OSA. Plasma levels of metabolites, phosphocholines (PC) PC.41.5, PC.42.3, ceremide (Cer) Cer.44.0, and triglyceride (TG) TG.53.6, TG.55.6 and TG.56.8 were decreased (p-Value<0.05) whereas lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) 20.0 and PC.39.3 were increased (p-Value<0.05) after surgery. Conclusion: This study highlights the success of MLS in treating OSA. Treatment of OSA resulted in improvement in metabolic status that was characterized by decreased TG, PCs and Cer metabolites post-surgery indicating that the success of the surgery positively impacted the metabolic status of these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: emotional regulation; sleep habits; anxiety; children; adolescents
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:56:27 CEST)
Background: Previous research studies have suggested the importance of studying the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Some investigations have especially focused on how emotional regulation could impact sleep habits in children and adolescents. Therefore, these researchers have stated there exists a two-way direction in this relationship. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of emotional regulation on sleep habits in Spanish children and adolescents, and the mediating role of anxiety in this relationship. Method: Participants were 953 Spanish parents who completed the assessment protocol according to their children and adolescents’ information. Results: The results revealed moderate-strong correlations between emotional regulation problems and sleep habits disturbances (r=0.375, p<0.001), trait (r=0.488, p<0.001) and state (r=0.589, p<0.001) anxiety. Also, emotional regulation showed a direct impact on sleep habits (β=0.011, p=0.005). Trait and state anxiety demonstrated a significant mediating role in the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Conclusions: Emotional regulation may have an impact on sleep habits during childhood and adolescence, suggesting the importance of early intervention focused on the emotions management and the prevention of sleep habits disturbances.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: pharyngoplasty; barbed sutures; surgery; obstructive sleep apnea
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:32:28 CEST)
Background: The use of barbed sutures for pharyngoplasty techniques is a new trend in sleep apnea surgery, but little is known about its short-term results depending on the different techniques. The objective of this study was to compare the surgical results in two different centers using barbed sutures in which the main difference was the loops performed in the soft palate. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) operated in two centers. A statistical analysis comparing the ENT department of the Ospedale Morgagni-Pierantoni from Forlí with the ENT department of Dr. Peset University Hospital was performed. Results: The final sample size was 138 patients (70 from Forlí and 68 from Valencia). In both series, a significant improvement was observed in OSA patients with significant reductions in respiratory events not related to weight reduction. The mean delta Apnea-Hypopnea index was 13.36 (SD 21.3) in Forlí and 22.8 (SD 22.05) in Valencia (p<0.05). Forlí’s series had a higher proportion of multilevel surgeries than Valencia's and a lower proportion of tonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion: The number of loops performed in the soft palate may improve the surgical results, nevertheless, this must be confirmed in prospective studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cancer; insomnia; sleep; circadian; the DBST index
Online: 13 April 2022 (08:36:14 CEST)
Patients with cancer experience insomnia or sleep disturbances. This study aimed to explore whether the discrepancy between a patient's desired time in bed and total sleep time (DBST) index is a measurement tool for insomnia severity or sleep onset latency [SOL] in patients with cancer. This retrospective medical records review study gathered clinical information and rating scale scores including Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI), Cancer-related Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep scale (C-DBS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9), State subcategory of State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Short form of Fear of Progression Questionnaire. Sleep indices of time variables (bedtime, sleep onset time, and wake-up time), duration variables [SOL, time in bed (TIB), time in bed for 24 hours (TIB/d), and duration from wake-up time to bedtime (WTB)], and the DBST index were calculated. The ISI score was predicted by PHQ-9 (β=0.34, P<0.001), C-DBS (β=0.17, P=0.034), and DBST index (β=0.22, P=0.004) with a significant correlation with the DBST index (r=0.19, p=0.020). The DBST index was significantly correlated with long SOL (r=0.23, P=0.005). Long SOL was predicted by early bedtime (β=0.18, P=0.045), short WTB (β=-0.26, P=0.004), and high DBST index (β=0.19, P=0.013). The DBST index was significantly correlated with a predicting variable each for insomnia severity and SOL in patients with cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Sleep apnea; hypoxemia; cognitive; brain health; MRI
Online: 3 March 2021 (14:14:41 CET)
We aim to determine the sleep correlates of age-related brain loss in a sample of middle-aged to older males with obstructive sleep apnea. We evaluated consecutive treatment naïve male patients with OSA (AHI≥15 events/hr) without dementia, stroke or heart disease, from January to November of 2019. We collected demographic variables, vascular risk factors, and sleep questionnaires. We also obtained computerized neurocognitive testing with the Go-No-Go Response Inhibition Test, Stroop Interference Test, Catch Game Test, Staged Information Processing Speed Test, Verbal Memory Test and Non-Verbal Memory Test. We derived age and education adjusted domain-specific Z-scores for global cognition, memory, attention, processing speed and executive function. We used brain MRI T1-weighted images to derive total hippocampal and gray matter volumes. Partial correlations evaluated associations between the ISI, AHI, and oxygen level during sleep, with cognitive domains and brain volumes. Sixteen participants, age 40-76 years, 73% Hispanic/Latino, with mean AHI=48.9±25.5 and mean oxygen saturation of 91.4±6.9% during sleep. Hypertension was seen in 66% and diabetes in 27%. We observed that ISI and oxygen level during sleep had strong correlations with brain volumes and cognition. These preliminary findings may aid in developing future strategies to improve age-related brain loss in OSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0446.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Diuretic hormone; behavior; sleep; feeding; neuromodulation; neurohormone
