REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0169.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: viroid; resistance; tolerance; RNA silencing; plant hormone; spray-induced gene silencing; genome editing
Online: 9 November 2022 (03:10:00 CET)
Viroids are known the smallest plant pathogens, and although their genome sequences do not encode proteins, they can cause disease in economically important crops. In order to control viroid diseases and mitigate their damage, genetic resources used for breeding of the viroid-resistant crop have been searched, but the practical resistant trait has not been found in almost all viroid-crop combinations, as well as the tolerant trait. Due to the difficulty in exploiting naturally occurring resistance or tolerance, various effective strategies have been devised to control viroid diseases using non-transforming or transforming techniques. Meanwhile, extensive findings related to viroid resistance and tolerance may lead to confer resistance or tolerance to viroid infection by combining with the recently emerged new technologies (e.g., spray-induced gene silencing and genome-editing technologies), which are believed to be more environmentally viable and acceptable to the general public than previously reported approaches. In particular, some genome-modified crops produced by the latter technology are already on the market. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the current status about investigation of naturally occurring genetic traits for viroid resistance and tolerance, accumulating knowledge about host factors involved in viroid pathogenicity, and various basic technologies developed to try to possible viroid disease control strategies. Furthermore, we discuss prospects and challenges for the achievement of more effective, practical, and sustainable disease control of viroid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0501.v1
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:31:51 CEST)
The Human Herpesviruses persist in the form of a latent infection in specialized cell types. During latency, the herpesvirus genomes associate with cellular histone proteins and the viral lytic genes assemble into transcriptionally repressive heterochromatin. Although there is divergence in the nature of heterochromatin on latent herpesvirus genomes, in general the genomes assemble into forms of heterochromatin that can convert to euchromatin to permit gene expression and therefore reactivation. This reversible form of heterochromatin is known as facultative heterochromatin and is most commonly characterized by polycomb silencing. Polycomb silencing is prevalent on the cellular genome and plays a role in developmentally regulated and imprinted genes, as well as X chromosome inactivation. As herpesviruses initially enter the cell in an un-chromatinized state, they provide an optimal system to study how de novo facultative heterochromatin is targeted to regions of DNA and how it contributes to silencing. Here, we describe how polycomb-mediated silencing potentially assembles onto herpesvirus genomes, synergizing what is known about herpesvirus latency with facultative heterochromatin targeting to the cellular genome. A greater understanding of polycomb silencing of herpesviruses will inform on the mechanism of persistence and reactivation of these pathogenic human viruses and provide clues regarding how de novo facultative heterochromatin forms on the cellular genome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RNA silencing; gemycircularvirus; mycovirus; antiviral; dicer
Online: 29 March 2018 (05:44:40 CEST)
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by probing wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a circular DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes, specifically dicers, were disrupted in order to dissect the RNA silencing pathway and provide useful information on fungal control. Dicers Dcl-1, Dcl-2, and both Dcl-1/Dcl-2- genes were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, susceptibility to viral infection, and small RNA accumulation compared to the wild-type strain. Disruption of Dcl-1 or Dcl-2 resulted in no changes in phenotype compared to wild-type S. sclerotiorum; however, the double dicer mutant strain exhibited slower growth. To examine the effect of viral infection on strains containing null-mutations of Dcl-1, Dcl-2 or both genes, mutants were transfected with full-length RNA transcripts of a hypovirus SsHV2L and copies of a single-stranded DNA mycovirus- SsHADV-1 as a synthetic virus. Results indicate that the ΔDcl-1/Dcl-2 double mutant which was slow growing without virus infection exhibited much more severe debilitation following virus infection. Altered colony morphology including: reduced pigmentation, significantly slower growth, and delayed sclerotial formation. Additionally, there is an absence of virus-derived small RNAs in the virus-infected ∆Dcl-1/Dcl-2 mutant compared to the virus-infected wild-type strain which displays a high percentage of virus-derived small RNA. The findings of these studies suggest that if both dicers are silenced, invasive nucleic acids which include mycoviruses ubiquitous in nature- can greatly debilitate the virulence of fungal plant pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: RGSV; movement proteins; gene silencing; transgenic mechanism; virus-induced small interfering RNA; RNA silencing pathway; antiviral plant defenses
Online: 2 November 2017 (03:05:04 CET)
