ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: FAU membrane; zeolite; secondary growth; gas separation; propylene propane separation; H2/C3H8 separation
Online: 19 October 2023 (04:40:36 CEST)
In this study, high-performance FAU (NaY type) zeolite membranes were successfully synthesized using small-sized seeds of 50 nm, and their gas separation performance was systematically evaluated. Employing nano-sized NaY seeds and an ultra-dilute reaction solution with a molar composition of 80 Na2O: 1Al2O3: 19 SiO2: 5000H2O, the effects of synthesis temperature, crystallization time, and porous support (α-Al2O3 or mullite) on the formation of FAU membranes were investigated. The results illustrated that further extending the crystallization time or increasing the synthesis temperature led to the formation of a NaP impurity phase on the FAU membrane layer. The most promising FAU membrane with a thickness of 2.7 µm was synthesized on an α-Al2O3 support at 368 K for 8 h, and had good reproducibility. The H2 permeance of the membrane was as high as 5.34×10-7 mol/(m2 s Pa), and the H2/C3H8 and H2/i-C4H10 selectivities were 183 and 315, respectively. The C3H6/C3H8 selectivity of the membrane was as high as 46 with a remarkably high C3H6 permeance of 1.35× 10-7 mol/(m2 s Pa). The excellent separation performance of the membrane is mainly attributed to the thin, defect-free membrane layer and relatively wide pore size (0.74 nm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0167.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Bio-separation, magnetic separation, magnetic particles, continuous-flow
Online: 10 July 2018 (10:53:45 CEST)
Bio-separation of natural molecules as well as clinical compounds has been constantly developed in last decades. Several techniques are available but the majority of them presents drawbacks such us impossibility to be applied for industrial purposes. The main limitations for the scaling up are high costs and the fact that the devices work with microfluid dynamics. Nevertheless, magnetic bio-separation is considered the most prone to be used for large scale applications. Herein, we propose a simple magnetic separation method that is not based on microfluid dynamics, can work in a continuous- and high-flow rate and can be easily automated in order to be used for standard separation purposes. It is based on the use of an anisotropic flexible ferric magnetic strip, Teflon hoses and a pumping device. We show the modelling of the separation process along with an experimental test on iron oxide magnetic particles. The results showed that it is possible to remove, and separately collect, more than 92% of magnetic particles from a liquid solution of 100 ml in roughly 15 minutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: carbon nanotubes; chiral separation; achiral separation; SWCNTs; MWCNTs
Online: 23 June 2017 (03:30:13 CEST)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique mechanical, physical, electrical and absorbability properties coupled with their nanometer dimensional scale that renders them extremely valuable for applications in many fields including nanotechnology and chromatographic separation. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview about the applications of CNTs in chiral and achiral separations of pharmaceuticals, biologics and chemicals. Chiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been directly applied for the enantioseparation of pharmaceuticals and biologicals by using them as stationary or pseudostationary phases in chromatographic separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gas chromatography (GC). Achiral MWCNTs have been used for achiral separations as efficient sorbent objects in solid-phase extraction techniques of biochemicals and drugs. Achiral SWCNTs have been applied in achiral separation of biological samples. Achiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been also successfully used to separate achiral mixtures of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Collectively, functionalized CNTs have been indirectly applied in separation science by enhancing the enantioseparation of different chiral selectors whereas, non-functionalized CNTs have shown efficient capabilities for chiral separations by using techniques such as encapsulation or immobilization in polymer monolithic columns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0357.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: PDMS; STA; Superhydrophobic cotton fabric；Oil-water separation; High separation flux
Online: 14 April 2023 (08:56:39 CEST)
Oil-water separation using special wettability materials has received much attention due to its low energy consumption and high separation efficiency. Herein, a fluorine-free superhydrophobic cotton fabric(PDMS/STA -coated cotton fabric) was successfully prepared by a simple impregnation method using hydroxyl-capped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and stearic acid (STA) as precursors. The Investigation found that the cross-linking reactions between the hydroxyl groups form PDMS-OH, hydrolyzed TEOS made a strong interact of PDMS-OH and cotton fabric. Besides, a suitable roughness surface of coated cotton fabric was established by introducing STA due to its long chain-structure. The contact angle of this composite can reach 158.7°under optical condition due to its low surface energy and desired roughness. The oil/water separation efficiency of PDMS/STA-coated cotton fabric is higher than 90% even after 10 cycles of oil-water separation, the oil flux can reach 11862.42 L m-2 h-1. In addition, PDMS/STA-coated cotton fabric exhibits excellent chemical stability and durability under extreme conditions such as strong acid (HCl, pH=1~2) and alkali (NaOH, pH=13~14), the hydrophobicity of PDMS/STA-coated cotton fabric was decreased to 147° even after 350 cycles of abrasion testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: WBC isolation; Spiral microchannels; Inertial microfluidics; Passive cell separation; High-throughput separation
Online: 29 September 2021 (09:35:31 CEST)