Online: 22 January 2021 (12:48:25 CET)
Leucokinins (LKs) constitute a neuropeptide family first discovered in a cockroach and later identified in numerous insects and several other invertebrates. The LK receptors are only distantly related to other known receptors. Among insects, there are many examples of species where genes encoding LKs and their receptors are absent. Furthermore, genomics has revealed that LK signaling is lacking in several of the invertebrate phyla and in vertebrates. In insects, the number and complexity of LK expressing neurons vary, from the simple pattern in the larva of Drosophila where the entire CNS has 20 neurons of three main types, to cockroaches with about 250 of many different types. Common to all studied insects is the presence or 1-3 pairs of LK-expressing neurosecretory cells in each abdominal neuromere of the ventral nerve cord, that, at least in some insects, regulate secretion in Malpighian tubules. This review summarizes the diverse functional roles of LK signaling in insects, as well as other arthropods and mollusks. These functions include regulation of ion and water homeostasis, feeding, sleep-metabolism interactions, state-dependent memory formation, as well as modulation of gustatory sensitivity and nociception. Other functions are implied by the neuronal distribution of LK, but remain to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0598.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: caffeine; sleep habits; lifestyle; medical students; universities
Online: 23 November 2020 (20:15:40 CET)
Objectives: To determine the effects of caffeine consumption on the sleep habits and lifestyle of medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jinnah Sindh Medical University (JSMU) and Hamdard College of Medicine. On 422 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years, through random sampling. The duration of the study was from January 2019 to June 2019. The data was collected through self-administered questionnaire which included data regarding sleep habits and lifestyle of medical students. Results: Majority (81.6%) of the students consumed caffeine while only (18.4%) did not. One third of the participants (31.8%) reported caffeine consumption increased their academic performance and (57.3%) reported that it does not. More than half of the participants (63.3%) who consumed caffeine slept during class, whereas (47.2%) never had difficulty in falling asleep during the night. Conclusion: This research concluded that caffeine does have some role on sleep habits of medical students as they tend to have less sleep hours, experience day time dysfunction, average quality of sleep, and falling asleep during class. It has been concluded that caffeine has no effect on eating habits of medical students however, it does increase the screening time, keeping them active.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS); Nocturnal Home Cardiorespiratory Polygraphy (PG); Obesity; Saturation O2 (Sa02); Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ)
Online: 3 October 2023 (08:16:58 CEST)
A Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and a recording of the respiratory parameters with a noc-turnal home cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG) are necessary to diagnose OSAS. Few researchers have studied how obesity could influence the respiratory parameters in OSAS children. The aim of the study was to investigate how obesity can influence sleep respiratory parameters in OSAS children. Methods: The study analyzes 56 Caucasian children and adolescents aged 11 ± 2.79 years with a BMI> 5th percentiles and PSQ value of 0.33. Children were divided into the Obesity Group (OG) with a BMI of 95th and the Control Group (CG) with a 5th<BMI> 95th percentile. All selected children underwent PG. Respiratory parameters were extracted to divide into levels of severity OSAS: snoring, mild, moderate, and severe. Results: The comparison analysis of AHI, SaO2, and Nadir between the OG and CG showed a statistical significance only for ODI (p = 0.02). The comparison analysis of PSQ between the OG and CG and of PSQ and respiratory parameters showed no significant result. A statistically significant correlation between BMI and AHI (r2=0.01), SaO2 (r2=0.09), and Nadir O2 (r2=0.00) was found. Conclusion: There was no strong correlation between Obesity and OSAS, but it was found between BMI increasing and AHI severity
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’ s disease; sleep disorders; GBA; Parkin
Online: 1 December 2023 (09:17:21 CET)
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; sleep disorders; GBA; Parkin
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1358.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: sleep; social jetlag; healthcare workers; regularity; occupational health
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:53:38 CEST)
Healthcare workers have atypical working schedule and are exposed to experienced stress that led to poor sleep health and frequent mental complaints, particularly since the Covid-19 crisis. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of poor sleep hygiene and mental complaints and their associations among healthcare workers. Usual sleep-wake timings were ex-plored during workdays and free days and used to compute sleep duration, sleep efficiency and social jetlag. Insomnia, sleepiness, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and fatigue were calculated using validated scales. A total of 1,562 participants were included (80.5% of women and mean age of 40.0). Among them, 25.9% slept less than 6 hours, 24.3% had a poor sleep efficiency, and 11.5% reported a social jetlag. A total of 33.9% of participants reported insomnia, 45.1% reported EDS, 13.1% reported fatigue, 16.5% reported depression and 35.7% reported anxiety. After ad-justment, sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with mental complaints. Social jetlag was associated with significant insomnia but not with anxiety or depression symptoms. Healthcare workers have a high prevalence of poor sleep hygiene and mental complaints. The promotion of sleep health through behavioral sleep strategies should be encouraged to ensure good health for these professionals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0819.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: sleep disorder; narcolepsy; NT1; NT2; cataplexy; orexin/hypocretin
