ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0318.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cattle; brucellosis; seroprevalence; Zambia
Online: 10 November 2020 (14:07:18 CET)
Brucellosis is an infectious zoonosis that has huge economic and public health implications globally. The disease is prevalent in humans, livestock and wildlife in Sub Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 6th May 2017 and 31st July 2020 during which 1712 sera from 177 cattle herds in Southern, Western and Eastern provinces of Zambia was collected and screened against brucellosis. Rose Bengal Test and c-ELISA were used in serial testing for detection of antibodies against Brucella species. Results: A total of 127 animals and 37 herds tested positive, giving an overall individual and herd seroprevalence of 7.42% (CI: 0.61-0.86) and 20.9% respectively. Namwala district recorded the highest seroprevalence (12.2%) while Lundazi had the lowest (0%). A higher seropositivity was observed among female animals (8.5%), those aged between 11 and 17 years (14.1%) and pregnant cows (13.8%). Conclusions: Brucella seroprevalence among traditional cattle in Zambia remains high. It is vital that control programmes against bovine brucellosis are introduced in order to reduce its zoonotic impact on human health and increase animal production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0760.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; domestic cat; seroprevalence; Cyprus
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:06:05 CEST)
Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoon parasite, and the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent zoonotic parasitic diseases. Cats, as definitive hosts, are spreaders of the parasite via their faeces, but this occurs only for a very short period in their life. Seropositivity in cats, although not associated with current shedding of the parasite, is indicative of the infection in a cat population and can be used to assess the infection risk for definitive and intermediate hosts in that area. In order to assess the prevalence of infection in cats living in Cyprus, 155 cats, originating from all districts of the country, were examined for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Additionally, parameters such as age, sex, health status, lifestyle and concomitant infections were statistically assessed as potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Specific anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 50 (32.3%) cats, while the presence of feline immunodeficiency virus antibodies and a history of never having been vaccinated were statistically associated with T. gondii seropositivity on multivariate logistic regression model. This is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in cats in Cyprus and indicates that raised public awareness should be considered to prevent infection of animals and humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0829.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; vaccine; spatial distribution
Online: 13 September 2023 (16:13:52 CEST)
Incidence of COVID-19 has been associated with sociodemographic factors. We investigated variations in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence at sub-national levels in the Dominican Republic and assessed potential factors influencing variation in regional-level seroprevalence. Data were collected in a three-stage cross-sectional national serosurvey from June to October 2021. Seroprevalence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S) was estimated and adjusted for selection probability, age, and sex. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of covariates on seropositivity for anti-S and correlates of 80% protection (PT80) against symptomatic infection for ancestral and Delta strains. A total of 6,683 participants from 134 clusters in all 10 regions were enrolled. Anti-S, PT80 for ancestral and Delta strains odds ratio varied across regions, Enriquillo presented significant higher odds for all outcomes compared with Yuma. Compared to unvaccinated, receiving ≥2doses of COVID-19 vaccine was associated with a significantly higher odds of anti-S positivity (OR 85.94, [10.95-674.33]), and PT80 for ancestral (OR 4.78, [2.15-10.62]) and Delta strains (OR 3.08, [1.57-9.65]) nationally, and also for each region. Our results can help inform regional-level public health response, such as strategies to increase vaccination coverage in areas with low population immunity against currently circulating strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0375.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; animals; antibodies; seroprevalence
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:17:54 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has become the largest public health crisis since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Despite the extensive research conducted on the SARS-CoV-2 virus in humans, little is still known about animal-related transmission and its consequences. Therefore, this study contributed to a better understanding of this issue by focusing on the serological survey of SARS-CoV-2 in samples from the serum bank of the Bovine Virology Laboratory at the Biological Institute of São Paulo, as well as horses and dogs from the Military Police of the State of São Paulo, and tapirs and bats from the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo. To achieve this, the possible presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in domestic and wild animal species was evaluated using the ID Screen® "SARS-CoV-2 Double Antigen Multi Species" ELISA test (ID-Vet.®), following the manufacturer's recommendations. The findings of this study demonstrate a higher occurrence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in domestic animals compared to wild animals, as well as different antibody profiles among the species analyzed, with horses showing a wide range of seroconversion comparable to humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1942.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: sheep; goat; lentiviruses; SRLV; seroprevalence; risk factors