Rapid isolation of white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood is an essential part of any WBC examination platform. However, most conventional cell separation techniques are labor-intensive and low throughput, require large volumes of samples, need extensive cell manipulation, and have low purity. To address these challenges, we report the design and fabrication of a passive, label-free microfluidic device with a unique U-shaped cross-section to separate WBCs from whole blood using hydrodynamic forces that exist in a microchannel with curvilinear geometry. It is shown that the spiral microchannel with a U-shaped cross-section concentrates larger blood cells (e.g., WBCs) in the inner cross-section of the microchannel by moving smaller blood cells (e.g., red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets) to the outer microchannel section and preventing them from returning to the inner microchannel section. Therefore, it overcomes the major limitation of a rectangular cross-section where secondary Dean vortices constantly enforce particles throughout the entire cross-section and decrease its isolation efficiency. Under optimal settings, more than 95% of WBCs can be isolated from whole blood under high-throughput (6 ml/min), high-purity (88%), and high-capacity (180 ml of sample in 1 hour) conditions. High efficiency, fast processing time, and non-invasive WBC isolation from large blood samples without centrifugation, RBC lysis, cell biomarkers, and chemical pre-treatments make this method an ideal choice for downstream cell study platforms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: thorium removing; thorium recovery, thorium recycling; thorium separation, thorium transport; thorium separation; thorium membrane separation; thorium membrane concentration; thorium determination
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:36:38 CEST)
Although a slightly radioactive element, thorium is considered very toxic because its various species, which reach the environment, can constitute an important problem for the health of the population. The present paper aims to expand the possibilities of using membrane processes in the removal, recovery and recycling of thorium from industrial residues reaching the municipal waste processing platforms. The paper includes a short introduction on the interest shown for this element, a weak radioactive metal, followed by highlighting of some common (domestic) uses. In a distinct but concise part, the bio-medical impact of thorium is presented. The classic technologies for obtaining thorium are concentrated in a single schema, and then the speciation of thorium is presented with an emphasis on the formation of hydroxo-complexes and complexes with common organic reagents. The determination of thorium has been highlighted both on the basis of its radioactivity, but especially through methods that call for extraction followed by an established electrochemical, spectral or chromatographic method. Membrane processes are presented based on the electrochemical potential difference, rapidly presenting barro-membrane processes, electrodialysis, liquid membranes and hybrid processes. A separate sub-chapter is devoted to proposals and recommendations for the use of membranes in order to achieve some progress in urban mining for the valorization of thorium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0023.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: dielectrophoresis; microparticles; chromatography; separation; polarizability
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:21:18 CET)
The separation of microparticles with respect to different properties such as size and material is a research field of great interest. Dielectrophoresis, a phenomenon which is capable of addressing multiple particle properties at once, can be used to perform a chromatographic separation. However, the selectivity of current dielectrophoretic particle chromatography (DPC) techniques is limited. Here we show a new approach for DPC based on differences in the dielectrophoretic mobilities and the crossover frequencies of polystyrene particles. Both differences are addressed by modulating the frequency of the electric field to generate positive and negative dielectrophoretic movement to achieve multiple trap and release cycles of the particles. A chromatographic separation of different particle sizes revealed a voltage dependency of this method. Additionally, we showed the frequency bandwidth influence on separation using one example. The DPC method developed was tested with model particles but offers possibilities to separate a broad range of plastic and metal microparticles or cells and to overcome currently existing limitations in selectivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0017.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: dominoes; toppling motion; velocity; height; thickness; separation
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:24:39 CET)
By using directed dimensional analysis and data fitting, an explicit universal scaling law for the velocity of dominoes toppling motion is formulated. The scaling law shows that domino propagational velocity is linearly proportional to the 1/2 power of domino separation and thickness, and -1/2 power of domino height and gravitation. The study also proved that dominoes width and mass have no influence on the domino wave traveling velocity. The scaling law obtained in this Letter is very useful to the dominoes game and will help the domino player to place the dominoes for fast speed and have a quick estimation on the speed without doing complicated multi-bodies dynamical simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1741.v2
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: propellant; HD1.3; safe separation; quantity distance
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:14:57 CEST)
Separation Distances are used throughout the world to protect people and assets from the potential hazardous effects from propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. The current separation distances for Hazard Division (HD) 1.3 substances and articles used in the United States, in some cases, may not adequately protect against the effects from heat flux and debris when those substances and articles are ignited in a confined structure. Multiple tests in such a confined scenario with HD 1.3 substances have shown that the heat flux and debris hazards could result in injury at distances beyond the current specified explosives safety separation distance (ESSD). Herein are recommended ESSD’s for confined as well as unconfined HD 1.3 articles and substances based on the analysis of hundreds of tests. Recommended ESSD’s include a smaller value for unconfined quantities less than 145 kilograms and ESSD’s that are consistent with NATO distances for confined substances and articles.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Abies; separation traits; correlation; sorting; fractions
