ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: open health; simple rules; ethics; reproducibility; research significance; open science
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:27:26 CEST)
We are witnessing a dramatic transformation in the way we do science. In recent years, significant flaws with existing scientific methods have come to light, including lack of transparency, insufficient involvement of stakeholders, disconnection from the public, and limited reproducibility of research findings. These concerns have sparked a global movement to revolutionize scientific practice and the emergence of Open Science. This new approach to science extends principles of openness to the entire research cycle, from hypothesis generation to data collection, analysis, replication, and translation from research to practice. Open Science seeks to remove all barriers to conducting high quality, rigorous, and impactful scientific research by ensuring that the data, methods, and opportunities for collaboration are open to all. Emerging digital technologies and "big data" (see "Ten simple rules for responsible big data research") have further accelerated the Open Science movement by affording new approaches to data sharing, connecting researcher networks, and facilitating the dissemination of research findings. Open scientific practices are also having a profound impact on the health sciences and medical research, and specifically how we conduct clinical research with human participants. Human health research necessitates careful considerations for practicing science in an ethical manner. There is also a particular urgency to human health research since the goal is to help people, so doing good science takes on a different meaning than simply doing science well. It also implores the scientist to reassess the conventional view of human health research as a pursuit conducted by scientists on human subjects, and lays a greater emphasis on inclusive and ethical practices to ensure that the research takes into account the interests of those who would be most impacted by the research. Openness in the context of human health research also raises greater concerns about privacy and security and presents more opportunities for people, including participants of research studies, to contribute in every capacity. At the core of open health research, scientific discoveries are not only the product of collaboration across disciplines, but must also be owned by the community that is inclusive of researchers, health workers, and patients and their families. To guide successful open health research practices, it is essential to carefully consider and delineate its guiding principles. This editorial is aimed at individuals participating in health science in any capacity, including but not limited to people living with medical conditions, health professionals, study participants, and researchers spanning all types of disciplines. We present ten simple rules that, while not comprehensive, offer guidance for conducting health research with human participants in an open, ethical, and rigorous manner. These rules can be difficult, resource-intensive, and can conflict with one another. They are aspirational and are intended to accelerate and improve the quality of human health research. Work that fails to follow these rules is not necessarily an indication of poor quality research, especially if the reasons for breaking the rules are considered and articulated (see rule 6: document everything). While most of the responsibility of following these rules falls on researchers, anyone involved in human health research in any capacity can apply them.
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:32:58 CEST)
As part of a plethora of global efforts to minimize the negative effects of the SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic, we developed two different mechanisms that, after further development, could potentially be of use in the future in order to increase the capacity of ventilators with low-cost devices based on single-use-bag-valve mask systems. We describe the concept behind the devices and report a characterization of them. Finally, we make a description of the solved and unsolved challenges and propose a series of measures in order to better cope with future contingencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1554.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: microplastics; beach; measurement; simple method; accuracy
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:56:22 CEST)
The environmental pollution by microplastics (MPs) has become a growing concern, and measures are being taken in many countries. Long-term and extensive MPs investigations involving not only professional researchers but also the citizenry are needed to understand the pollution situation and to confirm the decreasing trend of MPs pollution as a result of pollution control measures. In this study, the author evaluated the accuracy of a simple method of investigating MPs on sandy beaches that can be conducted even by high school students. In a land survey using such simple tools as a tape measure and cardboard, 70% of the deviations were within approximately 20 cm when multiple surveys of approximately 20 m distance were performed. Even without heavy liquid, 89% of MPs could be recovered using only seawater. An investigation of MPs content by sampling 0.5 cm of the surface layer of sand could explain more than half of the MPs content when the sand was sampled to a depth of approximately 50 cm below the surface layer. A method in which the recovered MPs are not visually sorted but floating matter after boiling is considered as MPs is acceptable. If there was no concern about pumice contamination, the overestimation was within approximately 1.5 times. Simple laboratory equipment such as buckets, sieves, seawater, hot plates, dryers, and electronic balances could achieve lower limits of quantification of MPs of 13 mg-MPs/m2-sand and 2 mg-MPs/kg-sand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Pigtail catheter; pleural drainage; simple pleural effusion
