ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: slot allocation; characteristics of slot wave; capacity setting; data feeding methods; linear integer programming
Online: 10 September 2019 (07:52:51 CEST)
Management of demand and capacity for airport operation is important. The effect of capacity setting on slot adjustment, maximum adjustment and flight delay has been extensively investigated and discussed in previous slot adjustment models. But its effect on characteristics of flight waves has not been studied deeply. At present, in order to resolve the problem that Linear Integer Programming (LIP) is limited in slot allocation due to its fast dimension growth and large memory consumption, the general practice is to optimize the slot application according to data-splitting technology. However, the relationship among data splitting method, capacity setting and characteristics of slot wave has not been investigated in detail, which limits the application of LIP in slot allocation. Through the detailed analysis and testing, we found that the waveform and amplitude of slot wave can be controlled and designed by appropriate virtual capacity settings, while the number of capacity constraints and the computing time is reduced by adopting appropriate data feeding method. Our research also provides clues for further research on the construction of the flight waves for airlines operating at specific airports in order to establish direct or indirect connectivity, and increase hit rate by using our approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0208.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: fracture density; double-layer model; unconventional reservoirs; multicomponent seismic; shear-wave splitting
Online: 16 April 2018 (11:33:54 CEST)
Fracture density, a critical parameter of unconventional reservoirs, can be used to evaluate potential of unconventional reservoirs and location of production wells. Many technologies, such as amplitude variation with offset and azimuth (AVOA) technology, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) technology, and multicomponent seismic technology, are generally used to predict fracture of reservoirs. they can qualitatively predict fracture by analyzing seismic attributes, including seismic wave amplitudes, seismic wave velocities, which are sensitive to fracture. However, it is important to quantitatively describe fracture of reservoirs. In this study, based on a double-layer model, the relationships between fracture density and the double-layer model’s physical parameters, such as velocity of fast shear-wave, velocity of slow shear-wave, and density, were established, and then a powerful quantitative prediction method for fracture density was proposed dramatically. Afterwards, the Hudson model for crack was used to test the applicability of the method. The result shown that the quantitative prediction method for fracture density can be applied suitable to the Hudson model for crack. Finally, the result of validation models indicated that the method can predict fracture density effective, in which absolute relative deviation (ARD) were less than 5% and root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 4.88×10-3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Lithology performance; shear failure; surface methane capture borehole; shear strength
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:52:10 CEST)
The shear failure of surface methane capture borehole (SMCB) is the main cause of shortening life cycle of SMCB but lack of lithological analysis. In order to improve the stability of SMCB and improve efficient drainage period, it is of great significance to investigate the lithology performances for shear failure of SMCB. Based on the direct shear tests and geological method, the results shows that the shear displacement increases as the grain size decreases. Mechanical jump occurs at the lithological boundaries, which is mainly determined by the composition of rock specimens. The cohesion is the mainly possible reason for the step change of shear strength. Lithology with high quartz and low clay may effectively improve shear strength and failure resistance. Boreholes drilled into the weaker siltstone and mudstone sections may potentially experience preferential damage due to the larger shear displacement and shear strength. Protective measures at these sections may improve the stability of the borehole casing. The probing data where it was found that boreholes closure validated the prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); Out-of-Plane Shear Stiffness; Timoshenko Beam Theory; Shear Analogy Method; Rolling Shear Modulus
Online: 22 September 2018 (23:07:52 CEST)
The lay-up of cross laminated timber (CLT) leads to significant differences in properties over its cross-section. Particularly the out-of-plane shear behavior of CLT is effected by the changes in shear moduli over the cross-section. Results from laboratory shear tests are used to evaluate the shear stiffness of 3- and 5-layer CLT panels in their major and minor strength direction. The results are compared to calculated shear stiffness values on evaluated single-layer properties as well as commonly used property ratios using the Timoshenko beam theory and the shear analogy method. Differences between the two calculation approaches are pointed out. The shear stiffness is highly sensitive to the ratio of the shear modulus parallel to the grain to the shear modulus perpendicular to the grain. The stiffness values determined from two test measurements are compared with the calculated results. The level of agreement is dependent on the number of layers in CLT and the property axis of the CLT panels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: database; eccentric punching shear; experiments; flat slab; punching; reinforced concrete; shear
Online: 21 June 2022 (05:42:44 CEST)
Eccentric punching shear can occur in concrete slab-column connections when the connection is subjected to shear and unbalanced moments. Typically, this situation results in edge and corner columns and is thus a common practical case. However, most punching experiments in the literature are concentric punching shear. This paper presents a developed database of eighty-eight experiments of flat slabs under eccentric punching shear, including a summary of the testing procedure of each reference and a description of the slab specimens. Additionally, a linear finite element analysis of all the specimens is included to determine the relevant sectional shear forces and moments. Finally, the ultimate shear stresses from the database experiments are compared to the shear capacities determined with ACI 318-19, Eurocode 2 NEN-EN 1992-1-1:2005, and the Model Code 2010. The comparison shows that the Model Code 2010 is the most precise in the predictions with an average tested over predicted ratio of 0.96 and a coefficient of variation of 27.96%. It can be concluded that this study represents the inconsistencies of the currently used design methods and the lack of experimental information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate; construction waste; shear strength; shear provision; design equation
Online: 5 August 2021 (09:41:27 CEST)
The brittle shear failure of reinforced concrete beams is complexed and unfavorable. For decades, research on the mechanical properties and durability of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) to make recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has been widely investigated. However, test results on the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams are still limited and contradictory. This paper reports the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams without stirrups. Eight RAC beams and two controlled beams with natural coarse aggregate (NCA) were tested under the four-point flexural test with the shear span-to-effective depth ratio (a/d) of 3.10. Parameters in this study were the replacement percentage of RCA (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and longitudinal reinforcement ratio (w) of 1.16% and 1.80%. It was found that the normalized shear stresses of RAC beams with w = 1.80% at all levels of replacement percentage were quite similar to that of the NAC counterparts. Normalized shear stress of the beam with 100% RCA and w = 1.16% was lower than that of the NAC beam by 5%. Database of 128 RAC beams without shear reinforcement from literature was analyzed to evaluate the ability of the most recent ACI 318-19 shear provisions in shear strength prediction. A reduction factor of 0.75 is proposed to the current ACI code provision to account for the physical variations of RCA such as replacement percentage, RCA source and quality, density, amount of residual mortar, and physical irregularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0521.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Two-layer fluid; shear flow; air-water interface; surface tension; vortex sheet; Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; negative-energy wave; modulation instability
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:26:38 CET)
The modulation instability of surface capillary-gravity water waves is analysed in a shear flow model with a tangential discontinuity of velocity. It is assumed that air blows along the surface of the water with a uniform profile in the vertical direction. Such a model, despite its simplicity, plays an important role in hydrodynamics as the reference model for investigating basic physical phenomena of wave-current interactions and acquiring insights into a series of complex phenomena. In certain cases where the wavelength of interfacial perturbations is much bigger than the width of the shear fow profile, the model with the tangential discontinuity in the velocity is adequate for describing physical phenomena at least within limited spatial and temporal frameworks. A detailed analysis of the air-flow conditions under which modulation instability sets in is presented. It is also shown that the interfacial waves are subject to dissipative or radiative instability when negativeenergy waves appear at the interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0374.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: soil–rock mixture, freezing–thawing interface, shear strength, shear failure surface, particle calculation model
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:34:41 CEST)
With global warming and accelerated degradation of permafrost, the engineering problems caused by the formation of weak zones between the shallow and permafrost layers of soil–rock mixture (S-RM) slopes in permafrost regions have become increasingly prominent. To explore the influence of rock content on the shear strength of the S-RM freezing–thawing interface, the variation in the shear strength for different rock content is studied herein using direct shear tests. In addition, a 3D laser scanner is used for obtaining the topography of the shear failure surface. Combined with the analysis results of the shear band-particle calculation model, the influence of the rock content on the shear strength of the interface is explored. It was found that the impact threshold of the rock content on the interface strength and failure mode is approximately 30%, when the rock content (R) is > 30% and that the shear strength increases rapidly with increasing rock content. When R ≤ 30%, the actual shear plane is similar to waves; when R > 30%, the shear plane appears as gnawing failure. The shear strength of S-RM freezing–thawing interface mainly comes from the bite force and friction between particles. The main reason for the increase in shear strength with increasing rock content is the increase in bite force between particles, which makes the ratio of bite force to friction force approximately 1:1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0352.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Calcareous sand; Microbially induced calcite precipitation; Dynamic shear modulus; Resonant column test; Reference shear strain
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:56:36 CEST)
Calcareous sand deposits are widely distributed along the shoreline in ropical and subtropical regions. Microbially induced calcite precipitation treatment (MICP) is a relatively new method to improve the stiffness and strength of the soil. Little is known about the small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of MICP-treated calcareous sand, which are two crucial parameters for the prediction of the dynamic behavior of soil. A series of resonant column tests are performed to investigate the dynamic performance of MICP-treated calcareous sand, with special attention paid to the influence of treatment duration and confining stress on the stiffness and damping characteristics. The relationship between the initial dynamic shear modulus and unconfined compressive strength is analyzed. Additionally, the empirical equations of the reference shear strain between treatment duration and confining stress are given. The G/G0 of MICP-cemented calcareous sand presents a higher strain sensitivity than that of untreated sand, and its attenuation pattern can be described by Hardin-Drnevich model. The σc has an apparent effect on the degradation characteristics of the dynamic shear modulus of MICP-treated calcareous sand with a low cementation level, however, its effect decreases with the increasing treatment duration. The relationship between the reference shear strain and the treatment duration and confining stress can be described by a power and a linear formula, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0050.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: severe plastic deformation (SPD); mode deformation; simple shear and pure shear; structure modification; SPD techniques
Online: 3 July 2018 (13:10:23 CEST)
In this review, severe plastic deformation (SPD) is considered as a materials processing technology. The deformation mode is the principal characteristic differentiating SPD from common forming operations. For large plastic strains, deformation mode depends on the distribution of strain rates between continuum slip lines and can be varied from pure shear to simple shear. A scalar, invariant and dimensionless coefficient of deformation mode is introduced as a normalized speed of rigid rotation. On this basis, simple shear provides the optimum mode for structure modification and grain refinement whereas pure shear is "ideal" for forming operations. Special experiments and SPD practice confirm this conclusion. Various techniques of SPD are classified and described in accordance with simple shear realization or approximation. It is shown that correct analyses of the processing mechanics and technological parameters are essential for comparison of SPD techniques and the development of effective industrial technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stubby Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors; composite frame structure; shear strength, ductility, push-out test
Online: 1 November 2017 (05:35:04 CET)
Shear connectors are used in steel beam–concrete slabs of composite frame and bridge structures to transfer shear force according to design loads. The existing Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are designed for girder slabs of composite bridges. Therefore, the rib and transverse rebars of the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are extremely large for the composite frames of building structures. We performed push-out tests of stubby Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors for composite frames. These shear connectors have relatively small ribs than conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors. To confirm the shear resistance of these stubby shear connectors, we performed an experiment by using transverse rebars D13 and D16. The results indicate that these shear connectors have suitable shear strength and ductility for application in composite frame structures. The shear strengths obtained using D13 and D16 were not significantly different. However, the ductility of the shear connectors with D16 was 45.1% higher than that of the shear connectors with D13.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar; wave mode; ocean wave
Online: 21 October 2020 (07:47:35 CEST)
The Wave Mode (WM) is a unique imaging mode of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is dedicatedly designed for global ocean surface wave observations. Since it was firstly achieved in the ERS-1/SAR satellite starting from 1991, the WM data over global oceans have been continuously acquired by the ESA’s SAR instruments onboard the satellites of ERS-2 (1997 – 2011), ENVISAT (2002 – 2012), Sentinel-1A(2014--)/1B(2016--) and the Chinese GaoFen-3 SAR (2016--), for nearly 30 years. Therefore, spaceborne SAR WM data have been a ‘big data’, which however, has not been widely exploited for global ocean wave measurements. In this study, we demonstrate its application on global ocean wave measurements based on the ten-year Advanced SAR (ASAR) WM data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0174.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: wave turbulence; satellite altimetry; wave steepness; parametric and physical models of wave period
Online: 25 December 2017 (09:06:02 CET)
