Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: skin microbiome; skin microbiome biodiversity; biodiversity; skin ecosystem; skin allergy epidemic; benchmark skin health values; skin bacteria; 21st century skin ailments; measure skin health; healthy skin ecosystem; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria;
Online: 18 June 2020 (12:40:57 CEST)
A catastrophic loss of microbial biodiversity on the skin has led to alarming increase in the prevalence of allergies and long-term damage to the skin, which could also have damaging knock on effects to overall health. This study uses 50 human participants, to obtain an average (benchmark) value for the biodiversity of ‘healthy’ western skin, which is crucial in updating our 2017 skin health measuring mechanism to use standardised methodology. Previous work with a larger sample size was unsatisfactory for use as a benchmark due to its use of different and outdated diversity indices. We also investigated the effect of age and sex, two known skin microbiome affecting factors. Although no statistical significance is seen for age- and sex- related changes in diversity, there appear to be changes related to age which elaborates on previous work which used larger, more general age ranges. Our study indicates adults age 28-37 have highest diversity, and age 48-57 the lowest. Crucially, because of this study we are now able to update the skin health measuring mechanism from our 2017 work. This will aid diagnostic assessment of susceptibility to cutaneous conditions or diseases, and treatment. Testing any human subject will be rapidly improved by obtaining future benchmark diversity values for any age, sex, body site and area of residence, to which they can be compared. This improvement means we can also more accurately investigate the ultimate question: What factors in the western world are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic? This could lead to future restriction of certain synthetic chemicals or products found to be particularly harmful to the skin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0495.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: skin classification; skin detection; skin segmentation; skin database; neural networks
Online: 28 November 2022 (05:16:35 CET)
Skin detection, the process of distinguishing between skin and non-skin regions in a digital image, is widely used in a variety of applications ranging from hand gesture analysis to body part tracking to facial recognition. Skin detection is a challenging problem that has received a lot of attention from experts and proposals from the research community in the context of intelligent systems, but the lack of common benchmarks and unified testing protocols has hampered fairness among approaches. Comparisons are very difficult. Recently, the success of deep neural networks has had a major impact on the field of image segmentation detection, resulting in various successful models to date. In this work, we survey the most recent research in this field and propose fair comparisons between approaches using several different datasets. The main contributions of this work are: (i) a comprehensive literature review of approaches to skin color detection and a comparison of approaches that may help researchers and practitioners choose the best method for their application; (ii) a comprehensive list of datasets that report ground truth for skin detection; (iii) a framework for evaluating and combining different skin detection approaches. Moreover, we proposed an ensemble of convolutional neural networks and transformers that obtains state of the art performance. All the code is made publicly available at https://github.com/LorisNanni
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: biodiversity; skin allergy; benchmark skin health values; effect of synthetic cosmetics on skin; 21st century skin ailments; measure skin health; healthy skin ecosystem; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria; perfect skin
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:52:14 CEST)
There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5-10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how it is microbiota diversity alone that can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to ‘western’ skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0177.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: skin allergy epidemic; skin microbiome; skin microbiome diversity; effect of synthetic cosmetics on skin; biodiversity; synthetic ingredients in modern cosmetics; skin health; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria
Online: 17 December 2018 (07:27:34 CET)
As described in previous work, the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics is postulated to be a cause of damage to the skin microbiome. The discovery that biodiversity on the human skin is currently the only reliable indicator of skin health, meant that for the first time, a mechanism to test for healthy skin was possible. Using this mechanism and in collaboration with The Medical University of Graz, who carried out the independent study, this work aimed to help answer whether modern day synthetic cosmetics are a main cause of long term damage to the skin microbiome. Thirty-two human participants tested three different face washes for their effect on the skin’s microbial diversity, along with skin pH, moisture and TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss), washing twice a day for four weeks. The upper volar forearm of the volunteers was swabbed at the beginning, two weeks in and end (four weeks). 16S rRNA sequencing was used. One leading ‘natural’ brand full of synthetic ingredients, a leading synthetic brand and a 100% natural face wash were used. Results give the first indications of a link between synthetic ingredients in a cosmetics product, and its effect on skin microbiome biodiversity. It paves the way for future studies on the topic with a larger sample group, longer test period and standardised methodology to create a universal standard for testing the health of skin using benchmark diversity values. This can be used in the future to test the effectiveness of cosmetics or ingredients on skin health, leading to the banning of products proven to harm the skin’s natural environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: skin disease; skin cancer; diagnostics; treatments
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:12:16 CET)
When the skin is afflicted by disease such as cancer, these essential functions are disrupted, putting the entire person at risk. While the American Cancer Society lists 6 major cancer types, the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases identifies 13 significant benign skin disorders, reflecting the diversity of skin conditions in dermatology. This topical review aims to provide an overview of the pathophysiology of these major skin cancers and disorders and summarize conventional diagnostic methods and current treatment approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: skin regeneration; wound healing; skin stem cells; skin vascularization; 3D printing.
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:26:04 CET)
In the past decades, regenerative medicine applied on skin lesions has been a field of constant improvement for both human and veterinary medicine. The process of healing cutaneous wound injuries implicates a well-organized cascade of molecular and biological processes. However, sometimes the normal process fails and can result in a chronic lesion. In addition, wounds are considered an increasing clinical impairment, due to the progressive ageing of the population, as well as the prevalence of concomitant diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, that represent risk aggravating factors for the development of chronic skin lesions. Stem cells regenerative potential has been recognized worldwide, including towards skin lesion repair, Tissue engineering techniques have long been successfully associated with stem cell therapies, namely the application of 3D bioprinted scaffolds. With this review we intend to explore several stem cell sources with promising aptitude towards skin regeneration, as well as different techniques used to deliver those cells and provide a supporting extracellular matrix environment, with effective outcomes. Furthermore, different studies are discussed, both in vitro and in vivo, towards their relevance in the skin regeneration field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Assessing efficacy of skin care products; PhabrOmeter; Artificial skin; Changes of skin attributes
Online: 10 January 2019 (14:02:58 CET)
Current instrumental technology in evaluating performance of skin care creams is still rather limited and there are no industrial standard testing equipment, method and performance specifications for it. In this paper, we report our attempt in using an instrument called PhabrOmeter for this purpose. PhabrOmeter is a commercialized instrument for sensory performance evaluation of textiles, leather, paper and nonwoven and has been designated by American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) as a standard test method for textiles, AATCC TM 202 in 2013. By adopting artificial skin samples treated with skin care creams, we have developed a procedure to apply this instrument for evaluation of skin care creams from sample preparation, measurement to data analysis and interpretation. The results using commercial skin care creams to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of this instrument are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0366.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: skin segmentation; skin detection; computer vision; digital image processing
Online: 24 October 2022 (12:50:24 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article’s main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article, it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0064.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: multispectral skin imaging; skin autofluorescence and photobleaching; photoplethysmography imaging
Online: 8 May 2017 (12:19:30 CEST)
Optical tissue imaging has several advantages over the routine clinical imaging methods, including non-invasiveness (does not change the structure of tissues), remote operation (avoids infection) and ability to quantify the tissue condition by means of specific image parameters. Dermatologists and other skin experts need compact (preferably pocket-size), self-sustained and easy-to-use imaging devices. The operational principles and designs of ten portable in-vivo skin imaging prototypes developed at the Biophotonics Laboratory of Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia during the recent five years are presented in this paper. Four groups of imaging devices are considered. Multi-spectral imagers offer possibilities for distant mapping of specific skin parameters, so facilitating better diagnostics of skin malformations. Autofluorescence intensity and photobleaching rate imagers show a promising potential for skin tumor identification and margin delineation. Photoplethysmography video-imagers ensure remote detection of cutaneous blood pulsations and can provide real-time information on cardiovascular parameters and anesthesia efficiency. Multimodal skin imagers perform several of the above-mentioned functions by taking a number of spectral and video images with the same image sensor. Design details of the developed prototypes and results of clinical tests illustrating their functionality are presented and discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: topical probiotics; skin microbiome; probiotics; biodiversity; microbiome; skin allergy; cosmetics
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:34:01 CEST)
In this paper we aim to help topical probiotics research and development achieve its potential as an incredible future solution for skin problems by investigating whether the current products on the market satisfy criteria for safe and effective use on the skin microbiome. As previously defined, this includes whether they use microbes known to be part of a healthy skin microbiome and in healthy amounts. In addition, we evaluate whether they contain live microbes, and therefore can be classified as probiotics according to the WHO’s definition. Using recent market analysis at least 84% of products do not contain live microbes. Of the products that appeared to use live microbes, they contained those used in research and development of probiotics for the gut. Due to the varying composition of each person’s microbiome, there is not a one size fits all probiotic solution. Personalisation of probiotics products is essential to satisfy the criteria for safe and effective use, but none of the products on the market, understandably, offer this. Upsetting the delicate ecosystem balance of the skin microbiome could have damaging effects and regulation could help to stop a loss of trust between consumers and cosmetics industry. Future work will perform an in-depth evaluation of the topical probiotics on the market in the EU, USA, and Canada. We will also investigate how to move the topic closer to achieving its potential by updating the criteria, including by discussing how to measure the success of a probiotic solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Skin Aging; Rejuvenation; Skin Cream; Retinoid formulation; RetileX-A; Vercilex
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:55:27 CET)
Skin ageing is a progressive but modifiable, multi-factorial disorder that involves all skin tissues. Pertaining to its wide range of physiological and psychosocial complications, skin ageing requires rigorous clinical attention. Topical retinoids and per-oral proteoglycans are promising, non-invasive, therapeutic modalities. To overcome the low bioavailability of conventional free retinoids, Nourella® cream with Retilex-A® (Pharma Medico, Aarhus, Denmark) was developed using a proprietary nano-encapsulation technology. The nano-encapsulation is a sophisticated ‘permeation/penetration enhancer’ that optimises topical drug delivery by increasing surface availability and net absorption ratio. Treatment adherence is also improved by minimising skin irritation. Interventional evidence supports the higher efficacy of Retilex-A® in improving skin thickness and elasticity compared with conventional free forms. It is also reported that the rejuvenating efficacy of Retilex-A® and tretinoin are comparable. Another skin anti-ageing approach is proteoglycan replacement therapy (PRT) with Vercilex®. Vercilex® in Nourella® tablet has the potential to ameliorate proteoglycan dysmetabolism in the aged skin by activating skin cells and improving collagen/elastin turnover. Replicated clinical trials evidenced that PRT can significantly enhance the density, elasticity and thickness of both intrinsically aged and photoaged skin. Evidently, Vercilex® and Retilex-A® share a range of bioactivities, which underlies their synergistic activity observed in a clinical trial. Dual therapy with Nourella® tablets and cream produced higher effect sizes on skin characteristics than monotherapy with each of the two treatments. In conclusion, Nourella® cream and tablets are safe and effective treatments for skin ageing; however, combining the two in a ‘dual skin rejuvenation system’ significantly improves treatment outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mast cells; innate immunity; host defense; skin; inflammatory skin disorders
Online: 1 April 2021 (17:44:17 CEST)
Mast cells (MCs) are best known as key effector cells of immediate type allergic reactions that may even culminate in life-threatening anaphylactic shock syndromes. However, strategically positioned at host-environment interfaces and equipped with a plethora of receptors, MCs also play an important role in the first line defense against pathogens. Their main characteristic, the huge amount of preformed pro-inflammatory mediators embedded in secretory granules, allow for a rapid response and initiation of further immune effector cell recruitment. The same mechanism, however, may account for detrimental overshooting responses. MCs are not only detrimental in MC-driven diseases, but also responsible for disease exacerbation in other inflammatory disorders. Focusing on the skin as the largest immune organ, we herein review both beneficial and detrimental functions of skin MCs all the way from skin barrier integrity via host defense mechanisms to MC-driven inflammatory skin disorders. Moreover, we emphasize the importance of IgE-independent pathways of MC activation and their role in sustained chronic skin inflammation and disease exacerbation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0425.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: hyperpigmentation; palpebral region; geographic skin differences; ethnic predisposition; skin disorder;
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:56:47 CEST)
POH (Peri Orbital Hyperpigmentation) represents a minor clinical entity that attracts immense aesthetic damages and it generates social integration difficulties. This review focuses on the etiopathogenic causes of this entity, differentiating and reclassifying this defect as having, on the one hand, genetic causes of melanic hyperproduction – for Fitzpatrick cutaneous phototypes IV and V – and, on the other hand, both genetic and acquired vascular causes, in individuals with light-coloured skin phototypes. Hence, there is a big difference in the field of pathogenic treatment, for the two entities. In addition, this study notes the direct relationship between skin aging and POH, especially for aquired vascular causes. In this reasoning, other aesthetic deficiencies of the skin in the palpebral area should be also considered, like: blepharochalasis, wrinkles, the anatomical causes of the lower eyelid shading, symmetrical or asymmetric suborbital oedema. All of these issues will complicate the therapeutic decision and subsidiary, the pharmaceutical advice. In this context, the review shows the guidelines for a honest councelling of the patients, pointing the efficiency limit for the topical pharmaceutical medication (depigmentants, exfoliants) versus the necessity of minimally invasive or/ and surgical treatments (in blefarochalasis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0150.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: radiation; skin barrier; sebaceous gland; transepidermal water loss; skin pH
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:33:29 CET)
Abstract: Radiation-induced skin injury can be a serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on the skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH-1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0751.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Skin pigmentation; melanin; Tyrosinase inhibitors; hypopigmentation; hyperpigmentation; Vitiligo; skin-lightening; Depigmentation
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:32:48 CEST)
Humans have extremely variable skin pigmentation and melanin production influenced by genetics, UV exposure, and some medications. A significant number of skin illnesses that result in pigmentary abnormalities have an impact on patients’ physical appearance as well as their psychological and social well-being. Skin pigmentation can be divided into two basic categories: hyperpigmentation, where pigment appears to overflow, and hypopigmentation, where pigment is reduced. Albinism, melasma, vitiligo, Addison's disease, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, which can be brought on by eczema, acne vulgaris, and drug interactions, are the most common skin pigmentation disorders in clinical practice. Anti-inflammatory medications, antioxidants, and medications that inhibit tyrosine, which prevents the production of melanin, are all possible treatments for pigmentation problems. Skin pigmentation can be treated orally and topically with medications, herbal remedies, and cosmetic products, but a doctor should always be consulted before beginning any new medicine or treatment plan. This review article explores the numerous types of pigmentation problems, their causes, and treatments, as well as the 25 plants, four marine species, and 17 topical and oral medications now on the market that have been clinically tested to treat skin diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: skin; gut; microbiome; hormones