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:06:55 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The novel double-pigtail catheter (DPC) has an additional pigtail coiling at the mid-shaft with centripetal multiple side holes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the advantages and efficacy of DPC in overcoming the complications of conventional single-pigtail catheters (SPC) used to drain pleural effusion. Materials and Methods: Between July 2018 and December 2019, 382 pleural effusion drainage procedures were reviewed retrospectively (DPC, n = 156; SPC without multiple side holes, n = 110; SPC with multiple side holes [SPC+M], n = 116). All patients showed shifting pleural effusion in the decubitus view of chest radiography. All catheters were 10.2 Fr in diameter. One interventional radiologist performed all procedures and used the same anchoring technique. Complications (dysfunctional retraction, complete dislodgement, blockage, and atraumatic pneumothorax) were compared among the catheters using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Clinical success was defined as improvement in pleural effusion within 3 days without additional procedures. A survival analysis was performed for calculating the indwelling time. Results: The dysfunctional retraction rate of DPC was significantly lower than that of the other catheters (p < .001). Complete dislodgement did not occur in any of the DPC cases. The clinical success rate of DPC (90.1%) was the highest. The estimated indwelling times were nine (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.3–10.7), eight (95% CI: 6.6–9.4), and seven (95% CI: 6.3–7.7) days for SPC, SPC+M, and DPC, respectively, with DPC showing a significant difference (p < .05). Conclusions: DPC had a lower dysfunctional retraction rate compared to conventional drainage catheters. Furthermore, DPC were efficient for pleural effusion drainage with a shorter indwelling time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: prime graph; simple group; orthogonal groups; quasirecognition
Online: 10 July 2017 (09:01:04 CEST)
Let G be a finite group. The prime graph Γ(G) of G is defined as follows: The set of vertices of Γ(G) is the set of prime divisors of |G| and two distinct vertices p and p' are connected in Γ(G), whenever G has an element of order pp'. A non-abelian simple group P is called recognizable by prime graph if for any finite group G with Γ(G)=Γ(P), G has a composition factor isomorphic to P. In  proved finite simple groups 2Dn(q), where n ≠ 4k are quasirecognizable by prime graph. Now in this paper we discuss the quasirecognizability by prime graph of the simple groups 2D2k(q), where k ≥ 9 and q is a prime power less than 105.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1880.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: bigger numbers; smaller numbers; varied numbers; simple numbers
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:28:28 CET)
O estudo apresenta uma afirmação e explicação de que maior e menor numérico ocorrem progressões que dependem da representação contida no espaço físico. Em casos gerais, números maiores são múltiplos e números menores são simples, porque vários números contêm mais números em muitos espaços físicos do que números simples. Em casos específicos, dependem do declaração do que é a representação específica, e realidades diferentes de casos gerais podem ocorrer. Além disso, a teoria explica a mudança no número de números primos.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0462.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Newton’s method; normal S-iteration; weak condition; simple root
Online: 31 October 2022 (02:23:04 CET)
In the present paper, we introduced a quadratically convergent Newton’s like normal S2 iteration method free from the second derivative for the solution of nonlinear equations permitting 3 f'(x) = 0 at some points in the neighborhood of the root. Our proposed method works well 4 when the Newton method fails. Numerically it has been verified that the Newton’s like normal 5 S-iteration method converges faster than Fang et al. method [A cubically convergent Newton-type 6 method under weak conditions, J. Compute. and Appl. Math., 220 (2008), 409-412]. We studied 7 different aspects of normal S-iteration method. Lastly, fractal patterns support the numerical 8 results and explain the convergence, divergence, and stability of method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Simple Sequence Repeats; Polyomaviridae; Prevalence, Distribution; Virus Host; Evolution
Online: 14 June 2020 (14:35:24 CEST)
The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are small 1-6bp tandem repeat elements present across diverse genomes and involved in gene regulation and evolution. Presently we analyzed SSRs in genomes of 98 species of family Polyomaviridae across four genera. The genome size ranged from 3962bp (BM87) to 7369bp (BM85) but maximum genomes were in the range of 5 to 5.5 kb. The GC% had an average of 42% and ranged between 34.69 (BM95) to 52.35 (BM81). A total of 3036 SSRs and 223 cSSRs were extracted using IMEx with incident frequency from 18 to 56 and 0 to 7 respectively. The most prevalent mono-nucleotide repeat motif was “T” (48.95%) followed by “A” (33.48%). “AT/TA” was the most prevalent dinucleotide motif closely followed by “CT/TC”. The distribution was expectedly more in coding region with 77.6% SSRs of which nearly half were in Large T Antigen (LTA) gene. Notably, most viruses with humans, apes and related species as host exhibited exclusivity of mono-nucleotide repeats in AT region, a proposed predictive marker for determination of humans as host in virus in course of its evolution. Each genome has a unique SSR signature which is pivotal for viral evolution particularly in terms of host divergence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0597.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: global energy budget; simple greenhouse model; infrared-opaque limit
Online: 27 November 2018 (03:47:23 CET)
Earth atmosphere is almost opaque in the infrared: about 374 W/m2 is absorbed by the atmosphere out of 396 W/m2 surface upward longwave radiation, and only about 22 W/m2 leaves the system unabsorbed in the atmospheric window. This makes rise to the idea to approximate the annual global mean energy flow system from a simple idealized greenhouse model, where the surface is surrounded by a single-layer shortwave (SW) transparent, longwave (LW) opaque, non-turbulent atmosphere. The energy flows in this geometry can be described by elementary arithmetic relationships. Starting from this model, the realistic Earth’s atmosphere can be achieved by introducing partial atmospheric SW opacity, partial atmospheric LW transparency and turbulent fluxes during the course of the deduction. The resulted global mean energy flow system is then compared to several data sets such as satellite observations from the CERES mission; estimates using direct surface observations and climate models; global energy and water cycle assessments; and independent detailed clear-sky radiative transfer computations. We find that the deduction from this idealized model approximates the real values in Earth energy budget with reasonable accuracy: the deduced fluxes and the observed ones are consistent within the acknowledged error of observations; while fundamental features of the initial geometry like special ratios and definite relationships between the fluxes are preserved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: goeringii; cultivar authentication; microsatellite; simple sequence repeats (SSRs); spring orchid
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:48:22 CEST)