Wave steepness is presented as an extension and a valuable add-on to the conventional set of sea state parameters retrieved from satellite altimetry data. Following physical model based on recent advances of weak turbulence theory wave steepness is estimated from directly measured spatial gradient of wave height. In this way the method works with altimetry trajectories rather than with point-wise data. Moreover, in contrast to widely used parametric models this approach provides us with instantaneous values of wave steepness and period. Relevance of single-track estimates of wave steepness (period) is shown for wave climate studies and confirmed by a simple probabilistic model. The approach is verified via comparison against buoy and satellite data including crossover points for standard 1 second data of Ku-band altimeters. High quality of the physical model and robustness of the parametric ones are examined in terms of global wave statistics. Prospects and relevance of both approaches in the ocean wave climate studies are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0286.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: shear band, pyrometry, punch test, streak camera
Online: 23 May 2019 (16:26:52 CEST)
This paper presents the development of a new system designed to measure the local temperature field in adiabatic shear band. Transient temperature field are simultaneously recorded by an array of 32 InSb infrared (IR) detectors and a streak camera working in visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR). Observations in IR offer a low temperature detection limit (350°C) but they are highly sensitive to uncertainty in the emissivity. Observations in VIS-NIR allow for measurement only at high temperatures (750°C) but they are less affected by uncertainty on emissivity and present a higher temperature sensitivity. By performing simultaneous measurements, it is possible to obtain data on a large temperature range with an improved accuracy at high temperature. The different sources of errors caused by uncertainty in the emissivity, spatial and temporal resolution of the detectors has been analyzed and an estimation of the total measurement uncertainty of the system is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry shear walls; ST models; equilibrium models
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:26:48 CEST)
This paper contains theoretical fundamentals of strut and tie models, used in unreinforced horizontal shear walls. Depending on support conditions and wall loading, we can distinguish models with discrete bars when point load is applied to the wall (type I model) or with continuous bars (type II model) when load is uniformly distributed at the wall boundary. The main part of this paper compares calculated results with the own tests on horizontal shear walls made of solid brick, silicate elements and autoclaved aerated concrete. The tests were performed in Poland. The model required some modifications due to specific load and static diagram.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete, textile reinforced mortar, strengthening, shear, bending
Online: 30 August 2017 (15:27:16 CEST)
Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a lot of structures in Europe and North America are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extent their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of prestressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM-layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rossby wave; quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; Arctic; ozone
Online: 29 March 2022 (11:26:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to study Rossby wave parameters in total ozone over Arctic in 2000–2021. We consider the averages in the January–March period, when stratospheric trace gases (including ozone) in sudden stratospheric warming events are strongly disturbed by planetary waves. To characterize the wave parameters, we analyzed ozone data at the latitudes of 50° N (the sub-vortex area), 60° N (the polar vortex edge) and 70° N (inner region of the polar vortex). Total ozone column (TOC) measurements during 22-year time interval were used from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) / Earth Probe and Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) / Aura satellite observations. The total ozone zonal distribution and variations in the parameters of the Fourier spectral components with zonal wave numbers m = 1–5 are presented. Daily and interannual variations in TOC, amplitudes and phases of spectral wave components, and linear trends of the quasi-stationary wave 1 (QSW1) amplitudes are discussed. The positive TOC peaks inside the vortex in 2010 and 2018 alternate with negative ones in 2011 and 2020. The latter TOC anomalies correspond to severe depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Arctic in the strong vortex conditions due to anomalously low activity of planetary waves. Variations in TOC in sub-vortex region exhibit the statistically significant negative trend –4.8±5.4 DU decade–1 in QSW1 amplitude, while the trend is statistically insignificant at the vortex edge region due to increased TOC variability. Processes associated with polar vortex dynamics are discussed, including quasi-stationary vortex asymmetry and quasi-circumpolar migration of the wave-1 phase at the vortex edge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: numerical wave tank; internal wavemaker; CFD; wave generation; OpenFOAM
Online: 22 January 2019 (12:09:25 CET)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models, are a useful tool for a wide range of coastal and offshore applications, providing a high fidelity representation of the underlying hydrodynamic processes. Generating input waves in the CFD simulation is performed by a numerical wavemaker (NWM), with a variety of different NWM methods existing for this task. While NWMs, based on impulse source methods, have been widely applied for wave generation in depth averaged, shallow water models, they have not seen the same level of adoption in the more general RANS based CFD simulations, due to difficulties in relating the required impulse source function to the resulting free surface elevation for non-shallow water cases. This paper presents an implementation of an impulse source wavemaker, which is able to self-calibrate the impulse source function to produce a desired wave series in deep or shallow water at a specific point in time and space. Example applications are presented, for a numerical wave tank (NWT), based on the opensource CFD software OpenFOAM, for wave packets in deep and shallow water, highlighting the correct calibration of phase and amplitude. Also, the suitability for cases requiring very low reflection from NWT boundaries is demonstrated. Possible issues in the use of the method are discussed and guidance for good application is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: wave energy; system identification; model validation; wave tank testing
Online: 8 February 2017 (17:00:08 CET)
Empirically based modeling is an essential aspect of design for a wave energy converter. These models are used in structural, mechanical and control design processes, as well as for performance prediction. The design of experiments and methods used to produce models from collected data have a strong impact on the quality of the model. This study considers the system identification and model validation process based on data collected from a wave tank test of a model-scale wave energy converter. Experimental design and data processing techniques based on general system identification procedures are discussed and compared with the practices often followed for wave tank testing. The general system identification processes are shown to have a number of advantages. The experimental data is then used to produce multiple models for the dynamics of the device. These models are validated and their performance is compared against one and other. While most models of wave energy converters use a formulation with wave elevation as an input, this study shows that a model using a hull pressure sensor to incorporate the wave excitation phenomenon has better accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rubble-mound; zero-freeboard; porous-media; immersed-boundary; level-set; Smagorinsky subgrid scale model; wave reflection; wave transmission; wave overtopping; wave setup
Online: 23 January 2020 (14:43:47 CET)
A numerical study for the effect of crest width, breaking parameter and trunk permeability on hydrodynamics and flow behavior in the vicinity of rubble-mound, permeable, zero-freeboard breakwaters (ZFBs) is presented. The modified two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows in porous media with a Smagorinsky model for the subgrid scale stresses were solved numerically. An immersed-boundary/level-set method was used. The numerical model was validated for the cases of wave propagation over a submerged impermeable trapezoidal bar and over a low-crested permeable breakwater. Five cases of breakwaters were examined, and the main results are: (a) The size of the crest width, B, does not notably affect the wave reflection, vorticity and currents in the seaward region of ZFBs, while wave transmission, currents in the leeward side, and mean overtopping discharge, all decrease with increasing B. A non-monotonic behavior of the wave setup is also observed. (b) As the breaking parameter decreases, wave reflection, transmission, currents, mean overtopping discharge, and wave setup decrease. This observation is also verified by relevant empirical formulas. (c) As the ZFB trunk permeability decreases, an increase of the wave reflection, currents, wave setup, and a decrease of wave transmission and mean overtopping discharge is observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0170.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Shear Strength; FRP; Anchorage devices; effective FRP strain
Online: 23 August 2022 (03:27:32 CEST)
All over the world, externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer systems used to strengthen concrete elements improve building sustainability. However, reports issued by the American Concrete Institute Committee 440 called for heavy scrutinizing before actual field implementation. The very limited number of proposed equations lacks reliability and accuracy. Thus, further investigation in this area is needed. In addition, machine learning techniques are being implemented successfully in developing strength models for complex problems. This study aims to provide a reliable machine learning model based on an experimental database. The proposed model was developed and validated against the experimental database and the very limited models in the literature. The model showed improved agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Sensor; optoelectronics; shear; force; biomechanics; gait; wearables; healthcare
Online: 23 February 2022 (13:35:58 CET)
The need for miniaturized shear force sensors is expanding, particularly for biomedical applications. Examples include measuring interfacial shear stresses between a human and an external device (e.g., footwear or a prosthesis). However, there are considerable challenges in designing a shear sensor for these applications due to the need for a small package, low power requirements, and resistance to interference from motion artifact and electromagnetic fields. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization sensor that measures two-axis shear force by detecting displacement between a color panel and a red, green, and blue light-sensing photodiode. The sensor response to applied displacements and forces was characterized under benchtop testing conditions. We also present the design of a prototype wireless version of the sensor for integration into footwear. The sensor exhibited strong agreement with gold standard measurements for two axis shear displacements (R2>0.99, RMSE≤5.0 µm) and forces (R2>0.99, RMSE≤0.94 N). This performance, along with the sensor’s scalability, miniaturized form, and low power requirements make it well-suited a variety of biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0770.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: shear test; scale effect; roughness; photogrammetry; friction angle
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:35:04 CEST)
An accurate understanding of jointed rock mass behavior is important in many applications ranging from deep geological disposal of nuclear waste to deep mining to urban geoengineering projects. The roughness of rock fractures and the matching of the fracture surfaces are the key contributors to the shear strength of rock fractures. In this research, push shear tests with three normal stress levels of 3.6, 6.0, and 8.5 kPa were conducted with two granite samples with artificially induced well-matching tensile fractures with sizes of 500 mm × 250 mm and 1000 mm × 500 mm. The large sample reached on average a -60 % weaker peak shear stress than the medium-sized sample, and a strong negative scale effect was observed in the peak shear strength. The roughness of the surfaces was measured using a profilometer and photogrammetry. The scale-corrected profilometer-based method (JRC) underestimates the peak friction angle for the medium-sized slabs by -27 % for the medium sample and -9 % for the large sample. The photogrammetry-based (Z’2) method produces an estimate with -7% (medium) and +12 % (large) errors. The photogrammetry-based Z’2 is an objective method that consistently produces usable estimates for the JRC and peak friction angle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0252.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical vortices; topological charge; shear interference; mode superposition
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:26:46 CEST)
Optical modes bearing optical vortices are important light systems in which to encode information. Optical vortices are robust features of optical beams that do not dissipate upon propagation. Thus decoding the modal content of a beam is a vital component of the process. In this work we present a method to decode modal superpositions of light beams that contain optical vortices. We do so using shear interferometry, which presents a simple and effective means of determining the vortex content of a beam, and extract the parameters of the component vortex modes that constitute them. We find that optical modes in a beam are easily determined. Its modal content can be extracted when they are of comparable magnitude. The use of modes of well defined topological charge but not well defined radial-mode content, such as those produced by phase-only encoding, are much easier to diagnose than pure Laguerre-Gauss modes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0383.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; Indian Economy; First wave; Second Wave; Economic Revive
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:31:55 CEST)
Background-The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has affected the global economy from its starting. Indian economy is also affected by the pandemic and experienced a lot of economic damages. India has become the global hotspot of COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic and recorded the second-highest position in terms of positivity rate after China. The present study attempts to analyze the economic issues that emerged in the first and second waves of the pandemic in India. Method/Approach-There is no econometric tools or analytical models used in the present study. This study attempts to evaluate the two research questions which are formed on the basis of some previous studies by various organizations and researchers. The research questions are as follow, First, what are the sectors those are primarily affected at the time of the first COVID-19 outbreak? Second, which economic issues and impacts emerged in the second wave of the pandemic? Results/ Findings-From the study, it is found that the second wave of COVID-19 is not much affected by the Indian economy. At this time, no nationwide lockdown was announced by the Government. But so, it was much severe in the time of the first wave of COVID-19. Many sectors were affected by the pandemic like agriculture, MSMEs, Tourism, etc., and these resulted in substantial unemployment problems in the economy. The study is trying to analyze these problems and concluding it with a few policy recommendations for the economy of India.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0546.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: shock wave process; shock-wave structure; refraction; domain of existence
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:26:45 CEST)
Refraction of an oblique shock wave on a tangential discontinuity dividing two gas flows with different properties is considered. It is shown that its partial reflection occurs excepting of geometrical diffraction of an oblique shock. Another oblique shock, expansion wave or weak discontinuity that coincides with Mach line, can act as a reflected disturbance. This study focuses on relationships which define the type of reflected discontinuity and its parameters. Domains of existence of various shock-wave structures with reflected disturbances of two types and boundaries between them are defined. The domains of parameters with one or two solutions exist for the characteristic refraction. Conditions of the regular refraction and the Mach refraction are formulated, and boundaries between those two refraction types are defined for various types of gases. Refraction phenomena in various engineering problems (hydrocarbon gaseous fuel and its combustion products, diatomic gas, fuel mixture of oxygen and hydrogen etc.) are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0042.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: momentum, kinetic momentum, rest-mass momentum, de Broglie wave, Compton wave, relativistic energy momentum relation, relativistic wave equation