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) a member of Tenuivirus family, is very potent and destructive which effects rice crop in many countries, particularly China. Non coding RNAs have important functions in development and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in numerous organsisms. There is three type of small non coding RNAs have been found in eukaryotes, which are small interferring RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) origination is from the infecting virus which is known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), has responsibility for RNA silencing in plants. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi). Interestingly, RNA silencing happens in plants during viral infections. RNAi technique showed significant results in Nephotettix cincticeps. RNAi technique demonstrated the gene silencing of planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. The proteins P5, pcf4, Dnj, psn5, and pn6 act as potential movement proteins and serve as silencing suppressors for RGSV. VsiRNAs originate from dsRNA molecules which require Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) proteins, and Argonaute (AGO) proteins. RdRP uses ssRNA for perfect RNA amplification process and can also be used for DCL dependent secondary vsiRNA formation. VSRs interfere with the movement of signals during silencing mechanism. Moreover, intercellular movement of viruses is facilitated by virus-encoded movement protein. RNAi is found in many eukaryotes which are related to transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation by gene suppression. Transcription is bidirectional in ssDNA viruses which are originated from dsRNA molecules. In this review, we highlighted the biology of Rice grassy stunt virus and its insect vector and its silencing suppressors. This work will be helpful for plant virologists to understand the whole biogenesis mechanism for rice viruses especially RGSV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0034.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: insect; genome; biopesticide; silencing; topical; gene target; validation
Online: 5 October 2022 (10:57:47 CEST)
Global crop yields are estimated to be reduced by 30–40% per year on account of plant pests and pathogens. Agricultural insect pests raise concerns about constraining global food security and climate changes contributing to the rise of infestation. The current management relies on plant breeding, associated or not with transgenes and chemical pesticides. Both approaches face serious technology obsolescence on the field due to resistance breakdown or development of insecticide resistance. The need for new Modes of Action (MoA) approaches in managing crop health grows each year, driven by market demands to reduce economic losses and phytosanitary requirements to meet the consumer perception. Disabling pest genes by sequence-specific expression silencing is considered a promising tool in the development of environment and health respectful biopesticides. The specificity conferred by long dsRNA-base solutions give support to minimizing effects on off-targeted genes in the insect pest genome and the target gene in non-target organisms (NTOs). In this review, we summarize the current status of gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) for agricultural control. More specifically, we focus on the engineering, development and application of gene silencing to control Lepidoptera by the employment of non-transforming dsRNA technologies. Despite some delivery and stability drawbacks of topical applications, we reviewed works showing convincing proof-of-concept results that point to imminent innovative solutions. Considerations about the regulamentation of the ongoing research on dsRNA-based pesticides to produce commercialized products for exogenous application are discussed. Academic and industry initiatives reveal a worthy effort to accomplish controlling Lepidoptera pests with this new mode of action to provide more sustainable and reliable technologies to field management. New data on genomics of this taxon encourage the increment of a customized target genes portfolio. As a case of study, we illustrate how dsRNA and associated methodologies could be applied to control an important Lepidopteran coffee pest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0465.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: insect; leaf miner; Coffea; pest control; biopesticide; silencing
Online: 29 August 2022 (04:27:45 CEST)
Background, Leucoptera coffeella (Guerin-Meneville, 1842) is a moth species (Lyonetiidae, Lepidoptera) pest that causes severe losses to coffee crops. Further information about its genomic data is required to allow molecular strategies for the development of sustainable pesticides and to gain in-depth knowledge on phylogenetics. However, the closest complete genome available is within the superfamily level (Yponomeutoidea). Here we report the generation of the first long-read genome, transcriptome and proteome results of L. coffeella and the in silico analysis performed in these molecular levels to investigate genes involved in the siRNA processing. Results, PACBio and paired-end Illumina combined DNA sequencing from pupae samples resulted in more than 436 Gb subreads and 31Mb reads with N50 read length of 15,512 nt, mean read length 13.8 Kb and max read length 420.7 Kb. Additionally, 20Gb data of short DNA sequencing was combined to produce 1,984 contigs comprising 397 Mb in total. The longest and shortest scaffold sizes are 10,809,567 nt and 15,247 nt, respectively (mean size 200,178 nt). The N50 scaffold was 275,598 nt and the GC content was 36.10%. Predicted coding DNA sequences counted 39.930 gene models. Searching of 5286 BUSCO groups revealed 91.7 percent of completeness (single and duplicated genes combined) compared to lepidoptera genomes (lepidoptera_odb10). Flow cytometry showed the 1C DNA content is approximately 295 Mb. RNA-Seq from seven development stages resulted in 28294 identified transcripts. Additionally, proteomics from immature stages resulted in 2045 proteins matching the gene models. Conclusions, This first nuclear genome of the Lyonetiidae family brings valuable molecular resources to study Lepidoptera genomes. Genome, transcriptome and proteome sequencing to raise genome annotation precision may resolve uncovered taxonomic issues. In addition, these combined approaches provide insights into plant-insect interaction players, as horizontally transferred genes (HGT) and endosymbionts. Put together, the generated data enables the development of molecular tools towards sustainable biotechnology solutions for lepidopteran pest control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0349.