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:23:21 CET)
Recently scientific research began to shift their focus on looking at both the gut and the skin microbiota as having a reciprocal and integral relationship with one another, rather than assessing them as separate and unrelated fields. In the past five years, the field of microbial endocrinology emerged, which examines how our gut microbiota influences and modulates hormones. We’ve known for decades that hormones greatly affect the condition of the skin, and many skin conditions are often treated with oral hormonal therapy as means to internally treat skin conditions visible on the dermis. Now, a growing body research and discourse examining this triad of biological spheres – gut microbiota, skin microbiota, and the endocrine system – as interconnected rather than binary and unrelated. While there is ample research established and being conducted examining the gut-skin axis, the gut-brain axis, and the gut-hormone axis, through this paper I will review and synthesize some of the significant advancements in this emerging and inclusive field of science to suggest that the fields need to expand the axis and their modality for researching these fields as a connected whole in order to better understand the role of the microbiota in disease prevention as a whole.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Melasma; Treatment; Darker skin types; Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI; mapping review
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:45:26 CET)
Melasma is a challenging chronic skin condition associated with hyperpigmentation and un-known etiology. This scoping review mapped evidence of available treatments and their effectiveness in darker skin types. A comprehensive, systematic online search was conducted in Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science Core Collection. All eligible titles were exported to an Endnote20 library. Thematic content analysis was performed to summarise data on current melasma treatments for darker skin types. The quality of included articles was appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) 2018 version. A total of 2863 articles were retrieved from the databases, and 10 met the eligibility criteria following abstract and full-text screening. Our findings demonstrate that topical treatments, chemical peels, lasers, and tranexamic acid are common treatment modalities used in darker skin types. Although these treatments may be effective in the short term, they bring about un-desirable side effects and sometimes worsen or result in reoccurrences of melasma. Based on the evidence mapped, current treatment modalities are not suitable for darker skin types. There are very few studies conducted on individuals of African descent. Further research is necessary to investigate treatment interventions which may be user-friendly when dealing with darker skin types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0909.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Melasma; Pigmentation; Darker skin type; Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI; Quality of life
Online: 16 October 2023 (05:41:39 CEST)
Melasma is a common skin disorder of acquired hyperpigmentation that appears commonly on the face. Although asymptomatic, melasma causes psychosocial and emotional distress. This study aimed to assess melasma's severity on people with darker skin types, evaluate the effects of melasma on the Quality of Life (QoL), and establish QoL predictors in affected individuals. This was a cross-sectional analytic study that enrolled 150 patients who were diagnosed with melasma from three private dermatology clinics in Durban, South Africa. The severity of melasma and QoL were measured using a Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) score, and Melasma Quality of Life scale (MELASQoL), respectively. The factors associated with impaired QoL were also explored using the multivariate method and stepwise regression analysis. MASI score of Masi (β = 0.209, t = 2.628, p < .010), involvement of cheeks (β = -0.268, t = -3.405, p <.001), level of education (β = -0.159, t = -2.029, p =.044) and being menopausal (β = -0.161, t = -2.027, p =.045) were found to be predictors of QoL. A regression model to predict MELASQoL given these four predictors was developed. The significance of the equation can allow remote scoring of MELASQoL based on the four variables.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infant; premature; pain; acupuncture; skin to skin contact; sucrose; massage; musical therapy; breastfeeding
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:09:31 CEST)
Pain is a major problem in sick newborn infants, especially for those needing intensive care. Pharmacological pain relief is the most commonly used but may be ineffective, have side effects, including long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The effectiveness and safety of alternative analgesic methods are ambiguous. The objective is to review the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in newborn infants and to identify those that are the most effective. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms: ‘infant’, ‘premature’, ‘pain’, ‘acupuncture’, ‘skin to skin contact’, ‘sucrose’ ‘massage’, ‘musical therapy’ and ‘breastfeeding’. We included 24 studies assessing different methods of non-pharmacological analgesic techniques. Most resulted in some degree of analgesia but many were ineffective and some were even detrimental. Sucrose, for example, was often ineffective but more effective than music therapy, massage, breast milk (for extremely premature infants) or non-invasive electrical stimulation acupuncture. There were also conflicting results for acupuncture, skin to skin care and musical therapy. Most non-pharmacological methods of analgesia provide some modicum of relief for preterm infants but none are completely effective and there is no clearly superior method. Study is also required to assess potential long-term consequences of any of these methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin aging; polymorpysms; laboratory analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:42:49 CEST)
We conducted a research study to create groundwork for personalized solutions within skin aging segment. This test utilises genetic and general laboratory data to predict individual susceptibility of weak skin characteristics, leveraging on the research on genetic polymorphisms related to skin functional properties. A cross-sectional study was conducted in collaboration between the Private Clinic Medicina Practica Laboratory (Vilnius, Lithuania) and the Public Institution Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (Kaunas, Lithuania). 370 participants agreed to participate in the project. The median age of respondents was 40, with a range of 19 to 74 years. After the literature search, we selected 15 polymorphisms of the genes related to skin aging subsequently distributed for different skin functions: SOD2(rs4880), GPX1(rs1050450), NQO1(rs1800566), CAT (rs1001179), TYR (rs1126809), SLC45A2 (rs26722), SLC45A2 (rs16891982), MMP1(rs1799750), ELN (rs7787362), COL1A1(rs1800012), AHR (rs2066853), IL6 (rs1800795), IL1Beta (rs1143634), TNF-α (rs1800629), AQP3(rs17553719). RT genotyping, blood count and immunochemistry results have been analysed using statistical methods. Obtained results showed significant associations among genotyping models and routine blood screens. These findings demonstrate the personalized medicine approach for aging segment and further add onto the growing field of literature. Further investigation is warranted to fully understand the complex interplay between genetic factors, environmental influences, and skin aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Teledermatology; Teledermoscopy; skin cancer diagnosis
Online: 26 May 2022 (07:53:54 CEST)
Background Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, teledermoscopy has been increasingly used in the remote diagnosis of skin cancers. In a study conducted in 2020, we demonstrated a potential role of an inexpensive device (NurugoTM Derma) as a first triage to select the skin lesions that require a face-to-face consultation with dermatologists. Herein, we report the results of a novel study that aims to better investigate the performance of NurugoTM. Objectives i) verify whether the NurugoTM can be a communication tool between the General Practitioner (GP) and dermatologist in the first assessment of skin lesions; ii) analyze the degree of diagnostic-therapeutic agreement between dermatologists; iii) estimate the number of potentially serious diagnostic errors. Methods One hundred forty-four images of skin lesions were collected at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Novara using a conventional dermatoscope (instrument F), the NurugoTM (instrument N), and the latter with the interposition of a laboratory slide (instrument V). The images were evaluated in-blind by four dermatologists, and each was asked to make a diagnosis and to specify a possible treatment. Results: Our data show that F gave higher agreement values for all dermatologists, concerning the real clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, a medium/moderate agreement value was obtained also for N and V instruments and that can be considered encouraging and indicate that all examined tools can potentially be used for the first screening of skin lesions. The total amount of misclassified lesions was limited (especially with the V tool), with up to nine malignant lesions wrongly classified as benign. Conclusions NurugoTM, with adequate training, can be used to build a specific support network between GP and dermatologist or between dermatologists. Furthermore, its use could be extended to the diagnosis and follow-up of other skin diseases, especially for frail patients in emergencies such as the current pandemic context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0490.v1
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:43:11 CEST)
Background: Melatonin is a potent mitochondrial, cytoprotective and antioxidant molecule with potentially strong anti-aging properties. Topical melatonin has shown to improve the clinical signs of skin aging. Melatosphere™ is a new lipid-based delivery system able to improve stability and skin penetration of melatonin when used in topical formulations. No clinical studies, using objective instrumental data, are available so far regarding the positive effect of Melatosphere™ in improving wrinkles in women with mild-to-moderate skin aging. Study Aim: We evaluate, in an open prospective, evaluator-blinded trial, the effects on skin texture of 2 months treatment with a Melatosphere™ based cream. Subjects and Methods: 15 women aged >45 years with mild to moderate facial skin aging (Glogau score ≥2) participated in the trial, after their informed consent. An ANTERA 3D computer-assisted skin analysis evaluation for the assessment of coarse and fine wrinkles of the periorbital area and melanin content was performed at baseline and after two months of treatment. An evaluator-blinded Investigator Global assessment of skin elastosis, roughness, level of dyscromia, skin dryness and presence of actinic damage was also performed at the same time points using a 4-grade score from 0 (no sign) to 3 (severe sign). Results: At baseline the mean (SD) IGA score was 8.2(1.0). After 2 months the IGA score significantly decrease to 4.2(1.4) (49% reduction) (P=0.0007). ANTERA 3D evaluations showed a significant reduction in skin coarse and fine wrinkles volume in the target area of -31% and -18%, respectively. Melanin content was reduced significantly by -17%. Conclusion: Topical melatonin carried in Melatosphere improves in the short-term signs of skin aging evaluated clinically and by ANTERA 3D device in women with mild to moderate skin aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: air pollution; skin; nutraceutical; natural compound; polyphenols; antioxidant; skin barrier; anti-agein; clinical trial
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:38:10 CEST)
Repeated air pollution exposure is one of the major threats to skin health. Air pollution causes skin damage and accelerates skin ageing mainly through oxidative stress mechanisms. Since it is difficult to minimize skin exposure from air pollutants, especially in urban areas, strategies to protect the skin are needed. On the other hand, plant phenolic compounds have been found to be effective in attenuating cellular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by different air pollutants. Therefore, we conducted a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study to assess the efficacy of a polyphenol-enriched dietary supplement (comprised of olive leaf, lemon verbena, rosemary and Sophora japonica extracts) in reducing pollution-induced oxidative stress and in improving different skin parameters related to skin ageing of Caucasian and Asian volunteers living in a polluted urban European area (Milan). One hundred healthy women were recruited and randomized in the placebo or in the test dietary supplement treatment arms. To assess the efficacy of the dietary supplement, the total antioxidant capacity on saliva (FRAP) was determined, as well as the oxidative damage on skin (lipoperoxides content), the skin moisture (corneometry), the trans-epidermal water loss (Tewameter), the skin radiance and the skin colour, (spectrophotometry), the skin elasticity (cutometry), the skin sebum content (sebumeter), and the skin roughness (image analysis). As a result, both inter-group and intra-group analysis proved that the dietary supplement improved all clinical and biochemical monitored parameters, in both Caucasian and Asian individuals. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate a reduced oxidative stress-induced skin damage in both Asian and Caucasian women living in a polluted urban area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0274.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: asymmetry; mean skin temperature; non-uniform; outdoor environment; physiological response; skin temperature; solar radiation
Online: 16 July 2018 (10:46:36 CEST)
Depending on human body conditions and environmental conditions, it is sometimes difficult to conduct subject experiments. In such cases, it is effective to use a thermal manikin. There are few studies that investigate the effect of the non-uniform and asymmetric outdoor thermal environment on the mean skin temperature. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the non-uniform and asymmetric thermal radiation of short-wavelength solar radiation in an outdoor environment on the calculation of the mean skin temperature. The skin temperature of the front of the coronal surface, which was facing the sun and where the body received direct short-wavelength solar radiation, and the skin temperature of the rear of the coronal surface, which was in the shadow and did not receive direct short-wavelength solar radiation were respectively measured. The feet, upper arm, forearm, hand and lower leg, which are susceptible to short-wavelength solar radiation in a standing posture, had a noticeable difference in skin temperature between sites in the sun and in shade. The mean skin temperature of sites facing the sun was significantly higher than the mean skin temperature of those in the shade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Wound; Scar; Child; Graft; Fish skin
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:58:49 CET)
Wound healing in the pediatric population is known to be a challenge and poorly studied. Split-thickness skin grafts, full-thickness skin grafts and flaps overlap their applications with the growing field of cellular and tissue-based therapies. However, their role in pediatric reconstruction has yet to be defined. The Kerecis® Omega3 wound patch, derived from decellularized codfish skin, has garnered attention due to its preserved microscopic architecture resembling the human extracellular matrix. This acellular dermal matrix acts as a scaffold, fostering dermal cell and capillary adhesion while harnessing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for granulation acceleration and antimicrobial effects. This study presents a comprehensive review and surgical protocol for utilizing Kerecis® fish skin in pediatric wound care. The research embraces a case series involving five patients with diverse wound locations. The Kerecis® Omega3 wound patch underwent meticulous application and careful monitoring. The results highlight an average time of 48.6 days for complete epithelialization, yielding favorable outcomes with no hypertrophic scarring and mild retraction. Notably, this innovative approach may eliminate donor site morbidity and improve pain control, promising a novel avenue for pediatric wound management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms; CMML; skin
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:37:06 CET)
Myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias include different entities that have been recently re-classify taking into account molecular and clinicopathological features. The myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category comprises a heterogeneous group of hybrid neoplastic myeloid diseases characterized by the co-occurrence of clinical and pathologic features of both myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms. The most frequent entity in this category is chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) which is, after acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the main myeloid disorder prone to develop cutaneous manifestations. Skin lesions associated with myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms include a broad clinical, histopathological and molecular spectrum of lesions, poorly understood and without a clear-cut classification in the current medical literature. The aim of this review is to describe and classify the main clinical, histopathological and molecular patterns of cutaneous lesions in the setting of MDS/MPN in order to improve the diagnostic skills of dermatologists, hematologist and pathologist who deal with these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: incidence; trend; melanoma of the skin
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:17:20 CET)
Trend patterns of melanoma skin in Serbia from 1999 to 2020 *Rancic K. Natasa 1,2, Tiodorovic B. Danica 1,4, Ilic V. Mirko 2, Biljana N. Kocic 1,2, Maksimovic S. Natasa 3, Ilija D. Kocic 4, Dusan P. Miljkovic 4, Otasevic A. Suzana 1,2 Introduction. Melanoma of the skin represents about 1% of all skin cancers and it causes nearly 80% of skin cancer deaths. Due to its increasing incidence, particularly in the most developed countries it represents a great challenge for primary prevention. Objective. To explore patterns and analyze incidence trends of melanoma in Central Serbia from 1999 to 2020. Materials and Methods. Descriptive study was done and data were obtained from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Serbia. The joinpoint regression analysis was done to assess the incidence trend of the melanoma skin: the annual percent change (APC) along with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated. Results. A total number of 9952 new melanoma cases were registered melanoma (5204 in males and 4748 in females) during the observed period. Males represented 52.3% of all patients, with male to female ratio of incidence 2.09:1. A non significant increasing trend of incidence in males from 1999 to 2013 with APC of 2.53% (95%CI: from -18.2 to 21.9, p=1) and significantly increasing trend from 2013 to 2020 with the APC of 11.29 % (95%CI: from 1.4 to 5.8, p<0.001) was established. An incidence trend in females has stabilized in the whole studied period, with APC of 0.42% (95%CI: from -3.3 to 6.8, p=0.1). Melanoma of the skin was not common before the age of 30. Out of all cases and about of 76% new cases were diagnosed in persons ≥ 50 years of age. Conclusion. The incidence trend of new melanoma cases significantly increase in the whole population from 1999 to 2020. The significant increasing of incidence trend in males and stabilization of incidence trend in females was established. Males had significantlly higher incidence rates than femalesand over of 76% new melanoma cases were diagnosed in persons above 50 years of age.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1516.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: temperature; skin temperature; wounds; risk foot