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:26:06 CET)
We suggest that momentum should be redened in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0042.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Wind wave; Ice cover; Vortex sheet; Negative energy wave; Modulation instability
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:53:15 CET)
An interesting physical phenomenon was recently observed when a fresh-water basin is covered by a thin ice film that has properties similar to that of a rubber membrane. Surface waves can be generated under the action of wind on the air-water interface that contains an ice film. The modulation property of hydro-elastic waves (HEWs) in deep water covered by thin ice film blown by the wind with a uniform vertical profile is studied here in terms of the air-flow velocity versus a wavenumber. The modulation instability of HEWs is studied through the analysis of coefficients of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with the help of the Lighthill criterion. The NLS equation is derived using the multiple scale method in the presence of airflow. It is demonstrated that the potentially unstable hydro-elastic waves with negative energy appear for relatively small wind speeds, whereas the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability arises when the wind speed becomes fairly strong. Estimates of parameters of modulated waves for the typical conditions are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0178.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: molecular dynamics; functional particles; jamming; shear thickening; viscosity; diffusivity
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:45:32 CEST)
Complex colloidal fluids, depending on particulates’ shapes and packing fractions, may have a wide range of shear thinning and thickening behaviors. A particular interesting way to transition between different types of such behavior is by infusing functional complex particles that can be manufactured using modern techicques such as 3D printing. In this paper, we display 2D molecular dynamics simulations of such fluids with infused star-shaped functional particles, with variable leg length and number of legs, as they are infused in a non-interacting, coarse-grained fluid. We vary the packing fraction (ϕ) of the system, and for each different system we apply shear with various strain rate that turns the fluid into a jammed state and rise the apparent viscosity of fluid. We demonstrate the dependence of viscosity with the particles’ packing fraction. We show the role of shape and design dependence of the functional particles towards the transition to a shear thickening fluid .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wetting shock fronts; shear flow; viscosity; capillarity; kinematic waves
Online: 13 November 2019 (15:45:38 CET)
The paper argues that universal approaches to infiltration and drainage in permeable media that pivot around capillarity and that led to dual porosity, non-equilibrium, or preferential flow need to be replaced by a dual process approach. One process has to account for relatively fast infiltration and drainage based on Newton's shear flow, while the other one is responsible for storage and relatively slow redistribution of soil water by focusing on capillarity. Already Schumacher (1864) postulated two separate processes. However, Buckingham's (1907) and Richards' (1931) apparent universal capillary-based approach to flow and storage of water in soils dominated. The paper introduces the basics of Newton's shear flow in permeable media. It presents experimental support for the four presumptions of (i) sharp wetting shock fronts; (ii) that move with constant velocities; (iii) atmospheric pressure prevails behind the wetting shock front; (iv) laminar flow. It further discusses the scale tolerance of the approach, its relationship to Darcy's (1856) law, and its extension to solute transport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0135.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: plastic deformation energy; nanoindentation; bulk amorphous alloy; shear band
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:50:45 CEST)
A series of Ti40Zr25Cu9Ni8Be18)100-xTMx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 at.%, TM = Nb, Y) Bulk amorphous alloys were designed and prepared using the copper mold casting method. The microstructures, glass forming ability and mechanical properties of the alloys were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), depth-sensitive nanoindentation and uniaxial compressive test. The Bulk amorphous alloys with different ductility were investigated by measuring their plastic deformation energy (PDE) of the first pop-in events during loading. The relationships between the PDE value, shear band formation and ductility in Bulk amorphous alloys have been investigated. The results show that the PDE value decreases by the Nb addition and promotes the generation of multiple shear bands easily, which increase the fracture strength and plasticity significantly. Substituting Nb with Y has exactly the reverse effect. A useful rule for preparing of Bulk amorphous alloys with high plasticity is herein proposed, whereby the chemical composition of the Bulk amorphous alloys can be tailored to possess a lower PDE value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: beams; database; experiments; flexure; shear; steel fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 28 February 2019 (07:10:10 CET)
Adding steel fibers to concrete improves the capacity in tension-driven failure modes. An example is the shear capacity in steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams with longitudinal reinforcement and without shear reinforcement. Since no mechanical models exist that can fully describe the behavior of SFRC beams without shear reinforcement failing in shear, a number of empirical equations have been suggested in the past. This paper compiles the existing empirical equations and code provisions for the prediction of the shear capacity of SFRC beams failing in shear as well as a database of 487 experiments reported in the literature. The experimental shear capacities from the database are then compared to the prediction equations. This comparison shows a large scatter on the ratio of experimental to predicted values. The practice of defining the tensile strength of SFRC based on different experiments internationally makes the comparison difficult. For design purposes, the code prediction methods based on the Eurocode shear expression provide reasonable results (with coefficients of variation on the ratio of tested to predicted results of 27% - 29%). None of the currently available methods properly describe the behavior of SFRC beams failing in shear. As such, this work shows the need for studies that address the different shear-carrying mechanisms in SFRC and its crack kinematics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deep tunnel, high stresses, shear zone, rockburst, energy released
Online: 12 June 2018 (14:12:56 CEST)
Rockburst is a hazardous phenomenon in deep tunnels influenced by geological structural planes like faults, joints, and shear planes. Small-scale shear-plane-like structures have damaging impact on the boundaries of the tunnel, which accumulate high stresses. Such a shear plane was exposed in the side wall of the right headrace tunnel in the Neelum-Jehlum Hydropower Project. This project is constructed in the tectonically active Himalayas with high stress conditions. A shear plane combined with high stress conditions is very dangerous in deep excavations. The influence of a shear zone on rockburst occurrence near a tunnel is studied. The FLAC3D explicit code simulated the shear zone in the right tunnel, revealing that the stresses are concentrated near the shear zone, with no stress concentration in the left tunnel, which has neither shear zone nor rockburst. Rock mass was displaced near this shear zone even before excavation. Modeling results confirm that the side wall shear zone of the tunnel has a major influence on rockburst occurrence. A shear slip along this plane released huge amounts of energy, causing human fatalities and property damage. A numerical simulation validates the actual conditions and helps us understand the phenomenon of stress concentration near the shear zone and its impact during deep tunneling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0486.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: marine renewable energy; ocean energy; wave energy; environmental effects; wave modeling; wave propagation; numerical modeling; sediment dynamics; risk assessment
Online: 29 June 2018 (13:09:23 CEST)
Wave energy converter (WEC) arrays deployed in coastal regions may create physical disturbances potentially resulting in environmental stresses. Presently, limited information is available on the nature of these physical disturbance or the resultant effects. A quantitative Spatial Environmental Assessment Tool (SEAT) for evaluating potential effects of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays on nearshore hydrodynamics and sediment transport is presented for the central Oregon coast (USA) through coupled numerical model simulations of an array of WECs. Derived climatological wave conditions were used as inputs to the model to allow for the calculation of risk metrics associated with various hydrodynamic and sediment transport variables such as maximum shear stress, bottom velocity, and change in bed elevation. The risk maps provided simple, quantitative, and spatially-resolved means of evaluating physical changes in the vicinity of a hypothetical WEC array in response to varying wave conditions. Near-field risk of sediment mobility was determined to be moderate in the lee of the densely spaced array, where the potential for increased sediment deposition could result in benthic habitat alteration. Modifications to the nearshore sediment deposition and erosion patterns were observed near headlands and topographic features, which could have implications for littoral sediment transport. The results illustrate the benefits of a risk evaluation tool for facilitating coastal resource management at early market marine renewable energy sites.
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:28:34 CEST)
In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) studied general entangled states in the two photon experiment and pointed out the contradiction between local realism and the completeness of quantum mechanism. Most of the EPR experiments in recent years are based on the detection of polarization correlations of optical photons between spatially separated photon channels, some of which are split and directed to two spatially separated Michelson interferometers. Later, the two arms of Michelson interferometers are replaced by dual-channel Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometry enabling precise analysis of the energy-time entanglement between a pair of photons. On the other hand, F-P type detectors on gravitational radiation have caught dozens of gravitational wave (GW) events successfully. This paper proposes a combined experiment of EPR and GW, exhibiting whether the coincident rate of EPR is modulated by GW induced change of cavity length or not. Such an experiment could test the coupling of quantum mechanics and general relativity for the first time, and be a useful tool to explore the nature of quantum gravity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: deformation monitoring; distributed monitoring; single-cell box girder; long-gage strain; long-gage Fiber Bragg Grating; strain distribution; shear lag effect; shear action
Online: 12 June 2018 (05:47:08 CEST)
Distributed deformation based on Fiber Bragg Grating sensors or other kinds of strain sensors can be used to evaluate safety in operating periods of bridges. However, most of the published researches about distributed deformation monitoring are focused on solid rectangular beam rather than box girder—a kind of typical hollow beam widely employed in actual bridges. Considering that the entire deformation of a single-cell box girder contains not only bending deflection but also two additional deformations respectively caused by shear lag and shearing action, this paper again revises the improved conjugated beam method (ICBM) based on the LFBG sensors to satisfy the requirements for monitoring two mentioned additional deformations. The best choice for the LFBG sensor placement in box gilder is also proposed in this paper due to strain fluctuation on flange caused by shear lag effect. Results from numerical simulations show that most of the theoretical monitoring errors of the revised ICBM are 0.3%~1.5%, and the maximum error is 2.4%. A loading experiment for a single-cell box gilder monitored by LFBG sensors show that most of the practical monitoring errors are 6%~8%, and the maximum error is 11%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0371.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: circular torus; nonlinear deformation; shear deformation; Mindlin; Gauss curvature; Maple
Online: 16 July 2021 (12:47:16 CEST)
The nonlinear deformation and stress analysis of a circular torus is a difficult undertaking due to its complicated topology and the variation of the Gauss curvature. A nonlinear deformation (only one term in strain is omitted) of Mindlin torus was formulated in terms of the generalized displacement, and a general Maple code was written for numerical simulations. Numerical investigations show that the results obtained by nonlinear Mindlin, linear Mindlin, nonlinear Kirchhoff-Love, and linear Kirchhoff-Love models are close to each other. The study further reveals that the linear Kirchhoff-Love modeling of the circular torus gives good accuracy and provides assurance that the nonlinear deformation and stress analysis (not dynamics) of a Mindlin torus can be replaced by a simpler formulation, such as a linear Kirchhoff-Love theory of the torus, which has not been reported in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: shear stress distribution; entropy; uncertainty; Shannon; Shannon PL; Tsallis; Renyi
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:33:47 CET)
The entropy models have been recently adopted in many studies to evaluate the distribution of the shear stress in circular channels. However, the uncertainty in their predictions and their reliability remains an open question. We present a novel method to evaluate the uncertainty of four popular entropy models, including Shannon, Shannon-Power Low (PL), Tsallis, and Renyi, in shear stress estimation in circular channels. The Bayesian Monte-Carlo (BMC) uncertainty method is simplified considering a 95% Confidence Bound (CB). We developed a new statistic index called as FREEopt-based OCB (FOCB) using the statistical indices Forecasting Range of Error Estimation (FREE) and the percentage of observed data in the CB (Nin), which integrates their combined effect. The Shannon and Shannon PL entropies had close values of the FOCB equal to 8.781 and 9.808, respectively, had the highest certainty in the calculation of shear stress values in circular channels followed by traditional uniform flow shear stress and Tsallis models with close values of 14.491 and 14.895, respectively. However, Renyi entropy with much higher values of FOCB equal to 57.726 has less certainty in the estimation of shear stress than other models. Using the presented results in this study, the amount of confidence in entropy methods in the calculation of shear stress to design and implement different types of open channels and their stability is determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: extensometer; tensile strain; shear strain; calibration; elastic deformation; combined loads
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:10:14 CET)
The paper presents an extensometer designed to measure two mechanical strains at the same time—one from tensile load and the other from torsion load. Strain transducers provide different electric signals, which, after calibration, lead to the simultaneous measurement of linear (ε) and angular (γ) strains. Each of these two signals depends on the measured process and is not influenced by the other strain process. This extensometer is designed to be easily mounted on the sample with only two mounting points and can be used to measure the combined cyclical fatigue of tensile and torsional loadings. This extensometer has two bars—one rigid, reported at the resulting stress points, and one elastic and deformable. The elastic deformable bar has two beams with different orientations. When the sample is deformed, both beams are loaded by two bending moments (perpendicular to each other and both perpendicular on the longitudinal axis of the bars).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0506.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: dissimilar metal; torch brazing; interface joint; intermetallic compound; shear strength
Online: 26 July 2018 (08:25:19 CEST)