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:49:11 CEST)
Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) are infected and transmitted among ovine and caprine species. This disease is a severe problem for small ruminant production, not only for animals’ wellbeing but also for the herd’s efficiency. The main aim of this research was to quantify the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for SRLV infection in the north region of Portugal. Collected samples from a total of 150 herds, of which 129 (86.0%; 95% CI: 80.67% - 91.33%) had at least one seropositive animal. Out of 2607 individual blood samples, 1074 (41.2%) were positive for SRLV. The risk factors associated with SRLV infection were: specie (caprine), age (> 2 years old), herd size (> 100 animals), production system (intensive), production aptitude (milk), type of activity (professional), participation in livestock competitions (yes), buy replacement young ewe (yes) and rearing (natural). This knowledge empowers the implementation of effective preventive measures. Overall, biosecurity measures should be promoted and implemented to aim reducing viral transmission, with the main goal of reducing the prevalence of this disease. Completely, we understand that government authorities should promote and audit voluntary control and eradication programs in small ruminant herds in the region studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; seroprevalence; antibodies; SARS-CoV-2; Vietnam
Online: 31 October 2022 (07:37:55 CET)
Background: The robustness of sero-surveillence has delineated the high burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children; however, these existing data showed wide variation. This study aimed to identify the serostatus of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and associated factors among children following the fourth pandemic wave in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Vietnam National Children’s Hospital (VNCH) between March 13 and April 3, 2022. 4,032 eligible children seeking medical care for any medical condition not related to acute Covid-19 infections was tested for IgG SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies by ADVIA Centaur® SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG) assay using the residuals of routine blood samples. Results: The median age of enrolled children was 39 (IQR=14-82) months. The overall seropositive prevalence was 59.2%, and the median antibody titer was 4.78 [IQR 2.38-9.57] UI/mL. The risk of seropositivity and the median antibody titer was not related to gender (58.6% versus 60.1%, 4.9 versus 4.6 UI/mL, all p>0.05). Among age groups, the highest seroprevalence was reported in the children aged 13 to <36 months old. Children aged ≤12 months were likely to be seropositive compared to children aged 36 to <60 months (59.2% versus 57.5%, p=0.49) and those aged ≥144 months (59.2% versus 65.5%, p=0.16). Children aged ≥144 months exhibited a significantly higher titer of protective COVID-19 antibodies than other age groups (p <0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, we observed independent factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, including the age 13 to <36 months (OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.06-1.56, p=0.01), 60 to <144 months (OR=79, 95%CI=0.67-0.95, p=0.01), ≥144 months (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.21-2.8, p=0.005), the presence of infected household members (OR=2.36, 95%CI=2.06–2.70, p<0.001), participants from Hanoi (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.34-1.77, p<0.001), underlying conditions (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.60-0.85, p<=0.001), and using corticosteroids or immunosuppressants (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.48-0.86, p=0.003). Conclusions: This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children seeking medical care for non-COVID-19-related conditions in a tertiary children’s hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. In the context of reopening in-person schools and future emerged COVID-19 variants, this point will also be a key message about the necessity of “rush-out” immunization coverage for children, especially those under the age of three years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Taenia solium; seroprevalence; porcine Cysticercosis; Côte d’Ivoire.
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:46:07 CEST)
Abstract : Background : porcine cysticercosis is an endemic parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries. The objective was to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis in traditional pig farms in the departments of Dabou, Aboisso and Agboville where blood samples were taken from pigs and analyzed by ELISA (IgG) and western blot. Data on farming practices and pig characteristics were collected. Categorical variables were compared with the Chi2 test and continuous variables with the Student test. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify risk factors. Results: A total of 668 pigs were sampled from 116 farms. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis was estimated at 13.2%. Overweight [ORa=2.6; 95%CI(1.3-4.9)] and fat pigs [ORa=2.3; 95%CI(1.0-4.8)] were twice as likely to be seropositive for cysticercosis. This risk was increased in farms using well water for drinking [aOR=2.5; 95%CI(1.0-6.3)] as well as those reporting veterinary care of the animals (ORa=2.9; 95%CI (1.2-7.3)). Conclusions: This study demonstrated the circulation of T. solium in pig farms in southern Côte d'Ivoire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0387.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chikungunya; seroprevalence; clinical presentation; febrile outpatient; Malawi