Cymbidium goeringii, locally known as the spring orchid in Korea, is one of the most important and popular horticultural species in the family Orchidaceae. C. goeringii cultivars were originated from plants with rare phenotypes in wild mountains where pine trees commonly grow. This study aimed to determine the cultivar-specific combined genotypes (CGs) of short sequence repeats (SSRs) by analyzing multiple samples per cultivar of C. goeringii. In this study, we collected more than 4,000 samples from 67 cultivars and determined the genotypes of 12 SSRs. Based on the most frequent combined genotypes (CG1s), the average observed allele number and combined matching probability were 11.8 per marker and 3.118×10-11, respectively. Frequencies of the CG1 in 50 cultivars (n ≥ 10) ranged from 40.9% to 100.0%, with an average of 70.1%. Assuming that individuals with the CG1 are genuine in the corresponding cultivars, approximately 30% of C. goeringii on the farms and markets may be not genuine. The dendrogram of the phylogenetic tree and principal coordinate analysis largely divided the cultivars into three groups according to their countries of origin; however, the genetic distances were not distant among the cultivars. In conclusion, this dataset of C. goeringii cultivar-specific SSR profiles could be used for ecogenetic studies and forensic authentication. This study suggests that genetic authentication should be introduced for the sale of expensive C. goeringii cultivars. We believe that this study will help establish a genetic method for the forensic authentication of C. goeringii cultivars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Simple Pendulum; Time Period; Magnetic Action; Numerical Integration; Error Analysis
Online: 15 December 2022 (08:57:20 CET)
In the present study, a simple approximation expression is given for the relationship between the period and amplitude of a simple pendulum under magnetic action. The analytical solution presented for the given problem. Two numerical quadrature methods Simpson's and Boole's method were utilized to demonstrate a new approximation of the problem. The results of the numerical quadrature have been compared to the exact solution. Absolute and relative mistakes of the problem have been presented. The Matlab program 2013R has created a numerical method that is used to analyze the outcome, It has been determined that the comparison's outcomes attest to the method's suitability and correctness. Moreover, the results show that numerical solution is suitable for the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0026.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: simple form; explicit form; differential equation; Lerch transcendent; logarithmic function
Online: 4 April 2017 (16:53:18 CEST)
In the note, the authors find several simple and explicit forms for a family of inhomogeneous linear ordinary differential equations studied in "D. Lim, Differential equations for Daehee polynomials and their applications, J. Nonlinear Sci. Appl. 10 (2017), no. 4, 1303-1315; Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.22436/jnsa.010.04.02".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0208.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: permeability; porous media; fluid dynamics; fluid current; turbulence; simple harmonic motion
Online: 18 October 2019 (07:29:42 CEST)
In this paper we develop from first principles a unique law pertaining to the flow of fluids through closed conduits. This law, which we call “Quinn’s Law”, may be described as follows: When fluids are forced to flow through closed conduits under the driving force of a pressure gradient, there is a linear relationship between the normalized dimensionless pressure gradient, PQ, and the normalized dimensionless fluid current, CQ. The relationship is expressed mathematically as: PQ = k1 +k2CQ. This linear relationship remains the same whether the conduit is filled with or devoid of solid obstacles. The law differentiates, however, between a packed and an empty conduit by virtue of the tortuosity of the fluid path, which is seamlessly accommodated within the normalization framework of the law itself. When movement of the fluid is very close to being at rest, i.e., very slow, this relationship has the unique minimum constant value of k1, and as the fluid acceleration increases, it varies with a slope of k2 as a function of normalized fluid current. Quinn’s Law is validated herein by applying it to the data from published classical studies of measured permeability in both packed and empty conduits, as well as to the data generated by home grown experiments performed in the author’s own laboratory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Soil dynamic; Cyclic simple shear; Damping ratio; Sand particle shape; ANN; SVM
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:56:01 CET)
This paper reports on a series of dynamic simple shear tests conducted to investigate the influence of particle shape on the damping ratio of dry sand. The tests were conducted on sand samples subjected to simple cyclic shear tests to evaluate their cyclic behavior. The particle shape was quantified using three shape parameters: roundness, sphericity, and regularity. The sand samples were subjected to twelve different scenarios with varying vertical stresses and cyclic stress ratios (CSR), in both constant and controlled stress states. Each scenario involved five cyclic tests, using the same sand that was reconstructed from its previous cyclic test. After each cyclic test, hysteresis loops were created to determine the damping ratio. The results showed that the shape of the sand particles changed during cyclic loading, becoming more rounded and spherical, which resulted in an increase in damping ratio. Moreover, the paper presents two artificial intelligence models, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a support vector machine (SVM), which were developed to predict the effect of grain shape on the damping ratio. The models were found to be effective in predicting the damping ratio based on the shape of the grain, vertical stress, CSR, and number of loading cycles. Furthermore, a parameter analysis was conducted to identify the most important shape parameter, which was found to be vertical stress and regularity, while parameter CSR was the least important. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between particle shape and damping ratio, which could have practical implications for geotechnical engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0318.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: Airspace Axiom; Simple Airspace Polygon; Free Route Airspace; Earth-centered Earth-fixed
Online: 5 May 2022 (03:25:54 CEST)
Free route airspace (FRA) is a new concept of European air transport. It has been designed to eliminate the negative impact of air traffic on the environment, minimize fuel consumption, simplify and expand flight planning. In our research, FRA is modelled by using graph theory, networks, and convex analysis. We also looked for answers to the question which are the basic mathematical properties of airspace? Basic mathematical properties are expressed using axioms. Therefore, in our work, we state the general, basic axiom of airspace based on our FRA research. The axiom is given using practical, significant entry points and geodetic coordinates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0386.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD; PIV; experimental fluid mechanics; pressure calculation; SIMPLE; Reynolds Stresses; measurement integration)