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microRNA; SNP’s; breast cancer; RNA induced silencing complex
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:50:03 CEST)
MiRNAs are 20-22 nucleotide long single-stranded non-coding RNA sequences, which can regulate post transcriptional activity of mRNA by binding with it at 3’UTR region (untranslated region). Thus deregulation of miRNA expression is responsible for dysregulating mRNA function which contributes in developing various diseases as well as cancerous phenotypes. Alteration of single nucleotide in miRNA sequence is one of the reasons behind deregulation of miRNA expression. The most frequent carcinoma in current day is breast cancer which causes a high mortality among women around the world as well as India. Despite of the advancement of diagnostic tools, strategies and treatment, the cases of breast cancer is increasing every year. There are plenty of biomarkers like ER, PR, Her2, Ki-67, etc available which are frequently used in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. After the discovery of MiRNA in 1993 in Caenorhabiditis elegans, it is attracting all the limelight in diagnosis and treatment of different carcinomas as well as breast cancer. In this review we will discuss on involvement of different types of MiRNAs and miR SNPs in breast cancer occurrence and susceptibility in a detailed manner.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0080.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: plant-parasitic nematodes; resistance; xenobiotic metabolism; ABC transporters; gene silencing
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:40:02 CET)
The molecular interaction between the nematode and the host plant cells is complex and sophisticated. Initial contact with the plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) triggers immune response in the host plant system which includes the release of toxic molecules. To put a bridle on this immune response, PPNs trigger pivotal cytoprotective mechanisms, such as antioxidant and detoxification pathways. Mechanisms of these pathways have been studied in PPNs and the specific genes involved have been targeted for gene silencing research in view of developing novel control measures. However, one of the important group of proteins involved in detoxification pathways known as ABC-transporters are not being studied until recently in PPNs. This opinion article focusses on the current knowledge and future prospects of ABC transporters in PPNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0566.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant Growth; Magnetic field; Triticum aestivum; Non-invasive protein silencing
Online: 26 August 2020 (08:51:59 CEST)
The present study provides an observation and documentation on the effect of static magnetic field on the growth of Triticum aestivum. The seeds are allowed to germinate and the seedlings are grown in an environment of the controlled static magnetic field while other physical factors such as temperature, light exposure, soil pH, etc. are held constant. Also, a comparison of influence on the average height between both the poles of the magnet is estimated and north pole oriented magnet is found to imply a significant difference. Finally some of the potential applications of the study in non-invasive protein silencing, GMO production, Vertical farming and Terraforming are briefly discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0033.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: CRISPR interference; CRISPR/dCas9 system; crop improvement; gene silencing; RNAi; transcriptional regulation
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:31:04 CET)
RNA-guided genomic transcriptional regulation tools, namely Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR-mediated gene activation (CRISPRa), are a powerful technology for the field of functional genomics. Deriving from the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both systems comprise a catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) and a single guide RNA (sgRNA). This type of dCas9 is incapable of cleaving DNA but retains its ability to specifically bind to DNA. The binding of the dCas9/sgRNA complex to a target gene results in transcriptional interference. The CRISPR/dCas9 system has been explored as a tool for transcriptional modulation and genome imaging. Despite its potential applications and benefits, the challenges and limitations faced by the CRISPR/dCas9 system include the off-target effects, PAM sequence requirement, efficient delivery methods, and the CRISPR/dCas9-interfered crops being labeled as genetically modified organisms in several countries. This review highlights the progression of CRISPR/dCas9 technology as well as its applications and potential challenges in crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0474.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Encoder-Decoder Architecture; Semantic Segmentation; Feature Silencing; Crack Detection