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:13:57 CET)
Research Highlights: The correlations between the analyzed physical properties of seeds and seed mass were determined. The results were analyzed to determine most effective seed separation devices for the evaluated fir species. Background and Objectives: Information about the variations and correlations between the physical properties of seeds is essential for designing and modeling seed processing operations such as seed separation. The aim of this study was to determine the range of variations in the basic physical properties of seeds of selected fir species, and to identify the correlations between these attributes for the needs of the seed sorting processes. Materials and Methods: Terminal velocity, thickness, width, length, the angle of external friction and mass were determined in the seeds of 11 fir species. The measured parameters were used to calculate the geometric mean diameter, three aspect ratios, sphericity index and the specific mass of each seed. Results: The average values of the basic physical properties of the analyzed seeds were determined in the following range: terminal velocity – from 4.8 to 7.1 m s-1, thickness – from 1.76 to 3.22 mm, width – from 3.29 to 5.57 mm, length – from 5.44 to 11.06 mm, angle of external friction – from 26 to 33°, and mass – from 7.9 to 48.3 mg. The seeds of Sierra white fir where most similar, whereas the seeds of balsam fir differed most considerably from the seeds of the remaining fir species. Conclusions: Fir seeds should be sorted primarily with the use of mesh sieves with longitudinal openings to obtain fractions with similar seed mass and to eliminate the need for dewinging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Arachis quality; pod separation; plant extraction; peanut
Online: 1 September 2023 (16:38:26 CEST)
Keywords: Arachis quality; pod separation; plant extraction, peanut
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0309.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: aromatic polyimide; crosslinking; plasticization resistance; gas separation
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:48:18 CET)
A set of aromatic copolyimides was obtained by reaction of 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA), and mixtures of the diamines 1,4-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butylbenzene (CF3TBAPB) and 3,5-diamino benzoic acid (DABA). These polymers were characterized and compared with the homopolymer derived from 6FDA and CF3TBAPB. All copolyimides showed high molecular weight values and good mechanical properties. The presence of carboxylic groups in these copolymers allowed their cross-linking by reaction with 1,4-butanediol. The crosslinked polymer films were extensively characterized and it was observed that the degree of crosslinking was low in the copolyimides possessing a small number of carboxyl groups. The degradation temperature of these crosslinked copolyimides was lower than their corresponding non-crosslinked ones. Glass transition temperatures were higher than 260 oC, showing the non-crosslinked copolyimides the highest values. Young moduli of these crosslinked showed values higher than 1.9 GPa, and slightly lower elongation at break when compared with the precursor copolyimides. All copolyimides (precursor, and crosslinked ones) films could be tested as gas separation membranes. It was seen that CO2 permeability values were around 100 barrer, having better selectivity than that of the homopolymer. Moreover, the plasticization resistance of the crosslinked material having a large number of carboxylic groups was excellent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0200.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: laminar separation; flow control; vortex generator jets
Online: 29 October 2018 (11:55:12 CET)
Active flow control of canonical laminar separation bubbles by steady and harmonic vortex generator jets (VGJs) was investigated using direct numerical simulations. Both control strategies were found to be effective in controlling the laminar boundary-layer separation. However, the present results indicate that using the same blowing amplitude, harmonic VGJs were more effective and efficient in reducing the separated region than the steady VGJs considering the fact that the harmonic VGJs use less momentum than the steady case. For steady VGJs, longitudinal structures formed immediately downstream of injection location led to formation of hairpin-type vortices causing an earlier transition to turbulence. Symmetric hairpin vortices were shown to develop downstream of the forcing location for the harmonic VGJs as well. However, the increased control effectiveness for harmonic VGJs flow control strategy is attributed to the fact that shear-layer instability mechanism was exploited. As a result, disturbances introduced by VGJs were strongly amplified leading to development of large-scale coherent structures, which are very effective in increasing the momentum exchange, thus, limiting the separated region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0010.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: MOFs; membranes; separation; gas; thin film; defects
Online: 3 September 2018 (05:31:52 CEST)