Online: 30 March 2022 (04:40:11 CEST)
Calculation of the pressure field on and around solid bodies exposed to external flow is of paramount importance to a number of engineering applications. However, conventional pressure measurement techniques are inherently linked to problems principally caused by their point-wise and/or intrusive nature. In the present paper, we attempt to calculate the time-averaged two-dimensional pressure field by integrating PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) velocity measurements into a CFD code and modifying them by the respective correction step of the SIMPLE algorithm. Boundary conditions are applied from the PIV data as a three-layer area of constant velocities, adjacent to the boundaries. A novel characteristic of the approach is the straightforward inclusion of the Reynolds Stresses into the source terms of the momentum equations, calculated directly from the PIV statistics. The methodology is applied to three regions of the symmetry plane parallel to the main boundary layer flow past a surface mounted cube. In spite of findings of deviations from the planar 2D flow assumption, the derived pressure fields and the adjusted velocity fields are found to be reliable, while the intrinsic turbulent nature of the flow is considered without modelling of the Reynolds stresses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: robot-assisted simple prostatectomy, Obesity, BMI, benign prostatic obstruction, functional outcomes, Trifecta, pentafecta.
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:53:31 CEST)
Obesity represents a worldwide epidemic disorder, increasing the overall morbidity and mortality rate. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on peri-operative and long-term functional outcomes of Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP). Baseline flowmetry parameters and validated questionnaires’ scores were prospectively recorded. Follow-up assessments included Flowmetry and validated questionnaires. Composite outcomes (Trifecta) was defined as combination of: post-operative Q-max>15 ml/sec, IPSS score<8 and absence of complications. Pentafecta included also post-operative ejaculation persistence (MSHQ score>0) and the Erectile function maintenance (∆IEEF<6). Data were stratified by BMI (<30 or ≥30). 81 patients underwent RASP in our Institution. Baseline demographics and clinical features, questionnaires score and baseline flowmetry results were comparable between obese and non-obese cohorts. At follow-up, obese patients reported lower subjective improvement in IPSS (p=0.02) and OABQ scores (p<0.001) and higher incidence of stress incontinence requiring Duloxetin (p<0.001). Flowmetry outcomes, were also worse in this cohort (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). At comprehensive outcomes assessment, obese patients had comparable Trifecta (67% vs 54%, p=0.39) and pentafecta achievement rate (p=0.76). Our prelimirary results proved that obesity is associated with worse functional outcomes (storage LUTS and incontinence rate) after RASP, but doesn’t affect trifecta and pentafecta achievement rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: the modified simple equation method; Cahn–Allen equation; soliton solution; kink type solutions
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:22:40 CET)
By using Modified simple equation method, we study the Cahn Allen equation which arises in many scientific applications such as mathematical biology, quantum mechanics and plasma physics. As a result, the existence of solitary wave solutions of the Cahn Allen equation is obtained. Exact explicit solutions interms of hyperbolic solutions of the associated Cahn Allen equation are characterized with some free parameters. Finally, the variety of structure and graphical representation make the dynamics of the equations visible and provides the mathematical foundation in mathematical biology, quantum mechanics and plasma physics.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: simple cyst of the testis; mesothelium; ectopic rete testis; prostatic cancer; castration; case report
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:16:18 CEST)
Simple cysts (SCs) within the testes are rare in adults. The testicular SC lining comprises mesothelial cells. This report presents a case involving the accidental discovery of a castration-worthy SC in the right testis of a Japanese man in his 90s who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Microscopic analysis revealed that the cystic wall was covered with flat to cuboidal mesothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mesothelial cell positivity for calretinin, Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1), Hector Battifora mesothelial epitope-1 (HBME-1), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (p16INK4a). Notably, no human papillomavirus (HPV) in situ hybridization was detected. This report outlines an exceptionally rare instance of a simple cyst within the testis, suggesting the possibility of its origin from ectopic rete testis epithelium. This marks the inaugural documentation in the English literature of an SC within the testis found incidentally during castration for prostatic cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2125.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Solution deposited OLEDs; TADF; device structural defects; OLEDs charge balance; efficient OLED simple structure
Online: 30 September 2023 (18:13:06 CEST)
The effects of the solvent used for the active layer materials of an OLED based on TADF emitters plays a fundamental role in solution-deposited devices. This work focuses the effects on the performance of different solvents employed to fabricate a very simple two organic layer OLED based on a green TADF emitter, under the concept of host:guest matrix. From the different results of the main figures of merit, it was possible to conclude that the OLED that used toluene as solvent for the active layer reached a maximum EQE of 14%, almost the maximum already obtained for this emitter in more complex device structures. With the analysis of the charge transport processes, it was possible to establish an explanatory model for the obtained results. Through impedance spectroscopy, additional characterization about the nature of charge transport processes was carried out. With these results, it was possible to corelate the relaxation times, with the electrical properties of the active layer, and infer about the interaction between the electrical charges and the defect levels opening new possibilities to further development in the printed OLEDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0660.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Debonding load; CFRP plate; RC beams; flexural strengthening; simple statistical analysis; fiber element method