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:29:59 CEST)
Foot lesions are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and disability in the diabetic population. Thus, exploration of means of preventive control are vital for detecting early signs and symptoms of this disease, Infrared thermography has been proven effective in the control of diabetic foot is among the complementary diagnostic tools available for this disease. The last review on this topic was published in 2015 and so, here we conducted a bibliographic review of the main databases (PubMed, the Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Scopus) during the third quarter of 2023. We aimed to identify the effectiveness of infrared thermography as a diagnostic element in pre-ulcerous states in diabetic patients and to detect diabetic foot ulcer complications. We obtained a total of 200 articles, 22 of which were included in this present review; 17 articles had been published after 2017. After analysing the use of infrared Thermography in diabetic patients both with and without ulcers, as well as in healthy individuals, we concluded that is an effective tool for detecting early-stage ulcers in diabetic foot patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: skin cancer; drug delivery; natural products
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:04:49 CEST)
Skin cancer is a disease that reflects most malignant neoplasms worldwide, whose rate of involvement has increased significantly in recent decades. Treatments that offer efficient results with attenuation of adverse reactions and greater patient compliance have been the subject of many systematic investigations. This review aims to qualitatively present published works that showed new strategies to increase the penetration power of natural substances through the skin in the topical treatment against skin cancer. In this sense, nanoengineering mechanisms, the iontophoresis technique, and photodynamic therapy using natural products (NP) contribute to new knowledge about substance carrier strategies in topical treatments against skin cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0637.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Malassezia; isolation; culture media; skin sampling
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:44:40 CEST)
Malassezia is lipid-dependent commensal yeast of the human skin. The different culture media and skin sampling methods used to grow these fastidious yeasts are a source of heterogeneity in culture-based epidemiological study results. This study aimed to compare the performances of three methods of skin sampling, and two culture media for the detection of Malassezia yeasts by culture from the human skin. Three skin sampling methods, namely sterile gauze, dry swab and TranswabTM with transport medium, were applied on 10 healthy volunteers. Each sample was further inoculated onto either the novel FastFung medium or the reference Dixon agar for the detection of Malassezia spp. by culture. At least one colony of Malassezia spp. grew on 93/300 (31%) of the cultures, corresponding to 150 samplings. The positive culture rate was 67%, 18%, and 15% (P < 10-3), for samples collected with sterile gauze, TranswabTM, and dry swab, respectively. The positive culture rate was 62% and 38% (P < 0.003) by using the FastFung and the Dixon media, respectively. Our results showed that sterile gauze rubbing skin sampling followed by inoculation on FastFung medium should be implemented in the routine clinical laboratory procedure for Malassezia spp. cultivation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: astaxanthin; antioxidant; skin; ultraviolet; photoaging; capillary
Online: 20 January 2020 (09:55:03 CET)
Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Astaxanthin, a ketocarotenoid from Haematococcus pluvialis, has been extensively studied with respect to its possible effect on skin health as well as UV protection. In addition, astaxanthin attenuates increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and capillary regression of skeletal muscle. In the present study, we investigated whether astaxanthin would protect UV-induced photoaging and capillary regression in the skin of HR-1 hairless mice. UV induces wrinkle formation, thickness and capillary regression in dermis of hairless mice and the administration of astaxanthin decreased the UV-induced wrinkle formation, skin thickness, and increase in collagen fibers in skin. Astaxanthin supplementation also inhibited the levels of ROS generation and attenuated the decreases in wrinkle formation, thickness and capillary number in the skin. We also found an inverse correlation between wrinkling and capillary number, and the photoaging associated with capillary regression in skin. These results suggest that astaxanthin can protect against photoaging caused by ultraviolet irradiation and the effects of astaxanthin in photoaging inhibition may be associated with the protection of capillary regression in skin.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin melanoma, KIT mutation, Sanger sequencing
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:33:31 CEST)
Data on the KIT mutation rate in skin melanoma in the central European region is missing. Accordingly, in a cohort of 79 double wild type (BRAF/NRAS) skin melanoma KIT mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing of exons 9,11,13,17 and 18. In this skin melanoma cohort KIT mutation frequency was found to be 34/79 (43%) with a significantly higher rate in acrolentiginous melanoma (ALM) as compared to UV-induced common variants (20/34, 58.8% versus 14/45, 31.1%, p=0.014). Exon 11 was the most frequent mutation site (44.7%) followed by exon 9 (21.1%) equally characterizing UV-induced common histotypes and ALM tumors. KIT mutation hotspots were identified in exon 9 (c491/492), in exon 11 (c559,c572, c570), in exon 13 (c642), in exon 17 (c822) and in exon 18 (c853). The relatively high KIT mutation rate in skin melanoma in this central-European cohort justifies regular testing of this molecular target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: onchodermatitis; onchocercal skin disease; onchocerciasis; ivermectin
Online: 31 July 2018 (09:47:34 CEST)
Onchocerciasis causes debilitating pruritus and rashes as well as visual impairment and blindness . Prior to control measures, eye disease was particularly prominent in savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa whilst skin disease was more common across rainforest regions of tropical Africa. Mass drug distribution with ivermectin is changing the global scene of onchocerciasis. There has been successful progressive elimination in Central and Southern American countries and the World Health Organization has set a target for elimination in Africa of 2025. This literature review was conducted to examine progress regarding onchocercal skin disease. PubMed searches were performed using keywords "onchocerciasis", "onchodermatitis" and "onchocercal skin disease" over the past eight years. Articles in English, or with an English abstract, were assessed for relevance, including any pertinent references within the articles. Recent progress in awareness of, understanding and treatment of onchocercal skin disease is reviewed with particular emphasis on publications within the past 5 years. The global burden of onchodermatitis is progressively reducing and is no longer seen in children in many formerly endemic foci.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Green Tea Catechins (ECGC); andrographolide; curcumin; Skin photoprotection; Skin permeation; Oxidative stress; Antimicrobial; Cosmetic and dermatologic formulations
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:27:36 CEST)
Here we have chosen to highlight the main natural molecules extracted from camellia sinensis, andrographis paniculata and curcuma longa that may possess antioxidant activities of interest for skin protection. The molecules involved, in the antioxidant process are respectively catechins derivatives, in particular EGCG, andrographolide and its derivatives as well as various curcuminoids. These plants are generally used as beverages for camellia sinensis (tea tree), as dietary supplements or as spices. The molecules they contain are known for their diverse therapeutic activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, antidiabetic and dermatological treatment. Their common antioxidant activities and therapeutic applications are widely documented, but their use in cosmetic is more recent. In this review, we will endeavor to compile the cosmetic uses of these natural molecules of interest, the various structural modulations reported, with the aim of improving their bioavailability as well as establishing their different mechanisms of action.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: keratinocyte necrosis; apoptosis; cleaved caspase-3; skin
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:49:24 CEST)
The patient was a 44-year-old woman with suspected Stevens-Johnson syndrome due to Baktar® (sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim) medication received at our outpatient dermatology clinic. Histopathological examination of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples showed numerous necrotic keratinocytes in the epidermis. Apoptotic nuclei were visualized as diaminobenzidine brown deposits with immunoperoxidase staining for cleaved caspase-3. Cleaved-caspase3-positive findings were consistent with eosinophilic material that appeared to be necrotic cells within the epidermis. Therefore, these eosinophilic materials must be apoptotic bodies. Generally speaking, and especially in Japan, these materials are considered necrotic keratinocytes. To our best knowledge, no studies have used apoptotic immunohistochemical markers to examine whether these structures are apoptotic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1665.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin; COVID infection; cytokines; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:37:37 CEST)
Background: There have been few reports of cutaneous skin lesions in severe COVID-19 hospitalized patients which exhibit different behavior compared to outpatients. Furthermore, a notable lack of rigorous studies exits. In this study we included patients with generalized rash during the first wave of the pandemic for characterization.Methods: Hospitalized patients with severe confirmed pulmonary COVID-19 infection and a generalized cutaneous rash during the first wave in March-May 2020 were included. The study received approval from the ethics committee. Clinical presentation, histo-logical examination, blood test, and complete blood interleukin profile were assessed. Special immunohistochemical investigations were conducted. Long term follow-up of the patient was performed throuhg a phone call 24 months later. Results: A total 28 patients were studied and classified by histological examination into three groups: G1: perivascular dermatitis (18/28, 64%); G2: Drug reaction (7/28, 25%); and G3: Generalized exanthema and chilblain (3/28, 11%). The virus was not detected in the skin, by PCR and by immunohistochemical analysis, and the interleukin expression in the skin were undetectable results. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), E-selectine, and IT Galpha 5 were unspecific. G1 exhibited the least inflammation, G2 the most in-flammatory, and G3 had previous inflammation. Discussion: Our data suggest that generalized exanthemas during severe SARS-Cov-2 infection exhibit unspecific finding and are similar to other rashes caused by inflammation. Drug reaction should be considered, as they accounted for 25% of the rashes. Further studies including higher number of patients are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Keratinocytes; alpha-mangostin; TRPV3; skin inflammation; dermatitis
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:42:33 CEST)
The TRPV3 calcium ion channel is vital for maintaining skin health and has been associated with various skin-related disorders. Since TRPV3 is involved in the development of skin inflammation, inhibiting TRPV3 could be a potential treatment strategy. Alpha-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. extract exhibits diverse positive effects on skin health; however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. This study investigated the TRPV3-inhibitory properties of alpha-mangostin on TRPV3 hyperactive mutants associated with Olmsted syndrome and its impact on TRPV3-induced cytokine secretion and cell death. Our findings demonstrate that alpha-mangostin effectively inhibits TRPV3, with an IC50 of 0.077 ± 0.013 μM, showing inhibitory effects on both wild-type and mutant TRPV3. TRPV3 inhibition with alpha-mangostin decreased calcium influx and cytokine release, protecting cells from TRPV3-induced death. These results indicate that alpha-mangostin reduced inflammation in TRPV3-activated skin keratinocytes, suggesting that alpha-mangostin could be potentially used for improving inflammatory skin conditions such as dermatitis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: EMPSGC; Skin neoplasm; Mucinous carcinoma; rare neoplasms
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:06:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade, neuroendocrine-differentiated, cutaneous adnexal tumour, officially recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) Skin Tumours Classification in 2018 as a separate entity and homologue of endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (eDCIS)/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. Although it is more frequent in the female sex, between the sixth and seventh decade, in the peri-orbital region, EMPSGC has also been described in the male sex, in subjects under 60 and over 80, and in extra-eyelid localizations (cheek, temple, scalp), but also in extra-facial localizations (chest and scrotum). (2) Methods: We present the clinical case of a 71-year-old woman with an undated lesion of the scalp, which presented as a nodule, skin-coloured, 2.5 cm in maximum diameter. We also conduct a comprehensive literature review from 1997 to the end of 2022, consulting PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), using the following keywords: "Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma" and/or "EMPSGC" and/or "skin" AND "cutaneous neoplasms", and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 248 patients were recorded with the majority, 146 females (58,8%) and 102 males (41,1%). The vast majority of the lesions were in the elides (peri-ocular region) and only a minority of cases involved the cheeks, supra-auricular, retro-auricular and occipital region, with very rare cases in the scalp, to which the present is also added (4) Conclusions: The morphological and immunophenotypical features are essential both for the correct diagnosis and to be able to classify this lesion among the corresponding eDCIS/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast, with neuroendocrine differentiation. Recent papers have attempted to shed light on the molecular features of EMPSGC and much remains to be done in the attempt to subtype the molecular profiles of these entities. Future studies with large case series, and especially with molecular biology techniques, will be needed to further add information about EMPSGC and its relationship in the PCMC spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin infection; antibiotics; quinolone; S. aureus; geriatrics
Online: 8 November 2022 (01:57:03 CET)
INTRODUCTION: Superficial cutaneous bacterial infections have a high incidence in geriatric patients. The most implicated pathogens are gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes) while gram-negative germs are also implicated. Resistances to common topical antibiotics (mupirocin, fusidic acid) require alternatives to gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Ozenoxacin cream for topical use (non-fluorinated bactericidal quinolone), in other countries and with other galenics, is indicated in children older than 6 months and in adults as a treatment of superficial bacterial infections, such as acne. In Spain, ozenoxacin cream is indicated only for non-bullous impetigo; scientific evidence show effectiveness also in other superficial skin bacterial infections.A cases series of clinical use of ozenoxacin in bacterial superficial skin infections in geriatric patients (institutionalized or community dwelling) is presented.METHODS: Multicenter case series (March-August 2022) of bacterial superficial skin infections treated with ozenoxacin cream (10mg/g every 12h, 5days); data from medical records (controls: 1-3-5 days), after obtaining informed consent (use of data and images).RESULTS: Series of 28 patients (mean age: 84,79) from nine nursing homes and one outpatient geriatric service, including acute and subacute/chronic cases.In all cases treatment was ozenoxacin 10mg/g topical cream applied every 12 hours for 5 days according to medical prescription (except for one case in which 3 days were enough for complete healing and another case treated for 10 days).Results showed complete healing in all 20 acute cases and significant clinical improvement in all subacute/chronic cases (with complete healing in one of them). Professionals scored the effectiveness in acute cases as a mean 4.5 points (maximum score: 5, p<.0001) and in subacute/chronic cases as 3.8 points (p=.010).There was no skin irritation or other adverse effects in anyone of the patients, and clinical improvement of pain, itching and other symptoms was observed, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results seem to demonstrate the effectiveness and tolerability of ozenozacin cream in bacterial infections other than non-bullous impetigo. Ozenoxacin cream is indicated only for the treatment of non-bullous impetigo; however, it is also shown to be effective, both in the scientific evidence and in our case series, for other superficial bacterial skin infections, both acute and subacute/chronic, suggesting the opportunity for clinical studies with an experimental design to evaluate the findings of clinical practice and to be able to have a therapeutic alternative to compensate for the complications of the appearance of resistance.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: skin aging; punicalagin; niosomes; UV radiation; collagen
Online: 24 March 2021 (17:35:18 CET)
Skin aging is one of the most common problems facing humanity. It occurs because of altering the balance between free radicals and antioxidants and increasing the amount of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin cells, which leads to oxidative stress especially when exposed to UV radiation. Antioxidants can neutralize the harmful effects of ROS, and secondary plant metabolites can help protect against UV radiation. In this study, punicalagin was extracted from pomegranate and concentrations of total polyphenolics and flavonoids were determined and antioxidant activities measured. Punicalagin was loaded onto niosomes and its morphology and release were studied. An in vitro study was performed on human fibroblast cell line HFB4 cells with aging induced by H2O2 and UV radiation. Cell cycle arrest was studied and different genes (MMP3, Col1A1, Timp3, and TERT) involved in the skin aging process were selected to measure punicalagin's effect. Punicalagin succeeded in reducing the growth arrest of HFB4 cells, activated production of the Col1A1 and Timp3 genes, maintained collagen level, and lowered of MMP3. Punicalagin increased human TERT concentration in skin cells. Punicalagin is promising as a natural antioxidant to protect human skin from aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0550.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biocompatibility; carbon nanomaterials; graphite; phototherapy; skin disease.