Joining of aluminium alloys to steels has been extensively studied, especially in the automotive sector. However, aluminium alloys are known to be difficult to join with steels when methods involving fusion welding are used because of hot cracking problem. Hence, a high strength joint between these dissimilar metals would be of benefit especially in reducing the weight of products. In this work the torch brazing method was applied to join AR500 steel with AA7075 aluminium alloy using Al-Si-Zn base filler metal at various flame times. The effect of the brazing work on the intermetallic phase formation and the mechanical strength of the joints were investigated. In this work, the maximum shear load obtained was 6460 N and the presence of the intermetallic phases had reduced the shear strength of the brazed joints. However, the torch brazing process using Al-Si-Zn filler metal had successfully facilitated the joining of these dissimilar metals.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: electromagnetic waves, microwave frequency range, biological medium, wave propagation, reflection, refraction, surface wave, creeping wave, multilayered biological medium, body area networks
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:13:48 CEST)
Propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves inside and on the surface of the human body is the subject of active research in area of biomedical applications. This research area is the basis for wireless monitoring of biological object parameters and characteristics. Much attention has been paid to radio-frequency identification systems, which are intended for biomedical applications. Solutions to the following problems are crucial to achieve the stated goals in the area of wireless monitoring: EM wave propagation inside regular and multilayer biological media, through the interface between different media, and on-body surface wave propagation. The biological object monitoring is based on a consideration of the followingprocesses: a) propagation of the EM wave in a biological medium considered as the dielectric with a high dielectric permittivity and substantial conductivity; b) penetration of the EM wave through the biological medium–air interface (wave reflection and refraction); c) propagation of the EM wave in a multi-layer biological medium; d) propagation of the EM wave along the plane or curved surface of biological objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0275.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Heat wave; satisfaction to community; social linkage; global warming; perception to heat wave
Online: 12 May 2021 (17:17:44 CEST)
The research examines the relationship between self-rated health situation and personal percep-tion of heat waves, and how social linkage of communities would be a moderator variable in residents’ perception of heat waves in Taiwan. This study uses the questionnaire conducted by Sinica “Responsive Capacity under Heat Wave: The Perspectives of the Locals”(2019), using OLS method for estimating the unknown parameters in multiple regression model. The author finds that the correlation of self-rated health situation and perception toward heat is significantly posi-tive. Also, social linkage in communities affects strongly as a moderator variable: While the sat-isfaction to with their community could reduce negative reaction to heat, contacts with neighbors could increase possibility people feel uncomfortable in high-temperature situation. This study ex-hibits the effects of social environment on community, and expects further related researches or practices to strengthen capability to resist heat wavesƒ for Taiwanese residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: altimeter; sea surface wind speed; significant wave height; mean wave period; atmospheric instability
Online: 23 February 2020 (11:09:10 CET)
Spaceborne altimeters are an important data source for obtaining global sea surface wind speeds (U10). Although many altimeter U10 algorithms have been proposed and they perform well, there is still room for improvement. In this study, the data from ten altimeters were collocated with buoys to investigate the error of the altimeter U10 retrievals. The U10 residuals were found to be significantly dependent on many oceanic and atmospheric parameters. Because these oceanic and atmospheric parameters are inter-correlated, an asymptotic strategy was used to isolate the impact of different parameters and establish a neural-network-based correction model of altimeter U10. The results indicated that significant wave heights and mean wave periods are effective in correcting U10 retrievals, probably due to the tilting modulation of long-waves on the sea surface. After the wave correction, the root-mean-square error of the retrieved U10 was reduced from 1.42 m/s to 1.24 m/s and the impacts of thermodynamic parameters, such as sea surface (air) temperate, became negligible. The U10 residuals after correction showed that the atmospheric instability can lead to errors on extrapolated buoy U10. The buoy measurements with large air-sea temperature differences need to be excluded in the Cal/Val of remotely sensed U10.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy; ESWT; focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy; fESWT; mechanisms of action; radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy; rESWT; systematic review
Online: 14 April 2022 (07:42:55 CEST)
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is a safe and effective treatment option for various pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. Many studies addressed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of ESWT. However, no uniform concept could be established in this matter until now. We performed a systematic review of the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs) reported in the literature. The key results were as follows: (i) compared to the effects of many other forms of therapy, the clinical benefit of ESWT does not appear to be based on a single mechanism; (ii) different tissues respond to the same mechanical stimulus in different ways; (iii) just because a mechanism of action of ESWT was described in a study does not automatically mean that this mechanism was relevant to the observed clinical effect; (iv) focused ESWs and radial ESWs seem to act in a similar way; and (v) even the most sophisticated research into the effects of exposure of musculoskeletal tissue to ESWs cannot substitute clinical research in order to determine the optimum intensity, treatment frequency and localization of ESWT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0360.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: turbulence; capillary wave; spectrum; anisotropy
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:59:01 CET)
We consider the developed turbulence of capillary waves on shallow water. Analytic theory shows that an isotropic cascade spectrum is unstable with the respect to small angular perturbations, in particular, to spontaneous breakdown of the reflection symmetry and generation of nonzero momentum. By computer modeling we show that indeed a random pumping, generating on average zero momentum, produces turbulence with a nonzero total momentum. A strongly anisotropic large-scale pumping produces turbulence whose degree of anisotropy decreases along a cascade. It tends to saturation in the inertial interval and then further decreases in the dissipation interval. Surprisingly, neither the direction of the total momentum nor the direction of the compensated spectrum anisotropy is locked by our square box preferred directions (side or diagonal) but fluctuate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0081.v1
Online: 8 April 2019 (10:41:17 CEST)
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data is part of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) observables. In a marine environment, the oscillation of the SNR data can be used to derive reflector heights. Since the attenuation of the SNR oscillation is related to the roughness of the sea surface, the significant wave height (SWH) of the water surface can be calculated from the analysis of the attenuation. The attenuation depends additionally on the relation between the coherent and the incoherent part of the scattered power. The latter is a function of the correlation length of the surface waves. Because the correlation length changes with respect to the direction of the line of sight relative to the wave direction, the attenuation must show an anisotropic characteristic. In this work, we present a method to derive the wave direction from the anisotropy of the attenuation of the SNR data. The method is investigated based on simulated data as well by the analysis of experimental data from a GNSS station in the North Sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter-wave; radiometer; sequential lobing
Online: 23 November 2017 (11:29:03 CET)
The paper investigates the theory of operation of a passive millimeter-wave seeker sensor using fast electronic sequential-lobing technique and the experimental validation obtained through laboratory trials. The paper analyzes in detail the theoretical performance of a difference channel sensor and a pseudo-monopulse sensor deriving agile formulas for the estimation of target angular tracking accuracy and the subsequent experimental validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: ocean surface wave simulation; inverse Fourier transform; directional wave spectrum; linear superposition; Nyquist frequency
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:42:22 CEST)
Ocean surface waves have been utilized as fundamental information in various fields of oceanic research. In this paper, we suggest a simulation and modelling technique for generating an ocean surface wave using an inverse Fast Fourier Transform (iFFT), and we subsequently verify the wave’s accuracy. The conventional method, linear superposition, requires recursive calculation because of the double summation and the time variable; to circumvent this issue, the new algorithm is presented. The Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum is utilized for the ocean surface wave simulation example, and the parameters are the significant wave height (HS) and the zero-crossing wave period (TZ). A coordinate transform for the wavenumber domain was used to apply the inverse FFT algorithm. To verify the accuracy of the simulation result, the relative error between the input condition and the analysis result was calculated. The result for TZ is below 4% relative error, and the maximum relative error for HS is 7%. To avoid the Nyquist frequency for wave-field analysis and simulation, the minimum grid size was calculated by twice applying the maximum wavenumber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Colombia; Colombian Caribbean; marine climate; Mallorquín Lagoon; Puerto Colombia; Wave Watch III; wave; wind
Online: 17 February 2020 (03:32:48 CET)
This work presents an application called APPMAR 1.0 based on Python ® environment, built to perform the downloading, treatment and analysis of meteorological and marine information. This application is composed of two main modules: the first module allows the downloading of information from the database (NOAA - WW3); the second module uses the principles of statistical mathematics for the treatment of waves and wind. The importance of this simple application is based on the free and agile access to meteorological and marine information for a coastal project. The determination of representative conditions of sea states ultimately will govern the process of design of coastal and oceanic infrastructure. The analysis of historical time series of local waves and winds allows the evaluation of average regimes or operational design, the ultimate limit states or extreme design, and the storms or design by persistence. In spite that the former analysis is a common task for coastal engineers, the codes generated are seldom shared for public use. In summary, for operational purposes is useful to have a freeware that can assist in the data processing for decision making and forcing of the mathematical models that are part of the common practice of coastal, oceanic and offshore engineering. This application has been tested in the Caribbean area of Colombia where meteorological and marine information are scarce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0447.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation; travelling wave solution; extended auxiliary equation method; complex wave solution
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:28:56 CET)
We apply utilized the extended form of the auxiliary equation method to obtain extensively reliable exact travelling wave solutions of perturbed Gerdjikov–Ivanov equation (GIE) that is widely used as a model in the field theory of quanta and non-linear optics. The method is based on a simple first order second degree ODE. The new form of the approach gives more solutions to the governing equation efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: eNose; gas sensor, SAW; Surface Acoustic Wave, Love wave, diabetes, breath, VOC, ZIF, Zeolite
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:18:23 CET)
In the present work a novel, portable and innovative eNose composed of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array based ZIF-8, and ZIF-67 nanocrystals (pure and combined with gold nanoparticles) as sensitive layers has been tested as a non-invasive system to detect and differentiate disease markers, such as acetone, ethanol and ammonia, related with early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus through exhaled breath. The sensors have been prepared by spin coating, achieving continuous and homogenous sensitive layers. Low concentrations (5 ppm, 10 ppm and 25ppm) of the marker analytes were measured, obtaining high sensitivities, good reproducibility, short time response and fast signal recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Two-phase flow; Turbulence model; Monopile; Vortex field; Bed shear stress
Online: 16 August 2022 (03:17:12 CEST)
The unsteady flow around the monopile under the influence of wave and vibration is studied by numerical method. Based on VOF model and SST Turbulence model, combined with Intermittent Transition model and dynamic mesh method, wave generation and pile vibration in numerical flume are simulated. The flow field around vibrating monopile in a calm water flume and a wave flume is simulated and the simulation results are compared. The calculation results show that the monopile vibration has a great disturbance to the unsteady flow around the pile, and the disturbance degree intensifies with the increase of the vibration amplitude of the monopile: Under the action of inertia, the vibration of the monopile leads to the reattachment of the shedding vortices; Under the influence of the reattachment vortices, the asymmetry of the vorticity on the side wall of the monopile intensifies; The intensification of the disturbance causes the reduction of the phase lead angle of the bed shear stress on the side of the single pile, and an additional high bed shear stress appears on the side of the monopile. In addition, the vortex structure formed alternately around the monopile during the vibration process leads to the periodic change of the high bed shear stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0580.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Impact loading; split-Hopkinson bar; SHCC; ECC; compressive loading; shear loading
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:16:31 CEST)
The ductile behavior of strain hardening cement-based composites (SHCC) under direct tensile load makes them promising solutions for applications where high energy dissipation is needed, such as earthquake, impact by a projectile, or blast. However, the superior tensile ductility of SHCC due to multiple cracking does not necessarily entail compressive and shear ductility. As an effort to characterize the behavior of SHCC under impact compressive and shear loading, relevant to the mentioned high-speed loading scenarios, the paper at hand studies the performance of a SHCC and its constituent cement-based matrices using the split-Hopkinson bar method. For compression experiments, cylindrical specimens with a length-to-diameter ratio (l/d) of 1.6 were used. The selected length of the sample led to similar failure modes under the quasi-static and impact loading conditions, which was necessary for a reliable comparison of the obtained compressive strengths. The impact experiments were performed in a split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) at a strain rate that reached 110 s-1 at the moment of failure. For shear experiments, a special adapter was developed for a split-Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB). The adapter enabled performing impact shear experiments on planar specimens using the tensile wave generated in the SHTB. Results showed a dynamic increase factor (DIF) of 2.3 and 2.0 for compressive and shear strength of SHCC, respectively. As compared to the non-reinforced constituent matrix, the absolute value of the compressive strength was lower for the SHCC. Contrarily, under shear loading, the SHCC yielded the higher shear strength than the non-reinforced matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0048.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: calcite; seismic anisotropy; texture; CPO; thrust; shear zone; neutron diffraction; crust
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:03:19 CET)