Online: 29 July 2021 (13:57:58 CEST)
In this study, experimental work was carried out on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) plates. This study aims to examine the effect of the reinforcement ratio on the flexural behavior of these beams and propose a new model for predicting the debonding moment. Six RC beams consisting of three control beams and three beams strengthened with CFRP plates were tested. The beams were simply supported and loaded with four-point bending. The test variable was the tensile reinforcement ratio (1%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). Analytical prediction using the fiber element method was also carried out to obtain the complete theoretical response of the beam due to flexural loads. The test results show that the reinforcement ratio affected the bending performance of RC beams with CFRP plates. Following this, the experimental data from 60 beam test results from published literature and this study were analyzed. From these data, it was found that the ratio of tensile reinforcement, the ratio of modulus of elasticity of concrete, the modulus of elasticity of the plate, and plate thickness all affect the value of debonding moment. A parametric study using fiber element and two-dimensional finite element method was also carried out to confirm the effect of these parameters on debonding failure. These parameters were then used to develop an equation to predict the debonding moment of RC beams strengthened with CFRP plates using simple statistical analysis. This analysis resulted in a simple model for predicting the debonding moment. Then the model is entered into a computer program, and the complete response of the cross-section due to debonding failure can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: set-pair analysis; extension theory; lining structure; durability evaluation; G1 method; simple correlation function method
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:18:38 CEST)
A series of water diversion projects to address the uneven distribution of water resources in China involve the construction of a large number of hydraulic tunnels. As the lining structure that maintains the stability and durability of the tunnels, it is prone to durability damage during the operation process, which in turn affects the water transmission safety and water supply capacity. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the durability of hydraulic tunnel lining structure. Considering the randomness and fuzziness of the factors affecting the durability of hydraulic tunnel lining structure, this paper proposes a comprehensive evaluation model based on the coupling of set-pair analysis and extension. The G1 method and the simple correlation function method are used to determine the subjective and objective weights of the evaluation indexes respectively, and the combination weight is assigned based on the principle of minimum entropy; the set-pair analysis principle is used to establish the linkage affiliation function, calculate the comprehensive linkage affiliation of the object to be evaluated, and the maximum affiliation principle is used to judge the durability level of the hydraulic tunnel lining structure. Finally, taking a section of hydraulic tunnel as an example, the model proposed in this paper is used to calculate its durability grade as Class III, with the set-pair potential SHI(H) = 7.5856, which is consistent with the actual engineering practice, and a comparative study is done in combination with the AHP-Extenics method. It is verified that the evaluation model can scientifically and reasonably evaluate the durability of hydraulic tunnel lining structure, providing a basis for subsequent maintenance and reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1935.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Simple One-Step (SOS) stool processing method stool; Xpert MTB/RIF (Ultra) assay and children
Online: 26 May 2023 (13:38:35 CEST)
The introduction of stool as a readily obtainable sample and the recently developed simple-one-step (SOS) stool processing method offer an opportunity for TB diagnosis in children. We conducted this study at secondary health facilities in Ethiopia which are the first level referral facilities for childhood TB diagnosis and treatment with the aim to determine if stool-based TB diagnosis can be performed with reasonable level of concordance with sputum tests in using Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra. Eligible children 0-14 years with presumptive pulmonary TB were asked to provide stools in addition to routinely requested sputum samples. We computed Cohen’s kappa statistic in SPSS to determine the level of agreement between stool and sputum test results. Of the 373 children included in the study, 61% were <5 years of age and 56% were male. Thirty-six children (9.7%) were diagnosed with TB and all started treatment. The rate of concordance between stool and sputum was high with kappa value of 0.83 (P<0.001). There were more Xpert ultra positive test results on stool (n=27 (7.2%)) than on sputum/NGA (n=23 (6.2%)). Laboratories in secondary hospitals can perform stool-based TB diagnosis in children with high concordance between stool and sputum test results reaffirming the applicability of the SOS method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Chloroplast genome; Machilus leptophylla; Hanceola exserta; Rubus bambusarum; Rubus henryi; Simple sequence repeat; Phylogenetic analysis
Online: 18 October 2021 (14:30:50 CEST)
The chloroplast genome is conservative and stable, which can be employed to resolve genotypes. Currently, published nuclear sequences and molecular markers failed to differentiate the species from taxa robustly, including Machilus leptophylla, Hanceola exserta, Rubus bambusarum, and Rubus henryi. In this study, the four chloroplast genomes were characterized, and then their simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and phylogenetic positions were analyzed. The results demonstrated the four chloroplast genomes consisted of 152.624 kb, 153.296kb, 156.309 kb, and 158.953 kb in length, involving 124, 130, 129, and 131 genes, respectively. Moreover, the chloroplast genomes contained typical four regions. Six classes of SSR were identified from the four chloroplast genomes, in which mononucleotide was the class with the most members. The types of the repeats were various within individual classes of SSR. Phylogenetic trees indicated that M. leptophylla was clustered with M. yunnanensis, and H. exserta was confirmed under family Ocimeae. Additionally, R. bambusarum and R. henryi were clustered together, whereas they did not belong to the same species due to the differing SSR features. This research would provide evidence for resolving the species and contributed new genetic information for further study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0050.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: severe plastic deformation (SPD); mode deformation; simple shear and pure shear; structure modification; SPD techniques