Online: 22 March 2021 (15:47:21 CET)
Nanostructured carriers have been widely used in pharmaceutical formulations for dermatological treatment. They offer targeted drug delivery, sustained release, improved biostability, and low toxicity, usually presenting advantages over conventional formulations. Due to its large surface area, small size and photothermal properties, graphene oxide (GO) has the potential to be used for such applications. Nanographene oxide (GOn) presented average sizes of 197.6 ± 11.8 nm, and a surface charge of -39.4 ± 1.8 mV, being stable in water for over 6 months. 55.5 % of the mass of GOn dispersion (at a concentration of 1 mg mL-1) permeated the skin after 6 h of exposure. GOn dispersions have been shown to absorb near-infrared radiation, reaching temperatures up to 45.7 °C, within mild photothermal therapy temperature range. Furthermore, GOn in amounts superior to those which could permeate the skin were shown not to affect human skin fibroblasts (HFF-1) morphology or viability, after 24 h of incubation. Due to its large size, no skin permeation was observed for graphite particles in aqueous dispersions stabilized with Pluronic P-123 (Gt-P-123). Altogether, for the first time, GOn potential as a topic administration agent and for delivery of photothermal therapy has been demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0166.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Tattoo; Tattoo ink; Oxidative stress; Phthalocyanine; Skin
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:05:29 CET)
Biomedical aspects of tattooing have been extensively discussed in literature, however pathophysiological effects of tattoo inks in the human body are still unexplored. Oxidative stress is considered responsible for the adverse effects of tattooing, however no experimental evidence for tattoo ink-related oxidative stress in the human body currently exists. The aim was to examine the effect of a blue tattoo on skin redox regulatory network (RRN) parameters in a single human subject. Skin surface oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was analyzed with a PH60F flat probe. Interstitial and intracellular fluid enriched capillary blood from the tattoo and the control area was extracted and analyzed with I2/KI-stabilized microORP, nitrocellulose redox permanganometry (NRP), carbonato-cobaltate (III) formation-derived H2O2 dissociation rate assay, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene autoxidation assay, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) assay and 5,5,’-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)-based determination of free thiol content in low molecular weight and protein precipitate fractions. Surface ORP analysis revealed a greater antioxidant capacity of tattooed skin in comparison with the control (CTR). Capillary blood analysis confirmed greater reductive capacity in the tattoo sample both by microORP (-4.33mV vs CTR) and NRP (+10.8%). Hydrogen peroxide dissociation rate (+11.8%), and protein sulfhydryl content (+8.5%) were increased, and lipid peroxidation (-15%) was reduced in the tattoo sample in comparison with the CTR. In this N-of-1 study, RRN of tattooed skin was shifted towards a more reductive state with all parameters indicating reduced levels of oxidative stress in comparison with nontattooed skin. The local antioxidant effect of copper(II) phthalocyanine provides one possible explanation of the observed effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: skin care; topicals; toxicity; ingredients; systemic inflammation
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:23:17 CET)
Although man is still rapidly evolving, he has not co-evolved with all of the modern chemicals made by man, including those in cosmetic products. Care must be taken when formulating products so that commonly used ingredients, such as polyethylene glycol, can be substituted with safer ingredients to which man has adapted and that will not cause irritation and inflammation. This is especially important given that induction of skin inflammation will cause systemic inflammation. A review of the literature and of commercially available products was made to highlight techniques and products that remediate inflammation or induce inflammation. Many skin care products contain chemicals that induce irritation and inflammation that may lead to chronic, systemic inflammation. Well studied natural products, especially skin identical chemicals, may offer an advantage compared to recent man-made chemicals in cosmetic and topical formulations and help to reduce skin inflammation as well as skin derived systemic chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Skin; Cell culture; Stem cells; Differentiation; Camel
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:04:59 CEST)
Elite camels often suffer from massive injuries. Thus, there is a pivotal need for a cheap and readily available regenerative medicine source. We isolated novel stem-like cells from camel skin and investigated their multipotency and resistance against various stresses. Skin samples were isolated from ears of five camels. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors were extracted. After separation of different cell lines by trypsinization, all cell lines were exposed to heat shock. Then, fibroblasts and dermal cyst-forming cells were examined under cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells were evaluated for resistance against osmotic pressure. The results revealed that resistance periods against trypsin were 1.5, 4, and 7 minutes for fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors, respectively. Furthermore, complete recovery of different cell lines after heat shock along with the differentiation of spheroid progenitors into neurons was observed. Fibroblasts and spheroid progenitors retained cell proliferation after cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells regained their normal structure after collapsing by osmotic pressure. The spheroid progenitors incubated in the adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic media differentiated into the adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we isolated different unique cellular differons and stem-like cells from the camel skin and examined their multipotency for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0607.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Roasted Fish Skin, PAHs mutagenicity risk, Limonene
Online: 30 September 2018 (10:03:24 CEST)
Traditional edible barbecue products use with lemon juice not only make the barbecue more delicious but also reduce the risk of PAHs in the barbecue products. One of the major economics crops in Taiwan, the waste from citrus fruits was very tremendous mass. However, the peelings of citrus fruits are rich in essential oil, especially, the limonene is the major. Whether the anti-carcinogenesis activities of terpene, such as limonene, in citrus fruits essential oil extraction. This study to demonstrate the PAHs content in fish skin increased markedly after being roasted at 210℃ for 20 minutes and greater mutagenicity risk of roasted fish skin was observed by Ame's test. The reduction of mutagenicity risk of roasted fish skin, which the antimutagenic abilities of substances in descending order were limonene > cold pressure oil > lemon >grapefruit. The antimutagenicity rate and ability of the three extracts were limonene: 18–23%; cold-pressed lemon oil: 18–22%; and steam distilled lemon essential oil: 8–16%. The obvious anti- mutagenicity effects against the PAHs mutagenicity of roasted fish skins can be found in citrus fruits essential oil extraction.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: topical steroid withdrawal; topical steroids; eczema; atopic dermatitis; skin microbiome; gut mi-crobiome; microbiome; biodiversity; skin allergy epidemic;
Online: 8 September 2021 (20:19:35 CEST)
We set up this preliminary study to evaluate one main question: could strengthening the microbiome have potential benefits for patients suffering with adverse effects after stopping long term topical steroid use? We aim to turn it into a much larger study if the results show promise. After commonly being prescribed for eczema, cessation of topical steroid use, especially after long periods of inappropriate use, can leave lasting adverse effects on the body and skin, known by some as topical steroid withdrawal (TSW). Furthermore, the subsequent withdrawal the body experiences when coming off the drug can leave lasting adverse effects on the body and skin, known by some as topical steroid withdrawal (TSW). This preliminary study involved seven human participants suffering with skin problems associated with TSW who approached Dr. Anja Gijsberts-Veens of their own volition because they were interested in more natural recovery methods. Five completed the study in full. Progress in skin condition was tracked by self-assessed symptom severity questionnaires filled out at the beginning and end of the study. The skin microbiome was addressed by using a 100% natural product shown in previous work to significantly increase skin microbiome biodiversity. Three participants implemented dietary changes and supplementation in response to guidance after fecal sample analysis to improve their gut health and biodiversity. The average improvement in skin symptoms for all participants was 40% and average symptom improvement ranged from 14% for Patient 5 to 92% for Patient 1. On average, the participants saw an improvement in 85% of their symptoms and a stagnation or regression in 11% and 4% respectively. We believe these results show enough promise to warrant expansion of this research to use a larger sample size, preferably 50+ participants, in future work. We also aim to swab the skin of participants to assess the effect on the skin microbiome from skin and gut treatments, as well as including more in-depth analysis of skin and gut microbiomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: scar removal; nanotechnology; nanofibers; skin repair; tissue regeneration
Online: 3 November 2023 (06:25:31 CET)
Nanotechnology has become an increasingly promising medical field, particularly scar removal. Scar removal is a complex process involving regenerating damaged skin tissue, and nanotechnology presents unique solutions to this issue. One potential application of nanotechnology is using nanofibers as scaffolds to support the growth of new skin tissue. These fibres can also be loaded with drugs or growth factors to promote tissue regeneration and reduce scarring. Another potential application is nanocarriers for drug delivery to specific body areas, which can promote tissue regeneration and reduce scarring.Additionally, nanotechnology has been utilized to create new materials for skin regeneration, such as "nano skin" that mimics the structure of natural skin. Nanoprobes have also been developed for the detection of scar tissue and the monitoring of its progression. These potential nanotechnology applications offer exciting possibilities for the future of scar removal and skin repair. With further research and development, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize scar removal and provide more effective solutions for tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Krill oil; Ultraviolet; Skin photoaging; Marine-derived ingredients
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:07:26 CEST)
Krill oil (KO) shows promise as a natural marine-derived ingredient for improving skin health. This study investigated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkle, and moisturizing effects on skin cells and UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice. In vitro assays on HDF, HaCaT, and B16/F10 cells, and in vivo experiments on 66 hairless mice, were conducted. Mice received oral KO administration (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) once a day for 15 weeks and UVB radiation three times a week. In vitro, KO significantly countered UVB-induced oxidative stress, reduced wrinkles, and prevented skin water loss by enhancing collagen and hyaluronic synthesis. In vivo, all KO dosages showed dose-dependent inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammatory photoaging-related skin changes. Skin mRNA expressions for hyaluronan synthesis and collagen synthesis genes also increased dose-dependently after KO treatment. Histopathological analysis confirmed that Krill Oil (KO) ameliorated the damage caused by UVB-irradiated skin tissues. These findings suggest that KO may be a valuable intervention to mitigate UVB-induced skin photoaging and address various skin concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pediatric Allergy. Specific IgE; Skin prick test; allergens
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:46:46 CEST)
High prevalence of allergic disorders in Indian pediatric patients demands early diagnosis of allergens so that appropriate allergen avoidance methods, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy can be provided in time to avoid the worsening of symptoms due to triggers. In this context, identification of the most prevalent aeroallergens in a given area is critical for diagnosis and treatment of various allergic reactions especially in case of rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma. The specific diagnosis of IgE mediated allergy is usually based on the correlation between the clinical history and signs and symptoms endorsed by the diagnostic tests. Skin prick tests are the gold standard however has some limitation. In view of this, the aim of this study was to assess the significance of ImmunoCAP assay for assessing serum specific IgE levels, available in India, against skin prick test by standardized allergens, for the diagnosis of allergic sensitization. A single-center observational study was conducted at tertiary care corporate hospitals in North India from 2017-2020. Patients with self-reported allergic symptoms or whose symptoms were suspected for allergies were tested for the type of sensitization using skin prick test (SPT) after their consents followed by ImmunoCAP based quantification of serum specific IgE levels. A total of 256 (95.9%) pediatric patients were analyzed in the study and were analysed. The patients were most commonly (30% patients) sensitized to D. farinae (173 [67.6%]), D. pteronyssinus (174 [68.0%]), Acarus siro (93 [36.3%]), Lepidoglyphus destructor (96 [37.5%]), Plantago lanceolata (Engl.). The ROC curve of Bermuda grass shows that the AUC of serum-specific IgE is larger than that of SPT (1.000 / 0.881). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of serum-specific IgE reference method resulted in the largest AUC of all the allergens taken into consideration (0.711 / 1.000) compared to those of SPT (0.589 / 1.000). These results revealed that serum-specific IgE is more reliable method over prick test for accessing the sensitivity of patient for various allergens. This study may be helpful in performing early diagnosis of allergies as well as in taking appropriate preventive measures for managing life threatening allergic reactions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Skin excision; plastic surgery; parallelogram excision; sarcoma; orthopaedics
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:01:44 CEST)
The reconstructive ladder is a well-established concept in Plastic Surgery proposed to achieve wound closure using a stepladder approach from simple to complex procedures and it continues to evolve from when it was presented for the first time. We describe a new surgical technique that allows skin excision and primary wound closure avoiding donor site morbidity from skin grafts and avoiding large scars from loco-regional flaps: the parallelogram excision technique. Fifteen patients with skin lesions underwent this procedure. Six months' follow-up results showed a) good scar healing, b) total excision of lesions, and c) patient acceptance and satisfaction from the usage of this technique. We conducted a geometrical analysis of the parallelogram’s design to study the optimal geometrical condition to achieve all these three factors. We propose that the parallelogram excision of skin lesions proves to be a unique new wound closure technique that may add a new rung to the reconstructive ladder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0583.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: cosmetics; skin microbiota; Staphylococcus epidermidis; lactic acid; PCA
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:09:58 CEST)
Cosmetics have various characters, but there have been no studies which classified the properties of cosmetics based on their effects on skin-domesticated bacteria. In this study, we established an anaerobic culture and short-chain fatty acid measurement system using Staphylococcus epidermidis, a representative bacterium of indigenous skin bacteria. Furthermore, this system was used to extract and classify the characteristics of 9 cosmetics. Cosmetics containing ferments of rice and soy were clustered in the vicinity, although one cosmetic containing soy ferment was clustered distant from other similar cosmetics. Cosmetics from South Asia and those containing natural plant extracts were clustered in the vicinity. These results show that this method can be utilized as a cosmetics pattern map, and will provide a method to prevent growth of opportunistic bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0303.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Atopic dermatitis; children; allergic; skin conditions; environmental factors
Online: 13 April 2023 (07:29:54 CEST)
There has been a rise in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) globally especially in low-and middle-income countries such as Nigeria. The condition has been linked to genetic predisposes, living conditions, and environmental factors. Environmental factors are considered a significant contributor to AD in low- and middle-income countries. This study determined the prevalence of AD in southwestern Nigeria and identified risk factors in home and school environments that children aged 6 to 14 years are exposed to. A cross-sectional study was adopted, and the total sample size was 349. Four randomly selected health facilities were used for the study. A questionnaire was used to determine the risk factors in the population. Data analysis was done using the latest version of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in this study is 25%. Atopic dermatitis was found to be common in females ( 27%). Children who lived where trucks pass on the street almost daily had the highest cases of atopic dermatitis (28%). Children with rugs in their houses and those whose houses are surrounded by bushes also had higher cases of atopic dermatitis at 26% and 26% respectively. Children who played on school grass, attended creche with rubber toys, and attended a school where wooden chairs and chalkboards were used had higher numbers of AD cases at 26%, 26%, 28%, and 27% respectively. This study identified home and school exposure that predisposes children to AD. It is envisaged that the study will serve as a basis for possible research on evidence-based treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0188.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Super resolution; Transformer; Deep Learning; Skin image; Dermoscopy