Online: 17 May 2021 (13:19:32 CEST)
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We conducted this study determine the seroprevalence and clinical presentation of Chikungunya infection among outpatients seeking healthcare in Mzuzu City, Malawi. Blood samples were collected from malaria negative and non-septic febrile outpatients with fevers ≥38 °C, for not more than 5 days. The enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to detect anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies and its results were used to determine seroprevalence of Chikungunya. A total of 119 serum samples were tested, of these, 73 (61.3%) tested positive for anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies by ELISA. Laboratory requisition forms were used to capture demographic information such as age, sex, clinical signs and symptoms presented by the enrolled patients. Age groups of 1-9, 10- 19, 20- 29, 30- 39, 40- 49, and ≥50 years had 17.8% (n= 13), 12.3 %,( n=9), 15.1%) (n=11), 19.2%; (n=14), 17.8% (n=13) and 17.8% (n=13) proportion of seroprevalence respectively. Most of the CHIKV infected individuals presented with fever (52.05%), joint pain (45.21%) and abdominal pain (42.67%). The presence of anti- CHIKV IgM antibodies suggest the presence of recent CHIKV infection and therefore accurate laboratory assays are highly recommended for CHIKV diagnosis and appropriate management of febrile patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1156.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: measles; seroprevalence; immunity; anti-measles IgG antibodies; Greece
Online: 15 June 2023 (14:40:55 CEST)
Accurate data on susceptibility rates against measles in general population of Greece are scarce. Many studies estimate the vaccination coverage but none has calculated the nationwide immunity rate, involving all age groups, against measles virus. The purpose of our study was to determine the immunity status to measles, especially after the latest outbreak in 2017-2018. In total, 3,972 leftover blood samples were collected from a nationwide laboratory network using a geograph-ically stratified sampling strategy and were tested for the presence of measles specific IgG anti-bodies. The overall crude seroprevalence was calculated 89.6% and the adjusted 89.8% (95% CI: 88.8% - 90.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in seropositivity among sexes (p=0.783). Higher immunity rates and antibody titer were found in older age groups ≥ 41 years old (94.9%, 95% CI: 93.7% - 95.9%, and 730.0 IU/l) in comparison to younger individuals 1-40 years old (83.4%, 95% CI: 81.6% - 85.7%, and 616.5 IU/l). ). Comparing the seroprevalence among Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS 2), a statistically significant difference was estimated among them (<0.001). The two regions where higher measles incidence was observed during the 2017-2018 outbreak, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace and Western Greece, were among the four regions with the lower seropositivity (84.6%, 95% CI: 79.9% -89.4% and 85.9%, 95% CI: 81.4% - 90.4%, respectively). Our study showed a measles immunity gap that affects younger age groups and makes a new measles outbreak likely. Enforcement of vaccination campaigns and ad-dressing vaccine hesitancy could bridge it and achieve the required target for herd immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0622.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Serology; Seroprevalence; Humoral response; COVID-19; serosurvey; epidemiology
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:47:12 CEST)
Seroprevalence studies suggest that the number of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases is significantly smaller than the true number of infections. I study logintidual seroprevalence data from 7 sites across the US, from early April 2020 to June 27. I show that not only COVID-19 seroprevalence does not seem to increase over time, there is no clear association between the number of cases reported during a period and the change in seroprevalence during the same time. I conclude that as they are, seroprevalence studies can only be used in the qualitative sense and distinguish between populations with no COVID-19 exposure, to those populations where the virus had already started spreading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0250.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Feline; Canine; seroprevalence; zoonosis
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:21:53 CET)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people worldwide since its emergence in 2019. The current global pandemic was driven by human-to-human transmission. Knowing the zoonotic origin of the disease and the potential capacity of the virus to adapt to other species, it is important to understand the extent of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection of animals, in particular cats and dogs in households that are in direct contact with their owners. Hong Kong and Seoul are two of the most densely-populated urban cities in Asia, where companion animals often live in close contact with humans. In this study, we screened sera from 1,040 cats and 855 dogs during the early phase of the pandemic in Hong Kong and Seoul for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by using an ELISA that detects antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein. Sera testing positive on ELISA were also tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies using a surrogate virus neutralization (sVNT) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Among feline sera, 4.51% and 2.54% of samples from Korea and Hong Kong, respectively, tested ELISA positive. However only 1.64% of samples from Korea and 0.18% from Hong Kong tested positive by sVNT, while only 0.41% of samples from Korea tested positive by PRNT. Among canine samples, 4.94% and 6.46% from Korea and Hong Kong, respectively, tested positive by ELISA, while only 0.29% sera from Korea were positive on sVNT and no canine sera tested positive by PRNT. These results confirm a low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion animals in Korea and Hong Kong. The discordance between RBD-ELISA and neutralization tests may indicate possible ELISA cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses, especially in canine sera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0766.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Homelessness; SARS-CoV-2; Health inequalities; seroprevalence; Housing conditions