Online: 3 July 2018 (13:10:23 CEST)
In this review, severe plastic deformation (SPD) is considered as a materials processing technology. The deformation mode is the principal characteristic differentiating SPD from common forming operations. For large plastic strains, deformation mode depends on the distribution of strain rates between continuum slip lines and can be varied from pure shear to simple shear. A scalar, invariant and dimensionless coefficient of deformation mode is introduced as a normalized speed of rigid rotation. On this basis, simple shear provides the optimum mode for structure modification and grain refinement whereas pure shear is "ideal" for forming operations. Special experiments and SPD practice confirm this conclusion. Various techniques of SPD are classified and described in accordance with simple shear realization or approximation. It is shown that correct analyses of the processing mechanics and technological parameters are essential for comparison of SPD techniques and the development of effective industrial technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: GNSS height component; GNSS time series; velocity estimation; meteorological parameters; simple linear regression; autoregressive moving average
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:58:42 CEST)
It is common knowledge that estimating the height component of GNSS stations in general is much more problematic than estimating the horizontal position. Many different effects, such as tectonic signals, non-tectonic signals, atmospheric delay, noise, etc., are known to affect the height component of GNSS stations more than the horizontal component. However, the height component of GNSS stations is still poorly estimated. In this study, the height time series of 37 continuous GNSS stations covering the 2014–2019 date range is used from the Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network-Active (TUSAGA-Active). Since it is easier to interpret the effects of the height component due to its topographic features and seasonal changes being more effective than in the rest of the country, stations were chosen in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The daily coordinates of the GNSS stations were obtained as a result of the GAMIT/GLOBK software solution. By applying time series analysis to the daily coordinate values of the stations, statistically significant trends, periodic and stochastic components of the stations were determined. As a result of the analysis, the vertical velocities of the GNSS stations and the standard deviations of the vertical velocities were determined. Furthermore, when the height components of continuous GNSS stations were examined, it was seen that there were seasonal effects, and it was investigated whether the height components were related to meteorological parameters. For that, simple linear regression analysis was performed to determine how dependent the height components of the continuous GNSS stations were on meteorological parameters. As a result of the analysis, the height components of the continuous GNSS stations are dependent on meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. In addition, height component time series analysis of continuous GNSS stations was performed by using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models from linear time series methods. As a result of the study, the performance of the ARMA modeling results again indicated the dependence of the height component of the continuous GNSS stations on the meteorological parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1014.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Logic Keywords: investment management; multi-criteria decision making (MCDM); fuzzy number; fuzzy simple additive weighting; fuzzy group decision making
Online: 17 July 2023 (02:40:52 CEST)
Investment management is a common process and practice used for achieving a desirable investment goal or outcome. Investment assessment should be carried out at various stages of project realization in accordance with capital investment volume. Investment risk management implies the effective control of all procedures and monitoring of risks in all phases of the investment project. Because of the reason that a single indicator in probability calculation of achieving optimal return from the investment does not exist, performing sufficiently reliable estimates of the quality of investments becomes a tedious task. There are many indicators, factors, and criteria required for consideration to reach the effective solution of the investment problem. Unfortunately, the systematic variation of economic situations in the marketplace stipulates the continuous and frequent changes of investment conditions and environment in which the investor should act and operate. Hence, the rules required for providing a reasonable quality of investment projects can be based only on investor’s management strategy and rely on investor’s intuition and practice. The importance of classification in investment management and decision making process is undeniable. The objects to be classified are described using assessments in accordance with various criteria which can be both quantitative and qualitative. With a competent formulation of the investment process, both methods are used in parallel. There exist various decision making approaches for the investment management, and simple additive weighting (SAW) is one of the well-known multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods aiming to provide an optimal decision for decision maker when solving various real-life problems, and particularly, investment problem. In this paper, fuzzy simple additive weighting (FSAW) method in group decision making is applied to undertake the capital investment expenditure for purchasing cars with the purpose of renting them to the public. The development of existing FSAW method is accomplished and this process involves the sensibility of outcomes to changes in the rate of fuzziness represented with decisions taken. Eventually, the degree of fuzziness involved in an analysis that directly attempts to model the immanent vagueness and imperfectness in particular precedency judgments made, is determined. A numerical example illustrates the importance and effectiveness of the suggested approach with the aim of ranking alternatives and hence, determining the most preferred alternative in MCDM problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: clean sand; silty sand; elastoplastic model; critical state model; critical state line; simple model; three-dimensional stress
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:02:00 CEST)