Eight samples of limestones and marbles were studied by neutron diffraction to collect 2 Quantitative Texture (i.e., Crystallographic Preferred Orientations or CPO) of calcite deforming at 3 different depths in the crust. We studied the different Texture patterns developed in shear zones at 4 different depth and their influence on seismic anisotropies. Samples were collected in the French and 5 Italian Alps, Apennines, and Paleozoic Sardinian basement. They are characterized by isotropic to 6 highly anisotropic (e.g., mylonite shear zone) fabrics. Mylonite limestones occur as shear zone horizons 7 within the Cenozoic Southern Domain in Alpine thrust-and-fold belts (Italy), the Briançonnais domain 8 of the Western Alps (Italy-France border), the Sardinian Paleozoic back-thrusts or in the Austroalpine 9 intermediate units. The analyzed marbles were collected in the Carrara Marble, in the Austroalpine Units 10 in the Central (Mortirolo) and Western Alps (Valpelline). The temperature and depth of development of fabrics vary from < 100◦C, to 800◦C and depth from <10 km to about 30 km, corresponding from upper 12 to lower crust conditions. Quantitative Texture Analysis shows different types of patterns for calcite: 13 random to strongly textured. Textured types may be further separated in orthorhombic and monoclinic 14 (Types A and B), based on the angle defined with the mesoscopic fabrics. Seismic anisotropies were 15 calculated by homogenizing the single crystal elastic tensor, using the Orientation Distribution Function 16 calculated by the Quantitative Texture Analysis. The resulting P- and S-waves anisotropies show a wide 17 variability due to the textural types, temperature and pressure conditions, and dip of the shear planes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cross-laminated timber; structural composite lumber; hybrid; bending properties; shear properties
Online: 5 September 2018 (06:33:41 CEST)
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) possesses both good shape stability and the possible two-way force transfer ability due to its crosswise lamination. However, the transverse layers in CLT are prone to rolling shear failure under an out-of-plane load. An innovative multi-layer composite laminated panel (CLP) was developed by combining structural composite lumber (SCL) and dimension lumber to overcome the rolling shear failure while maintaining high mechanical performance and aesthetic appearance of natural wood. The mechanical properties of 5-layer CLP consisted of laminated strand lumber (LSL) and dimension lumber with different layups were evaluated by both static and modal tests. The results showed that the shear resistance, bending stiffness and moment resistance of CLP were up to 143%, 43% and 87% higher than their counterparts of regular CLT, respectively. The failure modes observed in both shear and bending tests indicated that the use of LSL in transverse layers could eliminate the potential rolling shear failure in CLT. With the lamination properties from components tests as inputs, the validity of shear analogy method was assessed by test results. The mechanical properties can be well predicted by shear analogy method except for the bending moment resistance of CLP and CLT with either rolling failure in the cross layer or tension failure in the bottom layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0034.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: Brinkman type ﬂuid; Fourier Integral transformation; side walls; oscillating shear stress
Online: 5 February 2018 (11:43:42 CET)
In this paper Brinkman type ﬂuid over an inﬁnite plate between side walls is being investigated. The ﬂow is generated by oscillating shear stress of the bottom plate and the solutions are obtained by using Fourier integral transformation. The obtained results are presented in steady and transient states for both sin and cos shear stresses. The general solutions are reduced to some special cases corresponding, namely to the Brinkman type ﬂuid over an inﬁnite plate and ﬂow of a Newtonian viscous ﬂuid. Graphical illustrations are carried out to have in depth analysis of the involved physical parameters
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0002.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wind prediction; wind estimation; UAS; wind shear; gust; multi-platform integration
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:44:54 CET)
This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions show a convergence time with a 95% confidence interval of approximately 30 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0010.v1
Subject: Optics, Physical Sciences Keywords: electromagnetic wave; medium chirality; bilinear parameter; conservation law; spin-orbit coupling; plane wave; inconsistency; wave-propagation problem; light-matter interaction; circular vector; bi-characteristics
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:39:04 CEST)
We examine here characteristics of electromagnetic waves that propagate through an unbounded space filled with a homogeneous isotropic chiral medium. Resulting characters are compared to those of the electromagnetic waves propagating through an achiral free space. To this goal, we form energy conservation laws for key bilinear parameters in a chiral case. Due to a nonzero medium chirality, conservation laws turn out to contain extra terms that are linked to the spin-orbit coupling, which is absent for an achiral case. As an example, we take a plane wave for achiral case to evaluate those bilinear parameters. Resultantly, the conservation laws for a chiral case are found to reveal inconsistencies among them, thereby prompting us to establish partial remedies for formulating proper wave-propagation problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0614.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: marine weather; characteristic wave height; storm surge; shore platform; overtopping wave; hydrodynamics equation; flooding hazard
Online: 25 June 2021 (10:12:06 CEST)
Boulder dynamics may provide essential data for the coastal evolution and hazards assessment and can be focused as a proxy for the onshore effect of intense storm waves. In this work, detailed observations of currently available satellite imagery of the Earth surface allowed to identify several coastal boulders displacements in the Southern Apulia coast (Italy), in a period between July 2018 and June 2020. Field surveys confirmed the displacements of several dozens of boulders up to several meters in size, also allowing the determination of the initial position for many of them. Archive weather analyses identified two possible causative storms during the same period, and calculations based on analytical equations are found in agreement with the displacement by storm waves for most of the observed boulders. The results help to give insights about the onshore effect of high storm waves on the coastal hydrodynamics and the possible future flooding hazard in the studied coast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0300.v2
Subject: Keywords: Complex wave mek complex frequency, medium, electric field, the medium wave function, friction, relaxation time
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:01:14 CET)
Maxwell equation for the electric field has been solved for any medium by suggesting the wavenumber and angular frequency be complex quantities. This accounts for the field decay by interaction with the medium.This expression for the time and special decay of the electric field in a medium is used to construct a new wave function sensitive to the medium physical properties. This new wave function, unlike the conventional one, differentiates between a beam of particles in a vacuum and that enters a medium which is an attenuated due to the scattering effect.Another expression for time decaying electric field was obtained using Newton’s laws for frictional medium. This expression shows that the electric field diminishes due to friction.Fortunately, this time decaying part of the electric field is typical to that derived from Maxwell’s equations. Finally, a new Schrodinger equation sensitive to the medium properties was derived. This equation, fortunately, describes some scattering processes for Protein scattering, scattering of x-rays, opto-acoustic phonons, and Raman scattering for some materials successfully .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0675.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: wave impact assessment; characteristic wave height; Salento peninsula; Taranto Gulf; Mediterranean Sea; November 2019 storm
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:53:07 CEST)
The storm of November 12th-13th, 2019 provoked the displacements of boulders in a central Mediterranean rocky coast; with reference to a selected area, prone to the boulder production and geomorphologically monitored for years, a field-oriented study approach was applied for the phenomenon, by collating data concerning pre-storm locations and kinematics of these boulders. The number of displaced boulders is 11, that is, in terms of morphological imprint of a specific storm, one of the major study cases for the Mediterranean. In addition, based on widely used hydrodynamic equations, the minimum wave height required to displace the boulders is assessed. The values conform with the expected values for the wave climate dominating during the causative meteorological event and give a measure of the energy of the storm slamming the coast. Boulder dislodgements usually have plays a key role in determining the rate of the coastal recession, likely also in the investigated area. In view of an adverse climate evolution with a possible increase of energy and frequency of severe storms, the results deriving from the study of this morphodynamics should be considered for the hazard assessment and coastal management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0443.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Coupled Higgs equations, new extended rational methods, traveling wave solution, complex solution, multi wave solution
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:11:01 CET)
By using the new recently proposed extended rational methods, we set some solitary and multi wave solutions of the coupled Higgs system in the present study. Some new families of hyperbolic and trigonometric solutions of the coupled Higgs equations are successfully obtained. Some solutions are real as some are complex valued functions. Particular forms of some solutions derived by choice of some parameters are demonstrated in three dimensional spaces. The complex valued solutions are also depicted by plotting both real and complex component.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: wave reflection; cardiovascular modelling; arterial hemodynamics
Online: 24 March 2022 (05:21:26 CET)
Arterial ageing is thought to cause a diastolic-to-systolic shift in the return time (RT) of backward waves to central arteries. However, current methods of estimating RT—inflection point, zero crossing, and foot methods—depend on a single waveform feature and produce systolic RT throughout life. We propose a novel centroid method that accounts for the entire backward pressure waveform and develop a ground truth RT (GTRT), which can be used in computational models to test the accuracy of RT estimation methods. Linear wave tracking was implemented in a one-dimensional systemic arterial tree model and GTRT was calculated as the amplitude-weighted mean RT of backward waves at the ascending aorta. Using a virtual cohort of 1200 patients, the centroid RT was closest to GTRT compared to the zero crossing, inflection point, and foot methods; mean differences (limits of agreement) were -8 (-47,30), vs -42 (-136,52), -78 (-305,149), and -197 (-379,-15) ms, respectively. The sensitivity of the methods to changes in RT was also assessed in ten sheep. A balloon catheter in the descending thoracic aorta was used to generate a backward-running pulse that arrived at the ascending aorta at different times during diastole or systole, allowing the “bulk” RT of the backward-running wave ensemble to be manipulated. Only the centroid method was sensitive to both diastolic and systolic changes in RT. We conclude that the accuracy and robustness of the centroid method make it most suitable for evaluating the diastolic-to-systolic shift in RT of backward waves with ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cardiovascular modelling; arterial haemodynamics; wave reflection
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:05:44 CET)
The arterial network in healthy young adults is thought to be structured to minimise wave reflection in conduit arteries, producing an ascending aortic pressure waveform with three key features: early systolic peak, negative systolic augmentation, and diastolic hump. One-dimensional computer models have provided significant insights into arterial haemodynamics, but no previous models of the young adult have exhibited these three features. Since the latter was likely to be related to unrepresentative or non-optimised impedance properties of the model arterial networks, we developed a new ‘YoungAdult’ model that incorporated 1) a novel and more accurate empirical equation for approximating wave speeds, based on area and relative distance to elastic-muscular arterial transition points, 2) optimally-matched arterial junctions, and 3) an improved arterial network geometry that eliminated ‘within-segment’ taper (which causes wave reflection in conduit arteries) whilst establishing ‘impedance-preserving’ taper. These model properties led to wave reflection occurring predominantly at distal vascular beds, rather than in conduit arteries. The model predicted all three typical characteristics of an ascending aortic pressure waveform observed in young adults. When compared with non-invasively acquired pressure and velocity measurements (obtained via tonometry and Doppler ultrasound in 7 young adults), the model was also shown to reproduce the typical waveform morphology observed in the radial, brachial, carotid, temporal, femoral, and tibial arteries. The YoungAdult model provides support for the concept that the arterial tree impedance in healthy young adults is exquisitely optimised, and it provides an important baseline model for investigating cardiovascular changes in ageing and disease states.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Ferry design; wave generation; ship hydrodynamics
Online: 14 January 2021 (07:54:26 CET)
In this paper, we revisit the hydrodynamics supporting the design and development of the RiverCat class of catamaran ferries operating in Sydney Harbor since 1991. More advanced software is used here. This software accounts for the hydrodynamics of the transom demisterns which experience partial or full ventilation, depending on the vessel speed. This ventilation gives rise to the hydrostatic drag, which adds to the total drag of the vessel. The presence of the transom also creates a hollow in the water. This hollow causes an effective hydrodynamic lengthening of the vessel, which leads to a reduction in the wave resistance. Hence a detailed analysis is required in order to optimize the size of the transom. It is demonstrated that the drag of the vessel and the wave generation can be predicted with good accuracy. Finally, the software is also used to optimize the vessel further by means of affine transformations of the hull geometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0050.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: gravitational wave; Newton’s gravitation; LIGO interferometer
Online: 5 August 2019 (05:24:18 CEST)
The most important conclusion from this article is that from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies. If the LIGO team has measured anything, it is only this modulation, rather than the gravitational wave understood as the carrier of gravity. This discussion shows that using too complicated mathematics in physics leads to erroneous interpretation of results (in this case, perhaps the tensor analysis is guilty). Formally, various things can be calculated, but without knowing what such analysis means, they can be attributed misinterpreted. Since the modulation of gravitational field intensities has been called a gravitational wave in contemporary physics, we have also done so, although it is misleading. In the article it was shown, that from the Newton’s law of gravitation resulted an existence of gravitational waves very similar to these, which result from the General Theory of Relativity. The article shows differences between the course of gravitational waves that result from Newton’s gravitation, and the course of gravitational waves that result from the General Theory of Relativity, which measurement was announced by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) , , and . According to both theories, gravitational waves are cyclical changes of the gravitational field intensities. The article proposes a method of testing a laser interferometer for gravitational wave measurement used in the LIGO Observatory. Criticism of results published by the LIGO team was also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0332.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: railway; fatigue; ultrasonic; nonlinear; wave mixing
Online: 29 July 2019 (06:10:25 CEST)
Nonlinear ultrasonic testing has been accepted as a promising manner for evaluating material integrity in an early stage. Stress fatigue is the main threats to train safety, railways examinations for stress fatigue are more significant and necessary. A series of ultrasonic nonlinear wave experiments are conducted for rail specimens extracted from railhead with different degree of fatigue produced by three-point bent loading condition. The nonlinear parameter is the indicator of nonlinear waves for expressing the degree the fatigue. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of a third harmonic longitudinal wave is higher than second harmonic longitudinal wave testing. As the same time, collinear wave mixing shows strong relative with fatigue damages than a second longitudinal wave NDT method and provides more reliable results than third harmonic longitudinal waves nonlinear testing method.
