ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0927.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mixed-method; modelling; peers; single-case design; self-efficacy; stroke
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:21:18 CET)
We used a mixed-method single-case experimental research design to examine the effect of modelling (peer versus non-peer) on exercise self-efficacy in stroke survivors who participated in a community-based exercise program. Quantitative data were obtained using a ABCA design: (A1) no model/baseline 1 (3 weeks); (B) peer model (6 weeks); (C) non-peer model (6 weeks); and (A2) no model/baseline 2 (3 weeks). Four participants completed self-efficacy questionnaires after each weekly session. Qualitative data were obtained using researcher diaries and two semi-structured interviews: after B and A2. Based on quantitative and qualitative results, participants reported higher exercise self-efficacy in the model conditions, with ratings appearing highest for the non-peer model. This finding could be due to a lack of full integration of the peer model and low feelings of similarity. Modelling in general could help people recovering from a stroke increase their exercise self-efficacy, but non-peer models may not be most advantageous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: single coronary artery; aortic valve surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery; case report
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:42:53 CET)
A single coronary artery is a very rare condition, commonly associated with other congenital anomalies. It could be generally classified as neither benign nor malignant form of congenital coronary artery anomalies since its pathophysiological and clinical implications grossly depend on different anatomical patterns defined by the site of origin and distribution of the branches. By presenting the patient with an isolated single coronary artery, who underwent successful combined aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, we intend to distinguish casual from causal in this extremely rare clinical and surgical scenario. This is the first-ever case published, combining such underlying pathology, clinical presentation, and surgical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0258.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: single nanowires; silicon; dual shells; off-resonance; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 31 August 2020 (08:30:22 CEST)
Single nanowires (NWs) are of great importance for optoelectronic applications, especially solar cells serving as powering nanoscale devices. However, weak off-resonant absorption can limit its light-harvesting capability. Here, we propose a single NW coated with the graded-index dual shells (DSNW). We demonstrate that with appropriate thickness and refractive index of the inner shell, the DSNW exhibits significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the bare NW (BNW), and the NW only coated with the outer shell (OSNW) and the inner shell (ISNW), which can be attributed to the optimal off-resonant absorption mode profiles due to the improved coupling between the reemitted light of the transition modes of the leak mode resonances of the Si core and the nanofocusing light from the dual shells with the graded refractive index. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the thickness and the refractive index of the inner shell, the photocurrent density is significantly enhanced by 134% (56%, 12%) in comparison with that of the BNW (OSNW, ISNW). This work advances our understanding of how to improve off-resonant absorption by applying graded dual-shell design and provides a new choice for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Photovoltaic arrays; Wind turbines; Particle swarm optimization; real-case problems
Online: 5 July 2023 (04:19:53 CEST)
In recent years, unquestionable warnings like the negative impacts of CO2 emissions, the necessity of utilizing sustainable energy sources, and the rising demand for municipal electrification have been issued. In this study, by incorporating two significant assumptions, such as electricity production in close proximity to the business location and only renewable energy resource usage, a modest off-grid hybrid energy system is designed. To construct the system, a number of elements such as wind generators (WG), photovoltaic arrays (PV), battery banks, and bi-directional converters are taken into account. Moreover, a real case in Malmö, Sweden, is considered. To optimize the system, a bi-objective problem is developed, and it is solved by proposing a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach to provide the load requirements (with a maximum allowance of 0.1% unmet) for a nearby supermarket (approximately 1000 m2). Moreover, to verify the obtained results, the developed system is simulated using HOMER Pro software, and the results are compared and discussed. The contribution of this study is to provide off-grid or local clients around the world with a dependable and affordable option by minimizing both the baseline cost of energy and the net current expenditure in the desired system. The best-obtained results by the proposed PSO offered 160 PVs, 5 WGs, and 350 batteries, respectively, while the best solution found by the simulation method was using 384 PVs, 5 WGs, and 189 batteries for the considered off-grid system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0704.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: single nanowires; Symmetry breaking; rectangular cross-section; absorption
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:38:12 CET)
Light absorption in single nanowires (NWs) is one of the most crucial factors for photovoltaic applications. In this paper, we carried out a detailed investigation of light absorption in single rectangular NWs (RNWs). We show that the RNWs exhibit improved light absorption compared with the square NWs (SNWs), which can be attributed to the symmetry-breaking structure that can increase the light path length by increasing the vertical side and the enhanced leaky mode resonances (LMRs) by decreasing the horizontal side. We found that the light absorption in silicon RNWs can be enhanced by engineering the horizontal and vertical sides, the photocurrent is significantly increased by 276.5% or 82.9% compared with that of the SNWs with the same side length as the horizontal side of 100 nm or the vertical side of 1000 nm, respectively. This work provides an effective way for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices based on the symmetry breaking from the SNWs to RNWs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0674.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar cell energy; Single Axial Solar Tracking System; Solar cell efficiency; Arduino Uno Board
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:34:39 CEST)
This paper is regarding design and program an Micro-controller Arduino Uno board by using Arduino software to work as a photo-sensor(Active) single axial solar tracker system(SASTS). A solar panel, two photo-resistors (LDR) in two sides (north/south) of the photo-voltaic(PV) and a servo motor are connected to the Uno board, which is running a code that prepared by Arduino software IDE in advanced then it works as a tracking system. Here, the LDRs send the signal of presence or absence of the light to the board and based on that sent signal the Uno reflects a new signal to the servo motor to rotate and finds the light source. Lastly, the photo-sensor single axis tracker is made while Continuously, the system tries to face the panel to the sun and whilst changing the irradiance intensity it starts searching to find the angle of highest irradiance. Based on results that are extracted from the data, the tracker system significantly boosts the output efficiency of the solar panel. By using the Micro-controller Uno board, LDRs, servo motor and special designed mechanical base, the tracking system is constructed, based on acquired data the influence of the STS on the increasing the solar panel efficiency is more obvious. Significantly, the tracker system rises the efficiency of the PV .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1905.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Home appliances; induction cooking systems; induction cooker design; resonant converter circuit parameters; single switch quasi resonant inverter
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:47:59 CEST)
Induction heating (IH) technology is widely recognized and utilized in residential applications due to its high efficiency and safe operating characteristics. Resonant inverter circuits are widely used in IH systems because of their high efficiency and ability to perform soft-switching. Among the various resonant inverters used in IH systems, the single-switch quasi-resonant (SSQR) inverter topology is typically preferred for low-cost and low-output-power applications. Despite its cost advantage, the SSQR topology has a relatively narrow soft-switching range, which can be unstable depending on the electrical parameters of the load and the resonant converter circuit. Accurately determining the capacitance value of the resonant capacitor and the inductance value of the induction coil, which are the key circuit elements of the SSQR induction cooker, is crucial for designing a reliable, efficient, and durable cooking system. In other words, there exists a critical relationship between the resonant converter circuit parameters, load characteristics, and safe operating conditions. Additionally, when considering closed-loop control methods used for power control and safety, selecting appropriate resonant circuit elements becomes vital in ensuring both reliable and efficient operation. This paper focuses on a novel and simplified design method for the SSQR inverter utilized in household appliances. The proposed method and its advantages in terms of the safe operating area of the switch are theoretically investigated and verified through simulations and prototype circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0506.v1
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:18:52 CEST)
This case study was conducted to disentangle the stories of unsuccessful LET examinees, their responses to failure, and their perspectives of the factors that contributed to their failure. The results demonstrate five themes related to the failure experience. Factors related to the physical environment, psychological well-being, and preparedness influenced the performance of the examinees. Contributory factors to failure provided several implications to teacher education practice. Educators have a responsibility to identify, inform, and intervene with students who are at high risk of failing the LET, and this responsibility could be executed capably. However, the role should be extended beyond graduation. The responsibility to help graduates transition from failure to licensure is the final step of successful undergraduate teacher education.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: single particle tracking; single molecule biophysics; fluorescence
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:26:31 CET)
Single particle tracking (SPT) is a powerful class of methods for studying the dynamics of biomolecules inside living cells. The techniques reveal the trajectories of individual particles, with a resolution well below the diffraction limit of light, and from them the parameters defining the motion model, such as diffusion coefficients and confinement lengths. Most existing algorithms assume these parameters are constant throughout an experiment. However, it has been demonstrated that they often vary with time as the tracked particles move through different regions in the cell or as conditions inside the cell change in response to stimuli. In this work, we propose an estimation algorithm to determine time-varying parameters of systems that discretely switch between different linear models of motion with Gaussian noise statistics, covering dynamics such as diffusion, directed motion, and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics. Our algorithm consists of three stages. In the first stage, we use a sliding window approach, combined with Expectation Maximization (EM) to determine maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters as a function of time. These results are only used to roughly estimate the number of model switches that occur in the data to guide the selection of algorithm parameters in the second stage. In the second stage, we use change detection (CD) techniques to identify where the models switch, taking advantage of the off-line nature of the analysis of SPT data to create non-causal algorithms with better precision than a purely causal approach. Finally, we apply EM to each set of data between the change points to determine final parameter estimates. We demonstrate our approach using experimental data generated in the lab under controlled conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0916.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Carbon footprint of buildings; single-family houses; timber construction; life cycle assessment LCA; BIM
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:34:11 CEST)
Building carbon footprint analysis is a key instrument for assessing the impact of different constructions on climate change. Several standards and methodologies are available to calculate the footprint of buildings, including standards and norms, life cycle assessment (LCA), and dedicated software tools. The use of BIM software for these calculations is both scientifically justified and very practical. This scientific publication focusses on the application of a BIM-based research methodology for the analysis of the carbon footprint of a single-family house. The research process included the following steps: (i) design of a single-family house with timber frame construction using Archicad BIM software, (ii) simulation of the building energy performance using the EcoDesigner Star plug-in, (iii) life cycle assessment (LCA) using the plug-in for Archicad, (iv) preparation of a second model with traditional masonry construction for comparison, and (v) comparative analysis of the single-family house models with timber frame and masonry construction. Analysis of the results highlights significant differences in CO2e emissions between masonry and timber buildings and the varying impact of individual elements on the total CO2e emissions of the buildings studied. These findings are relevant for future work on sustainable building design and construction, which aims to minimise negative environmental impacts. The goal of minimising the cumulative carbon footprint of buildings is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and combating climate change.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Turner Syndrome; Autopsy Case Report
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:02:39 CET)
It is important to be familiar with the presentation of Turner syndrome and to understand the common causes of death associated with the disease. Using the autopsy case as an example, this case report will outline the classic presentation of Turner syndrome, go over its physiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and explain the cause of death in this particular case while also highlighting other common causes of death/risk factors within Turner syndrome. Differential diagnosis and mimicking disease processes will also be discussed. This report will also highlight the molecular tests used for the diagnosis of Turner syndrome, discuss developments using in situ hybridization, and discuss why this method is best for the determination of Turner syndrome over conventional karyotyping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: single-cell analysis; electrical manipulation; single-cell application
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:50:09 CEST)
Biological parameters extracted from electrical signals from various body parts have been used for many years to analyze the human body and its behavior. In addition, electrical signals from cancer cell lines, normal cells, and viruses, among others, have been widely used for the detection of various diseases. Single-cell parameters such as cell and cytoplasmic conductivity, relaxation frequency, and membrane capacitance are important. There are many techniques available to characterize biomaterials, such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), nanotechnology, microstrip cavity resonance measurement, dielectric impedance measurement (DEPIM), etc. This article reviews the single cell isolation and sorting techniques, summarizes the common single cell operations such as impedance flow cytometry, cell electrical impedance, electrical impedance sensing, and summarizes the current single cell analysis techniques and their applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: case on-time start; case on-time finish; perioperative services; team familiarity; OR efficiency
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:16:44 CET)
Efficient use of the operating room (OR) is crucial for any hospital. One of the major inefficiencies in the OR is surgical cases not starting or finishing on time as scheduled. When a case is delayed, it affects all subsequent cases in that OR. This study uses discrete choice analysis to determine the significant factors, including team familiarity, that influence OR case on-time start and finish. A case is considered on-time if the documented procedure start and finish times are no more than 10 minutes after the scheduled start and finish times. The analysis uses surgical case data from a large tertiary referral hospital and academic center in Greenville, South Carolina. The case data includes all surgical cases (15,091) performed during regular workdays in 2013. Two binary logit models are developed: one for case on-time start and one for case on-time finish. Results indicate that higher team familiarity between surgeon and anesthesiologist, surgeon and circulating nurse, surgeon and scrub nurse, and surgeon and CRNA improve the likelihood of an OR case on-time start and on-time finish. This finding indicates that the OR scheduling staff in the study hospital make a concerted effort to schedule the surgical teams with members who have worked well together in the past.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ac–dc power converters; battery chargers; dual active bridge; DAB; optimal design; power MOSFETs; single-stage