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:16:09 CEST)
The objective of this literature review was to provide an up-to-date overview, and an analysis of the current knowledge on narcolepsy. A systematic search was conducted in different databases to identify relevant studies on various aspects of narcolepsy. The search terms included "narcolepsy," "excessive daytime sleepiness," "cataplexy," and related terms. The search was limited to studies published up until 2022. The initial screening of studies was performed based on titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Full-text assessment was then conducted to determine the eligibility of each study for inclusion in the review. Studies were included if they provided information on the symptoms, classification, genetic aspects, impact on daily life, and gaps in knowledge regarding narcolepsy. The review reveals several important findings regarding narcolepsy: 1. the classification of narcolepsy - Type 1 narcolepsy, previously known as narcolepsy with cataplexy, and Type 2 narcolepsy, also referred to as narcolepsy without cataplexy. 2. the genetic component of narcolepsy and the complex nature of the disorder, which is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, disrupted sleep patterns, and potential impacts on daily life activities and social functioning. 3. the important implications for clinical practice in the management of narcolepsy. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the different types of narcolepsies and their associated symptoms, as this can aid in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. The review underscores the need for a multidisciplinary approach to narcolepsy management, involving specialists in sleep medicine, neurology, psychiatry, and psychology. Clinicians should consider the impact of narcolepsy on a person's daily life, including their ability to work, study, and participate in social activities, and provide appropriate support and interventions. There are several gaps in knowledge regarding narcolepsy. Future research should focus on further elucidating the genetic causes of narcolepsy and exploring potential biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. Long-term studies assessing the effectiveness of different treatment approaches, including pharmacological interventions and behavioural therapies, are needed. Additionally, there is a need for research on strategies to improve the overall well-being and quality of life of individuals living with narcolepsy, including the development of tailored support programs and interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Parkinson; monkey; non-motor symptoms; anxiety; sleep; cognition
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:25:45 CEST)
Abstract Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder featured with motor and non-motor deficits. Using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced dopamine neuron degeneration has been widely used to produce reliable animal models of the PD. However, most of previous preclinical studies focused on the motor dysfunctions, few non-motor symptoms were evaluated. So far there is a lack of comprehensive investigation of the non-motor symptoms in animal models. Objectives: In this study, we aim to use a battery of behavioral methods to evaluate the non-motor symptoms in MPTP-induced non-human primate PD models. Methods: Cognitive functions, sleep and psychiatric behaviors were evaluated in MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys. The tests consisted of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS), physical activity monitor (PAM), apathy feeding task (AFT), human intruder test (HIT), novel fruit test (NFT) and predator confrontation test (PCT). In addition, we tested whether the dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole (PPX) will improve these non-motor symptoms. Results: The present results show that the MPTP-treated monkeys exhibited cognitive deficits, abnormal sleep, and anxiety-like behaviors as compared to the control monkeys. These symptoms were relieved partially by PPX. Conclusions: These results suggest that MPTP-induced PD monkeys displayed non-motor symptoms that were similar to those found in PD patients. PPX treatment showed moderate therapeutic effects on these non-motor symptoms. This battery of behavioral tests may provide a valuable model for future preclinical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: sleep apnea; hypoxia; gout; hyperuricemia; urate; metabolic comorbidities
Online: 24 February 2023 (09:31:14 CET)
Gout is not only associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but the intermittent episodes of hypoxia that occur with OSA may also have a role in causing gout. Epidemiological studies have documented a higher incidence and prevalence of gout in individuals diagnosed with OSA than in individuals never diagnosed with OSA. The pathophysiology of OSA’s chronic episodes of hypoxia leading to hyperuricemia and gout involves boththe overproduction and underexcretion of uric acid. Treating OSA may be an additional way to control gout and its life-threatening comorbidities. Clinicians are urged to evaluate their patients with hyperuricemia/gout for OSA as it may lead to alternative ways to control gout with superior outcomes that simply pharmacologic treatment alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0155.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sleep; Substance Use; Insomnia; Anxiety; Depression; Students; Stress
Online: 9 February 2023 (06:03:39 CET)