Gas membrane-based separation is considered one of the furthermost effective technology to address energy efficiency and large footprint challenges. Various classes of advanced materials including polymers, zeolites, porous carbons and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were attempted as membranes for gas separation. MOFs, among other porous materials, possess uniquely tunable nature, in which the pore size and environment can be controlled by connecting metal ions (or metal ion clusters) with organic linkers with various functionalities. This feature makes them attractive for thin membrane fabrication, as both diffusion and solubility components of permeability can be altered. It is interesting to notice that numerous reports have addressed the synthesis of different MOFs, fabrication of their corresponding thin films and their applications, nonetheless, relatively limited studies addressed their gas separation application as membranes. In this review, we provide a synopsis of the various MOF-based membranes that were fabricated in the last decade. In this review we propose a short introduction touching on the gas separation membrane technology and we shed light on (i) the various techniques developed for the fabrication of MOF as membranes and (ii) challenges and application for MOF thin film membranes in various important gas separation applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2107.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: solid oxide fuel cells; oxygen separation membranes; hydrogen separation membranes; oxygen mobility; hydrogen mobility; isotope exchange of oxygen
Online: 29 June 2023 (12:48:10 CEST)
Oxygen and hydrogen mobility are among the important characteristics for operation of solid oxide fuel cells, permselective membranes and many other electrochemical devices. This, along with other characteristics, enables reaching a high power density of solid oxide fuel cells and a high oxygen or hydrogen permeation fluxes for membranes. This work focuses on oxygen and hydrogen diffusion of mixed ionic (oxide ionic or/and protonic) – electronic conducting materials for these devices and its role in the performance. Ionic transport properties of conventional and state-of-the-art materials are reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Chromatographic separation; SMB; multi-column; fuzzy; neural network
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:40:02 CET)
Chromatographic separation is a critical technique in the manufacturing processes of both chemical products and biopharmaceuticals. Its principle relies on exploiting the differences in distribution between the stationary and mobile phases to achieve the separation of mixtures. The precision of substance concentration during separation directly impacts the quality and usability of the final product. Therefore, the development of an effective and precise separation control technique has long been a vital concern in the field of chromatographic separation control. Currently, the employment of Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) technology for chromatographic separation, which allows for continuous feed, has been recognized as a cutting-edge technique. SMB is a continuous process technology that enhances the efficiency of adsorbents within the bed. This sequential multi-column SMB technology not only increases production capacity but also reduces the consumption of solvents and water. It is acknowledged as one of the cleanest manufacturing technologies in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, multi-column SMB involves various variables such as flow rates in multiple sections and valve switching times, rendering its system control highly complex. Unlike traditional control objectives that aim to minimize control output errors, the control objective of SMB is to achieve a specific proportion of substance concentration. Consequently, designing and implementing traditional control theories for SMB is challenging, leading to SMB systems largely being controlled based on simple PLC controls. Moreover, these controls are often applicable only to single or a few-column SMB setups, limiting the effectiveness of high-capacity applications. To achieve effective control of SMB, this study employs an adjustable intelligent fuzzy controller with a structure like an approximate neural network (NN) for SMB control research. Simulation results demonstrate that the intelligent controller effectively achieves desirable control outcomes for the SMB system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Ion separation; Mobility; Anisotropic diffusion; Ion cloud; Security
Online: 17 February 2023 (02:06:26 CET)
It is shown by numerical modelling that anisotropic diffusion can compensate and even overcome diffusion broadening - the main limiting factor of devices working at atmospheric pressure. The thickness of ion clouds coming out of the ionisation chamber is reduced ~ 1000 times in the ADMA inlet increasing the resolution. This finding has a great potential that enables construction of a device with resolution close to that of currently available desktop ion separation devices – high pressure mass spectrometers, but with much lower cost of manufacture and with smaller dimensions. Comprehensive numerical modelling along with mathematical analysis of physical concepts enables reduction of the footprint and manufacturing costs. Modelling determined that the resolving power (RP) potential of the ADMA is greater than the RP of currently available on the market devices for the airport security market. The ADMA technology enables very fast detection of threats; at least 100 times faster than currently used in Ion Mobility Spectrometers (IMS). This potentially allows an increase in passenger throughput in airports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0050.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: laminate; material properties; identification; guided waves; mode separation
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:08:23 CEST)
Numerical methods, including machine learning methods, are now actively used in the applications related to guided wave propagation. The method proposed in this study for material properties characterization is based on the algorithm of the clustering of multivariate data series obtained as a result of the application of the matrix pencil method to the experimental data. In the proposed technique, multi-objective optimization is employed to improve the accuracy of particular parameter identification. At the first stage, the computationally efficient method based on the calculation of the Fourier transform of Green's matrix is employed iteratively and the obtained solution is used for the filter construction with decreasing bandwidth, which allows us to obtain nearly noise-free classified data (with mode separation). The filter provides data separation between all guided waves in a natural way, which is needed at the second stage, where the slower method based on the minimization of the slowness residuals is applied to the data. The method might be applied for material properties identification in plates with thin coatings/interlayers, multi-layered anisotropic laminates etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: plasma membrane; rafts; microemulsion; phase-separation; domain size