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:06:09 CEST)
The growing attention for plug-in electric vehicles, and the associated high-performance demands, have initiated a development trend towards highly efficient and compact on-board battery chargers. These isolated ac-dc converters are most commonly realized using two conversion stages, combining a non-isolated power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with an isolated dc-dc converter. This, however, involves two loss stages and a relatively high component count, limiting the achievable efficiency and power density and resulting in high costs. In this paper a single-stage converter approach is analyzed to realize a single-phase ac-dc converter, combining all functionalities into one conversion stage and thus enabling a cost-effective efficiency and power density increase. The converter topology consists of a quasi-lossless synchronous rectifier followed by an isolated dual active bridge (DAB) dc-dc converter, putting a small filter capacitor in between. To show the performance potential of this bidirectional, isolated ac-dc converter, a comprehensive design procedure and multi-objective optimization with respect to efficiency and power density is presented, using detailed loss and volume models. The models and procedures are verified by a 3.7 kW hardware demonstrator, interfacing a 400 V dc-bus with the single-phase 230 V, 50 Hz utility grid. Measurement results indicate a state-of-the-art efficiency of 96.1% and power density of 2.2 kW/dm3, confirming the competitiveness of the investigated single-stage DAB ac-dc converter.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inert Gas Asphyxiation; Autopsy Case Report
Online: 13 March 2023 (09:44:40 CET)
Inert gas asphyxiation is a rarely observed form of suffocation in which the decedent breathes in an inert chemical, such as helium or nitrogen, in the absence of oxygen. The ultimate cause of death is not a result of the chemical itself, but rather from the oxygen starvation as the inert gas displaces vital oxygen. In this case report, a 66-year-old Caucasian female with a history of gastroparesis, degenerative disc disease, and chronic pain was found deceased with a plastic bag secured around her head. Plastic tubing terminated inside the bag and connected to a nearby canister of nitrogen gas. This case study discusses the challenges in determining inert gas asphyxiation as the cause of death in a postmortem setting and emphasizes the importance of understanding the decedent’s history and context of the environment in which they were found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: adherence; case management; determinants; diarrhoea; paediatrics
Online: 3 February 2023 (03:04:05 CET)
Worldwide, diarrhoea in children under-five years of age is the second leading cause of death. Despite having high morbidity and mortality, diarrhoeal diseases can be averted by simple and cost-effective interventions. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) has proposed the use of Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) and zinc together with adequate food and fluid intake for the management of acute non-dysenteric watery diarrhoea in children. In the past, few studies examined the determinants of adherence to diarrhoea case management. Therefore, this study measured the determinants of therapeutic and dietary adherence to diarrhoea case management using the third and fourth wave of Pakistan Demographics & Health Surveys (PDHS) datasets. Data from 4,068 children between 0 to 59.9 months with positive history of diarrhoea were included, while data on children with dysentery, severe dehydration, and co-morbid condition was excluded. This study reported therapeutic adherence in less than 10% of children in Pakistan, while dietary adherence was reported in 39.2% of children (37.7% in 2012-2013 ~ 40.7% in 2017-2018). A significant improvement in therapeutic (0.8% in 2012-2013 ~ 8.1% in 2017-2018) and dietary adherence (37.7% in 2012-2013 ~ 40.7% in 2017-2018) was reported in the 2017-2018 survey, compared to the 2012-2013 survey. In general, children over the age of one year (compared to children <1 year) and of the richer/richest socioeconomic class (compared to poorest/poorer socioeconomic class) have showed higher therapeutic and dietary adherence. Therapeutic and dietary adherence among diarrhoeal children can be improved by increasing the awareness and accessibility of ORS, zinc, and essential foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; case fatality; registry
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:12:24 CET)
Background: This study aimed to present the development process and characteristics of the Korean Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction for Regional Cardiocerebrovascular Centers (KRAMI-RCC). Methods: We developed KRAMI-RCC, a web-based registry for patients with AMI. Patients from 14 RCCs were registered for more than 3 years from July 2016. It includes an automatic error-checking system, and user training and on-site monitoring are performed to manage data quality. Results: A total of 11,700 AMI patients were registered in KRAMI-RCC over 3 years (73.9% men). The proportions of patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction at discharge were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively. Of the total 3-year patients, 5.6% died in the hospital and 4.4% died 12 months after discharge. The case fatality within 12 months was 9.7%. Prehospital care data showed delayed arrival time after onset of symptoms (median 153 min) and low transportation rate by public ambulance (25.2%). Post-hospital care data showed lower participation rate in the second rehabilitation program (16.8%). Conclusions: The recently developed KRAMI-RCC registry has been more focused on pre-hospital and post-hospital data, which will be helpful in understanding the current state of AMI disease management and in making policy decisions to reduce case fatality in Korea.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; case
Online: 24 February 2020 (14:03:12 CET)
Covid-19 has now become a public health concern worldwide. The infection primarily involves the respiratory tract. Hitherto, some Covid-19 pneumonia patients carry the viral nucleic acids, and the active virus was detected in stool specimens. The virus discharged with feces is a potential contagious source. In the present study, three Covid-19 respiratory tract infection patients showed no gastrointestinal symptoms, and two were positive for viral nucleic acids in anal swab specimens remained positive 6 and at least 14 days after virus turned negative in the respiratory tract, respectively (details of the patients were listed in Fig 1). Thus, for Covid-19-infected patients with or without gastrointestinal symptoms, viral nucleic acids in stool specimens or anal swab specimens should be focused on for testing in order to decide the isolation duration of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0257.v2
Online: 24 July 2019 (11:53:34 CEST)
Through history, particular attention has been paid of the study of the relationship between the energy use and the city structure. Improving energy efficiency in modern agglomerations is the most promising means to mitigate climate change and its impacts. In this current context of globalisation, European Union proposes initiatives and policy targets to rethink the urban development strategies towards the ‘zero energy objectives’. Providing a methodological approach with a simulation district analysis, the present article summarizes how the ‘zero energy’ challenge is analyzed in an existing district (Epinlieu) to articulate the users’ requirements in energy. This study contributes to the scientific discussion of the districts’ urban structure and energy planning by establishing a linkage among the beneficial influence of the KPIs of the districts’ form to increase their energy efficiency and its application in a real case study in Belgium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0983.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: tripodal ligands; lanthanides; single-molecule magnets; single-ion magnets; axiality
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:47:53 CEST)
The main property of tripodal ligands is the predictable type of coordination. Homo- and heteroleptic lanthanide complexes with tripodal ligands are a representative class of compounds. However, despite the fact that many of them are paramagnetic their magnetic behavior is poorly understood. This is because their photophysical and catalytic properties have been more attractive. In the present review, we are trying to summarize the available structural information and extremely few data on magnetic properties in order to draw some conclusions about the prospective of tripods using in the design of quantum molecular magnets based on Ln ions. We would like to draw the reader's attention to the fact that despite the consideration of a large part of the currently known lanthanide compounds with tripodal ligands, this review is not exhaustive. However, our goal was to draw the attention of researchers to the fact that a whole niche of air-stable Ln complexes remained outside the attention of magnetochemists and theoreticians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: single machine; single breakdown; schedule; flowtime; stochastic optimization; online optimization
Online: 6 March 2023 (13:00:04 CET)
We consider the problem of scheduling tasks on a single machine subject to an uncertain breakdown to minimize the flowtime. Assume the machine is unavailable during the breakdown; the starting time of the breakdown is a random variable s with distribution function D(s) and the terminating time of the breakdown has no any other information; jobs are non-resumable. Under the assumptions, starting from the perspective of statistical optimization, we first define the expected competitive ratio of an algorithm to find the optimized solution with the considered problem. Further, we propose and prove a certain result on the expected competitive ratio of the SPT rule. In particular, we show that under a quite loose condition the expected competitive ratio of the SPT rule is no more than 5/4. Meanwhile, we also make some discussions about our studies. What we have done will rich and improve the studying results on the area of scheduling to minimize flowtime and advance the development of online optimization and statistical optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0504.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: single cell RNAseq; single cell ATACseq; sparsely connected autoencoder; pseudo-bulk
Online: 29 September 2021 (17:26:18 CEST)
Background: Biological processes are based on complex networks of cells and molecules. Single cell multi-OMICs is a new tool aiming to provide new incites in the complex network of events controlling the functionality of the cell.; Methods: Since single cell technologies provide many sample measurements, they are the ideal environment for the application of deep learning and machine learning approaches. An autoencoder (AE) is composed of an encoder and a decoder sub-model. AE are very powerful in data compression and noise removal. However, the decoder model remains a black box from which is impossible to depict the contribution of the single input elements. We have recently developed a new class of autoencoders, called Sparsely Connected Autoencoders (SCA), which have the advantage of providing a controlled association among the input layer and the decoder module. This new architecture has the benefit that the decoder model is no anymore a black box and it can be used to depict new biologically interesting features from single cell data; Results: In this paper, we show that SCA hidden layer can grab new information usually hidden in single cell data, like as providing clustering on meta-features difficult, i.e. transcription factors expression, or impossible, miRNA expression, to depict in single cell RNAseq data. Furthermore, a SCA representation of cell clusters has the advantage of simulating a conventional bulk RNAseq, which is a data transformation allowing the identification of similarity among independent experiments; Conclusions: In our opinion, SCA represent the bioinformatics version of a “Swiss Army knife” for the extraction of hidden knowledgeable features from single cell OMICs data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0004.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Tuberculosis; TB case notification; Spatiotemporal; Oromia; Ethiopia
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:45:40 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern in low and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal distribution and identify TB risk factors in Ethiopia's Oromia region. Descriptive and spatiotemporal analyses were conducted. Bayesian spatiotemporal modeling was employed to identify covariates that accounted for variability and spatiotemporal distribution of TB. A total of 206,278 new pulmonary TB cases were reported in the Oromia region between 2018 and 2022, with the lowest annual TB case notification (96.93 per 100,000 population) reported in 2020 (i.e., during the COVID-19 pandemic) and the highest TB case notification (106.19 per 100,000 population) reported in 2019. Substantial spatiotemporal variations in the distribution of notified TB case notifications were observed at zonal and district levels with most of the hotspot areas detected in the northern and southern parts of the region. The spatiotemporal distribution of notified TB incidence was positively associated with different ecological variables. The findings of this study indicated that preventive measures considering socio-demographic and health system factors can be targeted to high-risk areas for effective control of TB in the Oromia region. Further studies are needed to develop effective strategies for reducing the burden of TB in hotspot areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0374.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Business Model Innovation; Exponential Organizations; Case Study
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:06:31 CEST)
As a representative of Exponential Organizations, MI went from obscurity to the Fortune 500 in just ten years. Mi's success is inextricably linked to its outstanding business model. This paper summarizes the elements of MI's business model from four perspectives: value proposition, value creation, value delivery, and value capture, as well as its measures for developing into an exponential organization. Expecting to provide theoretical references for the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing organizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: exhaustion; disability; illness; disorder; adopted child; adoptive parent; single mom; single dad
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:07:39 CEST)
Although early work on parental burnout in the 1980s did not link parental burnout to specific parenting situations, the idea that parents affected by specific vulnerability factors were particularly at risk of burnout quickly emerged. Based on the etiological model of parental burnout (i.e., the balance between risks and resources), the objective of this study was to determine if there were specific vulnerability factors that significantly increase the risk of parental burnout. 2,563 parents participated in the study. We compared parents with a child with special needs (n = 25), parents who had adopted a child (n = 130), and single parents (n = 109), to strictly matched control groups of parents. Parents with a child with special needs displayed higher burnout and lower balance between risk and resources than the control group; parents with an adopted child had similar levels of both parental burnout and balance; and single parents had higher parental burnout but similar balance. Parents who combined specific several vulnerability factors were at greater risk of burnout. Single parenthood and adoption do not in themselves trigger a process leading de facto to other risk factors, but having a child with special needs does.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0536.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: case management; navigation; integrated care; coordinated care, case managers; social ecology maps; interprofessional practice; whānau ora, New Zealand, complexity
Online: 29 November 2022 (06:24:50 CET)
Community-based case managers in health have been compared to glue which holds the dynamic needs of clients to a disjointed range of health and social services. However, case manager roles are difficult to understand due to poorly defined roles, confusing terminology, and low visibility in New Zealand. This review aims to map the landscape of case management work to advance workforce planning by clarifying the jobs, roles, and relationships of case managers in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Our scoping and mapping review includes peer-reviewed articles, grey literature sources, and interview data from 15 case managers. Data was charted iteratively until convergent patterns emerged and distinctive roles identified. A rich and diverse body of literature describing and evaluating case management work in NZ (n=148) is uncovered with at least 38 different job titles recorded. 18 distinctive roles are further analysed with sufficient data to explore the research question. Social ecology maps highlight diverse interprofessional and intersectoral relationships. Significant innovation and adaptations are evident in this field, particularly in the last five years. Case managers also known as health navigators, play a pivotal but often undervalued role in NZ health care, through their interprofessional and intersectoral relationships. Their work is often unrecognised which impedes workforce development and the promotion of person-centred and integrated health care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1276.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Molecular magnetism; single-molecule magnets; carbon nanotubes; single-molecule magnets-carbon nanotubes hybrids.