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:54:13 CEST)
An autonomous concrete crack inspection system is necessary for preventing hazardous incidents arising from deteriorated concrete surfaces. In this paper, we represent a concrete crack detection framework to aid the process of automated inspection. The proposed approach employs a deep convolutional neural network architecture for crack segmentation from concrete image. The proposed network alleviates the effect of gradient vanishing problem present in deep neural network architectures. A feature silencing module is incorporated in the crack detection framework, for eliminating unnecessary feature maps from the network. The overall performance of the network significantly improves as a result. Experimental results support the benefit of incorporating feature silencing within a convolutional neural network architecture for improving the network’s robustness, sensitivity, and specificity. An added benefit of the proposed architecture is its ability to accommodate for the trade-off between specificity (positive class detection accuracy) and sensitivity (negative class detection accuracy) with respect to the target application. Furthermore, the proposed framework achieves a high precision rate and processing time than crack detection architectures present in literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0060.v3
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: RNAi; dsRNA; silencing; encapsulation; liposomes; virus-like particles; polyplex nanoparticles; bio-clay; regulatory
Online: 13 October 2021 (15:39:34 CEST)
RNAi technology is a versatile, effective, safe, and eco-friendly alternative for crop protection. There is plenty of evidence of its use through host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) and spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) techniques to control viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, and nematodes. For SIGS, its most significant challenge is achieving stability and avoiding premature degradation of RNAi in the environment or during its absorption by the target organism. One alternative is encapsulation in liposomes, virus-like particles, polyplex nanoparticles, and bioclay, which can be obtained through the recombinant production of RNAi in vectors, transgenesis, and micro/nanoencapsulation. The materials must be safe, biodegradable, and stable in multiple chemical environments, favoring the controlled release of RNAi. Most of the current research on encapsulated RNAi focuses primarily on oral delivery to control insects by silencing essential genes. The regulation of RNAi technology focuses on risk assessment using different approaches; however, this technology has positive economic, environmental, and human health implications for its use in agriculture. The emergence of alternatives combining RNAi gene silencing with the induction of resistance in crops by elicitation and metabolic control is expected, as well as multiple silencing and biotechnological optimization of its large-scale production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0280.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Double stranded RNA; Nano clay; Phytophthora infestans; Potato; Spray Induced gene silencing (SIGS)
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:07:19 CET)
Phytophthora. infestans is a well known late blight causing oomycetes pathogen. It evolves and adapts to the host background and new fungicide molecules rapidly within a few years of their release, may be due to the predominance of transposable elements in its genome. Frequent and huge applications of fungicides cause environmental concerns. Here we developed target specific RNA interference based molecules, that are capable of effectively reducing the late blight infection. cDNA microarray expression data was used for the selection of genes involved in the early stage of infection process, sporulation etc. The in vitro synthesis of double stranded RNA molecule, targeting SDH, EF-1α, GPI-HAM344, PLD-3 and HSP-90 encoding genes revealed the reduction in growth, sporulation and symptom expression, which were subsequently assessed by culture bioassay, detached leaf assay and topical application methods. The multiple genes targeted dsRNA nano clay sprayed plants showed enhanced disease resistance (4% disease severity) and least sporulation (<1x103), compared to naked dsRNA spray. Use of nano clay was assumed to be involved in the effective delivery, protection and boosting the action of RNAi in potato plants. A significant difference in the growth, sporulation count, disease severity and reduced expression of the genes and confocal microscopy imaging authenticates the effects of SIGS on late blight disease progression. Our research demonstrated that topical dsRNA nano clay spray under the open-air environment could be an alternative to chemical fungicides and transgenic approaches as a novel plant protection strategy for late blight in an environmentally friendly manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Decapod Crustaceans; dsRNA transport; Gene silencing mechanism; Serum dsRNA binding proteins; Systemic RNAi
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:09:03 CEST)