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:09:41 CEST)
It is widely, but not universally, believed that the lipids of the plasma membrane are not uniformly distributed, but that "rafts'' of sphingolipids and cholesterol float in a "sea'' of unsaturated lipids. The physical origin of such heterogeneities is often attributed to a phase coexistence between the two different domains. We argue that this explanation is untenable for several reasons. Further we note that the results of recent experiments are inconsistent with this picture. However they are quite consistent with an alternate explanation, namely that the plasma membrane is an emulsion of the two kinds of regions. To show this, we briefly review a simplified version of this theory and its phase diagram. We also explicate the dependence of the predicted domain size on four physical parameters. Among them are the spontaneous curvature of the membrane and its bending modulus and surface tension. Taking values of the latter two from experiment, we obtain domain sizes for several different cell types that vary from 58 to 88 nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: magnetoencephalography; signal space separation; magnetometer; gradiometer; beamforming; regularization
Online: 27 October 2017 (03:50:25 CEST)
Background: Modern MEG devices include 102 sensor triplets containing one magnetometer and two planar gradiometers. The first processing step is often a signal space separation (SSS), which provides a powerful noise reduction. A question commonly raised by researchers and reviewers is which data should be employed in source reconstruction: (1) magnetometers only, (2) gradiometers only, (3) magnetometers and gradiometers together. The MEG community is currently divided about the proper answer and strong arguments in favor and against these three approaches often expressed. Methods: First, we provide theoretical evidence that both gradiometers and magnetometers contain the same information after SSS, and argue that they both result from the backprojection of the same SSS components. Then, we compare beamforming source reconstructions from magnetometers and gradiometers in real MEG recordings before and after SSS. Results: Without SSS, the correlation between source time series extracted from magnetometers and gradiometers was high, with Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.5-0.8. After SSS, these correlation values increased dramatically, reaching over 0.90 across all cortical areas. Conclusions: After SSS, almost identical source reconstructions (r>0.9) can be obtained with magnetometers and gradiometers, as long as regularization is selected appropriately to account for the different properties in magnetometers and gradiometers covariance matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0936.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: waste PET; recycle; water/oil separation; high value reuse
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:59:18 CEST)
As one of the important wastes, waste PET pollutes human living and natural environment seriously. PET is an important solid waste that needs to be recycled at present. The complete degradation of PET was realized at low temperature. The lipophilic hydrophobic membrane was formed on the surface of stainless steel mesh (SSM) by a simple dip coating method, and the oil-water separation material was successfully prepared. Due to the load of degradation products, the surface roughness of SSM increased from 19.09 μm increased to 62.33 μm. The surface changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the water contact angle increased to 123o. The oil-water separation flux of modified SSM is 9825 L/(m2·h) and the separation efficiency is 98.99%. The modified SSM has good reuse performance. This hydrophobic modification method can also be used to modify other porous substrates, such as activated carbon, filter paper, foam, and other materials. In this study, the porous substrate modified by the degradation product of waste PET was used to prepare oil-water separation materials, which not only solved the problem of white pollution, but also reduced the dependence on non renewable resources in the conventional preparation methods of oil-water separation materials. The research provided new raw materials and methods for the industrial production of oil-water separation materials, and had important application prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1878.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Microparticles; PEG; PLGA; coaxial flow; phase separation; drug delivery
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:38:27 CEST)
Polymeric microparticles of polyethyleneglycol-polylactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PEG-PLGA) are widely used as drug carriers for a variety of applications due to their unique characteristics. Herein, we developed a novel method for the synthesis of uniformly sized microparticles via coaxial flow-phase separation. The study evaluated the effect of various process parameters on microparticle size and polydispersity including polymer concentration, stirring rate, surfactant concentration, and the organic/aqueous phase flow rate and volume ratio. The results demonstrated that stirring rate and polymer concentration had the most significant impact on the mean particle size and distribution whereas surfactant concentration had the most substantial impact on the morphology of particles. Several microparticle formulations yielding particle sizes in the range of (5-50 µm), morphology, and concentration were synthesized as a demonstration of the tunability and scalability of this method. Notably, by controlling the process parameters microparticles of less than ~ 7 μm could be made using polymer concentrations varying by an order of magnitude. Finally, we demonstrated the tunability and scalability of this method by showing a 10-fold increase in encapsulation efficiency, a 3-fold increase in drug loading of a model hydrophilic drug, and modified release kinetics in microparticle formulations of comparable sizes but different polymer concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Finite Element Model; Crack Strain Separation; Orthogonal; Shear Friction