A unified critical state model has been developed for both clean sand and silty sand using the modified Cam-clay model (MCC). The main feature of the proposed model is a new critical state line equation in the e-ln(p) plane that is capable of handling both straight and curved test results. With this feature, the error in calculating plastic volumetric strain is eliminated in theory. Another crucial feature of the model is the transformed stress tensor based on the SMP (spatially mobilized plane) criterion, which takes into account the proper shear yield and failure of soil under three-dimensional stresses. Additionally, the proposed model applies the intergranular void ratio with the fines influence factor for silty sand. Only eight soil parameters are required for clean sand, and a total number of twelve soil parameters are needed for silty sand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0742.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: eneralized topological space, generalized local connectedness, generalized pathwise connectedness, generalized local pathwise connectedness, generalized simple connectedness, generalized components
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:00:17 CET)
Several specific types of ordinary and generalized connectedness in a generalized topological space have been defined and investigated for various purposes from time to time in the literature of topological spaces. Our recent research in the field of a new type of generalized connectedness in a generalized topological space is reported herein as a starting point for more generalized types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0316.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precision farming; Crop type mapping; Digital agriculture; Sentinel-2; Random Forest; SVM; Field boundaries; Canny; Simple non-iterative clustering
Online: 19 April 2020 (03:14:37 CEST)
Crop type and field boundary mapping enable cost-efficient crop management on the field scale and serve as the basis for yield forecasts. Our study uses a data set with crop types and corresponding field borders from the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, as documented by farmers from 2016 to 2018. The study classified corn, winter wheat, barley, sugar beet, potato, and rapeseed as the main crops grown in Upper Bavaria. Corresponding Sentinel-2 data sets include the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and raw band data from 2016 to 2018 for each selected field. The influences of clouds, raw bands, and NDVI on crop type classification are analysed, and the classification algorithms, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), are compared. Field boundary detection and extraction are based on non-iterative clustering and a newly developed procedure based on Canny edge detection. The results emphasise the application of Sentinel’s raw bands (B1–B12) and RF, which outperforms SVM with an accuracy of up to 94%. Furthermore, we forecast data for an unknown year, which slightly reduces the classification accuracy. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proof-of-concept and its readiness for use in real applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: genetic variation; brine shrimp Artemia; invasive species; mt-DNA COI; Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) genomic fingerprinting; Western Asia
Online: 6 March 2020 (02:43:06 CET)
Due to the rapid developments in aquaculture industry, Artemia franciscana, originally an American species, has been intentionally introduced to the Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In the present study, we used a partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (mt-DNA COI) gene and genomic fingerprinting by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Artemia populations (indigenous and introduced) from 14 different geographical locations in Western Asia. Based on the haplotype spanning network, Artemia urmiana has exhibited higher genetic variation than native parthenogenetic populations. Although A. urmiana represented a completely private haplotype distribution, no apparent genetic structure was recognized among the native parthenogenetic and invasive A. franciscana populations. Our ISSR findings have documented that despite invasive populations have lower variation than source population in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), they have significantly revealed higher genetic variability compare to the native populations in Western Asia. According to the ISSR results, the native populations were not fully differentiated by the PCoA analysis, but the exotic A. franciscana populations were geographically divided in four genetic groups. We believe that during the colonization, invasive populations have experienced substantial genetic divergences, under new ecological conditions in the non-indigenous regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0112.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: freely jointed chain; confinement; enumeration; conformational entropy; phase transition; self-avoiding random walk; face-centered cubic; simple cubic; lattice model
Online: 4 December 2018 (03:48:22 CET)
Polymers in highly confined geometries can display complex morphologies including ordered phases. A basic component of a theoretical analysis of their phase behavior in confined geometries is the knowledge of the number of possible single-chain conformations compatible with the geometrical restrictions and the established crystalline morphology. While the statistical properties of unrestricted self-avoiding random walks (SAWs) both on and off-lattice are very well known, the same is not true for SAWs in confined geometries. The purpose of this contribution is a) to enumerate the number of SAWs on the simple cubic (SC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices under confinement for moderate SAW lengths, and b) to obtain an approximate expression for their behavior as a function of chain length, type of lattice, and degree of confinement. This information is an essential requirement for the understanding and prediction of entropy-driven phase transitions of model polymer chains under confinement. In addition, a simple geometric argument is presented that explains, to first order, the dependence of the number of restricted SAWs on the type of SAW origin.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer tumor; classification; majority-based voting mechanism; multilayer perceptron learning network; simple logistic regression; stochastic gradient descent learning; wisconsin breast cancer dataset
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:51:31 CET)