RNA interference (RNAi) has become a widely utilised method to study gene function, yet despite this, many of the mechanisms surrounding RNAi remain elusive. The core RNAi machinery is relatively well understood, however many of the systemic mechanisms, particularly double stranded RNA (dsRNA) transport, are not. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA binding proteins in the serum contribute to systemic RNAi, and may be the limiting factor in RNAi capacity for species such as spiny lobsters where gene silencing is not functional. Incubating serum from a variety of species across phyla with dsRNA led to a gel mobility shift in species where systemic RNAi has been observed, with this response being absent in species where systemic RNAi has never been observed. Proteomic analysis suggested lipoproteins may be responsible for this phenomenon, and may transport dsRNA to spread the RNAi signal systemically. Following this, we identified the same gel shift in the slipper lobster Thenus australiensis and subsequently silenced the insulin androgenic gland hormone, marking the first time RNAi has been performed in any lobster species. These results pave the way for inducing RNAi in spiny lobsters, and better understanding the mechanisms of systemic RNAi in Crustacea, as well as across phyla.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0581.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Wheat; RNAi silencing; amylase/trypsin inhibitor (ATI); allergy; Non Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS)
Online: 24 July 2020 (11:51:53 CEST)
Although wheat is used worldwide as a staple food, it can give rise to adverse reactions, for which the triggering factors have not been identified yet. These reactions can be caused mainly by kernel proteins, both gluten and non-gluten proteins. Among these latter, -amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) are involved in baker’s asthma and realistically in Non Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS). In this paper, we report characterization of three transgenic lines obtained from the bread wheat cultivar Bobwhite silenced by RNAi in three ATI genes CM3, CM16 and 0.28. We have obtained transgenic lines showing an effective decrease of the activity of target genes that, although showing a higher trypsin inhibition as a pleiotropic effect, generate a lower reaction when tested with sera of patients allergic to wheat, accounting for the important role of the three target proteins in wheat allergies. Finally, these lines show unintended changes differences in high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) accumulation, involved in technological performances, but do not show differences in terms of yield. The development of new genotypes accumulating a lower amount of proteins potentially or effectively involved in such pathologies, not only offers the possibility to use them as a basis for the production of varieties with a lower impact on adverse reaction, but also to test if these proteins are actually implicated in those pathologies for which the triggering factor has not been established yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0334.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rubber tree capillovirus 1; microRNAs; plant-virus interaction; RNAi: computational algorithms; gene silencing, minimum free energy
Online: 22 July 2022 (09:52:38 CEST)
Tapping panel dryness (TPD) syndrome is a complex disease of Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) which causes cessation of latex drainage upon tapping of rubber tree. Rubber tree virus (RTV1) was identified as a novel pathogen associated with rubber tree and a potential causal agent of TPD. RTV1 is a monopartite RNA virus that is linear, non-enveloped and has a single-stranded (ss) positive RNA genome of approximately 6081 nucleotides and is composed of two major open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 (polyprotein), and ORF2 (movement protein. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of rubber genome encoded tree microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel therapeutic targets against RTV1 using in silico algorithms. Mature rubber tree miRNAs are retrieved from the miRBase database and are used for hybridization of RTV1 using five different five different computational algorithms including miRanda, RNA22, RNAhybrid and psRNATarget. A total of eleven common rubber tree miRNAs were identified based on consensus genomic positions. The consensus of four algorithms predicted the hybridization sites of hbr-miR396a and hbr-miR398 at common locus positions 6676, 1840 respectively. To validate the prediction, secondary structures of the consensual rubber tree miRNAs and free energy of duplex binding were calculated using the RNAfold and RNAcofold algorithms respectively. We created a plot between rubber tree miRNAs and RTV1 ORFs by using Circos algorithm. In this study, we predicted eleven consensual rubber tree miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, hbr-miR398 was identified as the most effectual miRNA that may target the ORF1 gene of the RTV1 genome. The predicted data will be important in the development of rubber trees resistant to RTV1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0240.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Gene Silencing; Host–Virus Interaction; RNA Interference; Saccharum officinarum; Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus and Target Prediction
Online: 14 September 2021 (12:43:22 CEST)
The Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SCYLD) and is considered to be the most economically deleterious emerging pathogen that represents a potential threat and danger to sugarcane cultivation in China. Over the last two decades, high genetic diversity in the SCYLV genotypes was observed worldwide, with a greater chance of YLD incidence for sugarcane injury. SCYLV infection has significantly damaged its economic traits and is responsible for substantial losses in biomass production in sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to identify and comprehensively analyze sugarcane microRNAs (miRNAs) as therapeutic targets against SCYLV using plant miRNA prediction tools. Mature sugarcane miRNAs are retrieved and are used for hybridization of the SCYLV. A total of seven common sugarcane miRNAs were selected based on consensus genomic positions. The biologically significant, top ranked ssp-miR528 was consensually predicted to have a potentially unique hybridization site at nucleotide position 4162 for targeting the ORF5 of the SCYLV genome; this was predicted by all the algorithms used in this study. Then, the miRNA–mRNA regulatory network was generated using the Circos algorithm, which was used to predict novel targets. There are no acceptable commercial SCYLV-resistant sugarcane varieties available at present. Therefore, the predicted biological data offer valuable evidence for the generation of SCYLV-resistant sugarcane plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0071.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum; RNA silencing; Argonaute; double-stranded RNA binding (DRB); RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR); Pol IV
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:42:51 CET)
RNA silencing serves key roles in a multitude of cellular processes, including development, stress responses, metabolism, and maintenance of genome integrity. Dicer, Argonaute (AGO), double-stranded RNA binding (DRB), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases known as Pol IV and Pol V form core components to trigger RNA silencing. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important staple crop worldwide. In this study, we aimed to unravel the components of the RNA-guided silencing pathway in this non-model plant taking advantage of the availability of two genome assemblies of Andean and Meso-American origin. We identified six PvDCLs, thirteen PvAGOs, 10 PvDRB, 5 PvRDR, in both genotypes, suggesting no recent gene amplification or deletion after the gene pool separation. In addition, we identified one PvNRPD1 and one PvNRPE1 encoding the largest subunits of Pol IV and Pol V, respectively. These genes were categorized into subgroups based on phylogenetic analyses. Comprehensive analyses of gene structure, genomic localization and similarity among these genes were performed. Their expression patterns were investigated by means of expression models in different organs using online data and quantitative RT-PCR after pathogen infection. Several of the candidate genes were up-regulated after infection with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0061.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Targeted Protein Silencing (TPS); Targeted Protein Degradation (TPD); dTAG; FKBP12; von Hippel-Lindau (VHL); degron; deGradFP; Anchor-Away; Nanobody; Nano-Grad
Online: 2 November 2020 (15:59:46 CET)
Targeted Protein Silencing (TPS) is an elegant approach to investigate protein function and its role in the cellular landscape, overcoming limitations of genetic perturbation strategies. In contrast to CRISPR/Cas9 and RNA interference, these systems act in a reversible manner and reduce off-target effects. Several TPS have been developed and wisely improved, including compartment delocalization tools and protein degradation systems. In this review, we focus on Anchor-Away, deGradFP, auxin inducible degron (AID) and dTAG technologies, and discuss their recent applications and advances. Finally, we propose Nano-Grad, a novel nanobody-based protein degradation tool to specifically proteolyze endogenous tag-free target protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0606.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: viroid; pathogenicity; RNA silencing; Dicer-like proteins; small interfering RNA; microRNA398; microRNA398a-3p; superoxide dismutase 1; reactive oxygen species; systemic necrosis
Online: 28 November 2018 (06:50:07 CET)
To examine the role of RNA silencing in defense against viroid, a Dicer-like 2 and 4 (DCL2&4)—double knockdown transgenic tomato line 72E was created. The expression of endogenous DCL2 and DCL4 in line 72E decreased to about a half of the empty cassette line EC. When challenged with potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), 72E allowed significantly higher level of PSTVd accumulation early in infection and showed lethal systemic necrosis. The size distribution of PSTVd-derived small RNA was significantly changed: the numbers of 21 and 22 nucleotides (nt) species in line 72E was approximately 66.7% and 5% of those in line EC, respectively. Conversely, the numbers of 24-nt species increased by 1100%. Furthermore, expression of miR398a-3p and miR398 increased 770–868% in the PSTVd-infected 72E, compared to the PSTVd-infected EC. In parallel, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in PSTVd-infected 72E showed higher expression levels. In concert with miR398a-3p, SOD1 controls detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in cells. Since high levels of ROS production and its scavenging activity were observed in PSTVd-infected 72E, the lack of full-activity of DCLs was thought to have made the plant incapable to control excessive ROS production and thus resulted in to develop lethal systemic necrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0436.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Prophase I of meiosis; chromatin; synaptonemal complex; chromosome; satellite DNA; chromocenter; nuclear architecture; MSCI; sex chromosomes; interactions of non-homologous chromosomes; chromatin silencing
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:58:17 CET)