Online: 10 February 2023 (08:06:55 CET)
Deep learning technologies for skin cancer detection have been dramatically advanced based on high resolution dermoscopic images. The low-cost approach based on clinical skin images of low resolution is promising but remains technically challenging due to their undermined image quality. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine efficient super resolution transformer (CF-ESRT) network to reconstruct the dermoscopy-level high resolution skin image from a low resolution clinical image. By connecting the refinement network to the original super resolution transformers and applying perceptual and gradient losses, our framework noticeably improves the finer texture details of skin lesions in the super resolution (SR) images, and is effective to elevate the perceptual quality of the SR images. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that our method outperforms ESRT the basis model as well as the other state-of-the-art SR models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: matrix metalloproteinases; skin fibrosis; gene expression; laser therapy
Online: 27 January 2023 (07:17:38 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are often considered biomarkers of skin fibrosis. At the early stages of the pathological process, an elevation of their enzymatic activity causes significant changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. MMPs secreted by immune cells facilitate their migration to the site of damage. Then, the immune cells eliminate the affected cells and biomolecules. Moreover, bidirectional changes in the activity of proteolytic enzymes, including MMPs, accompany wound healing. This study aimed to assess changes in the expression of Mmp2, Mmp3, and Mmp9 after treating the mice with laser therapy using the experimental model of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. Using immunohistochemistry, we characterized the histological features of scarred skin. We also analyzed changes in the expression of MMPs using real-time polymerase chain reaction before and after the irradiation with laser. We showed that treatment of the mice with CO2 laser partially normalized the histological features of scarred skin. We also noticed a decrease in the expression of Mmp2, Mmp3 (both p < 0.05), and Mmp9 (p = 0.065) during scar healing. The obtained results suggest that normalization of skin homeostasis requires a control of MMPs activities via induction of their genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: diaper; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; skin cancer; neurobehavioral changes
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:55:13 CEST)
In September 2021, the European Chemicals Agency evaluated a dossier for restricting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infant diapers and concluded that risks were not demonstrat-ed because of inconclusive exposure data. To fill this gap, we measured the 16 priority PAHs of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the diaper core of four brands and in the sheets and fastening tapes of six brands of commercially available diapers. Health risks were conservatively assessed by assuming that dermally absorbed PAHs can cause both local (skin cancer) and sys-temic critical effects (neurobehavioral changes). Total concentrations of PAHs in diaper core and top sheet, the only significant contributors to skin exposure, averaged 34.5 μg/kg and 66.8 μg/kg, respectively. Excess skin cancer risks and hazard quotients for neurobehavioral effects calculated with the daily dose of total PAHs from combined diaper core and top sheet averaged 1.4 x 10-7 and 1.19 x 10-2, respectively. The median daily dose of total PAHs and of its ben-zo[a]pyrene-equivalent from breast milk estimated worldwide are 171 and 30 times greater than that from combined diaper core and top sheet, respectively. Altogether these findings indicate that trace levels of PAHs found in infant diapers are unlikely to pose health risks.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: microbiome; skin microbiome; sports recovery; sports performance; cosmetics
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:13:00 CEST)
This short communication reports on the initial results of a much larger, ongoing project, the aim of which is to investigate the question: could the skin microbiome, just like the gut microbiome, play a role in sports recovery and performance – and if so, could this role be as significant a one as that played by the gut microbiome? 17 high performance college athletes addressed their skin microbiome by minimizing contact with synthetic chemicals and by using topical skin supplements, shown previously to significantly increase skin microbiome biodiversity, for two weeks after training. 76% said their skin softness improved, 35% said their muscle stiffness and recovery after sport improved, 12% said their sleep quality improved, and 100% said they would be likely to use skin supplements again. Future work will use hundreds of athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cat; cutaneous lymphocytosis; dog; immunohistochemistry; lymphoma; PARR; skin
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:01:19 CET)
Cutaneous lymphocytosis (CL) is an uncommon and controversial lymphoproliferative disorder described in dogs and cats. CL is generally characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and histological features that may overlap with epitheliotropic lymphoma. Therefore, its neoplastic or reactive nature is still debated. Here, we describe clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and clonality features of a retrospective case series of 19 cats and 10 dogs with lesions histologically compatible with CL. In both species, alopecia, erythema and scales were the most frequent clinical signs. Histologically, a dermal infiltrate of small to medium-sized lymphocytes, occasionally extending to the subcutis, was always identified. Conversely, when present, epitheliotropism was generally mild. In cats, the infiltrate was consistently CD3+; in dogs, a mixture of CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes was observed only in 4 cases. The infiltrate was polyclonal in all cats, while BCR and TCR clonal rearrangements were identified in dogs. Overall, cats had a long-term survival (median overall survival=1080 days) regardless of the treatment received, while dogs showed a shorter and variable clinical course, with no evident associations with clinicopathological features. In conclusion, our results support a reactive nature of the disease in cats, associated with prolonged survival; despite a similar histological picture, canine CL was associated with a more heterogeneous lymphocytic infiltrate, clonality results, and response to treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: skin microbiome; skincare; cosmetic products; ecobiology; microbiome friendly
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:12:40 CEST)
Background: Skincare products are used daily to maintain a healthy skin (cleansing, moisturizing, protecting…), but their impact on this first layer, which corresponds to the skin microbiome, is still poorly understood. Preserving natural resources and mechanisms of the skin ecosystem is essential; an original approach based on these premises, called ecobiology, has recently emerged in skincare. Ecobiology considers the skin as an ever-evolving ecosystem which hosts human and microbial cells that interact together with their environment. In this context, we evaluated the impact on the skin microbiome of three types of leave-on face skincare products: a hydrophilic sterile solution, a micellar solution, and an oil-in-water emulsion. Materials and Methods: The individual microbial profiles of 20 Caucasian females were investigated. Samples were obtained twenty-four hours and four days following a daily application of the skincare products versus control area where no product was applied. To analyze the bacterial diversity and abundance of skin microbiome, a 16SrRNA gene sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Results: Our results confirm the overall diversity of skin microbiome as previously observed and notably reveal the prevalence of Cutibacterium spp. and Staphylococcus spp. on sebaceous site (the back). Bacterial diversity and abundance were not affected by the products either twenty-four hours or four days after application, as indicated by comparison with the control. Moreover, no dissimilarity was observed between the three products versus their control, neither between each product. Conclusions: These preliminary results demonstrated for the first time that three different types of leave-on face skincare products such as a hydrophilic sterile solution, a micellar solution, and an emulsion have no impact on skin microbiome and can be considered as “microbiome friendly”.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: sphingomonas; gram-negative bacterial infection; skin disease; bacterial
Online: 12 December 2019 (10:01:35 CET)
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an opportunist pathogen bacillus gram-negative aerobic with a rare occurrence. We present a case in an immunocompetent man successfully treated by surgical debridement, purulent drainage and with an associated course of antibiotics. A large necrotic infection, approximately 5 cm x 3 cm, in a 74-year-old man was identified. Empirical antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin 400mg EV 12/12 hours, associated with clindamycin 600mg EV 6/6 hours and pain control was done through dipyrone 1gr, tramadol 400 mg. Deep venous thrombosis was prevented through the prescription of enoxaparin 40mg subcutaneous once a day during hospitalization. The case was well illustrated with pictures throughout treatment. Complete healing was achieved after 90 days. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous contamination. The presented case is the third cutaneous contamination case reported in the literature and the first reported case in the Amazonia region in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: PGE2; EP1; skin-aging; ERK1/2; intracellular calcium
Online: 27 October 2019 (11:04:31 CET)
Collagen type I production decreases with aging, leading to wrinkles and impaired skin function. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a lipid-derived signaling molecule produced from arachidonic acid by cyclo-oxygenase, inhibits collagen production and induces matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1) expression by fibroblasts in vitro. PGE2-induced collagen expression inhibition and MMP1 promotion are aging mechanisms. This study investigated the role of E-prostanoid 1 (EP1) in PGE2 signaling in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). When EP1 expression was inhibited by EP1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), there were no significant changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1)/MMP1 between siRNA-transfected NHDFs and siRNA-transfected NHDFs with PGE2. This result showed that EP1 is a PGE2 receptor. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation after PGE2 treatment significantly increased by ~2.5 times. In addition, PGE2 treatment increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in NHDFs. These results indicated that PGE2 is directly associated with EP1 pathway–regulated ERK1/2 and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) signaling in NHDFs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DHA; reconstructed human models; filaggrin; skin barrier; inflammation
Online: 16 August 2019 (08:17:51 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which can cause skin barrier function damaged. Although co-incubation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts a positive effect in deficient skin model, there is no study to investigate the effects of topical treatment with DHA in inflammatory reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. The effects of DHA on monolayer normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells were evaluated via CCK-8, qPCR and ELISA. The skin related barrier function was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, western blot (WB), Immunohistofluorescence (IF) and ELISA in normal and inflammatory RHE models. DHA upregulated filaggrin and loricrin expression at mRNA levels in addition to suppress overexpression of TNF-α，IL-1α and IL-6 stimulated by poly I:C plus LPS (stimulation cocktail) in cultured NHEK cells. After topical treatment with DHA, cocktail induced inflammatory characteristics of skin diseases including barrier morphological, differentiation proteins and TSLP secretion, which were alleviated in RHE models. Supplementation with DHA can improved related barrier function and have anti-inflammation effects in monolayer keratinocytes and RHE models, which indicated that DHA may have a potential value for the treatment of inflammation-associate skin diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Marine algae; Carbohydrates; Oligosaccharides; Monosaccharides; Skin health; Cosmeceuticals
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:19:37 CET)
Marine algae have been considered as abundant source of bioactive compounds with cosmeceutical potential. Recently, a great deal of interest has focused on the health-promoting effects of marine bioactive compounds. Carbohydrate is a major and abundant constitute of marine algae that have been utilized in cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents. In addition, marine carbohydrates have been suggested as promising bioactive biomaterials for various skin beneficial properties, such as anti-oxidant, anti-melanogenic and anti-skin aging. Therefore, marine algae carbohydrates have potential of skin health benefits for value-added cosmeceutical application. The present review focused on the various biological capacities and potential skin health benefits of bioactive marine carbohydrates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: burns; treatment; pediatric; autograft; biological skin substitute; thermal
Online: 30 November 2017 (14:12:10 CET)
Burns is a pervasive and oppressive basic care issue. In children, burn injuries are a major reason for bleakness and mortality. The quirks in the physiology of liquid and electrolyte taking care of, the vital necessity and the distinctions in the different body extends in children direct that the pediatric wounds administration ought to be brought with an alternate point of view than for adults. Notwithstanding, for the intensivist, challenges regularly exist that muddle quiet help and adjustment. Moreover, burn injuries are mind-boggling and can show exceptional challenges that require deep-rooted recovery. Investigation in burn wound care has yielded progressions that will keep on improving practical recuperation. What's more, pain management all through this period is essential. Managing these wounds requires escalated therapeutic treatment for multi-organ dysfunction, and forceful surgical treatment to forestall sepsis and other inconveniences. The biological therapeutic bilayered skin substitutes with a long shelf life that recapitulates the normal barrier function of the intact human skin and stimulate wound repair and skin regeneration. A definitive objective is to accomplish a perfect skin substitute that gives a successful and without scar wound recuperating. This review article features the headway in pediatric burn wounds with an emphasis on the pathophysiology and treatment of burn wounds.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0074.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lumpy skin disease virus; lumpy skin disease; epidemiological footprint and multi-country outbreak; transboundary spread and disease resurgence; diagnosis and vaccines
Online: 13 February 2023 (14:44:26 CET)
The lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is an animal virus and a member of the Poxviridae family, which causes lumpy skin disease (LSD) in livestock animals like cows and buffaloes. LSD is an important transboundary disease of economic importance that was first discovered in 1929 in Zambia. LSDV has been prevalent in African countries, where several outbreaks have been reported previously. However, the virus has spread rapidly across the Middle East in the past two decades, reaching Russia and, recently, the Asian subcontinent. With the unprecedented cluster outbreaks reported across Asian countries, LSDV is certainly undergoing an epidemiological shift and expanding its geographical footprint globally. The recent LSD outbreaks have gained attention from global regulatory authorities and raised serious concerns among epidemiologists and veterinary researchers. Although there is no dearth of knowledge about LSDV, the disease lacks networked global surveillance and management, consequently making the current statistics deficient, fragmented, and unreliable. Hence, recurrent LSD outbreaks seriously threaten the global livestock industry. This review provides recent insights into LSDV by augmenting latest literature associated with its epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, currently-available intervention strategies, and economic implications on the dairy industries. The review also critically examines the changing epidemiological footprint of LSD and speculates on the possible reasons contributing to the ongoing multi-country LSD outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Skin diseases, exosome, plants, humans, medicinal algae, fungi, treatment
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:29:59 CET)