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:38:58 CEST)
Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have garnered significant interest in the field of molecular magnetism due to their unique magnetic properties at the nanoscale. These molecular systems exhibit magnetisation behaviour reminiscent of conventional bulk magnets but with distinct advantages such as size-dependent properties and potential applications in quantum computing and high-density data storage. However, challenges remain in harnessing their properties for practical applications, including their susceptibility to degradation and limited control over their assembly and organisation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1804.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: tuberculosis; active-case finding; mobile chest X-ray
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:25:24 CET)
Active-case finding (ACF) using chest X-ray is an essential method of finding and diagnosing TB cases that may be missed in Indonesia's routine TB case finding. This study compares active and passive TB case-finding strategies. A retrospective study of TB case notification was conducted. Data between January 1 and December 31, 2021, was used. The population in this study were TB cases notified from Kulon Progo District health facilities, including those found through routine activities or active-case finding. A total of 255 TB cases were diagnosed in Kulon Progo in 2021, and 106 (41.6%) were bacteriologically confirmed. The TB patients' mean age was 46.3 (SD 21.4, range 0-85 years). The majority of cases were male (58.8%) and mostly among people aged 16-60 years old (63.5%). ACF diagnosed 91 TB cases (35.7% total cases, 91/255). The proportion of clinical TB cases (n=68, 74.7%) among those found through ACF was higher than found through passive-case finding. Use of chest X-ray in ACF likely contributed to the detection of a higher proportion of clinical TB than bacteriologically confirmed.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: case report; COVID-19; mRNA; pulmonary hypertension; vaccine
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:53:56 CEST)
Background: To our knowledge, the sudden onset of symptomatic pulmonary hypertension after COVID-19 vaccination has not been described. Both cases presented here resulted in functional limitations and likely permanent organ damage. Case Summary: We report two cases of acute onset pulmonary hypertension in previously healthy adult males within three weeks of receiving the second dose of the Pfizer (BNT162b2) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from different lots. Both patients experienced the sudden onset of severe fatigue and dyspnea on exertion with negative COVID-19 PCR testing. The diagnosis was made by serial transthoracic echocardiography in the first case and by both transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization in the second. Discussion: Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease characterized by damage to lung vasculature and restricted blood flow through narrowed arteries from the right to left heart. The onset of symptoms is typically insidious, progressive and incurable, leading to right heart failure and premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into 5 categories and recently re-defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mmHg. Sudden onset pulmonary hypertension would only be expected in the settings of surgical pneumonectomy or massive pulmonary emboli with compromise of at least 50% of the lung vasculature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Confirmed cases, case fatality rate, province, age, gender.
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:24:55 CEST)
The initial outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan (China) during the latter part of December 2019. Indonesia has the fourth-largest population globally and reported the country’s first case of the virus on 2nd March 2020. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in addition to several neighbouring provinces and educational institutions within the region began questioning the Indonesian government upon the initial case reported. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia during March 2020. The data were collected from Indonesian government databases and non-government organisations (NGOs). The data were analysed using Microsoft Office 2019 (Excel) and Adobe Illustrator 2017 software, was used in drawing the map depicting the distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia. As at 31st March 2020, a total of 1,528 people in Indonesia have been infected by COVID-19, in addition to 136 mortalities (CFR of 8.9%). Jakarta, as the principal capital of Indonesia, quickly has become the epicentre of the virus since this period. Most patient cases were attributed to those aged between 31 and 70 years (72.64%), with male patients (64.93%) representing the highest incidence of cases compared to female patients (35.07%). The number of ventilating machines was 3,326, with hospital numbers at 859. The distribution of cases depicting COVID-19 was mainly seen in urban areas compared to rural areas. Males compared to females, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, including those aged below 30, between 30 and 60 or above. Indonesia also has the highest case fatality rate (CFR) with respect to mortalities in Southeast Asia and has the second-highest CFR globally. Similarly, while the number of ventilator machines as at 31st March 2020 were sufficient in meeting the growing number of COVID-19 cases in the country, it is possible that the government may need to increase the number of ventilators if the cases continue to escalate.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: candidate-gene association; estimation; bias; confounding; case study
Online: 18 June 2020 (07:50:33 CEST)
Estimation of the reality can easily be flawed, hence, in order to result in accurate and useful estimates the process has to be protected from bias and confounding and should follow other methodological milestones inherent to different types of empirical observations. Candidate-gene association studies are a specific form of observations that have been rather extensively applied in psychiatry yielding valuable information on various aspects – when methodologically adequate and used in appropriate settings. However, certain flaws that may occur in such studies might not be bluntly obvious, at least not at first glance, and may pass unnoticed by researchers and reviewers. This case study uses two recent published candidate-gene association reports suggesting involvement of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and of heat shock protein single nucleotide polymorphisms in development of neurocognitive performance and psychopathology in a cohort of adult first episode psychosis patients to point-out the types of flaws inevitably resulting in inaccurate and useless estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0171.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; case-based reasoning; ontology; natural language processing
Online: 15 June 2020 (11:16:23 CEST)
Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). At the time of conducting this study, it had recorded over 1.6 million cases while more than 105,000 have died due to it, with these figures rising on a daily basis across the globe. The burden of this highly contagious respiratory disease is that it presents itself in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patterns in those already infected, thereby leading to an exponential rise in the number of contractions of the disease and fatalities. It is therefore crucial to expedite the process of early detection and diagnosis of the disease across the world. The case-based reasoning (CBR) model is an effective paradigm that allows for the utilization of cases’ specific knowledge previously experienced, concrete problem situations or specific patient cases for solving new cases. This study therefore aims to leverage the very rich database of cases of COVID-19 to solve new cases. The approach adopted in this study employs the use of an improved CBR model for state-of-the-art reasoning task in classification of suspected cases of Covid19. The CBR model leverages on a novel feature selection and semantic-based mathematical model proposed in this study for case similarity computation. An initial population of the archive was achieved with 68 cases obtained from the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM) repository. Results obtained revealed that the proposed approach in this study successfully classified suspected cases into their categories at an accuracy of 97.10%. The study found that the proposed model can support physicians to easily diagnose suspected cases of Covid19 base on their medical records without subjecting the specimen to laboratory test. As a result, there will be a global minimization of contagion rate occasioned by slow testing and as well reduce false positive rates of diagnosed cases as observed in some parts of the globe.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: COVID-19; recovery rate; case load rate; India
Online: 4 May 2020 (02:17:29 CEST)
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. There is sudden need of statistical modeling due to onset of COVID-19 pandemic across the world. But health planning and policy requirements the estimates of disease problem form clinical data. Objective: To predict recovery rate, cases load rate on the basis of cumulative confirmed Novel Corona virus (NCV) cases, recovered cases and deaths form COVID-19 in India. Methods: The reported COVID-19 cases in the country were obtained from website (https://datahub.io/core/covid-19#resource-covid-19_zip/). The cumulative NCV confirmed cases; recovery cases and deaths were used for estimating recovery rate, cases load rate and death rate till date 24 April 2020. Results: A total of 24530 NCV confirmed cases were reported nationwide in India on 24 April 2020. It is found that the recovery rate increased 22% and case load rate decreased 74%. Death rate is found to be very low 3%. The difference of cases load rate and recovery rate (delta) coincide at 50 % then NCV cases expected would be declined. Conclusion: The epidemic in the country was mainly caused by the importation of India. Lockdown as restricting the migration of population and decided to quarantine of population may greatly reduce the risk of continued spread of the epidemic in India. This study predicts that by 20 May 2020, the cases load rate lesser than recovery rate there after COVID-19 patients would be started to reducing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0547.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Tornadoes; CAPE; Overview; Case Study; Klerksdorp; South Africa
Online: 26 November 2018 (10:02:42 CET)
This paper contributes to the understating of tornadoes in South Africa using case study analysis. In South Africa tornadoes are the recurring phenomenon (the climatology) but so far they have received less attention. Damages from storms itself (tornadoes inclusive) are significant in South Africa relative to other weather-related disasters for example floods, heat waves, and droughts. For their understanding, a case study approach was adopted in the current study. Data were in courtesy of the following, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Centers for Environmental Predictions (NCEP), Eumetsat Germany, and South African Weather Service (SAWS). The aim of the study was to provide an overview of the occurrence of tornadoes in South Africa using a Klerksdorp tornado, which occurred on March 4, 2007, Northwest Province in South Africa. From the case study analysis, the tornado was associated with the cold front and cut-off low (both are extratropical circulation) which were the dominant weather systems of the day. Therefore we conclude that, a case study approach may be the best way to study events of these nature for a more informed decision, for example, issuing an early warning system. In future, case studies, for example, involving interaction between extratropical and tropical circulation will also be an interesting study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Iodine; processed foods; universal salt iodization; case studies
Online: 19 July 2017 (23:41:44 CEST)
The current performance indicator for universal salt iodization (USI) is the percent of households using adequately iodized salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports on case studies supported by the GAIN-UNICEF USI Partnership Project to investigate processed food industry use of adequately iodized salt in contrasting national contexts. Studies were conducted in Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. In all cases, the potential iodine intake from iodized salt in selected food products was modelled according to the formula: Quantity of salt per unit of food product x minimum regulated iodine level of salt at production x average daily per capita consumption of the product. The percent of adult recommended nutrient intake for iodine potentially provided by the average daily intake of bread and frequently consumed foods and condiments was from 10% to 80% at the individual product level. The potential contribution to iodine intake from the use of iodized salt in the processed food industry is of growing significance. National USI strategies should encourage co-operative industry engagement and include regulatory monitoring of iodized salt use in the food industry in order to achieve optimal population iodine status.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0741.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; interactions; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:20:43 CET)
The folding of certain proteins (e.g., enzymes) into perfectly defined 3D conformations via multi-orthogonal interactions is critical to their function. Concerning synthetic polymers chains, the “folding” of individual polymer chains at high dilution via intra-chain interactions leads to so-called single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs). This review article describes the advances carried out in recent years in the folding of single polymer chains into discrete SCNPs via multi-orthogonal interactions using different reactive chemical species where intra-chain bonding only occurs between groups of the same species. First, we summarize results from computer simulations of multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs. Next, we comprehensively review multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs synthesized via either non-covalent bonds or covalent interactions. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent research about multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs prepared through both reversible (dynamic) and permanent bonds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0221.v1
Online: 16 February 2020 (14:56:57 CET)
ACE2, the putative receptor for the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), played an important role in cell entry of 2019-nCoV. However, it is not yet clear what cell types within the human body express ACE2. Here, a systematic analysis was undertaken using published single cell datasets. In total, our study analyzed 229652 cells, from five different organs, derived from 88 donors. The top ACE2 expressing cells include proximal tubule cells in the kidney and enterocytes in the intestine. Other major ACE2 expressing cells in the kidney include podocytes, intercalated cells and endothelial cells. Our results offer a comprehensive atlas of ACE2 expression at the single cell level and unravel the enormous potential targets of 2019-nCoVinfection beyond the lung.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0351.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: photochemistry; photofolding; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:03:24 CET)
Clean use of photons from light to activate chemical reactions offer many possibilities in different fields, from chemistry and biology to materials science and medicine. This review article describes the advances carried out in last decades toward the phototriggered synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) as soft nanomaterials with promising applications in enzyme-mimicking catalysis and nanomedicine, among other different uses. First, we summarize different strategies developed to synthesize SCNPs based on photoactivated intrachain homocoupling, phototriggered intrachain heterocoupling and photogenerated collapse induced by external cross-linker. Next, we comprehensively review the emergent topic of photoactivated multifolding applied to SCNP construction. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent strategies towards phototriggered disassembly of SCNPs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0642.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC; metastasis; immunotherapy; complete response; case report; literature review