Online: 25 April 2019 (15:09:38 CEST)
The subject of the research is to Development of laser ablation method for Fabrication of surface acoustic wave sensors on quartz wafer, the target of the GQW – is to design Acoustic wave sensor by using laser ablation method. By using the surface acoustic wave theory to sense by the signal and using this physical phenomenon, We will design the sensor which transduce an input electrical signal into a mechanical wave which unlike an electrical signal, can be easily influenced by physical phenomena. The device then transducers this wave back into an electrical signal on the secondary terminal of the sensor. Changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, or time-delay between the input and output electrical signals can be used to measure the presence of the desired Our work in this part, especially the practical part like temperature, vibration ,etc. we design a combs on the waver of quartz to make like an electrode primary electrode & secondary electrode by putting coats of cuppers & vanadium on the waver and then using the fiber optic laser regime to design this combs to can able transfer the signal by ablation the most important here to use the regime of fiber optic laser then we using this sensor in any electronic circuit How we will select the suitable kind of laser to design, this is the most important part, and what it will be the diameter of that combs of secondary and primary , how much the value of the wave length to select the micro distant combs to avoid any inductance and interference for transferred signal , also take the benefit of using MEMS theory in our project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0072.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: wave packet; infinite components wavefunctions; Zitterbewegung
Online: 16 January 2017 (04:03:31 CET)
In the Majorana equation for particles with arbitrary spin, the wave packet is due not only to the uncertainty affecting position and momentum but also to the infinite components with decreasing mass forming the Majorana spinor. In this paper we prove that such components contribute to increase the spreading of the wave packet. Moreover, as occurs in the time propagation of the Dirac wave packet, also in that of Majorana the Zitterbewegung takes place, but it shows a peculiar fine structure. Finally, the group velocity always remains subluminal and the contributions due to the infinite components decrease progressively increasing the spin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0476.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Remote sensing; Morphotectonic analysis; Lineaments; Riedel shear model; Upper Guajira; Caribbean plate
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:51:51 CEST)
This study uses Landsat 8 and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to show the dominant orientations of digital lineaments and morphotectonic features between measured trends and the tectonic evolution of the Upper Guajira, Colombia, in the northernmost region of the South American plate. Data from Landsat-8 and hillshaded images of three Digital Elevation Model (DEM) images with different resolutions (SRTM: 90m, ASTER-GDEM: 30m and Alos-Palsar: 12.5m), were used for the extraction and mapping of morpholineaments, drainage network and morphological features. Lineaments were analyzed by means of north azimuth frequency, length, density distributions, lithological distributions and geochronological periods. Tectonic control was supported by using the digitized geological map created by the Colombian Geological Service (SGC). Lineaments and faults were analyzed through the interpretation of a Riedel shear model as a result of the transtensional/transpressional tectonic arrangement of the Caribbean and South American plates. The directional trends of lineaments and faults indicate two dominant directions: NE-SW and E-W. The azimuth distribution analysis of measured structures and drainage channels show similar trends, except for some differences in the predominant directions of some drainage channels. The similarity in the orientation of lineaments, faults and drainage system highlights the degree of control exerted by underlying structures on the surface geomorphological features. Drainage channel classification illustrates the morphological and neo-tectonic complexity of the region. The extracted lineaments were divided into five geochronological groups based on the main ages of host rock formations according to the Colombian Geological Service (SGC) geological map. From the Cretaceous onward, the lineament azimuth frequency rotates from a NE-SW trend to a prominent E-W direction, which resembles the translation that Caribbean plate has been undergoing since the Cretaceous. Our results confirm that Remote Sensing techniques are reliable and useful to study the morphotectonic of an area and can be applied to zones of difficult access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Active filler; Bitumen emulsion mastic; Dynamic shear rheometer; Viscoelasticity; Fatigue cracking resistance
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:46:24 CEST)
Recently Cold Bitumen Emulsion (CBE) mixture technologies have been developed to lower the pavement construction temperatures to reduce the environmental costs and control the gas emissions. Due to its poor early mechanical strength, active fillers (i.e. cement) have been used to obtain high early stiffness in order to have the potential for timely construction of the next layer. There is, however, a lack of understanding about the impact of active fillers nature on viscoelastic behaviour and fatigue damage resistance of CBE mastics. This study, therefore, aims to identify the influence of active fillers on the rheological properties and the resulted fatigue behaviour of CBE mastic, supported by chemical analysis for the filler-bitumen emulsion. For this aim, bitumen emulsion was mixed separately with seven fillers/blended fillers to prepare the CBE mastics. Various experiments include continuous pH monitoring tests (chemical reactivity of filler-bitumen emulsion), Strain sweep (SS) tests, Temperature-Frequency Sweep (TFS) tests, Time Sweep (TS) tests, and Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS) tests were conducted on the CBE binder and the prepared mastics. Results show that the rheological performance and the fatigue damage resistance is not only dependent on the filler inclusions, but it significantly relies on filler type and chemistry. Based on that, the raise in complex shear modulus and the decrease in viscous components were associated with a significant enhancement in fatigue performance for specific filler.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: beam-like model; dynamic analysis; Rayleigh-Ritz; shear torsional beam; FEM models
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:20:49 CET)
Dynamic analyses and seismic assessments of multi-storey buildings at urban level require large-scale simulations and computational procedures based on simplified but accurate numerical models. At this aim the present paper propos-es an equivalent non-uniform beam-like model, suitable for the dynamic analysis of buildings with asymmetric plan and non-uniform vertical distribution of mass and stiffness. The equations of motion of this beam-like model, which pre-sents only shear and torsional deformability, are derived through the application of Hamilton’s principle. The linear dy-namic behaviour is evaluated by discretizing the continuous non-uniform model according to a Rayleigh-Ritz approach based on a suitable number of modal shapes of the uniform shear-torsional beam. In spite of its simplicity, the model is able to reproduce the dynamic behaviour of low- and mid-rise buildings with a significant reduction of the computa-tional burden with respect to that required by more general models. The efficacy of the proposed approach has been tested, by means of comparisons with linear FEM simulations, on three multi-storey buildings characterized by different irregularities. The satisfactory agreement, in terms of natural frequencies, modes of vibration and seismic response, proves the capability of the proposed approach to reproduce the dynamic response of complex spatial multi storey frames.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0166.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: inertial focusing; serpentine; dean; inertial force; shear gradient-induced; wall effect; vortex
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:37:41 CET)
Inertial focusing conditions of fluorescent polystyrene spherical particles are studied at the pointwise level along their pathlines. This is accomplished by an algorithm that calculates a de-gree of spreading function of the particles' trajectories taking streaklines images as raw data. Different confinement ratios of the particles and flow rates are studied and the results are pre-sented in state diagrams showing the focusing degree of the particles in terms of their position within a curve of an asymmetric serpentine and the applied flow rate. In addition, together with numerical simulation results, we present empirical evidence that the preferred trajectories of inertially focused spheres are contained within Dean vortices' centerlines. We speculate about the existence of a new force, never postulated before, to explain this fact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: experiments; fiber factor; fiber volume fraction; flexure; shear; steel fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:32:29 CEST)
For shear-critical structural elements where the use of stirrups is not desirable, such as slabs or beams with reinforcement congestion, steel fibers can be used as shear reinforcement. The contribution of the steel fibers to the shear capacity lies in the action of the steel fibers bridging the shear crack, which increases the shear capacity and prevents a brittle failure mode. This study evaluates the effect of the amount of fibers in a concrete mix on the shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams with mild steel tension reinforcement and without stirrups. For this purpose, twelve beams were tested. Five different fiber volume fractions were studied: 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. For each different steel fiber concrete mix, the concrete compressive strength was determined on cylinders and the tensile strength was determined in a flexural test on beam specimens. Additionally, the influence of fibers on the shear capacity is analyzed based on results reported in the literature, as well as based on the expressions derived for estimating the shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams. The outcome of these experiments is that a fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 can be used to replace minimum stirrups according to ACI 318-14 and a 0.6% fiber volume fraction or fiber factor of 0.48 to replace minimum stirrups according to Eurocode 2. A fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 was observed to change the failure mode from shear failure to flexural failure. The results of this presented study support the inclusion of provisions for steel fiber reinforced concrete in building codes and provides recommendations for inclusion in ACI 318-14 and Eurocode 2, so that a wider adoption of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be achieved in the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Shear deformation; slippage; delamination; composite materials; strain distribution; Moire method; phase analysis
Online: 3 August 2018 (12:26:29 CEST)
The interlaminar shear behavior of a [±45°] laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) specimen was investigated utilizing microscale strain mapping in a wide field of view. A three-point bending device was developed under a laser scanning microscope, and the full-field strain distributions including normal, shear and principal strains of CFRP in a three-point bending test were measured using a developed sampling Moire technique. The microscale shear strain concentrations at interfaces between each two adjacent layers were successfully detected and found to be positive-negative alternately distributed before damage occurrence. The 45° layers slipped to the right relative to the -45° layers, visualized from the revised Moire phases and shear strain distributions of the angle-ply CFRP under different loads. The absolute values of the shear strain at interfaces gradually rose with the increase of the bending load, and the sudden decrease of the shear strain peak value implied the occurrence of interlaminar damage. The evolution of the shear strain concentrations is useful in the quantitative evaluation of the potential interlaminar shear failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0028.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bed load transport; shear Reynolds number; mixed-size bed material; complex morphodynamics
Online: 1 August 2018 (19:56:03 CEST)
The aim of this study is to introduce a novel method which can separate sand or gravel dominated bed load transport in rivers with mixed-size bed material. In engineering practice, the Shields-Parker diagram could be used for such purposes, however, the method has certain applicability limits, due to the fact that it is based on uniform bed material and provides information rather on river-scale, instead of reach or local scale. When dealing with large rivers with complex hydrodynamics and morphodynamics the bed load transport modes can also indicate strong variation even locally, which requires a more suitable approach to estimate the locally unique behavior of the sediment transport. Here, we suggest that the decision criteria utilizes the shear Reynolds number (Re*). The method was verified against field and laboratory measurement data, both performed at non-uniform bed material compositions. The comparative assessment of the results show that the shear Reynolds number based method operates more reliably than the Shields-Parker diagram and it is expected to predict the sand or gravel transport domination with a < 5% uncertainty. The introduced results can greatly contribute to the improvement of numerical sediment transport modeling as well as to the field implementation of bed load transport measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0015.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: electrodynamics; plane electromagnetic wave; spherical electromagnetic wave; group of transformations; Aharonov-Bohm effect; equation of motion; alternator; impulse current generator
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:27:24 CET)
Maxwell’s equations are valid only for a stationary observation point, therefore, to adequately describe real processes so far we have had to move to a moving reference frame. This paper presents the equations of electrodynamics for the moving observation point, it is shown that plane and spherical electromagnetic waves are their solutions, while the spherical wave propagates only outward, which cannot be said about Maxwell’s equations. The fields of uniformly moving charges are also solutions of the equations. Now there is no need to move to a moving reference frame, to use four-dimensional space and covariant form of equations. The question of finding a universal form of the equations that allows a solution in the form of the field of an arbitrarily moving charge remains open. This raises the question of the existence of a two-parameter group of transformations of electromagnetic fields along with the known one-parameter group has been posed. The phenomena derived from the equations, which make an additional contribution to the phase overrun in the Aharonov-Bohm effect are considered. The equation of motion of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field without simplifying approximations is considered, which allows us to take into account the radiation effects. It is shown that the fields in a moving observation point depend on its velocity and acceleration. In particular, although in a constant uniform electric field a force qE acts on a motionless charged particle, but on the same motionless but not fixed particle the force 4/3qE acts already, because it has a nonzero acceleration and the electric field at this point is larger. As the speed increases, the field decreases, and when it reaches the speed of light, when the particle stops accelerating, the force again becomes equal to qE The principle of operation of an unconventional alternator in a constant electric field and its corresponding engine, as well as new types of direct and impulse current generators, predicted by the equations, are described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry structures; shear walls; clay brick (CB); calcium-silicate (Ca-Si) masonry units; autoclaved aerated concrete masonry units (AAC); bed joints reinforcement; shear strength; strain angle; wall stiffness
Online: 15 July 2019 (05:37:44 CEST)