Annually, millions of people worldwide are affected by skin diseases, and current therapeutic approaches have limited efficacy. Advances in the treatment of exosomes have led to the development of new therapeutic methods that hold promising potential for improving the treatment options for skin diseases. The aim of this study is to produce pharmaceutical and cosmetic compounds based on exosomes for the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema, pigmentation disorders, skin sagging and aging, cellular skin regeneration, increased skin moisture, and prevention of skin shedding, among others. This study examines the effects of exosomes derived from plants, humans, medicinal algae, and fungi to treat skin diseases. Spectrophotometric analysis reveals the presence of nucleic acids and proteins in exosome samples, indicating their cargo composition. TEM micrographs demonstrate that the exosome isolation process preserves the integrity of the membrane and the crucial spherical structure for their functionality. DLS analysis confirms that isolated exosomes have a size similar to typical exosome dimensions. MTT assays indicate concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects of exosomes on skin cells, with a calculated IC50 representing a significant decrease in cell viability. Real-time PCR shows higher gene expression levels of collagen I and collagen III, indicating the potential of exosomes to enhance collagen synthesis. Tyrosinase enzyme expression analysis demonstrates the influence of exosome treatments on pathways related to melanin production. The use of exosomes derived from various sources provides a promising platform for developing new drugs in the treatment of skin diseases. Additionally, exosomes can be utilized in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer, transforming them into a hopeful field of research. Plant-derived exosomes are environmentally friendly and can serve as the next generation of drug delivery systems for treating various diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2097.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Skin injuries; Therapy; Caring; Natural Materials; Regulatory Issues; ISO
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:43:24 CET)
Wounds are breaks in the continuity of the skin and the underlying tissues, due to external causes, such as cuts, blows and impacts, or even, during surgical interventions. Millions of people suffer minor or serious injuries, sometimes ending in death. Today, there are many commercially available products that promote healing from wounds. The high demand from the healthcare industry has created a huge market that continues to grow, fueling research and development of new wound healing products. In the present article, we review recent advances in wound healing products based on natural biopolymers, stem cells, and microRNAs. We analyze the advances of both, the commercial products and the products that are still in research phase, and we also include an overview of the opportunities, barriers, and regulatory issues for the commercialization of these products in the European, American, and Asian markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1308.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: arsenic; serum 25(OH)D; methylation capacity; skin hyperkeratosis
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:34:54 CEST)
Limited studies have shown that exposure to arsenic is associated with serum vitamin D levels, but the results are still inconsistent. A cross-sectional study of 762 participants was conducted in Wenshui Country, Shanxi Province, which was identified as an area of water-borne arsenicosis. The results showed positive relationship between arsenic species (iAs, MMA, DMA) and serum 25(OH)D. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the significant increases of 0.4% and 0.6% in the risk of vitamin D excess for every 1-unit increment in the Box-Cox transformed urinary tAs and DMA, respectively. After stratifying populations based on arsenic methylation metabolic capacity, each one-unit increase in the Box-Cox transformed tAs level was associated with increases of 0.064 (95%CI: 0.032 to 0.096) in serum 25(OH)D in the populations with iAs% above the median. In the populations with skin hyperkeratosis, urinary iAs was positively associated with serum 25(OH)D (β=0.592, 95%CI: 0.041 to 1.143). Overall, our findings support the positive relationship between urinary arsenic and serum 25(OH)D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0938.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: onion; peeling; compressed air; skin; waste; non-linear regression
Online: 16 October 2023 (09:11:18 CEST)
The paper presents the relationship between the efficiency of the process of skin onion peeling and its effect in the form of waste. The research was carried out on a pilot test stand for onion peeling. The process variables were compressed air with a pressure of (p) and valve controlling opening time of flow (t). The experiment took into account the influence of the onion diameter (d0) and its hardness (H). The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. Standard deviations were of the percentage loss of onion mass in the form of the skin removed of onion peeling in the process in relation to obtained aver-age values. Tukey's multiple comparison test was performed in order to identify the importance of individual process variables on the final effect of onion peeling. This was the basis for the development of a predictive model in the form of a nonlinear regression Mp=f(p,t,d0,H), which is a mathematical description of the peeling onion skin process . Finally, the response surface area of relationship between analyzed variables was determined. The results of research showed the peeling efficiency of the onion and waste of skin mass depend on the compressed air pressure. Extending the onion blowing time does not improve the process efficiency, while the hardness and size of the onion are irrelevant to the process.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: O-Z flap; scalp reconstruction; malignant melanoma; skin cancer
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:41:04 CEST)
The scalp is a unique anatomical region with distinct challenges for reconstruction, especially in cases of melanoma excision. This study explores the utilization of the O-Z flap technique as an alternative approach for patients with melanoma, where traditional free flap reconstruction may not be feasible due to age or underlying health conditions. However, in this case, the patient had a history of angina and was unwilling to undergo a long operation due to his advanced age. This study highlights the importance of following NCCN guidelines for melanoma resection margins based on tumor thickness and underscores the value of staged resection planning to minimize deficits. This requires an individualized approach as each patient may have different circumstances (general health condition, age, compliance, etc.). So we planned a staged excision first. In the first surgery, we would resect the tumor minimally and then determine the exact size of the tumor. Then, in the second surgery, we resected it with a safety margin according to the guidelines. The O-Z flap, a local flap with an "O"-shaped defect and "Z"-shaped incision line, is introduced as a reconstructive option. The surgical procedure, advantages, and limitations of this approach are discussed. This study provides valuable insights into achieving successful scalp reconstruction while considering aesthetic outcomes and patient-specific factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Andrographis paniculate; MAPKs; interleukin; PPAR-α; skin barrier function
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:26:12 CEST)
Andrographis paniculata leaves have been widely used in traditional medicine due to their rich content of phenolic compounds. In this study, we evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid content of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts (ALE), as well as its antioxidant activities against DPPH, ABTS, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Additionally, we conducted cell viability assays, RT-PCR, and western blot analysis to investigate the biochemical effects of ALE on UVB-induced HaCaT cells. Our results revealed that ALE exhibited a high concentration of polyphenols and flavonoids, which were associated with potent abiotic antioxidant properties. Furthermore, ALE treatment effectively abrogated the damage caused by UVB radiation on key molecules such as hyaluronan synthase 1, Aquaporin 3, and loricrin in HaCaT cells. ALE also demonstrated the ability to reduce the overactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β in UVB-induced HaCaT cells. Additionally, ALE positively influenced the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in these cells. Overall, our findings highlight the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ALE, as well as its significant role in modulating skin barrier functions. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of ALE in skincare and dermatological applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1572.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: colorless; carotenoids; cosmetics; skin carotenoids; UV radiation; public health
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:49:27 CEST)
This review emphasizes the significance of dietary carotenoids in promoting skin health and appearance. The applications of carotenoids in health-promoting and nutrient products and their potential health effects are discussed. Food technology, health, nutrition, dermatology, and dermoaesthetics have recently focused on colorless carotenoids, particularly phytoene, and phytofluene, which have the unique ability to absorb UV radiation. These carotenoids, being significant components of the human diet, are readily bioavailable and have demonstrated various health-promoting actions in re-cent studies. Their distinct structures and properties, such as light absorption, oxidation sensitivity, stiffness, aggregation tendency, and even fluorescence in the case of phytof-luene, contribute to their potential benefits. Furthermore, it is recommended to assess the levels of these carotenoids to evaluate skin carotenoid status accurately.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1736.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: animal models; exosomes; skin regeneration; wound healing; systematic review.
Online: 26 June 2023 (04:55:12 CEST)
Exosomes have shown promising potential as a therapeutic approach for wound healing. Nevertheless, the translation from experimental studies to commercially available treatments is still lacking. To assess the current state of research in this field, a systematic review was performed to examine the methodological heterogeneity among studies conducted over the past five years. Additionally, the review analyzed the suitability of animal models used and their relevance to human medicine. A PubMed search was performed for english-language, full-text available papers published from 2018 to June 2023, focusing on exosomes derived from mammalian sources and their application in wound healing, particularly those involving in vivo assays. Out of 531 results, 148 papers were selected for analysis. The findings revealed significant variability in terms of cell sources and types, biomaterials, and administration routes under investigation, indicating the need for further research in this field. Additionally, a comparative examination encompassing diverse cellular origins, types, administration pathways, or biomaterials is imperative. Furthermore, the predominance of rodent-based animal models raises concerns, as there have been limited advancements towards more complex in vivo models and scale-up assays. These constraints underscore the substantial efforts that remain necessary before attaining commercially viable and extensively applicable therapeutic approaches using exosomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0628.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; skin inflammation; natural products; nanotechnology; topical delivery
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:45:26 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic eczematous inflammatory disease that may arise from environmental, genetic and immunological factors. Despite the efficacy of current treatment options like corticosteroids, such approaches are mainly focused on symptoms relief, and may present certain undesirable side effects. In recent years, investigation regarding isolated natural compounds, oils, mixtures and/or extracts, have gained scientific attention because of their high efficiency and moderate to low toxicity. Despite their promising therapeutic effects, the applicability of such natural health care solutions is somehow limited by their instability, poor solubility, and low bioavailability. Therefore, novel nanoformulation-based systems have been designed to overpass these limitations, thus enhancing the therapeutic potential, by promoting the capacity of these natural drugs to properly exert their action in AD-like skin lesions. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature review that focused on summarizing the last nanoformulation-based solutions loaded with natural ingredients, and specifically for the management of AD. We suggest that future studies should focus on robust clinical trials that may confirm the security and effectiveness of such natural-based nanosystems, thus paving the way for more reliable AD treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0431.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Blood microbiome; skin microbiome; migration; Kerguelen Islands; 16S rRNA
Online: 24 January 2023 (10:52:08 CET)
Our understanding of how microbiome signatures are modulated in wild fish populations remains poorly known and has, until now, mostly been inferred from studies in commercial and farmed fish populations. Here, we have studied for the first time changes in the skin and blood microbiomes of the Salmo trutta population of the volcanic Kerguelen archipelago located at the northern limit of the Antarctic Ocean. Kerguelen is a natural framework of population expansion and a likely situation under further climate change in distribution areas. Our results showed that S. trutta of Kerguelen has a microbiome signature distinct from those of salmonids of the Northern Hemisphere. Our study also revealed that the skin and blood microbiomes differ between sedentary and migratory S. trutta. While 18 phyla were shared between both groups of trout, independent of the compartment, six phyla were unique to migratory trout. Further analyses showed that microbiome signatures undergo significant site-specific variations that correlate, in some cases, to the peculiarity of specific ecosystems. Our study also revealed the presence of potential pathogens at particular sites and the impact of abiotic factors on the microbiome, most notably due to the volcanic nature of the environment. This study contributes to a better understanding of the factors that modulate the microbiome signatures of migratory and sedentary fish populations. It will also help better monitor climate change's impacts on the colonization process in the sub-Antarctic region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Clothing; Health Promotion; Skin Cancer Prevention; Sport; Ultraviolet Radiation
Online: 7 November 2022 (02:06:38 CET)
Australia and New Zealand have the highest incidence of skin cancer. Sport is a fundamental part of Australasian culture, beginning in childhood, often with life-long participation. Participating in outdoor sports can contribute significantly to the lifetime ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose individuals receive and their risk of developing skin cancer. This systematic scoping review explores the use of sun-protection by outdoor sporting participants in Australasia and considers how sun-protection practices may be better evaluated and improved in the community. A search of electronic databases using the search strategy “sun protection” AND “sport” AND “Australia” yielded 17 studies published in English from January 1992 to August 2021. Study methods included using UV-dosimeters to measure individual UVR-exposure; remote estimates of clothing-adjusted UVR-exposure; direct observation of sun-protection practices; and self-reported sun-exposure and sun-protection. Despite 40-years of ‘Slip Slop Slap’ campaigns in Australia, the use of sun-protection in most outdoor sports is inadequate. The paucity of comparable data limited our analyses, demonstrating a need for standardized, objective evaluation tools. Such tools, if used across a range of sports, should inform the development of workable recommendations that sporting clubs could implement and adopt into policy, thus empowering them to better protect the health of their participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: clinical S.aureus; skin carriage; geriatric-MRSA pneumonia; endogenous-S.aureus
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:33:22 CEST)
The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus has created several gaps in its population structure and emergence of strains. Two global shifts in the aftermath of the past methicil-lin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemic are: a rise in healthcare-associated infections and evolu-tion of cutaneous and soft tissue infections with high morbidities and mortalities. Furthermore, bitter lessons from COVID-19 showed S. aureus necrotizing-pneumonia and skin conditions ag-gravating Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Monkeypox manifestations. Limited data and paucity of high-quality evidence exist for many key clinical questions. Using clinical microbiology, molecular characterization, hospital data on age and in-fection sites, and antibiograms, we have investigated S. aureus infection patterns. We showed that age-specific distribution in both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU revealed highest infection rates (94.7%) in senior-patients >50 years; most were MRSA (81.99%). However, specific distribu-tions of geriatric MRSA and MSSA rates were 46.5% and 4.6% in ICU and 35.48% and 8.065% in non-ICU, respectively. Intriguingly, age groups 0-20 years showed uniquely similar MRSA pat-terns in ICU and non-ICU patients (13.9%, 9.7%, respectively) and MSSA in ICU (11.6%). In age groups 20-50 years, MRSA were 2-fold in non-ICU (35%) than ICU (18.6%). Interestingly, highly significant association was found between infection-site and age-groups (P-value .000). Skin in-fections remained higher in all ages; pediatrics 32.14%, adults 56%, and seniors 25% while res-piratory infections were lower in pediatrics (14.3%) and adult 17%), and highest in seniors (38%). Blood and “other” sites in pediatrics recorded (28.6%; 25%, respectively), slightly lower in adults (18.6%; 8.6%) and seniors (14%); 22.8%), respectively. Further, significant association existed between infection-site and MRSA (Chi-Square Test, P-value .002). The common cutaneous infec-tions across all age-groups and the significant association of MRSA to geriatric-respiratory infec-tions have a high potential for skin-carriage as reservoir for endogenous infection. The similar frequencies of both lineages in youth in all settings imply MSSA-carriage as potential evolutionary origins for MRSA. These findings have important clinical implications for strategic planning in patient management and S. aureus control particularly in age-specific infections and vigilance for potential viral coinfections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Nanobiotechnology; Biomarkers; Biosensors; Lung cancer; Skin Cancer; Colorectal Cancer
Online: 7 March 2022 (15:03:00 CET)