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:10:13 CET)
Background and introduction: Lung cancer is a prevalent and deadly disease globally. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common subtype, comprising 85% of cases; Case report: A 65-year-old ex-smoker man presented to our facility with nocturnal cough. Various investigations revealed that he had metastatic NSCLC, for which he underwent chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine, followed by immunotherapy with Nivolumab. He achieved a complete response to the therapy and has remained free from recurrence for over 7 years since the initial diagnosis; Discussion and Conclusion: The treatment of metastatic NSCLC remains a significant therapeutic challenge, but the implementation of new therapeutic techniques has expanded the possibilities of achieving complete and durable eradication of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis; risk factors; sandfly; Kenya; case-control study
Online: 1 November 2023 (05:23:53 CET)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. VL is endemic in West Pokot County, Kenya, where effective strategies to interrupt transmission are impeded by the limited understanding of VL risk factors. Therefore, this case-control study aimed to explore environmental, behavioral and household determinants of VL in West Pokot. From November 2022 to January 2023, a structured questionnaire was administered to 36 symptomatic primary VL cases attending the Kacheliba Sub-County Hospital and to 50 controls from local villages. The VL status of all participants was confirmed using an rK39 rapid diagnostic test. In an age-corrected univariate logistic regression analysis, significant associations were found between VL and housing characteristics, such as window presence and floor type. Furthermore, outdoor activities, including traveling outside the residence for more than 2 weeks, activities near termite mounds, and forest activities during the rainy season increased the risk of VL. VL cases more frequently reported the presence of cattle, dogs and sheep in their house yards at night. VL was also associated with cutting down trees in the house yard and house proximity to several Acacia tree species. To conclude, this work reports a number of previously undescribed risk factors for VL in the understudied West Pokot focus. Our findings warrant further research into sandfly ecology and potential zoonotic parasite reservoirs in West Pokot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: quay wall; piles; port; finite element analysis; case study
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:33:05 CEST)
In recent years, with the increase in maritime trade, the necessity of increasing the capacities of the ports has emerged. However, while it is planned to increase the capacities of the ports, it is important that the port continues to operate at the same time. In this respect, the old port structures should not be damaged during the capacity increase. In this study, the strengthening of a port in Guinea is discussed as a case study. In the study, the existing quay wall was evaluated, and geotechnical and structural alternatives of the new structure to be built for capacity increase were evaluated. A combined system was designed as a pile foundation and a reinforced foundation with plastic piles so as not to damage the existing quay wall. The pile capacities obtained as a result of the analyses were verified by loading tests.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: vascular EDS; bowel perforation; case report; collagen; gene mutations
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:48:13 CEST)
Introduction: Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) constitute a rare entity of genetic disorders, affecting the collagen of all types all. Herein, we describe a case of vascular type of EDS, with coexisting segmental absence of intestinal musculature, while performing simultaneously a narrative review of the existing literature. Case Presentation: A 23-year-old male patient with a history of multiple abdominal operations due to recurrent bowel perforations and the presence of high-output enterocutaneous fistula was admitted to our surgical department for further evaluation and treatment. After detailed diagnostic testing, the diagnosis of vascular type of EDS (vEDS) was made and a conservative therapeutic approach was adopted. In addition, a comprehensive review of the international literature was carried out by applying the appropriate search terms. Results: The diagnosis of vEDS was molecularly confirmed by means of genetic testing. The patient was treated conservatively, with parenteral nutrition and supportive methods. Thirty-four cases of bowel perforation in vEDS have been reported so far. Interestingly, this case is the second one ever to report with co-existence of vEDS with Segmental Absence of Intestinal Musculature. Conclusions: Establishing the diagnosis of vEDS promptly is of vital significance in order to ensure that patients receive appropriate treatment. Due to initial non-specific clinical presentation, EDS should always be included in the differential diagnoses of young patients with unexplained perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Cysts; Bone Regeneration; Dental Implants; Case Reports [Publication Type]
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:06:35 CEST)
The odontogenic cysts can lead to a bone destruction that can hamper the dental implant place-ment in the ideal 3D position. Different biomaterials and techniques that allow bone regeneration are described in the literature, each with its advantages and disadvantages. This clinical case with 18 months of follow-up shows the enucleation of an odontogenic cyst fol-lowing the guide bone regeneration with fence technique. After 6 months 2, dental implants were placed at the region of tooth 11 and 21, being rehabilitated nine weeks after. The fence technique allowed the recovery of the bone morphology and the placement of the dental implants in the 3D ideal position.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: day-case angioplasty; critical limb ischaemia; peripheral artery disease
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:37:51 CEST)
We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 restriction on the angioplasty service and outcome of critical limb ischaemia (CLI) patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty in a UK secondary care setting. Consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively. Pre-COVID-19 (08/2018-02/2020), 106 CLI-patients (91% Fontaine 4; 60% diabetes mellitus) and during COVID-19 (03/2020-07/2021) 94 patients were treated (86% Fontaine 4; 66% diabetes mellitus). While the average monthly number of patients treated did not change, the proportion of day cases significantly increased (53% to 80%) and hospitalised patients decreased. Patients treated in <=14/5 days after referral significantly increased to 64/63%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (30-day/1-year) showed that neither wound healing nor mortality were significantly changed during COVID-19. In day cases, 1-year but not 30-day major amputations significantly increased, and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation decreased during COVID-19. 1-year mortality was significantly worse in hospitalised as compared to day cases (14% vs 43%) at similar wound healing rates (83% vs 84%). The most frequent known-causes-of-death were infectious disease (64%) and cardiovascular (21%) was less frequent. Despite COVID-19 restriction a safe and effective angioplasty service was maintained while shortening waiting times. Very high mortality rates in hospitalised patients may indicate that CLI should be treated more aggressively and earlier.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: lactobacilli infections; update; case reports; virulence traits; safety implications
Online: 21 February 2022 (08:54:37 CET)
probiotics. However, these bacteria caused rare infections mostly in diabetic and immunocompromised subjects in presence of risk factors such as prosthetic hearth valves and dental procedures or caries. The scope of this survey was re-assessing the pathogenic potential of lactobacilli based on the infection case reports published in the last three years. In 2019, 2020 and 2021 17, 15 and 16 cases, respective-ly,.including endocarditis, bacteremia and other infections, were reported. These annual numbers are higher than observed previously. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (13 cases), comprising strain GG (ATCC 53103) with established applications in healthcare, L. paracasei (7 cases), Lactobacillus acidophilus (5 cas-es), L. jensenii (5 cases), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (3 cases), L. paraplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. del-brueckii, L. gasseri, L. paragasseri, Limosilactobacillus fermentum and L. reuteri (1 case each) were involved. Virulence characterization of two strains that caused infections, a derivative of L. rhamnosus GG and L.paracasei LP10266, indicated that increased biofilm forming capacity favors pathogenicity and it is determined by variable genetic traits. This survey highlighted that strains of lactobacilli able to cause infections were little characterized genet-ically. Instead, to avoid that these bacteria become a hazard, genetic stability should be periodically re-evaluated by whole genome sequencing (WGS) to ensure that only non-pathogenic variants are ad-ministered to vulnerable individuals.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0337.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, inflammation, case report
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:14:55 CEST)
Background: Although persistent systemic inflammation is considered to be predictive for future cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether or not C-reactive protein (CrP) plays an active role in coronary-plaque instability. Here, we report a case of a patient with failed and super-infected renal allograft as a source for systemic inflammation presenting with repeat acute coronary syndromes. Case presentation: A 52-years-old male type-2 diabetic with a failed kidney transplant who was hospitalized for acute urinary-tract infection. In the presence of other, classic cardiovascular risk factors, peak values of CrP coincided with episodes of unstable angina treated by percutaneous coronary interventions. Besides pyelonephritis, the histological examination of the kidney transplant revealed signs of chronic rejection and the presence of a renal cell carcinoma in situ. Once the renal allograft has been removed, systemic inflammation was attenuated, the patient was not re-hospitalized for acute-coronary syndrome within the next 12 months. Conclusion: In this case, systemic inflammation was paralleled by instability of coronary plaques as documented by repeat percutaneous coronary interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0615.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Industry 4.0; Enabling technologies; Eyewear Sector; Case Study; Innovation
Online: 24 November 2020 (13:22:26 CET)
This paper aims to provide the reader with an organic view of the eyewear sector considering both market and quality aspects and evaluating the role of Industry 4.0 in process and product innovation for managing consumer health, analyzing a case study of a leading multinational company in the eyewear and ophthalmic lenses sector. The research has been developed with a qualitative approach. The study is a conceptual development and it uses an exploratory interview to create a single case study. The case study was developed with the realization by the researcher of a semi-structured interview. The selected interlocutor was the Innovation Manager of Alpha Optics. it has been decided to focus the attention on this figure, as it was responsible for the realization and introduction into the company of Industry 4.0 enabling technologies for developing health innovations. From this case study it was possible to observe how the connection with the trends that influence the demand for eyeglasses is a driving factor for product innovation. Products increasingly adapted to the needs of young people and the use of digital devices seem to be the ones on which the greatest number of innovations are concentrated.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Case report; Covid-19; Critically ill; Pregnant; Invasive care
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:11:13 CEST)
In this retrospective report we present five cases of critically ill pregnant or newly delivered women positive for Covid-19 admitted to our obstetrical departments at Karolinska University Hospital. They compose 6% of eighty-three pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period March 25 to May 4, 2020. Three patients were at the time of admission in gestational week between 21+4 to 22+5 and treated during their antenatal period, meanwhile the other two were admitted within 1 week postpartum. All of them were in a need of intensive care, one was treated with high flow oxygen therapy, the other four with invasive mechanical ventilation (three with endotracheal intubation and one with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation). Age above thirty, overweight and gestational diabetes are notable factors in the cases presented. At the time of admission, they all presented with symptoms as fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest imaging with computer tomography scan was performed in each case and demonstrated multifocal pneumonic infiltrates in all of them but no pulmonary embolism was confirmed in any. Neither did the echocardiogram indicates any cardiomyopathy. Four of the patients have been discharged from the hospital, with an average of 20 hospital days. One antenatal pregnant woman needed prolonged ECMO therapy, in gestational week 27+3 she went into cardiac arrest, resulting in an urgent c-section on maternal indication. At the time of writing she is still hospitalized. In coherence with other published reports our cases indicate that critically ill pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2 may develop severe respiratory distress syndrome requiring prolonged intensive care. The material is limited for conclusions to be taken, more detailed information on symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women managed in intensive care is therefore needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: psoriasis; osteoporosis; cohort studies; Case-Control Studies; risk factors
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:50:13 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between psoriasis and osteoporosis using two different studies. Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort of participants who were ≥ 40 years old were collected from 2002 to 2013. Psoriasis and osteoporosis were included using ICD-10 codes. In study I (a follow-up study), a total of 25,306 psoriasis participants were matched to 101,224 controls with respect to age group, sex, income group, and region of residence, and the occurrence of osteoporosis was analyzed. Crude (simple) and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were analyzed using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model. In study II (a nested case–control study), a total of 79,212 osteoporosis patients were matched to 79,212 controls, and a previous history of psoriasis was analyzed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age group and sex. Results: The adjusted HR of osteoporosis was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.15, P < 0.001) in study I. In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the results were consistent except for the ≥ 60-year-old women. The adjusted OR of psoriasis was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.16-1.28, P < 0.001) in study II. All subgroups demonstrated high adjusted ORs of osteoporosis for psoriasis. Conclusions: Psoriasis increased the risk of osteoporosis in the population of participants aged ≥ 40 years in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: case fatality; Lassa virus; pattern; positivity rate; outcome; ribavirin
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:41:27 CEST)