This study examined the prevalence of illegal drug use in UK students and motivators behind such behaviour. Additionally, we explored possible relationships between substance use, psychosocial motivators, and psychiatric distress. N=543 students completed online measures of substance use, anxiety, depression, perceived stress, insomnia. A series of reasons behind their use were ranked based on importance. Reported cannabis, cocaine, nitrous oxide, ketamine and MDMA use were most prevalent based on lifetime, past year, and month assessments. The experience of anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and insomnia were related to increased reports of substance use. Poor self-confidence and self-medication were key motivators of illicit drug use in those presenting greater psychiatric distress. These outcomes add to the sparse body of literature concerning illicit substance use in relation to psychiatric distress amongst UK students. Furthermore, we provided novel insight into the psychosocial motivators of such use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; COVID-19; Hospitalization; Infection; Epidemiology
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:02:12 CEST)
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question: In a general population, is OSA associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization and are these altered with COVID-19 vaccination? Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of a diverse sample of 15,057 U.S. adults Results: COVID-19 infection and hospitalization rates were 38.9% and 2.9% respectively. OSA or OSA symptoms were reported in 19.4%. In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and comorbid medical conditions, OSA was positively associated with COVID-19 infection (aOR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.39-1.79) and COVID-19 hospitalization (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.05). In fully adjusted models, boosted vaccination status was protective against both infection and hospitalization. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization, but not infection. Participants with untreated or symptomatic OSA were at greater risk for COVID-19 infection; those with untreated, but not symptomatic OSA were more likely to be hospitalized. Interpretation: In a general population sample, OSA is associated with a greater likelihood of having had a COVID-19 infection and a COVID-19 hospitalization with the greatest impact observed among persons experiencing OSA symptoms or who were untreated for their OSA. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: wearables; biosensors; sleep; fitbit; oura; hexoskin; withings; cognition
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:49:44 CET)
Sleep quality has been directly linked to cognitive function, quality of life, and a variety of serious diseases across many clinical domains such as psychiatry and cardiology. Standard methods for assessing sleep involve overnight studies in hospital settings, which are uncomfortable, expensive, not representative of real sleep, and difficult to conduct on a large scale. Recently, a number of commercial digital devices have been developed that record physiological data which can act as a proxy for sleep quality in lieu of standard electroencephalogram recording equipment. Each device company makes different claims of accuracy and measures different features of sleep quality, and it is still unknown how well these devices correlate with one another and perform in a research setting. In this pilot study of 21 participants, we investigated whether outputs from four sensors, specifically FitBit, Withings Aura, Hexoskin, and Oura Ring, were related to known cognitive and psychological metrics, including the PSQI and N-back test. We found that sleep metrics extracted from these devices did not predict cognitive and psychological metrics well in our pilot data. However, we did identify certain signification associations, specifically the Oura Ring’s total sleep duration and efficiency in relation to the PSQI measure with p=0.004 and p=0.033, respectively. Additionally, correlation of various sleep features among the devices across the sleep cycle was almost uniformly low. These findings can hopefully be used to guide future sensor-based sleep research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Problematic Internet use, sleep disturbance, sex difference, adolescents
Online: 24 October 2018 (14:15:09 CEST)
The Internet use has become an integral part of daily life, adolescents are especially at a higher risk to develop problematic Internet use (PIU). Although one of the most well-known comorbid conditions of PIU is sleep disturbance, little is known about the sex disparity in this association. This school-based survey in students of grades 7-9 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of PIU and sleep disturbance among Chinese adolescents, to test the association between PIU and sleep disturbance, and to investigate the role of the child’s sex in this association. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit participants, and a two-level logistic regression models were fitted. The mean Internet addiction test scores was 37.2 (SD: 13.2), and 15.5% (736) met the criteria for PIU. After adjusting for control variables, problematic Internet users were at a higher risk of sleep disturbance (adjusted odds ratio=2.41, 95% CI=2.07-3.19). Sex-stratified analyses also demonstrated that association was greater in girls than boys. In this respect, paying more attention to the sleep patterns of adolescents who report excessive Internet use is recommended, and this early identification may be of practical importance for schools, parents, and adolescents themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0282.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: ASD; coronavirus; physical activity; screen time; sleep duration; healthcare
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:06:27 CET)