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:18:36 CEST)
This paper presents a finite element analysis of the bi-directional orthogonal model, which incorporates individual crack strain separation and tracking. The objective of the research is to expand the current shear friction model to manage bi-directional cracking at any angle, allowing for a more universal model that can be applied to intricate structures and non-proportional loading cases. The proposed model was initially developed as a total strain-based model, with the assumption that crack strains are equivalent to total strains, but was subsequently recalculated to improve accuracy by separating crack strains from total strains. Furthermore, a separate crack strain formulation was created to account for strains in the concrete's uncracked portions and locked-in crack strains. The article then discusses the testing of various convergence methods and loading programs to achieve high convergence. Comparative analyses of the generalized shear friction model with other models for crack orientation and loading cases similar to those of a reinforced concrete membrane are also presented. The MATLAB program successfully applied the bi-directional cracking model for one finite element under a uniform cyclical strain state, using a secant stiffness formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: TDP-43; Liquid-liquid phase separation; Solution-state NMR
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:22:40 CEST)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins has been found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells, critical in the controlling of many biological processes through forming a temporary condensed phase with different bimolecular components. TDP-43 is recruited to stress granules in cells and is the main component of TDP-43 granules and proteinaceous amyloid inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 low complexity domain (LCD) is able to demix in solution forming the protein condensed droplets. The molecular interactions regulating its LLPS were investigated at the protein fusion equilibrium stage, where the droplets stopped growing. We found the molecules in the droplet were still liquid-like but with enhanced intermolecular helix-helix interaction in the LCD. The protein would start to aggregate after about 200 minutes of lag time and aggregate slower than at the condition when the protein does not phase separate or the molecules have a reduced intermolecular helical interaction. A structural transition intermediate towards protein aggregation was also discovered involving a decrease of the intermolecular helix-helix interaction and a reduction in the helicity. Therefore, LLPS and the intermolecular helical interaction could help maintain the stability of TDP-43 LCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0313.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: membrane transport; Cyanex 923; iron(III); manganese (II); separation.
Online: 21 October 2021 (14:10:48 CEST)
The transport of iron(III) from Fe(III)-Mn(II)-HCl mixed solutions through a flat-sheet supported liquid membrane is investigated, being the carrier phase of Cyanex 923 (commercially available phosphine oxide extractant) dissolved in Solvesso 100 (commercially available diluent), as a function of hydrodynamic conditions, concentration of manganese and HCl in the feed phase, and carrier concentration in the membrane phase. A transport model is derived that describes the transport mechanism, consisting of diffusion through a feed aqueous diffusion layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion of the Fe(III)-Cyanex 923 complex across the membrane phase. The membrane diffusional resistance (Δm) and feed diffusional resistance (Δf) are calculated from the model, and their values are 145 s/cm and 361 s/cm, respectively. It is apparent that the transport of iron(III) is mainly controlled by diffusion through the aqueous feed boundary layer, being the thickness of this layer calculated as 2.9x10-3 cm. Since Mn(II) is not transported through the membrane phase, the present system allows to the purification of this manganese-bearing solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0352.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: remote sensing; spectroscopy; blind source separation; unsupervised clustering; insects
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:16:55 CET)
Characterization of flying insects in-situ measurement using remote sensing spectroscopy is an emerging research field. Also, most analysis techniques in remote sensing spectroscopy are based on the use of an intensity threshold which introduces indeterminacies in the number of detected specimens. In this manuscript, we investigated the possibility of analysing passive remote sensing spectroscopy measurement data using the maximum noise fraction method. The results obtained show that this analysis technique can help to overcome the measurement of background noise in spectroscopic measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: inertial spiral microfluidics; dendritic cell separation; resource-limited microfluidics
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:54:44 CET)