The prevalence and case fatality rates of Pediatric Lassa fever disease (LFD) are not well documented. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, pattern and outcome of Pediatric LFD. It was a prospective observational study. A total of 183 subjects that met the criteria for LFD suspects were recruited consecutively and subjected to Lassa virus PCR test. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information. Of the 183 children recruited, 24 tested positive to Lassa virus PCR, giving a positivity rate of 13.1%. Mean duration of illness at presentation was 8.54 ± 3.83 days. Fever, abdominal pain and vomiting were the three highest presenting complaints. Seven out of 24 children died giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 29.2%. Subjects with bleeding, poor urine output, convulsions and unconsciousness were more likely to die of LFD. Positivity and CFR of LFD are high. Improved case finding and prompt treatment is advocated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0128.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: air pollution; conjunctivitis; exposure; linear; model; case-crossover; poisson
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:58:14 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to assess the concentration-response relations between conjunctivitis and exposure to ambient ozone. This retrospective study includes emergency department (ED) visits for conjunctivitis in Edmonton, Canada, for the period April 1992–March 2002. Daily average levels of ozone (range: 1.2–50.9, ppb), of temperature, and of relative humidity were estimated and used for the period of the study. For each of the considered exposure lags, (from 0 to 9 days), six different models were fitted to estimate the concentration-response function. The goodness of fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion. During the period of the study, 17,211 ED visits for conjunctivitis were recorded and used. For all subjects together, a positive statistically significant association was obtained for the exposure lagged by 5 days. For female subjects, lags 1, 3, and 9 had positive statistically significant associations (lag 2 had negative associations). For male subjects, only lag 5 had a positive statistically significant association. The estimated non-linear concentration-response functions for the considered groups (all, males, females) and lags, revealed the associations along the exposure levels. The fitted shapes are described by algebraic functions and may have various forms. The estimated functions are useful to determine the risk associated with exposure to ground-level ozone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infant; newborn; Cambodia; child mortality; perinatal mortality; case reports
Online: 30 January 2019 (05:15:16 CET)
Introduction: Neonatal mortality has declined in Cambodia but remains a key contributor to under-five deaths. The aim of this study was to further understanding of potential factors contributing to high neonatal mortality rates in Cambodia through assessment of verbal autopsies collected following newborn deaths. The study team analyzed verbal autopsies of perinatal deaths in order to describe timing and causes of neonatal deaths, demographic data, and factors potentially related to mortality. Methods: The case series data derive from 13 verbal autopsy reports collected in rural southern Cambodia. The mortality review was nested within a trial of a behavioral intervention to improve newborn survival, and was conducted after the close of the trial. The study examined all neonatal deaths occurring to infants born at 16 health centers between in the study site of Takeo province. The World Health Organization standardized definition of neonatal mortality was employed, and two pediatricians independently reviewed data collected from each event to assign a cause of death. Results: Thirteen newborn deaths of infants born at a health facility were reported during the time period February 2015–November 2016. Ten out of the 13 deaths (76.92%) were early neonatal deaths, two (15.38%) were late neonatal deaths, and one was a stillbirth. Five out of 13 deaths (38.46%) occurred within the first day of life, indicating death was likely due to an intrapartum event. The largest single contributor to mortality was neonatal sepsis; six of 13 deaths (46.15%) were attributed to some form of sepsis. Twenty-three percent of the deaths were attributed to asphyxia. Other causes of death included stillbirth and prematurity. Eight deaths (61.54%) occurred within the control group of the larger intervention study. Conclusion: The study highlights the continuing need to improve both intrapartum and postnatal quality of care and infection prevention and control, and to fully address causes of sepsis, in order to effectively reduce mortality in the newborn period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0146.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Circular Economy; sustainability; family business; model; case study; Mercadona
Online: 22 February 2018 (10:33:56 CET)
Sustainability addresses environmental and social issues affecting this and future generations. When family businesses perceive that the community is disrupted, recognize an environmental problem and respond by implementing new environmental policies or regulations, the family business’s socio-emotional values press to transition to a more sustainable production system, such as the ‘Circular Economy.’ Drawing on the Dubin (1978) methodology—a paradigm for building models through deduction—we design a sustainable model, which shows family businesses’ responses to changes in the environment. It explains the reasons why family firms transition to the Circular Economy, based on the theory of Socio-Emotional Wealth (SEW). We check the model through the case study of the food retail leader in the Spanish market—Mercadona—which applies policies about energy, resources and waste to become a Circular Economy business model. Because of the strong family character of Mercadona, this case can be useful for the decision-making of other family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: pancreatic cancer; alcohol intake; folate intake; case-control study
Online: 20 March 2017 (08:29:00 CET)
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3 percent of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls. Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake was modestly but significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (OR=0.99, P <.0001). The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1315.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: ovarian torsion; large cyst; acute abdomen; case report; fertility; third presentation rule; ovarian serous cystadenoma; diagnostic process in primary care, case report
Online: 20 October 2023 (10:30:20 CEST)
Background. Ovarian cysts are common in premenopausal women but can present with vague, non-specific symptoms, making discovery more challenging. Most are benign and resolve spontaneously; however, they can present, as in this case, as ovarian torsions, which is a gynecological emergency. Case presentation. A twenty-year-old female had presented over 3–4 times per year for the last 6 years to her primary doctor citing intermittent abdominal pain, irregular menstruation, dyspnea, and an enlarging abdomen circumference. The doctor stated, she was “just fat” and could, benefit from a “special camp to lose weight”, so she stopped mentioning her concerns. Upon presenting to the emergency department with acute onset abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan showed a large cyst lesion filling the abdominal and pelvic cavity. Its origin appeared to be from the left adnexa. Surgery was performed, and an acute ovarian torsion caused by a 36 cm craniocaudal left ovarian cyst was found and removed along with the left fallopian tube and 16 L of fluid. Conclusions. The value of respecting the “third presentation” rule indicates to health care providers that any patient who presents with any /or other symptoms or complaint needs to be thoroughly investigated. In this case the patient presented recurring pelvic/abdominal concerns, irregular menstruation, which warranted further investigation to safeguard fertility and prevent errors of omission. It is important to consider the differentials and be aware of vague symptoms that may lead to early recognition and effective management to prevent adverse consequences, complications, or even death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Saffron; single administration dose; Fertilization; Crocin
Online: 6 November 2023 (13:38:52 CET)
This study investigated the influence of nutrient inputs and their timing on saffron yield and quality. The study was conducted from 2016 to 2020 and involved the application of eight different fertilization treatments at various stages of saffron growth. These treatments included single doses in Autumn (A), Winter (W), and Spring (S); double doses in Winter-Spring (AW), Autumn-Spring (AS), and Winter-Spring (WS); and a triple dose in Autumn-Winter-Spring (AWS). A control group (C) received no fertilizer. A compound fertilizer with a 15-15-15 composition was applied across all treatments, with nitrogen (N) rates of 67.5 kg/ha for single doses (A, W, S), 135 kg/ha for double doses (AWF, ASF, WSF), and 202.5 kg/ha for the triple dose (AWSF). Similar rates were applied for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The findings demonstrated that fertilization generally enhanced saffron attributes. The triple dose treatment yielded the most effective results. The timing of fertilization also played a crucial role, as split applications during different growth stages led to higher production especially winter fertilization. However, spring fertilization had limited impact due to decreased plant activity and reduced nutrient absorption during that period. Although the yield increased, the qualitative aspects of saffron, including color (crocin), taste (picrocrocin), and aroma (safranal), were not significantly influenced by the fertilization treatments. Nevertheless, these attributes remained within the natural limits defined by ISO-3632, indicating that fertilization practices did not compromise saffron quality. Our study highlights the significance of nutrient inputs and their timing in optimizing saffron yield. It provides valuable insights for developing efficient fertilization programs to enhance saffron production while preserving its quality characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human longevity; single nucleotide polymorphisms; Sardinia
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:02:09 CEST)
Background. In the central-eastern region of the Mediterranean island of Sardinia more than two decades ago, a mountain area was identified where the population displays exceptional longevity, especially among men (the longevity Blue Zone, LBZ). This community was thoroughly investigated seeking to understand the underlying factors of this phenomenon. In the present study, 11 genetic markers previously associated with longevity in several long-lived populations were analyzed. Methods. APOE (rs429358 and rs7412), APOE promoter (rs449647, rs769446, and rs405509), ACE1 (rs1799752), IL6 ‒174G/C (rs1800795), TNFα ‒308G/A (rs1800629), FOXO3A (rs2802292), KLOTHO (rs9536314) and G6PD (c.563C→T) were investigated. PCR-based genotyping was performed following genomic DNA extraction from 150 nonagenarians living in the LBZ and 150 controls from a nearby area. Results. No significant deviation of the frequency of the analyzed markers was detected between the two groups except a weak association with the –174G>C gene variant of the IL-6 gene (p=0.040), a major modulator of the inflammatory response. Conclusions. The findings of this study do not support a significant association of known genetic variants on survival in the population of the Sardinian LBZ. Other genetic or epigenetic traits might play a role not yet identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0151.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Epididymis; Regional; Single cell/Spatial Transcriptomics
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:43:28 CEST)
Sperm gain fertilization ability and forward movement characteristics during epididymal transport. Sperm maturation is inseparable from the processing of the epididymis. Compared with other reproductive organs, relatively little is known about the epididymis. However, with the development of molecular biology and the improvement of single-cell sequence technology, we gradually realized that we should re-examine the importance of the epididymis for sperm mat-uration and for the entire male reproductive system. Recently, epididymis related reports have tended to be more regionalized and more refined. We can understand cell distribution and gene expression from the perspective of a single cell. It has been reported that different regions of the epididymis have different functions and different cell compositions, which may be determined by gene expression. Here, we comprehensively reviewed the epididymal studies. From the ana-tomical structure of the epididymis to the division of its regions, we focused on the cell compo-sition and region-specific genes differentially expressed in the epididymis. The gene expression of the epididymis extends to a series of biological processes of sperm in the epididymal cavity, and the serious effects of epididymal diseases on reproduction are discussed. Therefore, the importance of the epididymis in male reproduction is emphasized. With the maturity of single-cell spatial transcriptomics, it is hoped that the technology can be applied to epididymal research and bring about the spatiotemporal landscape of the epididymis at the single-cell level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0090.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: strong coupling; nanoantenna; single quantum dot
Online: 7 March 2022 (07:49:51 CET)
The strong coupling between individual quantum emitters and resonant optical micro/nanocavities is beneficial to understand light and matter interactions. Here we propose a plasmonic nanoantenna placed on a metal film to achieve an ultra-high electric field enhancement in the nanogap and ultra-small optical mode volume. The strong coupling between a single quantum dot and the designed structure is investigated in detail by both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations. When a single QD is inserted into the nanogap of the silver nanoantenna, scattering spectra show remarkably large spectral splitting and typical anti-crossing behavior of the vacuum Rabi splitting, which can be realized in the scattering spectra by varying the nanoantenna thickness. Our work shows a possible way to enhance light-matter interaction at a single quantum emitter limit, which can be useful for future quantum and nanophotonic applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: SMARTdenovo; single-molecule sequencing; genome assembly
Online: 9 September 2020 (10:48:24 CEST)
Long-read single-molecule sequencing has revolutionized de novo genome assembly and enabled the automated reconstruction of reference-quality genomes. It also has been widely used to study structural variants, phase haplotypes and more. Here, we introduce the assembler— SMARTdenovo, which is an SMS assembler that follows the overlap-layout-consensus (OLC) paradigm. SMARTdenovo (RRID: SCR_017622) was designed to be a fast assembler that did not require highly accurate raw reads for error correction, unlike other, contemporaneous SMS assemblers. It has performed well for evaluating congeneric assemblers and has been successful for a variety of assembly projects. It is compatible with Canu for assembling high-quality genomes, and several of the assembly strategies in this program have been incorporated into subsequent popular assemblers. The assembler has been in use since 2015, and here we provide information on the development of SMARTdenovo and how to implement its algorithms into current projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0518.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Cattle; RNF128; RNF34; Single nucleotide polymorphisms
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:44:34 CEST)
An experiment was conducted to investigate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene RNF34 3′UTR-588 G>A and RNF128 I1-2380C>T with carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. METHOD: We performed sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion to detect genotypes of RNF34 3′UTR-588 G>A and RNF128 I1-2380C>T. Then, we analyzed the association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in intron regions of the RNF128 gene and in the 3′UTR region of RNF34 and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. RESULTS: Statistical analyses revealed that SNP of RNF128 (I1-2380C>T) was significantly associated with dressed weight, forepaw weight, carcass depth, carcass brisket depth, hind legs length (P<0.05), etc. And RNF34 (3′UTR-588 G>A) were significantly associated with testis weight, kidney weight, tare weight (P<0.05), etc. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in RNF34 and RNF128 might be important genetic factors that influence carcass and meat quality in beef cattle. Thus, they might be useful markers for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: case hardening; surface treatment; diffusion; cassava; steel microstructure; microhardness