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:15:39 CEST)
Background: Overcrowded housing, as well as inadequate sanitary conditions, contribute to making homeless people particularly vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among people experiencing homelessness on a large city-wide scale in France, taking into account different community settings. Methods: A consortium of outreach teams in 48 different locations including streets, slums, squats, emergency or transitional shelters and drop-in centres participated in the inclusion process. All participants consented to receive a validated rapid assay for immunoglobulins M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies and to answer a questionnaire on medical health conditions, comorbidities, historic of symptoms compatible with COVID-19, with a retrospective calendar of types of accommodation since COVID-19 crisis. Results: From June 01 to August 05, 2020, 1,156 homeless participants were enrolled in the study and tested. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies was 5.6% (95%CI 2.3–7.0), with a range of 2.2% in people living on the streets to 8.1% in people living in emergency shelters (P=0.009). Around one third of the seropositive participants reported symptoms with COVID-19. Compared to the general population in Marseille (3.6%), the homeless population living in the same urban area experienced an significant increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (|z|=3.65 > 1.96). Conclusion: These results highlight the need for organizing regular screening to prevent clusters forming in homeless accommodations and for providing basic resources for health maintenance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; seroprevalence; antibody testing
Online: 7 December 2020 (08:19:40 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 continues to widely circulate in populations globally. Underdetection is acknowledged and is problematic when attempting to capture the true prevalence. Seroprevalence studies, where blood samples from a population sample are tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies that react to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, are a common method for estimating the proportion of people previously infected with the virus in a given population. However, obtaining reliable estimates from seroprevalence studies is challenging for a number of reasons, and the uncertainty in the results is often overlooked by scientists, policy makers and the media. This paper reviews the methodological issues that arise in designing these studies, and the main sources of uncertainty that affect the results. We discuss the choice of study population, recruitment of subjects, uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of antibody tests themselves, and the relationship between antibodies and infection over time. Understanding these issues can help the reader to interpret and critically evaluate the results of seroprevalence studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0324.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: MERS-CoV; camel; seroprevalence; transmission; ELISA; RT-qPCR; slaughterhouse
Online: 15 September 2020 (03:54:34 CEST)
Background: MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that have emerged in humans in 2012 and caused severe respiratory illness with mortality rate of 34.4%. Since its appearance, MERS-CoV have been reported in 27 countries and most of these cases were in Saudi Arabia. So far, dromedaries are considered to be the intermediate host and the only known source of human infection. Method: This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and the infection rate of MERS-CoV in slaughtered food-camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 171 nasal swabs along with 161 serum samples were collected during the winter; from January to April 2019. Nasal swabs were examined by Rapid test and RT-qPCR to detect MERS-CoV RNA, while serum samples were tested primarily using S1-based ELISA Kit to detect MERS-CoV (IgG) antibodies and subsequently by MERS pseudotyped viral particles (MERSpp) neutralization assay for confirmation. Genetic diversity of the positive isolates was determined based on the amplification and sequencing of the spike gene. Results: Our results showed high prevalence (38%) of MERS-CoV infection in slaughtered camels and high seropositivity (70.81%) during the time of the study. These data indicate previous and ongoing MERS-CoV infection in camels. Phylogenic analysis revealed relatively low genetic variability among our isolated samples. When these isolates were aligned against published spike sequences of MERS-CoV, deposited in global databases, there was sequence similarity of 94%. Conclusion: High seroprevalence and high genetic stability of MERS-CoV in camels indicating that camels pose a public health threat. The widespread of MERS-CoV infections in camels increases the risk of future zoonotic transmission into people with direct contact with these infected camels. This study confirms re-infections in camels, highlighting a challenge for vaccine development when it comes to protective immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Children; Seroprevalence; RT-qPCR; Iran
Online: 1 May 2023 (00:16:12 CEST)