Microfluidics technology has not impacted the delivery and accessibility of point of care health services like diagnosis of infectious disease diagnosis, monitoring health or delivering interventions. Most microfluidics prototypes from academic research are not easy to manufacture with industrial scale fabrication techniques and cannot be operated without complex manipulations of supporting equipment and additives such as labels or reagents. We propose a label- and reagent-free inertial spiral microfluidic device to separate red blood, white blood and dendritic cells from blood fluid for applications in health monitoring and immunotherapy. We demonstrate that using larger channel widths in the range of 200 to 600 µm allows separation of cells into multiple streams according to different size ranges and we utilize a novel technique to collect the closely separated focused cell streams without constricting the channel. When tested on actual human blood cells, 77% of dendritic cells were separated and 80% of cells remained viable after our assay. Our contribution is a method to adapt spiral inertial microfluidic designs to separate more than two cell types in the same device which is robust against clogging, simple to operate and suitable for fabrication and deployment in resource-limited populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0186.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: H2O permeability; inorganic nanoparticles; polyimide; activation energy; gas separation
Online: 8 November 2018 (04:16:33 CET)
Three polyimides and six inorganic fillers in a form of nanometer-sized particles were studied as thick film solution cast mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for transport of CO2, CH4 and H2O. Gas transport properties and electron microscopy images indicate good polymer-filler compatibility for all membranes. The only filler type which demonstrated good distribution throughout the membrane thickness at 10 wt. % loading was BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3 (BCZY). The influence of this filler on MMM gas transport properties was studied in detail for 6FDA-6FpDA in a filler content range from 1 to 20 wt.% and for Matrimid® and P84® at 10 wt. % loading. The most promising result was obtained for Matrimid® - 10wt% BCZY MMM, which showed improvement in CO2 and H2O permeabilities accompanied by increased CO2/CH4 selectivity and high water selective membrane at elevated temperatures without H2O/permanent gas selectivity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0080.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: fuzzy operators; fuzzy separation axioms; fuzzy compactness; fuzzy connectedness
Online: 3 May 2018 (13:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy β-Ti, i = 0, 1, 2 separation axioms related to a fuzzy operator β on the initial set X which is a generalization of previous fuzzy separation axioms. An r-fuzzy α-connectedness related to a fuzzy operator α on the set X is introduced which is a generalization of many types of r-fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy α-compactness related to a fuzzy operator α on the set X is introduced which is a generalization of many types of fuzzy compactness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1462.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: simulation; modelling; separation; bio-oil; acetol; acetic acid; extraction; distillation
Online: 24 October 2023 (04:12:38 CEST)
Biomass as a whole offers a more diverse potential for valorisation than any other renew-able energy source. As one of the stages in the separation of bio-oil involves the liquid mixture of acetol and acetic acid, and as both components are particularly well suited for valorisation, a hybrid method has been developed for their separation with a high purity level through an approach combining liquid-liquid extraction and rectification. In order to design and simulate the flowsheet, the ChemCAD 7.0 simulation software has been used. Sensitive analyses have been carried out to investigate the influence of the different pa-rameters in the rectification columns such as the reflux ratio, the feed stage location, and the vapour/bottom molar flow ratio. The effect of different extractants and of their excess on the separation process as well as the possibility of regenerating the extractant has also been studied. Tri-n-octylamine has accordingly been selected as a separating agent which has been fully recycled. The end result for separating an initial 48/52 wt% ace-tol/acetic-acid liquid mixture has been acetol with a purity of 99.4 wt% and acetic acid with a purity of 100 wt%.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Hematite; Quartz; Cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride; Selective adsorption; Flotation separation
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:21:40 CEST)
In this research, a novel collector cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) was used to separate hematite from quartz via reverse flotation for the first time. Micro-flotation tests showed that CTAC had a strong ability to selectively collect quartz and a separation of hematite from quartz could be accomplished with a concentration of 0.00263 mmol/L CTAC. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the positive CTAC+ species could selectively increase the surface potential of quartz, but it had rather a weak effect on the hematite surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) detection indicated that CTAC had a stronger binding affinity to oxygen sites on the surface of quartz than that of hematite, resulting in a large amount of CTAC predominantly adsorbed on quartz rather than hematite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1228.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: rare earth elements (REE); magnetic separation; coal tailings; coal slurries
Online: 19 July 2023 (03:27:09 CEST)
This article presents research on selected materials with the aim of determining their rare earth element (REE) content and attempting to intensify it. The test material was coal slurry, which is a waste product from the operation of a preparation plant of a closed coal mine. Research on REE concentration intensification tests was carried out using magnetic separation. Laboratory analyses determining the REE content in the samples obtained, were carried out using the inductively coupled plasma ionisation mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Carrying out this research by the KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, is a continuation of work related to making mining waste economically useful and determining a new source of REE recovery. Previous research and development work showed REE content (scandium 40.49 ppm) in the coal slurries studied. The result of the work carried out is the determination of the economic utility of REE recovery from the studied waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1410.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Hollow-fiber membranes; dual-layer membranes; nanocomposite membranes; selective separation