Online: 5 December 2023 (17:04:45 CET)
As part of a comprehensive research on eco-friendly processing techniques, the influence of heat treatment environment on the case-hardening of AISI 1018 steel using pulverized cassava leaf was studied. The process was carried out at two different temperatures (850˚C and 950˚C) and under three environmental conditions: (Process 1) the control experiment, was carried out in air only, (Process 2) the medium comprised of pulverized cassava leaves, and (Process 3) the combination of pulverized cassava leaves plus barium carbonate (BaCO3) as an energizer (CBC mixture). Vickers microhardness testing and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of processing environment on case hardening of the steel. As expected, regardless of the processing temperature, Process 1 resulted in little or no hardening of the steel surface. However, notable case hardening occurred when steel specimens were subjected to either Process 2 or Process 3. Furthermore, the inclusion of barium carbonate in Process 3 significantly enhanced the case hardening effectiveness of the cassava leaf as it pertains to rate and maximum hardness achieved. Maximum enhancement was observed at 950oC. After 1 hour, the increase in hardness were 160% and 280%, for Process 2 and Process 3, respectively. Upon increasing the processing time to 5 hours, the increase in hardness due to Process 2 was raised to 254%, while that of Process 3 remained at approximately 280%. Diffusivity of AISI 1018 was calculated using the microhardness data. Diffusivity was highest in Process 2 samples with values of 1.568 x 10-9 m2/s at 850°C and 1.893 x 10-9 m2/s at 950 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: China; Covid-19; Health Silk Road; Case Study; Global Heath
Online: 3 May 2023 (13:08:37 CEST)
This study examines the Health Silk Road (HSR) as a critical component of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and its implications for global health and international relations. The HSR aims to enhance public health and foster international cooperation in the healthcare sector, with objectives including strengthening healthcare infrastructure, expanding China's global health leadership, and enhancing international health cooperation. Through an in-depth analysis of the China-Pakistan collaboration on healthcare under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as a case study, this research explores the motives, implications, and potential concerns associated with the HSR. This research posits that the HSR has a mix of positive and negative implications, making it challenging to categorize the initiative as simply good or bad. While the HSR contributes to improved healthcare services, infrastructure, and capacity-building in participating countries, it also raises concerns about debt sustainability, transparency, and China's geopolitical influence. This research contributes to a nuanced understanding of the HSR's multifaceted impacts and underscores the importance of open dialogue, cooperation, and the sharing of best practices among stakeholders in order to maximize the initiative's benefits and minimize potential negative consequences. By assessing the motives, implications, and concerns of the HSR, this study offers valuable insights for policymakers, global health practitioners, and scholars, highlighting the significance of international collaboration in addressing shared health challenges and promoting sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Rabies; dogs; Tunisia; risk factors; odds ratio; case-control study
Online: 27 March 2023 (04:06:12 CEST)
Since 2012, the northeast of Tunisia has been experiencing an emergence of dog rabies. Published data revealed that the disease is widespread in the north of Tunisia. Even with studies on rabies, lacking knowledge on the associated risk factors was highlighted. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study on dog rabies in northeast Tunisia to identify potential risk factors for dog rabies occurrence. The cases group (n=77) included positive dog rabies confirmed at the referral laboratory using Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) in 2014 and 2018. The controls group (n=77) involved all negative cases received at the laboratory and 15-days quarantine dogs that received a certificate of absence of rabies after the observation period. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to explore the risk factors (age, sex, breed, confinement, vaccination status, presence of bites, owned or not and origin of dogs, sector, presence of rabies cases, and slaughterhouses, etc.…) related to the occurrence of rabies. The final logistic regression model revealed that unconfined dogs were almost twice as likely to be affected as confined dogs (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.27). The odds of rabies occurrence were 25 times higher in areas where rabies cases have been reported between 3 months and 1 year compared to the uninfected areas (25.7; 95% CI: 3.02-219.14). Similarly, the risk of rabies is significantly higher in dogs born in the home to the owner bitch (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.14-5.13). Living in areas with rabies cases in the last three months increases by 2.8 times the risk of getting rabies (2.8; 95% CI: 1.16-6.77). However, vaccination reduces by 1.6 times the risk of contracting rabies (0.6; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97). Our findings provide reliable data on dog rabies that will be very useful for decision-makers and could contribute to improving the ongoing national control program of rabies.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0185.v3
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: case fatality rate; co-infection; control; COVID-19; pandemic; policy; risk; vaccination
Online: 6 May 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
There are two contrary opinions regarding the risk if mainland China (MC) moves away from its zero-COVID policy. Some experts think the risk shall be much lower than influenza as per MC’s own COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), while some other experts think the risk shall be much higher than influenza as per the COVID-19 CFRs of other regions. We elucidate here that this and multiple other striking differences in the CFR between various scenarios all support and substantially resulted from the view that good IDM is highly powerful to mitigate COVID-19, where IDM (isolation-disinfection-maintenance) means isolation of COVID-19 cases from other people, disinfection of their living environments, and health maintenance (e.g., rest, nutrition, breathing). The high effect of good IDM is also supported by the theoretic functions of IDM in minimizing co-infections and maintaining body functions, and the fact that all the 505 COVID-19 deaths reported in MC in 2022 before May 5 died directly of severe underlying diseases with COVID-19. Although it is tough for people in poverty to obtain good IDM, good IDM can be feasible at home for the most mild cases and in hospitals for the most severe cases. Therefore, good IDM can be crucial to mitigating COVID-19 worldwide. It also suggests that the risk for China to end its zero-COVID policy depends on China’s control policies or measures. Based on the effect of IDM, the cautious co-existence policy was proposed for COVID-19 control. This policy could reduce the whole death toll in MC because good IDM is non-specific and can reduce deaths of various other diseases. The cautious co-existence policy (non-specific) and the vaccination policy (specific) aid each other to mitigate COVID-19, and they cannot replace each other. Those who are qualified in health for vaccination should be vaccinated against COVID-19 timely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: ambient air pollution; case-crossover; cluster; concentration; counts; strata; urban
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:16:48 CET)
This study examines the relation between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits due to certain infectious diseases in Toronto, Canada. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database was used to draw the corresponding health cases. Daily data on ED visits, ambient air pollution concentration levels, and weather conditions during the period from April 2004 to December 2015 (4,292 days in total) were linked together and used in statistical models. Six air pollutants (fine particulate matter PM2.5, CO, NO2, SO2, ozone O3 as a daily average, and ozone O3-8 hour ozone, as a maximum eight hour average) were investigated. In addition, the Air Quality Health Index (combining NO2, O3, and PM2.5) was also considered. The time-stratified case-crossover technique was applied in the study design. Conditional Poisson models were created using the daily counts of ED visit data. The considered factors, air pollutants and weather, were lagged by the same number of days, from 0 to 14. In the period of the study 339,644 ED visits were identified; 177,619 for females and 162,025 for males. For each air pollutant 270 models were realized (15 lags x 18 strata). Ambient air pollution concentrations lagged by 2, 3, and 5 days have the highest impact on ED visits, with 34, 32, and 35 positive associations, respectively. For all patients and an increase in a one interquartile range (IQR=1.2 ppb) of sulphur dioxide, the following values of the relative risks (RR) were estimated: RR=1.005 (95% confidence interval: 0.998, 1.013), 1.008 (1.001, 1.016), 1.009 (1.001, 1.016), 1.011 (1.004, 1.019), 1.007 (0.987, 1.028), and 1.009 (1.002, 1.016) for lags from 0 to 5, respectively. The results suggest that exposures for certain air pollutants (mainly CO, O3, and SO2) in urban environment affect the number of ED visits related to infectious diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0546.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chemical graph theory; computational chemistry; CASE; computer-assisted structure elucidation
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:35:43 CET)
The chemical graph theory is a subfield of mathematical chemistry which applies classic graph theory to chemical entities and phenomena. Chemical graphs are main data structures to represent chemical structures in cheminformatics. Computable properties of graphs lay the foundation for (quantitative) structure activity and structure property predictions - a core discipline of cheminformatics. It has a historic relevance for natural sciences, such as chemistry, biochemistry and biology, and is in the heart of modern disciplines, such as cheminformatics and bioinformatics. This review first covers the history of chemical graph theory, then provides an overview of its various techniques and applications for CASE, and finally summarises modern tools using chemical graph theory for CASE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: science; policy making; systems models; communication; case studies; water management
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:07:43 CET)
Clearly policy makers should consider the impacts of any decisions they might make before making them. Science can provide estimates of various economic, ecologic, environmental, and even social impacts of alternative policies, impacts that determine how effective any particular policy will be. These impact estimates can be used to compare and evaluate alternative policies in the search for identifying the best one to implement. Among all scientists providing inputs to policy making processes are analysts who develop and apply models that provide these estimated impacts and, possibly, their probabilities of occurrence. But just producing them is not a guarantee that they will be considered by policy makers. This paper discusses ways scientists, including systems analysts, can effectively contribute to and inform those involved in making water management decisions. Brief descriptions of a variety of past and on-going water management policy making processes illustrate both some successes and failures of science informing policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0., Internet of Things, case study, cyber security framework
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:27:11 CET)
This research article reports the results of a qualitative case study that correlates academic literature with five Industry 4.0 cyber trends, seven cyber risk frameworks and two cyber risk models. While there is a strong interest in industry and academia to standardise existing cyber risk frameworks, models and methodologies, an attempt to combine these approaches has not been done until present. We apply the grounded theory approach to derive with integration criteria for the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. Then, we propose a new architecture for the integration of the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. We therefore advance the efforts of integrating standards and governance into Industry 4.0 and offer a better understanding of a holistic economic impact assessment model for IoT cyber risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Case Based Reasoning; cost estimating; information management
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:43:50 CET)
Information regarding the cost of a construction project is available to the investor and project participants in order to determine the subsequent success of a project, given that the information they collect has an impact on the decisions they make. Cost calculations, especially in the initial phase of a project, often generate large errors. This paper presents the new approach based on a combination of the Case Based Reasoning method (CBR) with the originally selected criteria for the description of a construction project (as a result of Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The CBR method fulfils expectations for a simple and fast system supporting the cost estimation process. It does not require any specialist knowledge, so it will be comprehensible to cost estimation practitioners. The BIM-based model gives the opportunity for the calculation of quantity take-offs and enables the use of the information contained in the BIM model in the cost estimation process. In order to prepare the model an appropriate relational database had to be developed. With extensive research, a database of 173 construction projects, including the construction of a sports field, was obtained. There were 14 variables defined originally by authors; however, only 10 (as a result of the correlation analysis) were used for the calculation. Data related to the project were collected in the BIM model. Results estimating the project’s unit price, using the CBR method, were presented and discussed. The Mean Absolute Estimate Error was used to evaluate the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0142.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Air pollution, PM2.5, emergency room, Asian dust storms, case-crossover
Online: 17 March 2017 (18:13:31 CET)
A case-crossover study examined how PM2.5 from Asian Dust Storms (ADS) affects the number of emergency room (ER) admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and respiratory diseases (RDs). Our data indicated that PM2.5 concentration from ADS was highly correlated with ER visits for CVDs and RDs. The odds ratios (OR) increased by 2.92 (95% CI: 1.22-5.08) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.30-2.91) per increase 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 levels, for CVDs and RDs, respectively. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 from ADSs was significantly associated with increase in ER visits for CVDs among those 65 years of age and older (an increase of 2.77 in OR) and for females (an increase of 3.09 in OR). In contrast, PM2.5 levels had a significant impact on RD ER visits among those under 65 years of age (OR=1.77). The risk of ER visits for CVDs increased on the day when the ADS occurred in Taiwan and the day after (lag 0 and lag 1); the corresponding risk increase for RDs only increased on the fifth day after the ADS (lag 5). In Taiwan’s late winter and spring, the severity of ER visits for CVDs and RDs increases. Environmental protection agencies should employ an early warning system for ADS to reduce high-risk groups’ exposure to PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Nuclei isolation; Next-generation sequencing; Cell-type specific isolation; Epigenetics; Transcriptomics; Single cell sequencing; Single nucleus sequencing
Online: 21 March 2023 (06:40:11 CET)