A population-based seroepidemiological and molecular survey for detection of earlier and re-cent SARS-CoV-2 infection was done in children aged 14 years or less in Tehran between 19 September 2020 and 21 June 2021. Demographic data, COVID-19 symptoms and infection status were recorded and IgG antibodies and RNA of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in sera and nasopha-ryngeal swab samples, respectively. Out of 1517 participants, cardinal symptoms of COVID-19 (fever >38 oC and/or cough and/or diarrhea) were detected in 18% and serological history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and PCR positivity were confirmed in 33.2% and 10.7% of the weighted-population, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly higher among 10–14-year-old children. Active infection was significantly higher in symptomatic children and during autumn 2020 and spring 2021. The RT-qPCR positivity was related to contact with in-fected persons. RT-qPCR positivity was significantly higher among families with a lower socio-economic status, while no association between RT-qPCR- or seropositivity was determined with household size, underlying diseases, or gender. In conclusion, high SARS-CoV-2 infection prev-alence and seroprevalence was detected in children in Tehran in different seasons. The infection was significantly higher in older age children, and those with a positive-history of close contact with infected cases and/or lower socioeconomic status.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Serosurvey; seroepidemiology; seroprevalence; sampling; imperfect diagnostic test; sensitivity; specificity; Coronavirus
Online: 11 May 2020 (12:47:00 CEST)
This brief note aims to explain the scope in conducting large-scale serological surveys of SARS-CoV-2 to define the landscape of population immunity without overlooking the inherent uncertainty steaming from sampling design and diagnostic validity. The note completes with a succinct statistical appendix of simple methods for estimating prevalence from random population samples using imperfect diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Hepatitis E Virus; seroprevalence; risk factors; mining gold villages; Southeastern Senegal
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:43:05 CEST)
Rapid proliferation of traditional gold mining sites in Kédougou a Southeast region in Senegal, led to mass population migration from the neighboring West African countries and rapid expansion of small mining villages with poor hygiene and sanitation conditions. An outbreak of hepatitis E was reported in 2014 with several cases of febrile jaundice among traditional mine workers. In this study, we analyzed both HEV IgM and IgG seroprevalence and the associated risk factors of infection by testing any suspected case and contacts collected from February 2012 to November 2014. RNA-negative sera from suspected cases and contacts were tested for anti-HEV IgM and anti-HEV IgG. A total of 799 sera were collected from 290 suspected cases, 470 contacts and 39 individuals with missing information. The median age of the cohort study was 19 years (1-88 years) with a male/female sex-ratio of 1.9. We found an overall prevalence of 43.68% (332/760) of anti-HEV IgM and 38.15% (290/760) of anti-HEV IgG sera. Our data provide new insights into the HEV epidemiology and point to the crucial need to estimate the disease’s burden in Kédougou and assess the viral mechanisms driving the disease’s severity in pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E virus; Paslahepevirus balayani; seroprevalence; molecular epidemiology; zoonosis; disease outbreaks
Online: 15 November 2022 (10:28:45 CET)
The factors influencing hepatitis E virus (HEV) circulation remain largely unexplored. We investigated HEV seroprevalence in humans and the prevalence of infection in farm pigs and rabbits in different regions of the Russian Federation, as well as the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HEV. Anti-HEV IgG antibody detection rates in the general population increase significantly with age, from 1.5% in children and adolescents under 20 years old to 4.8% in adults aged between 20 and 59 years old, to 16.7% in people aged 60 years and older. HEV seroprevalence varies between regions, with the highest rate observed in Belgorod Region (16.4% compared with the national average of 4.6%), which also has the country’s highest pig population. When compared with the archival data, both increases and declines in HEV seroprevalence have been observed within the last 10 years, depending on the study region. Virus shedding has been detected in 19 out of the 21 pig farms surveyed. On one farm, circulation of the same viral strain for five years was documented. All human and animal strains belonged to the HEV-3 genotype, with its clade 2 sequences being predominant in pigs. Sequences from patients, pigs, and sewage from pig farms clustered together, suggesting a zoonotic infection in humans and possible environmental contamination. The HEV-3 population size predicted using SkyGrid reconstruction demonstrated exponential growth in the 1970s–1990s, with a subsequent decline followed by a short rise around the year 2010, the pattern being similar to the dynamics of the pig population in the country. The HEV-3 reproduction number (Re) predicted using Birth-Death Skyline analysis has fluctuated around 1 over the past 20 years in Russia, but is 10 times higher in Belgorod Region. In conclusion, HEV-3 circulation varies both geographically and temporally, even within a single country. The possible factors contributing to this variability are largely related to the circulation of the virus among farm pigs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; seroprevalence; flavivirus; arbovirus; fever; mosquito-borne virus; vector-borne virus