In the era of nanotechnology, researchers are implementing point to care service to cancer patients to detect malignancy beforehand and to reduce the mortality rate of cancers. Cancer is known to be the most fatal disease among all other diseases and the survivability from cancer is quite impossible if the stage of the cancer is an advanced level. Though the early detection of cancer can increase the chances of survival with a double fold. Biosensor is a part of nanotechnology which is capable to provide point to care service in the field of medicine. With the rising number of cancer occurrences being identified around the world and the increasing number of deaths because of the identification of advanced cancer, biosensors can play a significant part in the early detection of cancer. New molecular methods, including as genomic and proteomic approaches, are increasingly being used to study patient molecular profiles. When such diagnosis method is paired with bioinformatics tools, they generate new data that can be used to discover new disease biomarkers. Finding precise and sensitive indicators that are corelated to a specific disease, as with many other diseases, can be challenging. Furthermore, the concentration of biomarkers in biological fluids varies according to illness states and phases. Peptides, proteins, up or down regulated expression of gene markers, and gene alternation are all examples of molecular markers that are commonly used to diagnose cancer. In this article, we have highlighted six different deadliest cancers such as Ovarian, Breast, Prostrate, Lung, Colorectal and Liver cancer. The article contains distinct types of biomarkers which are normally found in these kinds of cancer and generally used as a potential diagnostic target in the medicine field. The article mainly summarized the application of different types of biosensors devices in the detection of the mostly found biomarkers in the above cancer types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0722.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hair cosmetic toxicity; Skin models; Chemical hair straighteners actives
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:38:38 CEST)
Most hair relaxers or straighteners used for Afro-textured hair have a pH above 11. This pH, according to international occupational health and safety guidelines, is corrosive to the skin. Further, relaxers are associated with a 3-6 times increased risk of alopecia. The skin also gets into contact with these hair straightening products during application resulting in skin irritation. Using animals as test subjects to determine these products' potential risk and safety margin is standard practice; however, with the European Union (EU) ban on animal testing, the testing method needs to be replaced by newer in vitro laboratory technologies. This study used previously and newly established in vitro cell-based technologies and human-skin derived cells as laboratory models to evaluate relaxer-induced cytotoxicity. These technologies include endpoint (MTT, CCK-8 and flow cytometry) and real-time assays (real-time cell analysis (RTCA) and extracellular flux analysis). Cellular toxicity was evident following treatment of keratinocytes and fibroblasts with acceptable concentrations of thioglycolic acid (TGA, HSCH2COOH), ammonium bisulphite (NH4HSO3), lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) based relaxers. Real-time assays showed significant reductions (P<0.001) in cell index and ATP production following treatment of keratinocytes with as little as one-tenth of the acceptable concentrations. Increased apoptosis (47.9%, 58.0%, 76.7% and 80.3%) also occurred in cells after treatment with TGA, NH4HSO3, NaOH and LiOH, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that using skin cells in conjunction with advanced cell-based technologies could serve as alternatives to laboratory animals for accessing the toxicity margin of hair relaxers, straighteners and other cosmetics.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: control measures; diagnosis; epidemiological data; Kazakhstan; lumpy skin disease
Online: 10 November 2020 (10:13:28 CET)
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging transboundary viral disease of cattle originating from the African continent. Here we describe the first LSD outbreak reported in the Republic of Kazakhstan, in July 2016. Initially, LSD was reported in a cattle farm located 49 km from Kazakh –Russian border in, Atyrau Oblast in West Kazakhstan. Subsequently, the disease spread to neighbouring farms situated within the same district. Following a preliminary investigation, the local State Veterinary Service declared a strict quarantine according to the State Contingency Plan, along with immediate total stamping out and cattle movement restrictions. During the outbreak, the number of affected cattle within an epidemiological unit reached 459 cattle out of registered 3557 susceptible cattle with 12.90% morbidity and 0.96%, mortality. This manuscript presents the epidemiological situation, the diagnosis, the control measures including mass vaccination and the stamping out campaign.s
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: epidermal keratinocytes; inflammation; nicotinamide; skin; ultraviolet radiation; environmental stressors
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:23:18 CET)
Daily exposure of skin to environmental stressors leads to molecular and morphological changes ascribed as premature aging. These stressors include solar radiation, industrial pollution, fossil fuel and carbon emissions, which cause cellular damage that induces an inflammatory response in skin. Several inflammatory components are known to be involved in triggering the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) which is known to accelerate aging. It is hypothesized that preventing induction of inflammation by environmental stressors can prevent premature aging. Since it is known that nicotinamide (Nam) has anti-inflammatory properties, we tested whether Nam can inhibit environmental stressor-induced inflammation. Exposure of keratinocytes to UVB, urban dust, diesel exhaust, and cigarette smoke extract stimulated production of the inflammatory mediators PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 and induced gene expression patterns associated with apoptosis, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. In all cases, Nam treatment significantly inhibited these stress-induced responses. Nam also reduced IL-8 levels stimulated by the combination of topically applied particulate matter (PM2.5) and UV exposure in 3D skin equivalents. Under 5% 02 conditions that more closely mimic physiological 02 levels, Nam had a heightened inhibitory effect on UVB-induced PGE2 levels in keratinocytes. In a UV-challenge study, treatment with Nam reduced skin surface IL-1RA/IL-1 inflammatory biomarkers and erythema that were induced by solar simulated radiation. These findings provide a body of evidence that Nam can mitigate in part the skin’s inflammatory response elicited by exposure to environmental stressors. This supports the potential that Nam can inhibit premature aging and help maintain skin’s functionality and appearance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0370.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: polyurethane; polylactide; tissue engineering; skin scaffold; antibacterial; degradable; medical
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:52:06 CET)
The aim of performed studies was to fabricate an antibacterial and degradable scaffold that may be used in the field of skin regeneration. To reach the degradation criterion the biocompatible polyurethane (PUR), obtained by using amorphous macrodiol α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) macrodiol (PEBA), was used and processed with so-called “fast-degradable” polymer polylactide (PLA) (5 wt% or 10 wt%). To meet the antibacterial requirement obtained hybrid PUR-PLA scaffolds (HPPS) were modified with ciprofloxacin (Cipro) (2 wt% or 5 wt%), the fluoroquinolone antibiotic inhibiting growth of bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which are main cause of wound infections. Obtained unmodified and Cipro-modified HPPS were studied towards their chemical composition to detect presence or absence of characteristic functional groups of PUR, PLA and Cipro, and as well to indicate the participation of hydrogen bonds in the HPPS structure in dependence on PLA addition and ciprofloxacin modification. Mechanical properties were studied to determine the possible application of HPPS as a skin tissue scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of unmodified and Cipro-modified HPPS and to performed elementary analysis by using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of obtained materials. Finally, the microbiological tests were performed to indicate the antibacterial effect of Cipro-modified HPPS on S.aureus growth. Performed studies showed that Cipro-modified HPPS, obtained by using 5 % of PLA, possess suitable mechanical characteristic, morphology, degradation rate and demanded antimicrobial properties to be further developed as a potential scaffolds for skin tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bos taurus; skin; bovine dermcidin; RT-PCR; antimicrobial activity
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:35:59 CEST)
Description of a novel bovine antimicrobial peptide and its antimicrobial spectrum. RNA isolation and RT-PCR were done from various tissues. DCD peptide was synthesized, and antimicrobial activity was analyzed. Bovine dermcidin gene contains five exons intermittent by 4 introns. Bovine DCD-mRNA was 398 bp with ORF 336 bp. Bovine DCD was expressed in skin and blood. Analysis of the amino acid compositions revealed that cysteine was repeated 6 times indicating the presence of 3 disulfide bonds that play role in the peptide stability. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus bovis, and Enterococcus faecalis were affected by Bovine DCD peptide. Highest antimicrobial effect was at 50 and 100 µg/ml. The effect on Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was slightly low. In all bacteria, Bovine DCD peptide activity did not affect by varying pH values, but in Staphylococcus aureus, the activity was affected greatly at pH 4.5 and 5.5. The optimum salt concentrations were 100 and 50 mM NaCl with all bacterial strains and E. coli, respectively. In case of C. albicans, the antimicrobial activity of Bovine DCD peptide decreased with increasing the pH value regardless the NaCl concentration. The pH 6.5 of the sweat buffer was the optimum for the Bovine DCD peptide activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: mast cell; dexamethasone; trimeric G protein; Mrgpr; skin; inflammation
Online: 3 January 2019 (08:55:29 CET)
Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for treatment of chronic cutaneous inflammation, such as atopic dermatitis, although it remains unknown how they modulate cutaneous mast cell functions. Murine connective tissue-type mast cells, which were sensitive to mast cell secretagogues, such as compound 48/80 and substance P, were generated by co-culture of bone marrow-derived mast cells with Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence of stem cell factor. This process was accompanied by up-regulation of a subunit of a trimeric G protein, Gi1, and several Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor (Mrgpr) subtypes. Secretagogue-induced degranulation and up-regulation of these genes were suppressed when they were cultured in the presence of a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. The profiles of granule constituents were drastically altered by dexamethasone. Several Mrgpr subtypes were found to be expressed in the cutaneous tissues and their expression levels were decreased in response to topical application of dexamethasone. The numbers of degranulated cutaneous mast cells in response to compound 48/80 were decreased in mice treated with dexamethasone. These results suggest that mast cell-mediated IgE-independent cutaneous inflammation could be suppressed by steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through down-regulation of Gai1 and several Mrgpr subtypes in mast cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: gut microbiota; skin microbiota; inflammation; psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis; dysbiosis
Online: 12 September 2018 (07:49:33 CEST)
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by skin lesions. Psoriasis development has been associated both with genetic and environmental factors. Though skin and gut microbiota has been implicated in number of pathologies including atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, allergy, obesity, its role has been poorly studied in psoriatic disease, which incorporates both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This literature review summarizes the most recent and major findings on microbiota features in psoriatic disease as well as gives immune system role in the given condition. Despite conflicting findings, psoriasis patients were frequently found to have distinct microbial composition in both skin and guts especially in the major bacterial phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Akkermansia. Furthermore, bacterial DNA has been found in psoriatic patients both locally and systemically, and altogether suggesting role of bacteria in the chronic disease and future studies in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: erythema; swimming; re-application; exposed skin surface; natural sunlight
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:59:23 CET)
Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially for the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: feminine hygiene; feminine gel wash; lactic acid; vulvar skin pH; vulvar microbiome; skin microflora; vulvovaginal environment; bacterial 16S rRNA gene; fungal ITS
Online: 9 December 2019 (03:53:52 CET)
Background: While intimate feminine hygiene products are widely used by women as part of daily cleansing routines, little is known about how these products impact the vulvovaginal area and its microbiome stability. A novel gel wash containing lactic acid (pH 4.2) for external daily use was formulated to provide gentle cleansing, freshness, and antimicrobial protection to maintain a healthy balance of the vulvar skin area. This 4-week clinical study assessed tolerance of the gel wash when used on the external genital area and its effects on skin hydration, vulvar skin pH, and the vulvar microbiome. After a 7-day pre-study conditioning period, 36 healthy females in 3 balanced age groups (18-29, 30-44, and 45-55 years) used the gel wash to cleanse their external genital area (mons pubis and vulva) and entire body at least once per day for 28 days. The primary endpoint wasSkin tolerance of the gel wash was assessed by the gynecologist. Effects of the gel wash on vulvar skin microbiota were studied by performing bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS microbial richness and diversity analysis. Results: Based on gynecologic assessment after 28 days of use, the gel wash showed acceptable tolerance, with no signs of increased dryness, redness, edema, itching, stinging, or burning. Use of the gel wash was associated with a significant increase in both short-term (single application) and longer-term (daily use for 28 days) skin moisturization. There was no significant change in vulvar skin pH over time with daily product use, and the gel wash did not significantly affect the natural vulvar microbiome species richness or diversity for bacteria or fungi. Conclusions: Results of the study showed that this new gel wash is a mild, moisturizing cleanser that does not harm and instead maintains the natural pH and microbial diversity of vulvar skin. To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess the effect of an antimicrobial feminine gel wash on the natural pH and vulvar microbiome habitat of the skin using bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal ITS genetic sequencing techniques, thereby providing a better understanding of the bacterial and fungal communities that inhabit the external vulvar area in healthy women.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1331.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: medicinal plants; tyrosinase inhibition; melanin inhibition; hypermelanosis; cosmetics; skin lightening
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:31:58 CET)
There is a growing demand and use of herbal cosmetics for skin purposes due to their perceived safety when applied to the skin. Three Cassipourea species commonly known as “ummemezi” are used interchangeable by women in rural areas of Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces to treat hypermelanosis as well as sun protection. We conducted a phytochemical comparison of three Cassipourea species; C. flanaganii, C. gummiflua and C. malosana by LC-MS/MS analysis in negative mode. The results obtained from the LC-MS/MS yielded a total number of twenty-four compounds of different chemical classes, including fatty acids, steroids, di- and tri-terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids were detected, and eighteen among them were tentatively identified. Despite the recent popularity of modern cosmetic products, it is clear that plants continue to play an important role in the local cosmetics industry in South Africa's Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal community provinces. The findings of this study suggest that an alternative treatment for hyper-melanosis disorders should be developed further. The residual wild plant stocks are insufficient to meet commercial needs, thus, encouraging their sustainable use is a means of harnessing the conservation of these plants. Indigenous communities should be supported in the commercialization which could be linked to the rural economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Argemone mexicana; cancer preventive; DMBA/TPA; mice model; Skin cancer
Online: 21 November 2023 (13:48:52 CET)