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic limitations may negatively affect children and youth in terms of health behaviors, and it might be especially challenging for children who are diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders such as children and youth diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study assessed alterations in physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration of ASD children and the prevalence of meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines during the COVID-19 outbreak. Forty-six Arab Israeli mothers of children with ASD were surveyed by an online cross-sectional survey. As reported by the mothers, the results show a significant decrease in physical activity, a significant increase in screen time, and a significant increase in sleep duration during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the proportion of the sample who gained the physical activity and screen time recommendations lessened while the percentage of children who met the sleep duration guidelines increased. The prevalence of ASD children who achieved the overall 24-hour movement guidelines was very small during the COVID-19 outbreak. The outcomes extend the body of knowledge regarding the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders and highlight the need for instant healthcare and interventions and programs for children with ASD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1826.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: midpoint of sleep; eating events; meals; obesity; schoolchildren; bedtime
Online: 26 June 2023 (14:27:32 CEST)
Sleep timing is one of the dimensions of sleep that refers to the time of day when sleep occurs. It was included in sleep-related research because of the potential associations between overweight and consumption of meals and snacks. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations between sleep timing, meal and snack consumption, and weight status in 1333 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. The midpoint of sleep was used as a sleep timing measure obtained by the midpoint between bedtime and wake-up time and classify as Early, intermediate, and Late. Schoolchildren in the Early group were less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.69; 0.99), had higher odds of mid-morning snack consumption (OR: 1.95, 95%CI 1.56; 2.44) and lower probability to consume the evening snack (OR: 0.75, 95%CI 0.59; 0.94) compared with the Intermediate group. The Late group had lower odds of mid-morning snack consumption (OR: 0.67, 95%CI 0.55, 0.80) than the Intermediate group. The consumption of mid-morning and evening snacks was associated with the Early and the Late midpoint of sleep. These results suggest that bedtime and wake-up time are relevant to consuming meals and snacks and may also be related to a greater probability of being overweight in children and adolescents.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: deep sleep; slow-wave activity; evolution; comparative; physiology; homeostasis
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:46:33 CEST)
A modern definition of “deep sleep” is elusive despite being ubiquitously appreciated as an important physiological state supporting health and homeostasis. In modern times, human deep sleep is identified by specific bioelectric signatures in the electroencephalogram (EEG) emerging somewhere between periods of wakefulness. However, deep sleep has been used to describe states of quiescence well before the first electrical brain recordings in the late 1800s, highlighting its own evolution in both lay and medical literature. Furthermore, EEG states are not only ill-defined in most mammals outside of humans and laboratory rodents, but non-existent in some invertebrates. Given that all organisms rest and do so with seemingly well-defined utility, it remains a challenge linguistically, scientifically, and comparatively define what “deep sleep” means—or what it should—in a research context. Here, I explore standard definitions of deep sleep from a modern, comparative perspective, and discuss potential problems of using a strict and narrow definition of such a fleeting concept that has historically undergone significant updates. Finally, I suggest a path towards resolving inconsistencies around the meaning of “deep sleep” and consider whether it is truly reflected by any one measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: orthodontics; airway; clear aligners; 3D diagnostics; sleep apnea; CBCT
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:37:56 CEST)
This retrospective study evaluated changes in the pharyngeal portion of the upper airway in pa-tients with constricted and normal airway treated with clear aligners (Invisalign, Align). Additionally, the paper has assessed the change of tongue position in the oral cavity from lateral view. Evaluation was performed with specialized software (Invivo 6.0, Anatomage) on pre-treatment and posttreatment pairs of cone beam computed tomography imaging (CBCT) data. The level of airway constriction, volume, cross-section minimal area, and tongue profile were evaluated. Patients with malocclusion, with pair or initial and finishing CBCT and without sig-nificant weight change between the scans, treated with Invisalign clear aligners were distributed in two groups. Group A consisted of fifty-five patients with orthodontic malocclusion and con-stricted upper airway. Control group B consisted of thirty-one patients with orthodontic malocclusions without any airway constriction. In the group with airway constriction, there was a statistically significant increase in volume during therapy (p<0.001). The surface of the most con-stricted cross-section of airway did not change significantly after treatment in any of the groups. The airway constriction was most frequently localized at the level of 2nd cervical vertebra. The final tongue position was different from initial in 62.2% of all clear aligner treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID19; natural immune boosters; vitamins; fruits and vegetables; sleep
Online: 29 March 2020 (08:26:36 CEST)