Pericentromeric regions of chromosomes enriched in tandemly repeated satellite DNA although representing a significant part of eukaryotic genomes are still understudied mainly due to interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Recent studies suggest their important role in genome regulation, karyotype stability and evolution. Thus, the idea of satellite DNA as a junk part of the genome was refuted. Integration of data about molecular composition, chromosome behaviour and details of in situ organization of pericentromeric regions is of great interest. The objective of this work was a cytogenetic analysis of the interactions of pericentromeric regions non-homologous chromosomes in mouse spermatocytes using immuno-FISH. We analysed two events: the associations between cerntomeric regions of X chromosome and autosomes, and associations between centromeric regions of autosomal bivalents forming chromocenters. We conclude that X chromosome form temporary synaptic associations with different autosomes in early meiotic prophase I which normally can be found at pachytene-diplotene without signs of pachytene arrest. These associations are formed between the satellite DNA-enriched centomeric regions of X chromosome and different autosomes but not involve the satellite-poor centromeric region of Y-chromosome. We suggest the mechanism of X chromosome competitive replacement from such associations during synaptic correction. We showed that centromeric region of the X chromosome remains free of γH2Ax-dependent chromatin inactivation, while Y chromosome is completely inactivated. This findings highlights the predominant role of associations between satellite DNA-enriched regions of different chromosomes including X. We assume that X-autosome temporary associations is a manifestation of an additional synaptic disorders checkpoint. These associations are normally corrected before the late diplotene. We revealed that the intense spreading conditions applied to the spermatocytes I nuclei did not lead to destruction of stretched chromatin fibers i.e. elongated chromocenters enriched in satellite DNA. Revealed by us tight associations between pericentromeric regions of different autosomal bivalents and X chromosome may represent the basis for repeat stability maintenance in autosomes an X chromosome. The consequences of our findings are discussed. We obtained the preparations of mouse spermatocytes nuclei in the meiotic prophase I using two approaches: standard and extremely intense surface spread techniques. Using immuno-FISH we visualized tandemly repeated mouse Major and Minor satellite DNA located in the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes and performed a morphological comparison of the standard- and intensely spreaded meiotic nuclei. Based on our results, we assume the remarkable strength of the chromocenter-mediated associations, “chromatin “bridges”, between different bivalents at the pachytene and diplotene stages. We have demonstrated that the chromocenter “bridges” between the centromeric ends of meiotic bivalents are enriched in both tandemly repeated Major and Minor satellite DNA. Association of centromeric regions of autosomal bivalents and X-chromosome but not with Y-chromosome correlates with the absence of Major and Minor satellites on Y-chromosome. We suggest that revealed tight associations between pericentromeric regions of bivalents may represent the network-like system providing dynamic stability of chromosomal territories, as well as add new data for the hypothesis of ectopic recombination in these regions which supports sequence homogeneity between non-homologous chromosomes and does not contradict the meiotic restrictions imposed by the crossing-over interference near centromeres. We conclude that nuclear architecture in meio-sis may play an essential role in contacts between the non-homologous chromosomes providing the specific characteristics of pericentromeric DNA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0248.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cancer; differentiation commitment; acridine-orange-DNA test; pericentromere-associated domains (PADs); power law of PAD number vs. size; critical self-organisation; unravelling of PADs; silencing threshold
Online: 15 May 2020 (08:01:08 CEST)
Finding out how cells with the same genome change fates in differentiation commitment is a challenge of biology. We used MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with the ErbB2 ligand heregulin (HRG), which induces differentiation, to address if and how the constitutive pericentromere-associated domains (PADs) may be involved in this process. PAD-specific repressive heterochromatin (H3K9me3) and active euchromatin (H3K4me3) marking, centromere (CENPA) labelling, qPCR, acridine-orange-DNA structural test, and microscopic image analysis were applied. We found a two-step DNA unfolding, at 15-20 min and 60 min after HRG treatment, coinciding with bi-phasic activation of the early response genes (c-FOS family) and two steps of critical phase transition which were revealed in transcriptome studies. In control, the distribution of PAD number and size displays a power-law scaling with a boundary at the nucleolus. PADs’ clustering correlates with centromere numbers. 15 min after HRG treatment, the unravelling of PADs occurs, coinciding with the first step of euchromatin unfolding. The second step is associated with transcription of long-non-coding-RNA from satellite III DNA. We hypothesize that splitting of the PAD clusters under the critical size threshold of the silencing domain abrupts position effect variegation. It allows the first genome transcription avalanche to occur, starting differentiation commitment.