Online: 20 July 2023 (04:51:12 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a widespread mosquito-borne pathogen. Phylogenetically, two lineages of the ZIKV are distinguished: African and Asian-American. The latter became the cause of the 2015-2016 pandemic with severe defeat to newborns. In West African countries the African lineage has been found, but there is evidence of the emergence of Asian-American lineage in Cape Verde and Angola. This highlights the need not only to monitor the ZIKV, but also to sequence the isolates. In this article, we present a case report of Zika fever in a pregnant woman from Guinea, identified in 2018. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in serum sample. In addition, seroconversion of anti-Zika IgM and IgG antibodies was detected in repeated blood samples. Subsequently, the virus was isolated in C6/36 cell line. The detected ZIKV belonged to the African lineage, the Nigerian sublineage. The strains with the closest sequences were isolated from mosquitoes in Senegal in 2011 and 2015. In addition, we conducted serological screening of 116 blood samples collected from patients presenting to the hospital of Faranah with fevers during the period 2018-2021. As a result, it was found that IgM-positive patients occurred each year, seroprevalence varied between 5.6% and 17.1%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Seroprevalence; genotype diversity; Caribbean; HCV elimination; Pan genotype treatment; high-risk population
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:14:36 CEST)
INTRODUCTION There have been several advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which have resulted in major reductions in the morbidity and mortality from liver-associated disease. These are not widely available in the Caribbean, due in part, to lack of knowledge of the epidemiology of infections with HCV. As efforts are made to eliminate HCV from the region, these and other existing barriers such as lack of an established database on HCV must be addressed. This review seeks to identify gaps in the knowledge of HCV in the Caribbean with respect to seroprevalence, genotype distribution and general epidemiologic characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The literature for the period January 1, 2005, to October 2022, was reviewed to gather country specific data on HCV across the Caribbean. References were identified through indexed journals accessed through established databases. The usage pattern of HCV drugs was determined from data obtained from Pharmacists and Infectious Diseases Specialists across the region. RESULTS The prevalence of HCV in the Caribbean was 1.5%; the region should therefore be considered an area of moderate prevalence. Notably, data from specific countries were limited. The prevalence of HCV among intravenous drug users (21.9-58.8%); persons living with HIV/AIDS (0.8 to 58.5%); prisoners (32.8-64%) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (0.8-6.9%) was generally higher than in the general population (0.8-2.3%). Genotype 1 (83% was most prevalent followed by genotypes 2 (7.2%) and 3(2.1%), respectively. Drugs currently being used for treatment of HCV infections across the Caribbean include Epclusa (Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir), and Harvoni (Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir). Some of these drugs, are only available in the private sector and are sourced externally whenever needed. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of current data on the seroprevalence of HCV in the Caribbean and well-designed prospective studies are indicated to drive the implementation of treatment and control programs for HCV in the region. Barriers which need to be first overcome include unavailability and high cost of drugs used to treat HCV infections, injecting drug use and limited access to medical care and laboratory testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; seroprevalence; antibodies; vaccine; natural infection; French Polynesia
Online: 21 December 2022 (04:56:44 CET)
In French Polynesia, Wuhan, Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern (VOCs) caused epidemics with variable severities. We assessed the prevalence and titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies related to natural infection and/or vaccination, from a representative sample (N=673) of the adult population of Tahiti recruited during November-December 2021 (after the Delta outbreak and just before the Omicron epidemic). Of the 673 participants tested, 644 (95.7%) had detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2-S and/or -N proteins resulting from natural infection and/or vaccination, and 388 (57.7%) were positive only for the detection of anti-N antibodies indicating natural infection. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence extrapolated to the adult population of Tahiti was estimated at 95.9%. Concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S antibodies significantly increased with age, number of self-reported SARS-CoV-2 infections (0 or ≥1), and number of COVID-19 vaccine doses (0, 1, 2, or 3) received by the participants. Elderly people, who are at higher risk of severe outcomes, had received more vaccine doses than younger individuals both in our sample and in the general population. The high level of antibody responses related to past infections and vaccination, especially booster doses, has likely contributed to reducing the severity of the Omicron outbreak in French Polynesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; asymptomatic; seroprevalence; Delta variant; Omicron variant; vaccination
Online: 26 September 2022 (09:41:01 CEST)