In the last decade, we have witnessed an upsurge in nuclei-based studies, particularly coupled with next-generation sequencing. Such studies aim at understanding the molecular states that exist in heterogeneous cell populations by applying increasingly more affordable sequencing approaches, in addition to optimized methodologies developed to isolate and select nuclei. Although these powerful new methods promise unprecedented insights, it is important to understand and critically consider the associated challenges. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the rise of nuclei-based studies and elaborate on their advantages and disadvantages. Improved designs and appropriate use of the various experimental strategies will result in acquiring biologically accurate and meaningful information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1843.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: single crystal; perovskite; synchrotron; MAPbBr3; optical property
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:52:48 CEST)
We fabricated high-quality MAPbBr3 single crystals (SC) by introducing moderate amount electron-rich poly(propylene glycol bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (PEA) additives with an inverse temperature crystallization (ITC) method. The intramolecular vibrations and defective states of prepared MAPbBr3 single crystals were systemically studied by the in situ variable-temperature Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), et al. We infer that the proper amount of PEA additives would prevent the formation of intermediate states and crystal boundaries, passivating the density of defective states. The X-ray detection properties of single-crystal MAPbBr3 crystals were investigated, using both high dose and low dose X-ray photons at 40keV in synchrotron beamlines. The photocurrent of optimized PEA-treated MAPbBr3 single crystals demonstrate better performance compared with the as-prepared single crystals. Meanwhile, the decay time of MAPbBr3 single crystal is decreased from 460 ns to 210 ns by Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) decay measurement, owing to the defect passivation by 0.5wt% PEA additives. The PEA-treated single crystals possess much faster decay time than the commercialized Ce:YAG scintillator (>500ns). These results help elucidate the passivation of defective states and contribute paths to manufacture high-quality single crystal perovskites for next-generation optoelectronic devices.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2148.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Curcumin-Copper (II); single crystal; cytotoxicity; antioxidant
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:26:13 CEST)
The first single crystal structure of the homoleptic copper (II) ML2 complex (M=Cu (II), L=curcumin) was obtained and its structure was elucidated by X-ray diffraction showing a square planar geometry. The supramolecular arrangement is supported by C-H···O interactions and the solvent (MeOH) plays an important role in stabilizing the crystal packing. The cytotoxic activity of the complex against six cancer cell lines substantially surpasses that of curcumin itself, and it is particularly selective against leukemia (K562) and human glioblastoma (U251) cell lines with similar antioxidant activity to BHT. This constitutes the first crystal structure of pristine curcumin complexed with a metal ion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: lignans; cancer; single nucleotide polymorphisms; virtual screening
Online: 16 June 2023 (05:10:48 CEST)
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that continues to increase. Lignans are known to be important anticancer agents. However, due to the structural diversity of lignans, it is difficult to associate anticancer activity with a particular subclass. Therefore, the present study sought to evaluate the association of lignan subclasses with antitumor activity, considering the genetic profile of the variants of the selected targets. For this, predictive models were built against the targets tyrosine-protein kinase ABL (ABL), epider-mal growth factor receptor erbB1 (EGFR), histone deacetylase (HDAC), Serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR (mTOR) and Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP1). Then, mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms and designed target mutations, and performed molecular docking with the lignans with the best predicted biological activity. The results showed more anticancer activity in the dibenzocyclooctadiene, furofuran and aryltetralin subclasses. The lignans with the best predictive values of biological activity showed varying binding energy results in the presence of certain genetic variants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hemolytic uremic syndrome; complement; single cell sequencing
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:36:09 CEST)
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and life-threatening disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury, necessitating differentiation from other thrombotic microangiopathy disorders. Definitive biomarkers for disease diagnosis and activity are currently lacking, and identifying molecular markers is essential. We conducted single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 aHUS patients, 3 aHUS family members, and 4 healthy controls. Analysis included clustering, cell type annotation, pseudotime estimation, and cell-cell communication. Immune cell populations differ among aHUS, aHUS families, and healthy controls. Disease activity and treatment influence T, NK, B, and monocyte subpopulations, with increased intermediate monocyte levels distinguishing aHUS from controls and aHUS groups with varying disease activity. Subclustering revealed differential gene expression in patients compared to controls; higher expression of mitochondria-related genes suggests cell metabolism may influence clinical course. Pseudotime trajectory analysis demonstrated unique immune cell differentiation, and cell-cell interaction analysis identified distinct signaling pathways among patients, family members, and controls. This single-cell sequencing study is the first to confirm immune cell dysregulation in aHUS pathogenesis, offering valuable insights into molecular mechanisms and potential new diagnostic and disease activity markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0476.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Adiabatic; figure of merit; Heat engine; Single
Online: 26 December 2022 (06:50:12 CET)
A quantum Otto engine with a single ion harmonic oscillator as its working substance is studied for an adiabatic operation at high and low temperature limits. Using the universal optimization method, the heat engine is effectively optimized and found to yield better working conditions in some ranges of temperature ratios. Accordingly, the figure of merit, ψ, is found to be greater than unity in the range: 0<β2β1≤0.12; showing that the heat engine performs better in the optimized condition than in the maximum power working condition. ψ is determined to be less than one in the range 0.12≤β2β1≤0.35 under the same temperature limit ; depicting that the maximum power working condition is preferred to the optimized working condition. On the other hand, in the low temperature limit, the figure of merit, ψ, is found to be greater than unity in the range 3.7<ω1ω2≤18; revealing that optimized working condition is better than the maximum power working condition for the heat engine. In the same temperature limit, ψ is found to be less than one in the range 0≤ω1ω2≤3.7; showing that maximum power working condition is preferred to the optimized one. For the model of heat engine studied, in some ranges of temperature ratio, it is found to work better in the optimized condition, whereas in the other ranges it performs better under the maximum power working condition. So, it is possible to switch the engine between the two conditions depending on one’s need.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Glioblastoma; biomarker; TSPO; single nucleotide polymorphism; survival.
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:22:34 CEST)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with few available therapies and a 5-year survival rate of 7.2%. Hence, strategies for improving GBM prognosis are urgently needed. The translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) plays crucial roles in essential mito-chondria-based physiological processes and is a validated biomarker of neuroinflammation, which is implicated in GBM progression. The TSPO gene has a germline single nucleotide pol-ymorphism, rs6971, which is the most common SNP in the Caucasian population. High TSPO gene expression is associated with reduced survival in GBM patients; however, the relation between the most frequent TSPO genetic variant and GBM pathogenesis is not known. The present study ret-rospectively analyzed the correlation of the TSPO polymorphic variant rs6971 with overall and progression-free survival in GBM patients using three independent cohorts. TSPO rs6971 poly-morphism was significantly associated with shorter overall survival and progression-free survival in male GBM patients but not in females in one large cohort of 441 patients. We observed similar trends in two other independent cohorts. These observations suggest that the TSPO rs6971 pol-ymorphism could be a significant predictor of poor prognosis in GBM, with a potential for use as a prognosis biomarker in GBM patients. These results reveal for the first time a biological sex-specific relation between rs6971 TSPO polymorphism and GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0613.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; single-chain nanoparticles; catalysis; click chemistry
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:51:41 CET)
“Clickase” single-chain nanoparticles (Ck-SCNPs) are folded, enzyme-mimetic unimolecular polymeric nano-objects containing copper (Cu) ions able to catalyze the azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition reaction in water and/or selected organic solvents, often in the presence of a reductant. Herein, we investigate the effect of morphology on catalytic activity of Ck-SCNPs synthesized by means of two different routes. An amphiphilic random copolymer composed of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methyl methacrylate (OEGMA) and 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AEMA) units was used as precursor of these Ck-SCNPs. Folding was promoted through metal complexation between Cu(II) ions and beta-ketoester-containing AEMA moieties. The first route resulted in Ck-SCNPs1 containing Cu ions homogeneously distributed within each nanoparticle, whereas the second one promoted intra-chain clustering of Cu ions inside Ck-SCNPs2. A model fluorogenic “click” reaction between 9-(azidomethyl)anthracene and phenylacetylene, which was catalyzed either by Ck-SCNPs1 or Ck-SCNPs2, was used to unravel the effect of morphology on catalytic activity. This work paves the way to improve the catalytic activity of metallo-folded SCNPs through control of the intra-chain distribution of catalytic sites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0498.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: single cell protein; probiotic; actinomycetes; fermentation optimization
Online: 28 April 2020 (10:49:09 CEST)
Single cell proteins are the dead dried cells of microorganisms or purified protein isolated from microorganism’s cell culture, used as a food supplement to humans’ food and animals feed. World suffer from malnutrition particularly developing countries, due to rapid increase in population, increased the demand for protein and nutrients requirement. Bacteria is potential microorganism for SCP production due to high protein content, fast generation time, bio-active secondary metabolites production and can grow on various substrates. Actinobacteria species and strain have capability to produce biological active compounds, produced about two-thirds of antibiotics available in the market, actively used as antibiotics, antiprotozoal, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anticholesterol, antihelminth and immunosuppressant. Actinomycetes can be used as probiotic as well as single cell protein that will deal with antibiotic as well as protein source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanopore; peptide sensing; electrophysiology; single-molecule sequencing
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:26:06 CEST)
In this work we demonstrate the proof-of-concept of real-time discrimination between patches of serine or isoleucine monomers in the primary structure of custom-engineered, macro-dipole-like peptides, at uni-molecular level. We employed single-molecule recordings to examine the ionic current through the α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore, when hydrophilic serine or hydrophobic isoleucine residues, flanked by segments of oppositely charged arginine and glutamic amino acids functioning as a voltage-dependent ‘molecular brake’ on the peptide, were driven at controllable rates across the nanopore. The observed differences in the ionic currents blockades through the nanopore, visible at time resolutions corresponding to peptide threading through the α-HL’s constriction region, was explained by a simple model of the volumes of electrolyte excluded by either amino acid species, as groups of three serine or isoleucine monomers transiently occupy the α-HL. To provide insights into the conditions ensuring optimal throughput of peptide readout through the nanopore, we probed the sidedness-dependence of peptide association to and dissociation from the electrically and geometrically asymmetric α-HL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0155.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: single fiber; cutting; fracture morphology; failure mechanism
Online: 22 May 2017 (05:29:48 CEST)
The present study investigates the failure mechanisms of industrial fiber materials, using a custom designed fiber cutting performance test bench. The fracture morphologies of single PA6 fibers are examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis reveals that fiber cutting can be distinguished according to four distinct stages of fiber failure represented by shearing, cutting, brittle fracture, and tensile failure, which are the result of different mechanisms active during the processes of crack initiation, extension and fracture. The results of fractographic analysis are further verified by an analysis of the blade assembly speed with respect to time over the entire fracture failure process based on high-speed camera data. The results of fractographic analysis and blade assembly speed are fully consistent.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neonatal diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis; KIT gene; case report; systemic mastocytosis; review
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:44:46 CEST)
Neonatal diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (NDCM) is defined as the infiltration of the epidermis by a clonal proliferation of mast cells, observed at birth, without initial signs of systemic involvement. The typical driver mutation is located in the KIT gene. We report a rare case of a boy, born at term, presenting already at birth with generalized subcutaneous nodules, on the face, scalp, trunk, back, hands, and feet. The spleen, liver and inflammatory markers were normal at birth. Tryptase was significantly elevated. Bone marrow biopsy showed no mast cell involvement at age 2 months. A punch biopsy at age 2 months revealed CD117-positive cells diffusely infiltrating the skin, with subsequent DNA NGS sequencing for the formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) identifying the pathogenic NM_000222.3:c.1504_1509dup; p.(Ala502_Tyr503dup) variant in the KIT gene previously associated with cutaneous mastocytosis. At 2 years follow-up, he had splenomegaly and multiple cervical, and inguinal adenopathy while the skin nodules persisted especially on the scalp with accompanying pruritus. He received oral and local sodium cromoglycate, oral antihistamines, antibiotic cream for skin infection, and iron supplementation, however compliance to treatment was relatively low. The prognosis is difficult to predict, as he developed systemic involvement, failure to thrive and mild psychomotor delay. A case aggregation of NDCM reported in the literature was performed to provide a comprehensive overview of this rare pathology, to better understand the prognosis. NDCM is a life-threatening disease with severe complications. Almost half had severe complications, such as mast hepatosplenomegaly, adenopathy, bacterial infections, mast cell leukaemia, and systemic involvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1847.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Data Science; Literate Programming; Teaching, Emacs; Org-mode; IDE; Case Study
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:31:08 CEST)