The area of Central and Eastern Europe, and thus Poland, is not exposed to effects of seismic actions. Any possible tremors can be caused by coal or copper mining. Wind, rheological effects, the impact of other objects or a non-uniform substrate are the predominant types of loading included in calculations for stiffening walls. The majority of buildings in Poland, as in most other European countries, are low, medium-high brick buildings. Some traditional materials, like solid brick (>10% of construction materials market) are still used. But autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and cement-sand calcium-silicate (Ca-Si) elements with thin joints are prevailing (>70% of the market) on the Polish market. Adding reinforcement only to bed joints in a wall is a satisfactory solution (in addition to confining) for seismic actions occurring in Poland that improves ULS and SLS. This paper presents results from our own tests on testing horizontal shear walls without reinforcement and with different types of reinforcement. This discussion includes 51 walls made of solid brick (CB) reinforced with steel bars and steel trusses, results from tests on 15 walls made of calcium-silicate (Ca-Si) and AAC masonry units reinforced with steel trusses and plastic meshes. Taking into account our own tests and those conducted by other authors, empirical relationships were determined on the basis of more than 90 walls. They are applicable to design and construction phase to determine the likely effect of reinforcement on cracking stress that damage shear deformation and wall stiffness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0192.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: galaxy center; supermassive black hole; black hole binary; VLBI; submillimeter radio wave; decameter radio wave; event horizon
Online: 13 May 2022 (11:01:08 CEST)
In 2011, by 1.3 mm wavelength VLBI radio wave observations of the SgrA*, Fish, V. L. et al showed that the emissions tightly related to the formation of a black hole shadow have a remarkably large time-varying feature within a region of less than 50 μas. The present paper suggests that the origin of the time variation in the observed emission is due to effects of the orbital motion of the existing super-massive black hole binary orbiting at SgrA* with a period of 2150±2.5 s. This suggestion is based on observations of decameter radio wave pulses from SgrA*. We show a good correlation between the time variation in the coherent flux density of the VLBI results and the time variation model of estimated emission intensities based on the periodic motion of the super-massive black hole binary by applying parameters deduced from the decameter radio wave pulse observation model (DRWP-Model). With further confirmation by Fourier analyses of the potential periodicity of the VLBI data that show the same periods of DRWP Model, we conclude that the time variation detected by the 1.3 mm wavelength radio wave VLBI is evidence of an existing super-massive black hole at Sgr A*.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0616.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: tsunami wave; finite elements; mesh adaptation; domain adaptation; co-seismic displacements; tsunami wave energy; FreeFem++; unstructured meshes
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:17:44 CEST)
A simplified nonlinear dispersive system of BBM-type, initially derived by D. Mitsotakis, is employed here in order to model the generation and propagation of surface water waves over variable bottom. The simplification consists in applying the so-called Boussinesq approximation. Using the finite element method and the FreeFem++ software, we solve numerically this system for three different complexities for the bathymetry function: a flat bottom case, a variable bottom in space, and a variable bottom both in space and in time. The last case is illustrated with the Java 2006 tsunami event. This article is designed rather as a tutorial paper even if it contains the description of completely new adaptation techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building remodeling; concentrated loads; FRP reinforcement; FRP strips; shear capacity, vertical concrete cantilever
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:01:16 CET)
Renovation, restoration, remodeling, refurbishment, and retrofitting of build-ings often imply modifying the behavior of the structural system. Modification sometimes includes applying forces (i.e., concentrated loads) to beams that before were subjected to distributed loads only. For a reinforced concrete structure, the new condition causes a beam to bear a concentrated load with the crack pattern that was produced by the distributed loads that acted in the past. If the concentrated load is applied at or near the beam’s midspan, the new shear demand reaches the maximum around the midspan. But around the midspan, the cracks are vertical or quasi-vertical, and no inclined bar is present. So, the actual shear capacity around the midspan not only is low, but also can be substantially lower than the new demand. In order to bring the beam capacity up to the demand, fiber-reinforced-polymer composites can be used. This paper presents a design method to increase the concentrated load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete beams whose load distribution has to be changed from distributed to concentrated, and an analytical model to pre-dict the concentrated load-carrying capacity of a beam in the strengthened state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Membrane oscillation; shear rate; slotted structure membrane; oil water separation and membrane fouling
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:51:11 CEST)
A new method is proposed to increase rejection in microfiltration by applying membrane oscillation using a new type of microfiltration membranes with slotted pores. The oscillations applied to the membrane surface result in reducing membrane fouling and increasing separation efficiency. An exact mathematical solution of the flow in the surrounding solution outside the oscillating membrane is developed. The oscillation results in appearance of the lift velocity, which moves oil particles away from the membrane. The latter results in both reducing membrane fouling and increasing oil droplets rejection. This developed model was supported by the experimental results for oil water separation in produced water treatment. It was proven that oil droplet concentration reduced notably in the permeate due to the membrane oscillation and that applied shear rate caused by the membrane oscillation is also reduce pore blockage. New generation of microfiltration membranes with slotted pores was used in the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: jute fibre; reinforcement; modified compaction test; California bearing ratio test; stabilization; shear strength
Online: 25 August 2020 (03:30:40 CEST)
Abstract: This paper is focusing on the stabilisation of soil using jute fibre as soil stabilizer. Stabilisation is the process of modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used it for a variety of engineering works. This study examines the potential of soil stabilization with jute fibre when it is cut into roughly 30mm lengths as stabilizer. The varying percentages like 0.5%, 1%, 1.5 and 2% of pieces of jute fibre were used and mixed it with soil. The laboratory tests such as California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, modified compaction tests and direct shear strength tests have been conducted to observe the change in engineering properties of soil. On the basis of the experiments performed, it can be concluded that the stabilization of soil using 30mm pieces of jute as stabilizer improves the strength characteristics of the soil so that it becomes usable as one of the reinforcing material for the construction of roadways, parking areas, site development projects, airports and many other situations where sub-soils are not suitable for construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0194.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: fiber-reinforced poly(ether-ether-ketone); surface modification; shear bond strength; surface analtsis
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:49:18 CET)
We investigated the effect of helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (PL) and deep-ultraviolet (UV) light treatments on the adhesive properties of fiber-reinforced poly(ether-ether-ketone)polymer (PEEK). PEEK disks reinforced with carbon (CPEEK) or glass (GPEEK) fibers were polished, modified with PL and UV for 60 s, and the surface energy was calculated by measuring the contact angles. The disk surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Shear bond strength testing was performed using a universal testing machine, and the fracture surfaces were observed by electron probe microanalyzer. Data were analyzed with one and two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05). The surface energies were increased by the modifications, which created OH functional groups on the surfaces. The bond strengths of CPEEK were increased by PL and those of GPEEK were increased by PL and UV, owing to chemical bonding at the interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0139.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: interfacial rheology; interfacial shear rheometer; bicone interfacial rheometer; flow field based data processing
Online: 8 October 2018 (11:15:25 CEST)
Flow field based methods are becoming increasingly popular for the analysis of interfacial shear rheology data. Such methods take properly into account the subphase drag by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the bulk phases flows, together with the Boussinesq-Scriven boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface, and the probe equation of motion. Such methods have been successfully implemented at the double wall-ring (DWR), the magnetic rod (MR), and the bicone interfacial shear rheometers. However, a study of the errors introduced directly by the numerical processing is still lacking. Here we report on a study of the errors introduced exclusively by the numerical procedure corresponding to the bicone geometry at an air-water interface. In our study we directly input a preset the value of the complex interfacial viscosity and we numerically obtain the corresponding flow field and the complex amplitude ratio for the probe motion. Then we use the standard iterative procedure to obtain the calculated complex viscosity value. A detailed comparison of the set and calculated complex viscosity values is made upon changing different parameters such as real and imaginary parts of the complex interfacial viscosity and frequency. The observed discrepancies yield a detailed landscape of the numerically introduced errors.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0284.v1
Online: 23 May 2022 (05:12:39 CEST)
Fusion device and its structure may be designed by various means. Two of most popular are; weight basis (described in previous study by author) and energy basis. In present research, later method is explored and described. Energy basis is based on amount of energy released from device upon detonation followed by explosion. Its beneficial in a sense that device size can be kept as independent variable as compared to dependent in former case. Further, it shortens the design procedure. For example, heat transfer pattern in such approach directly helps in quantifying wall thickness which dictates material, fabrication, and manufacturing route. It may also eliminate anisotropy as wall thickness is direct function of amount of heat at which it will rupture and can be much thinner. Device geometry can also be flexibility controlled as it is no longer dependent on pay load bay capacity. This allows more freedom in designing subsystems (compartments, their locations, focusing, switches, and mixers). Such devices can be more compact and simpler. Few such design configurations are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: DAS; geophones; wave propagation; strain measurement; DFOS
Online: 28 April 2022 (03:33:50 CEST)
Quantitative dynamic strain measurements of the ground would be useful for engineering scale problems such as monitoring for natural hazards, soil-structure interaction studies and non-invasive site investigation using full waveform inversion (FWI). Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS), a promising technology for these purposes, needs to be better understood in terms of its directional sensitivity, spatial position, and amplitude for application to engineering-scale problems. This study investigates whether the physical measurements made using DAS are consistent with the theoretical reception patterns and experimental measurements of ground strain made by geophones. Results show that DAS and geophone measurements are consistent in both phase and amplitude for broadband (10s of Hz), high amplitude (10s of microstrain) and complex wavefields originating from different positions around the array when: (1) the DAS channels and geophone locations are properly aligned, (2) the DAS cable provides good deformation coupling to the internal optical fiber, (3) the cable is coupled to the ground through direct burial and compaction, and (4) laser phase noise is mitigated in the DAS measurements. The theoretical relationship between DAS-measured and point-wise strain for vertical and horizontal active sources is introduced using 3D elastic finite-difference simulations. The implications of using DAS strain measurements are discussed including directionality and magnitude differences between the actual and DAS-measured strain fields. A method for spatially aligning the DAS channels with the geophone locations at tolerances less than the spatial resolution of the DAS system is proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Wave; Energy; Dynamics; Modeling; Generator; Converter; linear
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:53:54 CET)
Recently, most countries suffering from global warming due to the waste gases coming out of the combustion engines used to generate electric power by traditional methods. Therefore, many countries are currently trying to find alternative solutions to this problem by using renewable energies such as solar energy, wind energy, and energy generated from the waves of the ocean and sea to overcome pollution problems. The waves of the seas and oceans have enormous and largely untapped energy, so this work presents an efficient way to use the energy of sea waves to generate electricity. And also, trying to be a way to produce electricity from wave energy in the future. The best suitable places along the shores of Jizan city were inspected to install the buoy system to revenue advantage of the wave supreme height to achieve the height amount of electrical energy. A mathematical model was made to analyze the wave energy and convert it into energy extracted by mechanical force. The mathematical analyzes used the data collected from satellite maps of the numerous severe waves in the Red sea of the Jazan area, and the data published in previous research along that area. It was found that the beach of the Al Shuqaiq area is the greatest for installing the buoy and obtaining the highest electrical energy due to the presence of the highest wave intensity, followed by the beach of the Baysh and Al Morgan area. Also, one of the objectives of this research is to study the design of a device powered by a buoy to use the waves of the Red Sea to generate electric power. The influence of the buoy system design parameters such as the buoy diameter, length of the cylinder, and the length of the connecting rod on the electrical energy generation from wave energy was investigated. The current device is designed with a gearbox to produce continuous power with a single electric generator. A floating mooring device uses the rise and fall of bulges to convert sea wave energy into electrical energy. The device consists of a float, arm, two wheels of different diameters, a gear set, and an electric generator. The effect of the design of several factors on the performance of the device for converting the sea waves energy into electrical energy, including the length of the buoy arm, the wave height by changing the cam diameter, and the conversion ratios between the gear set, to optimize the output power of the wave energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0072.v1
Online: 5 May 2020 (11:01:06 CEST)
This study on the production of a modern natural water electrochemical antimony (II) test include the use of platinum platinum electrode electrodes. Antimony (II) was pre-concentrated on the modified electrode surface and adsorbed to the surface, oxidizing at E = -680 mV. Compared to the platinum electrode, the platinum nanoelectrode exhibited superior performance and, unexpectedly, received a higher electrochemical response. After 25 min of accumulation, time the best-defined anodic peak was obtained with 0.2 mol L-1 KNO3 pH 5.0. Using these parameters, the L-1 Sb 2 + calibration plot was linear over range 1 = 10−8 to 5x10−6 mol. The precision was tested by carrying out eight replicate measurements at a concentration of 2.5x10−5 mol. L-1; the variance coefficient was 2.9%. The method was applied to analyte determination in water samples from the river. Other metal ion attack on Sb's (II) voltammetric response has been studied. In the SEM image, the nanoparticle electrode was clearly observed and characterized by X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0078.v1
Online: 9 January 2019 (07:18:03 CET)