A significant proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Africa are identified as asymptomatic, facilitating the silent spread of the virus especially in populated urban cities. With the surge of the highly transmissible Omicron variant, the inclusion of asymptomatics in epidemiological surveys is key in estimating true infections and seroprevalence in the population. The aim of the study was to determine seroprevalence, active infection and circulating variants in Accra, the capital city of Ghana during the Omicron wave. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 municipalities in December 2021. Naso-oropharyngeal swabs and serum samples were collected from 1027 individuals aged 5 years and above, for detection of infection by RT-qPCR and estimation of total antibodies using the WANTAI ELISA kit. Our results show 10% SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, with the Omicron and Delta variants accounting for 44.1% and 8.8% of infections, respectively. Omicron was most prevalent (48.9.%) among the 20–39-year-olds. Asymptomatic individuals accounted for 75.2% of infections. Seropositivity within the population was 86.8%, with the 60+ year group having significantly higher likelihood of exposure (OR 10.22: 95% CI: 3.51-29.73; p<0.001). This high seroprevalence appears to have been as a result of increased vaccination among this group (OR 2.7: 95% CI 1.78-4.09, p < 0.001). The high seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 in the capital could be a good indication of herd immunity among the population and while the low infection rate supports the role of vaccination in reducing viral transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0152.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SARS-CoV2; COVID-19; homeless people; public health; vulnerable population; Seroprevalence, cohort; residential mobility
Online: 11 January 2022 (17:20:14 CET)
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the begin-ning of the health crisis and to analyze its impact in terms of COVID-19 prevalence. From June to August 2020 and September to December 2020, 1272 homeless people were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and virus in and completed questionnaires. Our data show that homeless populations are sociologically dif-ferent depending on where they live. We show that people living on the street were most likely to be relocated to emergency shelters than other inhabitants. Some neighborhoods are points of attraction for homeless peo-ple in the city while others emptied during the health crisis, which had consequences for virus circulation. People with a greater number of different dwellings reported became more infected. This first study of the mo-bility and epidemiology of homeless people in time of pandemic provides unique information about mobility mapping, sociological factors of this mobility, mobility at different scales and epidemiological consequences. We suggest that homeless policies need to be radically transformed since actual model exposes people to infection in emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; antibodies; nucleocapsid antigen; antigen receptor binding domain; seropositivity; St. Petersburg; volunteers; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:42:54 CEST)
Since the detection of the first COVID-19 patient, 2 years have passed, during which more than 287,862,000 people fell ill globally, of which about 1.9% died. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 control programs required efforts from almost all countries. An important direction in the fight against COVID-19 was the formation of herd immunity, the main tool for managing the pandemic. Study goal: to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies (Abs) to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (Nc) and receptor binding domain (RBD) in the St. Petersburg population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. A longitudinal cohort randomized monitoring study of Ab seroprevalence (SARS-CoV-2 Nc, RBD) was organized and conducted according to a unified methodology developed by Rospotrebnadzor with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute. For this purpose, a cohort of 1000 volunteers was formed who participated in all five stages of seromonitoring. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups: 1-17; 18-29; 30-39; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70; and older (70+) years. Seropositivity levels (Nc, RBD) were assessed by quantitative and qualitative enzyme immunoassays. During the 2nd year of monitoring, some volunteers were vaccinated with the GamCOVIDVac (84%) or EpiVacCorona (11.6%) vaccines approved in Russia. Statistical processing was carried out using the Excel 2010 software package. Confidence intervals for shares and percentages (95% CI) were calculated using the method of A. Wald and J. Wolfowitz with adjustment (A. Agresti, B.A. Coull). The statistical significance of differences was calculated by z-test, using the appropriate online calculator (p<0.05), unless indicated. Results. There was a trend towards: an increase in Nc seropositivity in stages 1-3 of seromonitoring, with a decrease in stages 4-5 among children and adults. The share of RBD seropositive steadily increased during all 5 stages of seromonitoring. The most frequently found were low anti-RBD Abs levels (22.6-220 BAU/ml). High Ab levels were recorded statistically significantly less frequently. Asymptomatic forms were observed in 84-88% of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive volunteers. By the 5th stage of monitoring, this indicator significantly decreased to 69.8% (95% CI: 66.1-73.4). The monitoring revealed a statistically significant increase in anti-RBD Abs, alongside a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of Nc seropositive. This dynamic was especially characteristic of persons vaccinated with GamCOVIDVac. Conclusion. Prior to the use of specific vaccines, a seroprevalence of anti-Nc Abs was noted. After the introduction of the GamCOVIDVac vaccine in adults, a decrease in the level of anti-Nc Abs was noted due to an increase in the proportion of RBD seropositive persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence; Vaccination Status; SARS-CoV-2; anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; Albanian population
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:10:13 CEST)