The coronavirus COVID-19 epidemic has wreaked havoc on inhabitants of earth killing thousands of humans from more than 150 countries. The epidemic has put a number of countries under complete lockdown and the deadly situation is still prevailing around the globe. Vaccines have been long known as the most effective means of preventing viral infections. However, the lack of vaccines against COVID-19 has further worsened the situation. In this time of health crisis, it is the duty of scientific research community to provide alternative, effective and affordable strategies to vaccinate human bodies against viral infections-COVID-19 based on focused experimental approaches. Growing evidence suggests that certain natural foods and lifestyle changes have potential to optimize immune functions against viral infections including improving defense function, resistance towards invading pathogens, while maintaining self-tolerance. Boosting immune system gives an edge in fending off viruses and staying healthy. This review presents the six smart steps to add to your to-do list which let the inner work of immunity take place against viral infections-COVID-19 by dissolving the powers of disease and illness. Many of these factors are associated in their functions to improve or properly maintain the immune function such as promoting anti-inflammatory functions, inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, modulating cell-mediated immunity, altering the antigen-presenting cellular functions as well as promoting communication between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, a scientific illustration of boosting the immune system by proper sleep, moderate exercise, avoiding stress, utilizing vitamins enriched foods, intake of more water and use of fruits and vegetables will hopefully help the community to deal with the coronavirus by vaccinating the human systems naturally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: IoT; wearable device; machine learning; streaming data; sleep posture
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:55:40 CEST)
Sleep postures monitoring systems in the hospital aim at transforming sensing signals into quantitative data to characterize the sleep behaviors of the patient. However, a home-care sleep posture monitoring system needs to be user friendly. In this paper, we present iSleePost - a user-friendly home-care intelligent sleep posture monitoring system. We address the labor-intensive labeling issue of traditional machine learning approaches in the training phase. Our proposed mobile health (mHealth) system leverages the communications and computation capabilities of mobile phones for provisioning a continuous sleep posture monitoring service. Our experiments show that iSleePost can achieve 90 percent accuracy in recognizing sleep postures. More importantly, iSleePost demonstrates that an easily-wear wrist sensor can accurately quantify sleep postures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sleep-wake timing; circadian clock; entrainment; light; period; phase
Online: 8 May 2019 (11:11:49 CEST)
The Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) has now been available for more than 15 years; its original publication has been cited 1,240 times (Google Scholar, May 2019); its online version, which was available until July 2017, has produced almost 300,000 entries from all over the world (MCTQ database). The MCTQ has gone through several versions, has been translated into 13 languages and has been validated against other more objective measures of daily timing in several independent studies. Besides being used as a method to correlate circadian features of human biology with other factors – ranging from health issues to geographical factors – the MCTQ gave rise to quantifying old wisdoms, like “teenagers are late” and has produced new concepts, like social jetlag. Some like the MCTQ’s simplicity and some view it critically; it is time to have a self-critical view on the MCTQ, to address some misunderstandings and give some definitions about MCTQ-derived chronotype and the concept of social jetlag.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Sleep, neuronal excitability, central nervous system, sensitivity, cognitive function
Online: 18 January 2019 (12:23:11 CET)
The function of sleep in mammal and other vertebrates is one of the great mysteries of biology. Many hypotheses have been proposed, but few of these have made even the slightest attempt to explain the essence of sleep - the uncompromising need for reversible unconsciousness. During sleep, epiphenomena - often of a somatic character - occur, but these cannot explain the core function of sleep. One answer could be hidden in the observations made for long periods of time of the function of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is faced with conflicting requirements on stability and excitability. A high level of excitability is desirable, and is also a prerequisite for sensitivity and quick reaction times; however, it can also lead to instability and the risk of feedback, with life-threatening epileptic seizures. Activity-dependent negative feedback in neuronal excitability improves stability in the short term, but not to the degree that is required. A hypothesis is presented here demonstrating how calibration of individual neurons - an activity which occurs only during sleep - can establish the balanced and highest possible excitability while also preserving stability in the CNS. One example of a possible mechanism is the observation of slow oscillations in EEGs made on birds and mammals during slow wave sleep. Calibration to a genetically determined level of excitability could take place in individual neurons during the slow oscillation, so that action potentials are generated during the oscillations “up-phase”. This can only take place offline, which explains the need for sleep. The hypothesis can explain phenomena such as the need for unconsciousness during sleep, with the disconnection of sensory stimuli, slow EEG oscillations, the relationship of sleep and epilepsy, age, the effects of sleep on neuronal firing rate and the effects of sleep deprivation and sleep homeostasis. This is with regard primarily to mammals, including humans, but also all other vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0162.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis; obstructive sleep apnea; population-based cohort study
Online: 17 January 2019 (04:52:29 CET)