This paper presents a case study on using Emacs and Org-mode for literate programming in undergraduate data science courses. Over three academic terms, the author mandated these tools across courses in R, Python, C++, SQL, and more. Onboarding relied on simplified Emacs tutorials and starter configurations. Students gained proficiency after initial practice. Live coding sessions demonstrated the flexible instruction enabled by literate notebooks. Assignments and projects required documentation alongside functional code. Student feedback showed enthusiasm for learning a versatile IDE, despite some frustration with the learning curve. Skilled students highlighted efficiency gains in a unified environment. However, uneven adoption of documentation practices pointed to a need for better incorporation into grading. Additionally, some students found Emacs unintuitive, desiring more accessible options. This highlights a need to match tools to skills levels, potentially starting novices with graphical IDEs before introducing Emacs. Key takeaways include literate programming aids comprehension but requires rigorous onboarding and reinforcement; Emacs excels for advanced workflows but has a steep initial curve. With proper support, these tools show promise for data science education.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0432.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: parasitological diseases; Oman; appendicitis; Enterobius vermicularis; case report; helminths; appendix; pinworms
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:50:22 CEST)
While the debate on the association between Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) and acute appendicitis has not been settled, a few case reports of this very rare encounter are beginning to come to light. While E. vermicularis is one of the most common parasitic infestations around the world, acute appendicitis, on the other hand, is also a commonly encountered condition in general surgery. However, the association between the two remains controversial. Here we present a case report of a young woman with appendicitis associated with (E. vermicularis).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: oil industry; corporate social responsibility; emerging market; social impact; case study
Online: 31 May 2023 (03:13:24 CEST)
This paper analyzes the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and social impact within the oil industry in an emerging market (Peru). Following the emerging literature on the social impact field, and using the case study methodology, the findings show that the expected positive relationship is diverse depending on several factors. Specifically, the results reveal that companies must focus on community and environmental responsibility, together with stakeholders' involvement to achieve social impact. However, when companies are weak in any of the previous factors, then the social impact is only partially accepted or even withdrawn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Dark Store; Micro-Fulfillment Center; Case Study; Online Shopping, COVID-19
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:58:28 CEST)
This study examines the negative impacts of dark stores on the urban environment from three perspectives: land use, transportation, and streetscape. It is conducted on B-Mart, a representative dark store in South Korea. First, in terms of land use, we find that dark stores that function as logistics facilities conflict with the surrounding land use. Second, by analyzing the location of dark stores and the hourly traffic volume of delivery vehicles, we find that the impact on the surrounding transportation infrastructure and pedestrian traffic is not as significant as previously claimed. However, during the transportation and loading process of the dark store, several problems such as traffic violations, illegal parking, and illegal loading were observed, posing a risk to nearby vehicles and pedestrians. Third, in terms of streetscapes, the location of dark stores on the ground floor of buildings can harm streetscapes. The current urban planning system in South Korea does not clearly define the status and function of dark stores, making it unclear how to manage them. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify their legal definition and introduce urban planning and design guidelines that are consistent with their appropriate location and appearance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Apple Watch; wearable sensor; pulse rate; arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; case report
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:49:08 CEST)
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device with pulse rate and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring capabilities. Here we report a case in which an arrhythmia that was conventionally perceived but undiagnosed was identified as atrial fibrillation by self-acquisition of ECG data using an Apple Watch.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: case report; fracture; mandible; osteosynthesis; mini-plate; titanium nickelide; collagenic xenograft
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:33:00 CET)
The problem of filling the bone cavity-forming after tooth extraction remains relevant in maxillo-facial surgery. There is a large selection of osteotropic materials of various natures for filling bone defects. In this article, our experience in the treatment of patients with combined mandible angle fracture and radicular cyst and fractures is introduced. A feature of the treatment is to fill the bone defect with the osteotropic material. Using collagen osteotropic material, possessing osteoconductive property can improve the treatment of patients with mandibular fractures within the dentition. This is due to both the stabilization of the fracture line, a decrease in the likelihood of displacement of fragments along with fixation with devices, and a reduction in the time of bone tissue regeneration, which reduces the rehabilitation period and allows further orthopedic treatment of patients after 4-5 months without additional bone grafting operations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: asymmetric； blasts；acute leukemia； allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation； case report
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:53:42 CEST)
Background: After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), acute leukemia relapse is common, and asymmetric bone marrow recurrence hasn’t been reported. Because the anatomical distribution of acute leukemia clones in the bone marrow after allo-HSCT is presumed to be diffuse, bone marrow aspirations are performed in single site. Case presentation: We identified two acute leukemia patients, whose leukemic burden in bilateral bone marrow specimens differed significantly. The first case was a 20-year-old man who was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and received haploidentical allo-HSCT. He had been in complete remission for two years and off immunosuppressive medications for a year, with normal peripheral blood count. Routine bone marrow biopsy of his left posterior iliac bone marrow showed 52% leukemia blasts, while the right side had 0% blasts ten days later. Due to the discordant results, the patient refused further intervention and died of high leukocyte syndrome four months later. The second case was a 23-year-old woman who was diagnosed with acute B lymphoblastic leukemia and received HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCT. Although 62% of blasts were found in her left iliac marrow on day +122, 0 % of blasts were found on a sample obtained from the right iliac crest on day +128. Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans confirmed that the leukemic infiltration in her bone marrow was asymmetric. Considering the higher leukemic burden on the left, we chose the left posterior iliac crest aspiration for further response evaluation. After chemotherapy combined with donor lymphocyte infusion, she achieved transient hematologic complete remission. She died of septic shock with heart failure at +258 days after allo-HSCT before infusion of anti-CD19 donor chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Conclusions: To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of asymmetric bone marrow infiltration of blasts in acute leukemia patients after allo-HSCT. Bilateral posterior iliac crest aspirations or 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans may help distinguish such distribution. If discordant bone marrow specimens are observed, physicians should restrict future bone marrow studies to the more involved side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; smart farming; precision agriculture; technological frames; case study
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:48:29 CET)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are one of the most promising innovative technologies invented in recent years to promote precision agriculture and smart farming. UAVs can not only reduce labor requirements but also increase production output, reduce the use of pesticides, and protect the environment. However, previous studies on agricultural UAVs have mostly focused on technical problems such as software and hardware design. Few studies have examined users’ behaviors in the implementation process. On the basis of Orlikowski and Gash’s technological frames, this study explored the participants’ cognition and expectation of farmers, pesticide, sprayers, and agriculture officials, who are three key groups of stakeholders involved in the application of UAVs to pesticide spraying, regarding agricultural UAVs and examined how the conflicts between their cognition and expectation influenced the choice of using pesticide spraying UAVs. The conclusions of this study contributed to supplement the content and broaden the scope of application of technological frame theory and provided a crucial reference for the promotion of agricultural UAVs in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Carbon fiber; thermoset; sizing; single fiber tensile testing; single fiber pullout testing; sizing levels; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:52:01 CEST)
It is well known that fiber sizing is one of the most important component in the manufacturing of composites, and it does affect the mechanical properties including strength and stiffness. In this work, the influence of fiber sizing levels on the mechanical properties of carbon fibers (CF) is reported at room temperature by using single fiber tensile testing (Favimat+), single fiber pullout testing (SFPO), and interfacial elemental analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Standard modulus of CF (7±0.2 μm in diameter) were sized using two Michelman commercially available sizing formulations. The average solid content for each sizing formulation is 26.3 ± 0.2% and 34.1 ± 0.2%, respectively. HEXION RIMR 135 with curing agent RIMH 137 was used as a model thermoset epoxy matrix during the SFPO measurements. A predictive engineering fiber sizing methodology is also developed. Sizing amounts of 0.5, 1, and 2 wt. % on the surface of the fiber is achieved for both sizing formulations. For each fiber sizing level, 50 single fiber tensile testing experiments and 20 single fiber pull-out tests were conducted. The ultimate tensile strength (σult) of the carbon fibers and the interfacial shear strength (τ_app) of the single fiber composite were analyzed. it is also investigated the effect of the sizing levels on the interfacial shear stress and the O/C (Oxygen/Carbon) surface composition ratio. As a result, generalized fiber sizing and characterization methods were established. The developed methods can be used to characterize the strength and interfacial shear strength of any man-made fibers with different sizing formulations and solid contents, irrespective of the matrix i.e. thermoset or thermoplastic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0773.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Key words: transcriptome profiles; long non-coding RNAs; single-nucleotide polymorphisms; alternative splicing; sheep; preimplantation; Single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:57:02 CEST)
Numerous dynamic and complicated processes characterize development from the oocyte to the embryo. However, given the importance of functional transcriptome profiles, long non-coding RNAs, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and alternative splicing during embryonic development, the effect that these features have on the blastomeres of 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell, and morula stages of development have not been studied. Here, we conducted a scRNA-seq survey of cells from sheep from the oocyte to the blastocyst developmental stages. We then carried out experiments to identify and functionally analyze the transcriptome profiles, long non-coding RNAs, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and alternative splicing (AS). We founded that between the oocyte and zygote groups significantly down-regulated genes and the second-largest change in gene expression occurred between the 8- and 16-cell stages. We used various methods to construct a profile to characterize cellular and molecular features and systematically analyze the related GO and KEGG profile of cells of all stages from the oocyte to the blastocyst. This large-scale, single-cell atlas provides key cellular information and will likely assist clinical studies in improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0532.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: single transducer; coding mask; frequency subband compound; SCM
Online: 7 December 2023 (14:32:26 CET)
We are currently investigating the ultrasound imaging of a sensor consisting of a randomized encoding mask attached to a single lead zirconate titanate (PZT) oscillator for use in a puncture microscope. The proposed model was performed using a finite element method (FEM) simulator. To increase the number of measurements required by a single element system, the transducer was rotated at different angles. The image was constructed by solving a linear equation of the image model. In a previous study, the image resolution was improved by extracting phase information. In this study, we propose a strategy by integrating the weighted frequency subbands compound and a super resolution method (SCM) to improve the resolution in range and lateral resolution. We also evaluated the image performance by applying different methods to improve the image quality. The results show that better image resolution and speckle suppression were obtained by applying the proposed method.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1266.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: DLA; Dielectric Laser Accelerator; Dual Grating; Single Drive
Online: 19 October 2023 (11:04:53 CEST)
Although hundreds of keV in energy gain have already been demonstrated in dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs), there remains challenge in creating structures that can confine electrons for multiple millimeters. We focus here on dual gratings with single sided drive, which have experimentally demonstrated energy modulation numerous times. Using a FTDT simulation to find the fields within various DLA structures and correlating these results with particle tracking simulation, we look at the impact of teeth height and width, as well as gap and offset, on the performance of these structures. We find a tradeoff between electron throughput and acceleration, but that for any given grating geometry there is a gap and offset that will allow some charge acceleration. For our 780 nm laser wavelength, this results in a 1200 nm optimal gap size for most gratings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1833.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: single image deraining; residual channel prior; interactive fusion
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:38:23 CEST)
Single image deraining (SID) has shown its importance in many advanced computer vision tasks. Though many CNN based image deraining methods have been proposed, how to effectively remove raindrops while maintaining background structure remains a challenge that needs to be overcome. Most of the deraining work focuses on removing rain streaks, but in heavy rain images, the dense accumulation of rainwater or the rain curtain effect significantly interferes with the effective removal of rain streaks, and often introduces some artifacts that make the scene more blurry. In this paper, we propose a new network structure R-PReNet for single image deraining with good background structure maintaining. This framework fully utilizes the cyclic recursive structure of PReNet. Moreover, we introduce residual channel prior (RCP) and feature fusion modules for better deraining performance by focusing on background feature information. Compared with the previous methods, our method has significantly improvement effect on the rainstorm image with the artifacts removing and good visual detail restoring.