Understanding the dynamics of humoral immune responses throughout the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for optimizing vaccine strategies. This study aimed to investigate the impact of infection and vaccine-induced immunity on the Albanian population from August 2021 to August 2022. Two independent samples from the Albanian general population were analyzed using an ELISA method to assess IgG class anti-Spike (S1) and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The results revealed a robust immune response among vaccinated individuals with prior COVID-19 infection who received only one vaccine dose. In the 2022 cohort, most individuals who received one vaccine dose achieved comparable seropositivity and antibody levels to those who received two doses. However, individuals aged 61 and over required two or three vaccine doses to reach the same level of immune response as the younger population. Notably, the time elapsed since infection or vaccination did not significantly impact the immune response. These findings highlight the importance of hybrid immunity and suggest that one vaccine dose may be sufficient for most individuals with prior COVID-19 infection. However, additional doses are necessary for optimal protection in older individuals. This study provides unique insights into humoral immune response dynamics that can be used to refine ongoing COVID-19 population vaccination strategies for middle-income countries with low vaccination coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0307.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: endemicity pattern; hepatitis A; hepatitis B; hepatitis C; hepatitis D; hepatitis E; seroprevalence; general population; Kyrgyzstan; post-Soviet country; WHO European Region
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:40:33 CEST)
Historically, viral hepatitis is a considerable public health problem in Central Asian countries, which may have worsened after dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, up-to-date seroepidemiological studies are lacking. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to provide current estimates of seroprevalence of viral hepatitis in Kyrgyzstan, one of the economically least developed countries in the region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 2018 in the capital of Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek (n=1075). Participants, children and adults, were recruited from an outpatient clinic. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews. A blood sample (6 ml) was collected from each participant and tested with ELISA for the presence of serological markers for five viral hepatitides (A, B, C, D and E). Poststratification weighting was performed to obtain nationally representative findings. The overwhelming majority of the study participants were positive for anti-HAV (estimated seroprevalence, 75.3%; 95% confidence interval: 72.5–77.9%). The weighted seroprevalence estimates of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HDV were 2.2% (1.5–3.3%), 3.8% (2.8–5.1%), and 0.40% (0.15–1.01%), respectively. Anti-HEV seropositivity was 3.3% (2.4–4.5%). Of the 33 HBsAg positive participants, five (15%) were anti-HDV positive. Our study confirms that Kyrgyzstan remains a high endemic country for hepatitis virus A and C infections. However, seroprevalences of HBV and HDV were lower than previously reported, and based on these data, the country could potentially be reclassified from high to (lower) intermediate endemicity. The observed anti-HEV seroprevalence resembles the low endemicity pattern characteristic of high-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; rodents; rodent-borne diseases; environment contamination; biomonitoring; wildlife; molecular detection; PCR assay; nested-PCR assay prevalence; serological detection; agglutination test; ELISA method; seroprevalence
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:38:21 CET)
Rodents are known to be reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii and keep the parasite circulation in the environment. We conducted biomonitoring to assess the role of sylvatic rodents in maintaining T. gondii and to analyse the prevalence and seroprevalence of the parasite in seven wild rodent species. Rodents were collected in our study sites (woodland and open grasslands) located in northeastern Poland and dissected. We collected brain, spleen, blood and serum samples. We applied both molecular (PCR assay, nested-PCR assay) and serological (ELISA and agglutination tests) methods to indicate the best approach for application in the biomonitoring of T. gondii in small mammals. We screened samples from 95 individuals sing PCR assays and found no T. gondii DNA. The agglutination test showed no signal. We found antibodies against T. gondii in 6 sera samples out of 74 analysed (seroprevalence = 8.11% [4.0-17.1]). Our results confirm that rodents participate in the life cycle of T. gondii as reservoirs of this parasite in the sylvatic environment. However, biomonitoring should be performed with the ELISA tests to search for T. gondii antigens, rather than a molecular approach only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outpatient cohort; seroprevalence; mild infections; asymptomatic cases; COVID-19 contacts; PCR-positivity and symptoms; first year of the pandemic; Hungary
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:08:09 CEST)
We aimed to estimate the proportion of the population infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic. The study population consisted of outpatient adults with mild or no COVID-19 symptoms, and was divided into subpopulations with different levels of exposures. Of the subpopulation without known previous COVID-19 contacts 4143, of the subpopulation with known COVID-19 contacts 594 persons were investigated. IgG- and IgA-seroprevalence and RT-PCR positivity were determined in context with COVID-19 symptoms. We hope to have contributed to the understanding of the significance of the asymptomatic and mild infections in the long persistence of the pandemic.