Breast cancer is the most common cause of death for women worldwide. Thus, the ability of artificial intelligence systems to predict and classify breast cancer is very important. In this paper, a hybrid ensemble method classification mechanism is proposed based on a majority voting mechanism. First, the performance of different state-of-the-art machine learning classification algorithms for the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset (WBCD) were evaluated. The three best classifiers were then selected based on their F3 score. F3 score is used to emphasize the importance of false negatives (recall) in breast cancer classification. Then, these three classifiers, simple logistic Regression learning, stochastic gradient descent learning and multilayer perceptron network, are used for ensemble classification using a voting mechanism. We also evaluated the performance of hard and soft voting mechanism. For hard voting, majority-based voting mechanism was used and for soft voting we used average of probabilities, product of probabilities, maximum of probabilities and minimum of probabilities-based voting methods. The hard voting (majority-based voting) mechanism shows better performance with 99.42% as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithm for WBCD.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: flax; association mapping; genome-wide association study (GWAS); simple sequence repeat (SSR); single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); quantitative trait loci (QTL); chromosome-scale pseudomolecules
Online: 14 January 2019 (07:19:08 CET)
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) are genomic regions associated with phenotype variation of quantitative traits in a population. To date, a total of 267 QTL for 29 quantitative traits have been reported in 13 studies on flax. Of these, 200 QTL from 12 studies were identified based on genetic maps, scaffold sequences, or pre-released chromosome-scale pseudomolecules. Molecular markers for QTL identification differed across studies but were mainly based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. This article provides methods with software tools and database files to uniquely map SSR and SNP markers from different references onto the recently released chromosome-scale pseudomolecules. Using these methods, 195 QTL were successfully sorted onto the 15 flax chromosomes and grouped into 133 co-located QTL clusters. Mapping of QTL from different studies to the same reference enables comparisons and facilitates genome-wide QTL analysis, candidate gene scanning, and breeding applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0234.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: simple one−pot procedure; imine−based macrocycles; dynamic covalent polymer; Schiff base; azomethine; precipitation−driven cyclization; −stacked columnar aggregates; columnar liquid crystal; physical gel; thixotropy
Online: 3 November 2023 (10:26:42 CET)
Hexakis(2-alkoxy-1,5-phenyleneimine) macrocycles were synthesized using a simple one−pot procedure through by precipitation−driven cyclization. The acetal−protected AB−type monomers, 2-alkoxy-5-aminobenzaldehyde diethyl acetals, underwent polycondensation in water or acid−containing tetrahydrofuran. The precipitation−driven cyclization based on imine dynamic covalent chemistry and π−stacked columnar aggregation played a decisive role in the one−pot synthesis. The progress of the reaction was analyzed by MALDI−TOF mass spectrometry. The macrocycles with alkoxy chains were soluble in specific organic solvents such as chloroform, allowing their structures to be analyzed by NMR. The shape−anisotropic, nearly planar, and persistent macrocycles aggregated into columnar assemblies in polymerization solvents, driven by aromatic π−stacking. The octyloxylated macrocycle OcO−Cm6 exhibited an enantiotropic columnar liquid crystal−like mesophase between 165°C and 197°C. In the SEM image of (S)-(−)-3,7-dimethyloctyloxylated macrocycle (−)BCO-Cm6, columnar substances with a diameter of 100−200 nm were observed. The polymerization solution for 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxylated macrocycle (TEGO−Cm6) gelled and showed thixotropic properties by forming a hydrogen bond network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Integrated water resources management; support to decision-making process, streamflow forecast; simple and low-cost forecasting model; Guadalquivir River Basin; Genil River; Canales reservoir; Quéntar reservoir
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:40:22 CEST)
Forecasting streamflow accurately is essential to achieve an efficient integrated water resources management strategy and provide consistent support to water decision-makers. We present a simple, low-cost and robust approach for forecasting monthly and yearly streamflow during the hydrological year in course, applicable to headwater catchments. It combines the use of regression analysis techniques, the two-parameter Gamma continuous cumulative probability distribution function and the Monte Carlo method. It is based on a probabilistic comparison of the progression of the current hydrological year with the historic observed series. The methodology has been successfully applied to two headwater reservoirs within the Guadalquivir River Basin in southern Spain. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient were used to measure the accuracy of the model and the results showed good levels of reliability. The outputs are the probabilistic monthly and yearly streamflow and 80% confidence interval. Further reductions in prediction errors may be achieved from increasing the number of observed years. These risk-based predictions are of great value, especially, before the intensive irrigation campaign starts (usually in April), when Water Authorities are to take responsible management decisions about the best allocation of the available water volume between the different water users and environmental needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1820.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: PV design; solar energy; feasibility analysis; life cycle cost; levelized cost of electricity; net present value; simple payback time; internal rate of return; economic assessment; environmental assessment.
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:22:30 CEST)
Supermarkets in Port Harcourt (PH) city, Nigeria, predominantly rely on diesel electricity generation due to grid instability, leading to high cost of electricity prices. Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been proposed as an alternative, these supermarkets have yet to adopt them, mainly due to high investment costs and a lack of awareness of the long-term financial and environmental benefits. This paper examines the technical and economic practicality of a PV system for these supermarkets using the PVsyst software and a spreadsheet model. Solar resources showed that PH has a daily average solar radiation and temperature of 4.21 kWh/m2/day and 25.73℃, respectively. Market Square, the supermarket with the highest peak power demand of 59.8 kW, and a 561 kWh/day load profile, was chosen as a case study. A proposed PV system with a power capacity of 232 kW, battery storage capacity of 34,021 Ah, a charge controller size of 100 A/560V, and an inverter with a power rating of 60V/75 kW has been designed to meet the load demand. The economic analysis showed a $266,936 life cycle cost, $0.12 per kWh levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), 4-year simple payback time, and a 20.5% internal rate of return (IRR). The PV system is feasible due to its positive net present value (NPV) of $165,322 and carbon savings of 582 tCO2/year.