Introduction: Skin cancer is the 5th most common cancers in western countries with surge in the cases of occurrence with the passing time making it a global burden on health care system. In this present study, the cancer preventive activities of Argemone mexicana Linn (AM), which has been widely used by folklores to treat different ailments. Aim: The experiment advocates the cancer preventive activity of ethanolic extract of AM and to against DMBA/TPA induced skin cancer in mice model. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were divided into doses group,100mg/kg B.W, 250mg/kg B.W, 500mg/kg B.W and 1000mg/kg B.W and subjected to toxic dose determination. The DMBA/TPA method was followed to induce the skin cancer in mice along with the feeding of non-toxic doses of 100mg/ kg, 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg mice were given as a pretreatment and 500mg/kg as a separate post treatment group as per body weight. The anti-cancerous activity was determined by different parameters on 0day, 30th day and 60th day including change in incidence of tumour induction, haematological parameters, histopathology and changes in pattern of TNF-α secretion and NF-kB (p65 subunit) signaling pathway in the blood serum. Results: The 1000 mg/kg BW was found to exhibit sub-acute toxicity. It was observed that the 500mg/kg BW pretreated group resisted and delayed the tumour formation for up to 8 weeks as compared to the Negative Control group where growth was seen in 4 weeks. The tumour burden was also found to be varying in a dose-dependent where on 60th day, Negative Control group and 100mg/kg BW was found to possess significantly high (p<0.001) tumour burden in comparison to the 500mg/kg BW group where tumour burden was not found till 60th day. The study was validated by body weight, blood parameters, histopathology and altered pattern in regulation of TNF-α and NF-kB signaling pathway which play an important role in cancer progression. The expression of TNF-α and p65 subunit of NF-kB signaling pathway was found to be reduced significantly in a dose dependent manner and found to be highly reduced in 500mg/kg BW group (p<0.001) as compared to Negative control. Conclusion: The 500mg/kg BW pretreated group was found to have significant results in comparison to 500mg/kg BW post treatment group. The study revealed effective cancer preventive activity of Argemone mexicana Linn leaves (AML) in the mice model and paved a pathway for molecular approaches which could be explored more in future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: melanoma; non-melanoma skin cancer; spice; phenolic compounds; anticancer effect
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:03:53 CEST)
Skin cancer is a condition characterized by the abnormal growth of skin cells, primarily caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources like tanning beds. Different types of skin cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the advancements in targeted therapies, there is still a need for a safer, highly efficient approach to preventing and treating cutaneous malignancies. Spices have a rich history dating back thousands of years and are renowned for their ability to enhance the flavor, taste, and color of food. Derived from various plant parts like seeds, fruits, bark, roots, or flowers, spices are important culinary ingredients. However, their value extends beyond the culinary realm. Some spices contain bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds, which are known for their significant biological effects. These compounds have attracted attention in scientific research due to their potential health benefits, including their possible role in disease prevention and treatment, such as cancer. This review focuses on examining the potential of spice-derived phenolic compounds as preventive or therapeutic agents for managing skin cancers. By compiling and analyzing the available knowledge, this review aims to provide insights that can guide future research in identifying new anticancer phytochemicals and uncovering additional mechanisms for combating skin cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1667.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: convolutional neural network; deep learning; skin cancer; generative adversarial network
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:47:15 CEST)
Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network, Deep Learning, Skin cancer, Generative Adversarial Network
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Rosacea; inflammation; inflammatory skin disease; pathogenesis; therapeutic strategies; treatment options
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:02:30 CEST)
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by recurrent erythema, flushing, telangiectasia, papules, pustules, and phymatous changes in the central area of the face. Patients with this condition often experience a significant negative impact on their quality of life, self-esteem, and overall well-being. Despite its prevalence, the pathogenesis of rosacea is not yet fully understood. Recent research advances are reshaping our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of rosacea, and treatment options based on the pathophysiological perspective hold promise to improve patient outcomes and reduce incidence. In this comprehensive review, we investigate the pathogenesis of rosacea in-depth, with a focus on emerging and novel mechanisms, and provide an up-to-date overview of therapeutic strategies that target the diverse pathogenic mechanisms of rosacea. Lastly, we discuss potential future research directions aimed at enhancing our understanding of the condition and developing effective treatments.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2160.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: delayed drug hypersensitivity; skin reaction; SARS-CoV-2; LTT; interleukins
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:57:05 CEST)
In the first wave of COVID-19, up to 20% of patients had skin lesions with variable characteristics. There is no clear evidence of the involvement of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in all the cases; some of these lesions may be secondary to drug hypersensitivity. To analyze the possible cause of the skin lesions, we performed a complete allergology study on 11 patients. One year after recovery from COVID-19, we performed a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion assays of PBMC. We included 5 nonallergic patients treated with the same drugs without lesions. Except for one patient who had an immediate reaction to azithromycin, all patients had a positive LTT to at least one of the drugs tested (azithromycin, clavulanic acid, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and ritonavir). None of the nonallergic patients had a positive LTT. We found mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-γ) in patients with skin lesions corresponding to mixed drug hypersensitivity type IVa and IVb. In all cases, we identified a candidate drug as the culprit for skin lesions during SARS-CoV-2 infection, although only three patients had a positive drug challenge. Therefore, it would be reasonable to recommend avoiding the drug in question in all cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: pruritus; 3D-accellerometer; monitoring; allergic skin disease; canine atopic dermatitis
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:13:20 CEST)
Medical management of chronic canine pruritic dermatologic conditions is challenging and often frustrating. This is a report that shows one way of aiding the management of pruritic dogs using a remote monitoring device. It is often difficult for veterinarians to get dog owners to return to the clinic once a dog is treated. It is possible that a 3-D accelerometer device could provide information to the clinic staff on the success or failure of a pruritus treatment plan while the dog was cared for at home. Eighty-seven dogs and their owners came to a Florida dermatology specialty clinic or its general practice hospital to be evaluated and treated for pruritus. An ANIMO® 3-D accelerometer was placed on the collar of dogs diagnosed and treated for pruritus. Dogs that completed the study were monitored for 120 days (4 months). The ANIMO app monitored a dog’s daily scratching, shaking, sleeping, activity, resting, barking and calories consumed and summarized this information in a daily report visible on the pet owner’s smart phone. An additional variable (grooming minutes per day) could be seen by the Sure Petcare R&D Team that was not yet available in the app. The use of a 3-D accelerometer enabled veterinarians to continuously monitor dogs at home when they were being treated for itching. Clinic staff kept in touch with the owners by phone and could change therapy or bring the dog back for a recheck if problems were seen. Daily reports were combined into line charts that showed plots of scratching, shaking, grooming and sleeping over four months. Veterinarians were able to remotely monitor dogs that had been treated for pruritus for up to four months through the use of a collar-borne monitoring device. Dog owners and clinic staff used the daily summaries which were accessible through a smart phone app. Dogs seemed to tolerate the device well because of its small size and unobtrusive nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0004.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Cordyceps militaris extract; skin-care product; natural preservatives; antioxidant; stability
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:47:10 CEST)
Extracts of Cordyceps militaris which possess the bioactive capacity such as antimicrobial activity and DPPH-free radical scavenging capacity, are applied to the serum product. This finished serum product has been evaluated the in vitro bioactivity and the stability with expect to find out a good extract with a suitable percentage used for serum product as natural materials on preservatives and antioxidation.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0379.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Jaundice; Hyperbilirubinemia; skin color analysis; NICU; artificial intelligence (AI) techniques
Online: 21 March 2023 (14:01:10 CET)
Jaundice is a common condition for newborns, and its complications can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient’s brain if no action is taken at its early stages. Current methods for jaundice detection are invasive, which include collecting blood samples from the patient, which can be painful and stressful and may cause some complications. Alternatively, a non-invasive approach can be used to diagnose jaundice through image-processing and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, requiring a database of infant images to achieve a high-accuracy diagnosis. This data article provides a collection of newborn images, called NJN, with various birthweight and skin tones, with ages ranging from 2 to 8 days, and an excel sheet file in CSV format for the values of RGB and YCrCb channels and the status for each raw which is freely accessible at (https://sites.google.com/view/neonataljaundice). It also provides Python code for data testing using different AI techniques. Thus, this article offers a unique resource for all AI researchers to train their AI system and develop algorithms to help neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) healthcare specialists monitor neonates and provide fast, real-time, non-invasive, and accurate jaundice diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Population genetics; Pigmentary traits; Phototype; Pleiotropy; Skin disease; Eye disease
Online: 10 November 2022 (01:06:40 CET)
Human pigmentation has been largely associated with different disease prevalence among populations, but most of these studies are observational and inconclusive. Known to be genetically determined, pigmentary traits have been largely studied by GWAS, mostly in Caucasian ancestry cohorts from North Europe, identifying robustly, several loci involved in many of the pigmentary traits. Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of 13 pigmentary-related traits in a South European cohort of Caucasian ancestry (n=20,000). We observed fair phototype strongly associated with non-melanoma skin cancer and other dermatoses and confirmed by PRS-approach the shared genetic basis with skin and eye diseases, such as melanoma (OR=0.95), non-melanoma skin cancer (OR=0.93), basal cell carcinoma (OR=0.97) and darker phototype with vitiligo (OR=1.02), and cataracts (OR=1.04). Detailed genetic analyses revealed 37 risk loci associated with 10 out of 13 analyzed traits, and 16 fine-mapped genes significantly associated with at least two pigmentary traits. Some of them widely reported, such as MC1R, HERC2, OCA2, TYR, TYRP1, SLC45A2, and unveiling three new candidates RP11-1084J3.4, C1QTNF3 and C17orf112, not reported in GWAS Catalog. These results highlight the importance of phototype assessment as a genetic proxy of skin functionality when evaluating disease screening in mixed populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0215.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: pretrained model; transfer learning; skin cancer; deep learning; ISIC 2020
Online: 15 September 2022 (03:02:06 CEST)
Skin cancer is an uncommon but serious malignancy. Dermoscopic images examination and biopsy are required for cancer detection. Deep learning (DL) is extremely effective in learning characteristics and predicting malignancies. However, DL requires a large number of images to train. Image augmentation and transferring learning were employed to overcome the lack of images issue. In this study we divided images into two categories: benign and malignant. To train and test our models, we used the public ISIC 2020 database. Melanoma is classified as malignant in the ISIC 2020 dataset. Along with categorization, the dataset was studied to demonstrate variation. The performance of three top pretrained models was then benchmarked in terms of training and validation accuracy. Three optimizers were employed to optimize the loss: RMSProp, SGD, and ADAM. Using ResNet, VGG16, and MobileNetV2, we obtained training accuracy of 98.73%, 99.12%, and 99.76%, respectively. Using these three pretrained models, we attained a validation accuracy of 98.39%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: rosmarinic acid; anti-inflammatory activity; comet assay; sunscreen; skin biocompatibility
Online: 27 June 2022 (13:22:01 CEST)
The skin acts as a protective barrier, guarding the body against microorganisms, chemicals, and several environmental factors. Accordingly, this all-important organ must be kept healthy to maintain its optimal functionality. One approach to maintain skin health is the application of multifunction bioactive sunscreens containing antioxidant molecule(s). Rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic compound, is known for its antioxidant activity. Herein, the safety and efficacy of a multifunction prototype sunscreen were investigated, aiming to probe putative synergies of this polyphenol with two known and widely used UV filters (bemotrizinol and octyl p-methoxycinnamate). Samples protected the DNA fragmentation compared to UV control, by the comet assay, and showed good skin compatibility in subjects. Formulations F1 and F3 were able to increase skin hydration, and, possibly, the RA interfered with this attribute. An increase in transepidermal water loss was observed for formulations F1, F2 and F4, which may be related to vehicle containing or not the RA. No decreases were observed in the inflammatory reaction caused by the ethyl nicotinate with any of the evaluated formulations. As a perspective, we suggest trials with a greater number of subjects or protocol modifications. Altering the vehicle qualitative and quantitative composition is also a pertinent perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: AD; allergy; skin; DNCB; Panax ginseng; red ginseng marc; fermentation
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:26:55 CET)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and allergic skin disease, however, there is no cure for the disease. Many studies have shown anti-AD potentials of red ginseng, while red ginseng marc (RGM) remained after the ginseng extraction is discarded as industrial waste. However, it is recently reported that RGM, particularly fermented RGM (fRGM), still contains the bioactive properties. Thus, anti-allergic effects of fRGM were examined in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like mice model. The model was topically treated with distilled water (control), dexamethasone, or fRGM for six weeks. The treatments of fRGM alleviated the skin lesions and reduced serum IgE levels, compared with the control. The fRGM also reduced skin levels of lipid peroxidation and superoxide anion, however, increased glutathione contents, with down-regulated gene expressions for inflammatory mediators. The histopathological analyses demonstrated that fRGM suppressed the epidermal thickening, collagen deposition, and inflammatory cell and mast cell infiltration, which involved the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. Further, fRGM suppressed hypertrophic changes and inflammatory responses in the spleen and lymph node. The beneficial effects were observed in the dexamethasone and fRGM groups, however, the antioxidant effects were evident only in the fRGM treatments. These provide useful information for developing fRGM as therapeutic sources for AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiotic resistance; dog; infection; skin, otitis externa, perianal abscess.
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:02:48 CEST)
Treating infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly difficult due to high antimicrobial resistance, materialized through the presence of multiple resistance strains, as well as due to rapid development of resistance throughout treatment. The present survey was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens, in two University Veterinary hospitals from different geographical regions of Romania (i.e., south-west - Timisoara county and north-east – Iasi county) involved in canine superficial infections. A total of 142 swab specimens were collected from dogs with superficial infections (superficial skin infections, otitis externa, perianal abscess), with the aim of assessing the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on phenotypic and molecular characterization. Fifty-eight samples (40.84%; 58/142) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (according to their confirmed morphological and molecular features). Susceptibility to usual antibiotics used in the treatment of canine skin conditions was tested for all Pseudomonas strains that were isolated from canine superficial infections, using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Drug resistance was observed in the case of all tested antibiotics. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa strains that were tested in this study was in the following order: ampicillin sulbactam (55.17%; 32/58), followed by ceftazidime (53.44%; 31/58), aztreonam (51.72%; 30/58), amikacin (44.82%; 26/58), azithromycin (41.37%; 24/58), gentamycin (37.93%; 22/58), cefepime (36.20%; 21/58) meropenem (25.86%; 13/58), piperacillin-tazobactam (25.86%; 13/58) imipenem (22.41%; 13/158), ciprofloxacin (17.24%; 10/58) tobramycin (8.62; 5/58), and polymyxin B (1.72; 1/58) respectively. The results highlight the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with superficial infections, in order to use an adequate treatment plan for the management of the skin condition, and other pathology (otitis externa and perianal abscesses).