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients in a nationwide population. Methods: We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2003 and 2013 using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The AS cohort included 2210 patients who were newly diagnosed between 2003 and 2013. Randomly selected non-AS controls were matched at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex and index date. The endpoint of OSA was occurrence or the end of 2013. Cumulative incidences, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities and co-medications. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards model. Due to violation of the proportionality assumption, landmark analysis was conducted to explore the risk of OSA during specific follow-up periods. Results: The adjusted HR (aHR) of OSA for the AS group was 2.826 (95% C.I. = 1.727–4.625) compared to the control group. On landmark analysis, aHR was 7.919 (95% C.I. = 3.169–19.792) for AS group 0–24 months from index date, and decreased to 1.816 (95% C.I. = 0.944–3.494) at ≥ 24 months from index date. On subgroup analyses increased risks of OSA in AS group compared to the control group were found for both males and females (aHRs were 4.533 (95% C.I. = 1.441–14.262) and 2.672 (95% C.I. = 1.522–4.692) for females and males, respectively). On age stratified analysis, there was significant risk only for the 40–59 age group with aHR of 3.913 (95% C.I. = 1.890–8.102). Conclusions: A higher risk of developing OSA was found among newly diagnosed AS cohort during the 12-year follow-up period, especially within 2 years after AS index date and in the 40–59 age group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0576.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea; heart rate variability; continuous positive airway pressure
Online: 9 November 2023 (09:13:15 CET)
Autonomic dysregulation is associated with cardiovascular consequences in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on autonomic activity and to identify factors contributing to the heart rate variability (HRV) changes in OSA. Frequency domain HRV parameters were calculated and compared between the baseline polysomnography and during the CPAP titration in 402 patients with moderate to severe OSA. There were significant reductions in total power, very low-frequency band power, low-frequency band power, and high-frequency band power during the CPAP titration as compared to the baseline polysomnography. This tendency was more pronounced in men than in women, and in patients with severe OSA than those with moderate OSA. Multivariate analysis found that changes in apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen saturation were significantly associated with changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, respectively. This study demonstrated that HRV parameters significantly changed during the CPAP titration, indicating a beneficial effect of CPAP in restoration of sympathetic and parasympathetic hyperactivity in OSA. Prospective longitudinal studies should determine whether long-term CPAP treatment aids in maintaining the long-lasting improvement of the autonomic functions, thereby contributing to the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in patients with OSA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cerebellum; development; critical periods; alcohol; smoking; intrauterine insults; sleep; infection
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:00:24 CET)
A significant percentage of children suffer from neurodevelopmental aberrations, which have long-term effects on both individuals and society. Since the developmental timelines of different brain regions vary, the type, severity and timing of harmful exposures are crucial for understanding the specific pathological processes and consequences involved. The cerebellum is one of the first brain structures to begin to differentiate, but one of the last to achieve maturity. This relatively long period of development underscores its vulnerability to detrimental environmental exposures throughout gestation. Moreover, as the postnatal functionality of the cerebellum is multifaceted, enveloping sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional domains, prenatal disruptions in cerebellar development can result in a variety of neurological and mental health disorders. Here, we review major intra-uterine insults that affect cerebellar development in both rodents and humans, ranging from abuse of toxic chemical agents such as alcohol and nicotine to stress and sleep, malnutrition as well as infections. Understanding these pathological mechanisms in the context of the different stages of cerebellar development in humans and rodents may help us to identify critical and vulnerable periods and thereby to prevent the risk of associated prenatal and early postnatal damage that can lead to lifelong neurological and cognitive disabilities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1755.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: obesity; cancer, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance. psychosocial impact; sleep apnea
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:51:21 CEST)
Obesity, characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat, contributes to a multitude of physiological dysfunctions. This paper explores the complex relationship between obesity and various risk factors and complications, shedding light on critical health implications. Obesity triggers alterations in insulin, leptin, adiponectin, cytokines, and insulin-like growth factors, fostering conditions conducive to cancer initiation. Aberrations in nutrient-dependent intracellular signaling pathways, driven by the excess nutrition characteristic of obesity, contribute to the neoplastic transformation of cells. The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlates directly with adiposity, underlining its significance in cancer risk. Furthermore, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, notably IGF-2, play pivotal roles in this relationship. The expression of IR-A receptors is elevated in cancer. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases share a strong association. Obesity elevates the risk of fatal events like myocardial infarction. High cholesterol levels contribute to atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries. The severity of coronary artery disease is influenced by plaque formation characterized by calcium deposits. Obesity is also linked to hypertension and increased ventricular mass, exacerbating cardiovascular risks. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension correlate with a high Body Mass Index (BMI). Obesity is intricately connected to insulin resistance, particularly evident in childhood obesity. It entails a gradual decline in insulin sensitivity, leading to elevated insulin levels in the bloodstream. Insulin resistance is a central factor in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Obesity also results in elevated triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoproteins, contributing to atherogenic dyslipidemia and a heightened risk of atherosclerosis. Additionally, obesity is associated with various other disorders, including epilepsy, depression, and neuropsychological problems. Beyond its physiological impact, obesity is associated with significant psychosocial challenges. Studies indicate that individuals with obesity face a higher risk of depressive symptoms, often related to overeating and unhealthy dietary patterns. The social withdrawal tendencies of obese individuals exacerbate these symptoms, with higher rates of depression observed in this group. OSA, a sleep disorder characterized by intermittent breathing cessation during sleep, is strongly correlated with obesity. Approximately 58% of obese individuals experience OSA, with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) associated with an increased risk. Weight reduction has been found to mitigate the severity of OSA and related arrhythmias. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy demonstrates effectiveness in reducing visceral fat accumulation and leptin levels. This comprehensive review underscores the intricate web of health implications associated with obesity, emphasizing the critical need for preventive measures and intervention strategies to address the multifaceted challenges posed by this global health concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: enriched experience; sleep; EEG; brain plasticity; synapses; translation; 4E-BPs
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:13:49 CEST)
Brain plasticity is induced by learning during wakefulness and is consolidated during sleep. But the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood and their relation to experience-dependent changes in brain activity remains to be clarified. Localized mRNA translation is im-portant for the structural changes at synapses supporting brain plasticity consolidation. Sleep has been shown activate the translation mTOR pathway, via phosphorylation of 4E-BPs, during brain plasticity, but whether this activation is specific to synapses is not known. We investigated this question using acute exposure of rats to an enriched environment (EE). We measured brain activity with EEGs and 4E-BPs phosphorylation at cortical and cerebellar synapses with Western Blot. Sleep significantly increased the conversion of 4E-BPs to its hyperphosphorylated form at synapses, especially after EE exposure. EE exposure increased oscillations in the alpha band dur-ing active exploration and in the theta to beta (4-30Hz) range, as well as spindle density, during NREM sleep. Theta activity during exploration and NREM spindle frequency predicted changes in 4E-BPs hyperphosphorylation at synapses. Our results provide a link between EEG and mo-lecular markers of plasticity across wake and sleep.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0506.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: central corneal thickness; obstructive sleep apnea; continuous positive airway pressure
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:23:09 CEST)
Background: To examine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on central corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) followed for 12 months. Methods: Participants were patients with OSA and an indication for CPAP who were enrolled after diagnosis and graded according to the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) determined in an overnight polysomnography. Each subject underwent a full ophthalmologic examination including ultrasound pachymetry (USP) with an SP3000 USP (Tomey Inc) at the time points just before CPAP onset, and after 3 and 12 months of CPAP treatment. Results: The study sample comprised 40 eyes of 20 patients. Adherence to CPAP was adequate (5.23 ± 1.77 h/night). After receiving 12 months of CPAP, positive correlation was observed between hours of CPAP use and CCT (r = 0.382, p = 0.015). Intermittent hypoxemia pre-CPAP or hypoxia severity pre-CPAP were also positively correlated with the CCT recorded after 12 months of CPAP (r = 0.394, p = 0.012; r = 0.324, p = 0.041). Significant correlations were, however, not observed after only 3 months of CPAP treatment. In addition, compared to measurements at 3 months, intraocular pressure was higher after 12 months of treatment. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that 12 months of correct adherence to CPAP are needed to detect significant CCT thickening, and that the greater the pre-CPAP hypoxemia, the greater the capacity for an increase in CCT to be produced in response to 12 months of this therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: light therapy; sleep disorder; daytime sleepiness; circadian rhythm; clock gene
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:14:34 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Light therapy (LT) is used as an adjunctive treatment for sleep problems. This study evaluates the impact of LT on sleep quality and sleep-related parameters in patients with sleep disorders. Materials and Methods: We performed a pilot randomized, open-label clinical trial. Fourteen patients aged 20–60 years with sleep disorders for more than three months were randomized into the control and LT groups (1:1 ratio). The LT group was instructed to use a device that provides bright LT (6000 K, 380 lux, wavelength 480 nm) for at least 25 minutes before 09:00 am for two weeks. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate circadian preference, mood, and sleep-related parameters. We analyzed serum cortisol levels and clock genes expression. Results: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), insomnia severity index, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index were significantly improved within the LT group only after the two-week period. When comparing the two groups, only the change in ESS significant was significant (mean difference; control: -0.14 vs LT: -1.43, p=0.021) after adjusting for baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences in serum cortisol or clock genes expression. Conclusions: LT can improve daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep disorders; however, further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm its efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.