This paper presents a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter (WEC). The model uses potential wave theory and is based on Cummins' equation, with nonlinear hydrostatic restoring stiffness and excitation forces based on instantaneous body position and water surface elevation. The numerical model can include non-linear forces, like quadratic drag, power-take-off and other forces that may account for unknown viscous effects observed in experiments. The paper discusses the applicability and limitations of the code and presents the cases where assumptions and simplifications can be made. The goal is to conclude on the simplest, yet accurate, version of the model by evaluating its accuracy using experimental data. The case study for validation is Floating Power Plant's (FPP's) WEC . In the full-scale commercial project, FPP's device consists of a semisubmersible platform hosting a wind turbine (5-8MW) and 4 WECs, each one connected to the platform by a rotation shaft. Due to the configuration of the platform, strong interactions occur between the WECs and the structure, as they are very closely spaced. In order to validate a numerical model able to simulate these hydrodynamic interactions, wave basin experiments with a similar but simplified setup were performed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0135.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: rogue; wave; models; KdV; NLSE; non-local; ocean; optics
Online: 9 June 2018 (15:28:58 CEST)
Anomalous waves and rogue events are closely associated with irregularities and unexpected events occurring at various levels of physics, such as in optics, in oceans and in the atmosphere. Mathematical modeling of rogue waves is a highly actual field of research, which has evolved over the last decades into a specialized part of mathematical physics. The applications of the mathematical models for rogue events is directly relevant to technology development for prediction of rogue ocean waves, and for signal processing in quantum units. In this survey, a comprehensive perspective of the most recent developments in methods for representing rogue waves is given, along with discussion of the devised and forms and solutions. The standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Hirota equation, the MMT equation and further to other models are discussed, and their properties highlighted. This survey shows that the most recent advancement in modeling rogue waves give models which can be used to establish methods for prediction of rogue waves at open seas, which is important for the safety and activity of marine vessels and installations. The study further puts emphasis on the difference between the methods, and how the resulting models form a basis for representing rogue waves in various forms, solitary or with a wave-background. This review has also a pedagogic component directed towards students and interested non-experts, and forms a complete survey of the most conventional and emerging methods published until recently
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0086.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: surface acoustic wave; acoustofluidics; microfluidics; interdigitated transducers
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:41:32 CET)
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) is effective for the manipulation of fluids and particles in microscale. The current approach of integrating interdigitated transducers (IDTs) for SAW generation into microfluidic channels involves complex and laborious microfabrication steps. These steps often require the full access to clean room facilities and hours to align the transducers to the precise location. This work presents an affordable and innovative method for fabricating SAW-based microfluidic devices without the need of clean room facilities and alignment. The IDTs and microfluidic channels are fabricated in the same process and thus precisely self-aligned in accordance with the device design. With the use of the developed fabrication approach, a few types of different SAW-based microfluidic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated for particle separation and active droplet generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Internal carotid artery sidewall aneurysm (ICASA); hemodynamic behaviors; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); pulsatile flow rate (PFR); bifurcated shunt ratio; wall shear stress (WSS); oscillatory shear index (OSI); time-averaged pressure (TAP)
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:38:31 CEST)
The pulsatile flow rate (PFR) in the cerebral artery system and shunt ratios in bifurcated arteries are two patient-specific parameters which may affect the hemodynamic characteristics on the pathobiology of cerebral aneurysms (CAs). Accordingly, a systematic study was employed to investigate the effects of the two parameters on hemodynamic characteristics in two internal carotid artery sidewall aneurysms (i.e., ICASA-1 and ICASA-2) models. Numerical results indicate larger PFRs can cause higher WSS in some local regions of the aneurysmal dome that may increase the probability of small/secondary aneurysms generation than under smaller PFRs. The low WSS and relatively high oscillatory shear index (OSI) could appear under a smaller PFR, which has the potential to cause aneurysmal sac growth and rupture. However, the variances in PFRs and bifurcated shunt ratios have rare impacts on the time-average pressure distributions on the aneurysmal sac, although a higher PFR can contribute more to the pressure increase in ICASA-1 dome due to the relatively stronger impingement by the redirected blood stream than in ICASA-2. Simulation results also present the variances of shunt ratios have rare impacts on the hemodynamic characteristics in sacs, mainly because the bifurcated location is not close enough to the sac in present models. Furthermore, it has been found that the vortex location plays a major role in the temporal and spatial distribution of the WSS on the luminal wall, varying significantly with the cardiac period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: purinergic signaling; endothelial cells; shear stress; vasodilatation; transcytosis; intimal hyperplasia; atherosclerosis; high-density lipoprotein
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:06:19 CEST)
The endothelium plays a key role in blood vessel health. At the interface of the blood, it releases several mediators that regulate local processes and that protect against the development of cardiovascular disease. In this interplay, there is increasing evidence for a role of extracellular nucleotides and endothelial purinergic P2Y receptors (P2Y-R) in vascular protection. Recent advances have revealed that endothelial P2Y1-R and P2Y2-R mediate nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation as well as endothelial cell proliferation and migration, which are processes involved in the regeneration of damaged endothelium. However, endothelial P2Y2-R, and possibly P2Y1-R, have also been reported to promote vascular inflammation and atheroma development in mouse models, with endothelial P2Y2-R also being described as promoting vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. Interestingly, at the interface with lipid metabolism, P2Y12-R has been found to trigger HDL transcytosis through endothelial cells, a process known to be protective against lipid deposition in the vascular wall. Better characterization of the role of purinergic P2Y-R and downstream signaling pathways in determination of the endothelial cell phenotype in healthy and pathological environments has clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0701.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Plasma arc welding; thermodynamic; material flow; velocity distribution; welding current, Marangoni force; Shear force
Online: 30 July 2021 (12:34:53 CEST)
The material flow dynamic and velocity distribution on the melted domain surface play a crucial role on the joint quality and formation of welding defects. In this study, authors investigated the effects of the low and high currents of plasma arc welding on the material flow and thermodynamics of molten pool and its relationship to the welding defects. The high-speed video camera (HSVC) was used to observe the convection of the melted domain and welded-joint appearance. Furthermore, to consider the Marangoni force activation, the temperature on the melted domain was measured by a thermal HSVC. The results revealed that the velocity distribution on the weld surface was higher than that inside the molten weld pool due to the difference of the massive density between the air and the steel. Moreover, in the case of low welding current (80A) the convection speed of molten was faster than that of the high welding current case (160A) owing to the difference of main driving forces direction and strength, which leading to undercut and humping defects on the weld surface and excessive convex (burn-through) defect at the bottom weld side, respectively. The medium welding current (120A) had two convection patterns with the main flow in backward direction, which resulted in better welding quality without defect. The interaction between the shear force and Marangoni force played a solid state on the convection and heat transportation processes in the plasma arc welding process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Anisotropic Triaxial test; Initial shear stress; Pore water pressure ratio; Static liquefaction; Ramsar sand
Online: 5 September 2020 (05:01:41 CEST)
Liquefaction risk assessment is critical for the safety and economics of structures. As the soil strata of Ramsar area in north Iran is mostly composed of poorly graded clean sand and the ground water table is found at shallow depths, it is highly susceptible to liquefaction. In this study, a series of isotropic and anisotropic consolidated undrained triaxial tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Ramsar sand to identify the liquefaction potential of the area. The specimens are consolidated isotropically to simulate the level ground condition, and anisotropically to simulate the soil condition on a slope and/ or under a structure. The various states of soil behavior are studied by preparing specimens at different initial relative densities and applying different levels of effective stress. The critical state soil mechanics approach for identifying the liquefaction susceptibility is adopted and the observed phenomena are further explained in relation to the micro-mechanical behavior. As only four among the 27 conducted tests did not exhibit liquefactive behavior, Ramsar sand can be qualified as strongly susceptible to liquefaction. Furthermore, it is observed that the pore pressure ratio is a good indication of the liquefaction susceptibility
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alternative materials, fibre reinforced polymer, insulation, precast concrete sandwich panel, shear connection, thermal efficiency
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:50:05 CEST)
Precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSP) are energy efficient building system that is achieved through an insulation layer created between the concrete wythes. The insulation layer is usually of low bearing strength material making it more applicable for non-structural building systems. Hence, shear connectors are introduced to improve its structural capacity, which subsequently degrades it thermal performance by serving as thermal bridges across the panel. This article review researches of alternative materials and methods used to improve the thermal efficiency as well as reduced the strength loss due to insulation in PCSP. The alternative materials are basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP), and foam concrete which are selected due to their low thermal conductivity for use in shear connection. While thermal path method has been used to prevent the effect of thermal bridges. Although, some of these materials have successfully achieved the desirable behaviours, however, several undesirable properties such as brittleness, bond slip, the sudden crushing of the panel system, and FRP failure below its ultimate strength were observed. Hence, the practicality of the alternative materials is still questionable despite its higher cost compared to the conventional steel and concrete used in the PCSP system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0143.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: equal-channel angular pressing; ECAP; shear band; matrix band; kinematic hardening; FEM; strain localization
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:01:31 CET)
Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is a method used to introduce severe plastic deformation into a metallic billet without changing its geometry. In special cases strain localization occurs and a pattern consisting of regions with high and low deformation (so-called shear and matrix bands) can emerge. This paper studies this phenomenon numerically adopting two-dimensional finite element simulations of one ECAP pass. The mechanical behavior of aluminum is modeled using phenomenological plasticity theory with isotropic or kinematic hardening. The effects of the two different strain hardening types are investigated numerically by systematic parameter studies: While isotropic hardening only causes minor fluctuations in the plastic strain fields, a material with high initial hardening rate and sufficient strain hardening capacity can exhibit pronounced localized deformation after ECAP. The corresponding finite element simulation results show a regular pattern of shear and matrix bands. This result is confirmed experimentally by ECAP-processing of AA6060 material in a severely cold worked condition, where microstructural analysis also reveals the formation of shear and matrix bands. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental and numerical results in terms of shear and matrix band width and length scale. The simulations provide additional insights regarding the evolution of the strain and stress states in shear and matrix bands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0159.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Marchenko equation; Green's function retrieval; elastodynamic wave propagation
Online: 11 July 2022 (11:19:01 CEST)
By solving a Marchenko equation, Green's functions at an arbitrary (inner) depth level inside an unknown elastic layered medium can be retrieved from single-sided reflection data, which are to be collected at the top of the medium. So far, an exact solution could only be obtained if the medium obeys stringent monotonicity conditions and if all forward-scattered (non-converted and converted) transmissions between the acquisition level and the inner depth level are known a-priori. We introduce an alternative Marchenko equation by revising the window operators that are applied in its derivation. We also introduce an auxiliary equation for transmission data, which are to be collected at the bottom of the medium, and a coupled equation, which is based on both reflection and transmission data. We show that the joint system of the Marchenko equation, the auxiliary equation and the coupled equation can be succesfully inverted when broadband reflection and transmission data are available. This results in a novel methodology for elastodynamic Green's function retrieval from two-sided data. Apart from these data, our approach requires P- and S-wave transmission times between the inner depth level and the top of the medium, as well as two angle-dependent amplitude scaling factors, which can be estimated from the data by enforcing energy conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0436.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: biomedical applications; millimeter wave; non-invasive devices; yeast
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:13:48 CEST)
Nonionizing millimeter-waves (MMW) are reported to inhibit cell division of lung cancer cells. In this article, we present a mechanism for the effect of inhibited cell division upon 85-105 GHz MMW irradiation. Strains of cell division model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured under physiological conditions were analyzed for the effects of MMW exposure. Irradiated cells showed a reduced growth rate than that of control (sham) cells. DNA damage repair mutant (rad52) strain cells were also subjected to MMW exposure to identify the involvement of genomic alteration(s) in this process. Irradiated wild type and rad52 mutant strains showed similar colony growth profiles indicating MMW treatment does not alter genomic DNA. Further, MMW interaction with cytological water was explored as a possible mechanism of action. Cells absorbed more power as compared to plain water. MMW irradiation highly absorbed by the cytological water content likely affects proteomic changes, accounting for the observed effects of inhibited cell division. Irradiations using a standard horn antenna were compared to that of a compact waveguide for increased power which led to complete termination of cell division. Our results provide indications of the development of non-invasive nonionizing irradiation procedures to treat tumor metastasis and control microbial infections.