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:39:06 CEST)
The study presents the synthesis and characterization of dual-layer sulfonated polyphenylenesulfone (SPPSu) nanocomposite hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes incorporating titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using the phase inversion technique. The newly developed membranes were systematically characterized using advanced tools and methods to evaluate their properties and performance. The study focused on investigating the effects of TiO2 addition in the SPPSu inner layer on pure water permeability, and salt rejection. The nanocomposite hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes exhibited a significant enhancement in pure water permeability, with a three-fold increase compared to the pristine membranes, achieving a flux of 5.4 L/m2h.bar. The addition of TiO2 also led to an improvement in the mechanical properties of the membranes, as evidenced by the increase in the expected tensile strength from 2.4 to 3.9 MPa. To evaluate the salt rejection performance, rejection tests were conducted using a laboratory-scale filtration setup in recycle mode. Aqueous solutions containing different divalent ions, specifically magnesium sulfate (Mg2SO4) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) at a concentration of 500 ppm, were used as the feed solution. The modified dual-layer hollow fiber nanocomposite membranes exhibited a maximal rejection of 95% for Mg2SO4, demonstrating their effective separation capabilities for divalent ions. The findings of this study highlight the successful synthesis and characterization of dual-layer SPPSu nanocomposite hollow fiber nanofiltration membranes incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles. The incorporation of TiO2 resulted in improved pure water flux, mechanical strength, and salt rejection performance. These enhanced properties make the developed nanocomposite membranes promising candidates for applications in nanofiltration processes, particularly for the selective separation of divalent ions from aqueous solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0352.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: epidemiology; statistical analysis; time-scale separation; differential equations; adiabatic approximation
Online: 28 February 2022 (09:12:54 CET)
The temporal evolution of pandemics described by the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR)-compartment model is sensitively determined by the time dependence of the infection (a(t)) and recovery (u(t)) rates regulating the transitions from the susceptible to the infected and from the infected to the recovered compartment, respectively. Here approximated SIR-solutions for different time dependencies of the infection and recovery rates are derived which are based on the adiabatic approximation assuming time-dependent ratios k(t)=u(t)/a(t) varying slowly in comparison to the typical time characteristics of the pandemic wave. For such slow variations the available analytical approximations from the KSSIR-model, valid for a stationary value of the ratio k, are used to insert a-posteriori the adopted time-dependent ratio of the two rates. Instead of investigating endless different combinations of the time dependencies of the two rates a(t) and u(t) a suitably parameterized reduced time dependence of the ratio k(tau) is adopted. Together with the definition of the reduced time this parameterized ratio k(tau) allows us to cover a great variety of different time dependencies of the infection and recovery rates. The agreement between the solutions from the adiabatic approximation in its four different studied variants and the exact numerical solutions of the SIR-equations is remarkably good providing strong confidence in the accuracy of the proposed adiabatic approximation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0076.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: phase separation; nuclear bodies; self-assembly; genome organization; gene expression
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:17:34 CET)
The importance of genome organization at the supranucleosomal scale in the control of gene expression is increasingly recognized today. In mammals, Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and the active / inactive chromosomal compartments are two of the main nuclear structures that contribute to this organization level. However, recent works reviewed here indicate that, at specific loci, chromatin interactions with nuclear bodies could also be crucial to regulate genome functions, in particular transcription. They moreover suggest that these nuclear bodies are membrane-less organelles dynamically self-assembled and disassembled through mechanisms of phase separation. We have recently developed a novel genome-wide experimental method, High-salt Recovered Sequences sequencing (HRS-seq), which allows the identification of chromatin regions associated with large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and nuclear bodies. We argue that the physical nature of such RNP complexes and nuclear bodies appears to be central in their ability to promote efficient interactions between distant genomic regions. The development of novel experimental approaches, including our HRS-seq method, is opening new avenues to understand how self-assembly of phase separated nuclear bodies possibly contributes to mammalian genome organization and gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0321.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: maximum likelihood; logistic regression; firth's correction; separation; penalized likelihood; bias
Online: 28 October 2019 (12:01:17 CET)
The parameters of logistic regression models are usually obtained by the method of maximum likelihood (ML). However, in analyses of small data sets or data sets with unbalanced outcomes or exposures, ML parameter estimates may not exist. This situation has been termed “separation” as the two outcome groups are separated by the values of a covariate or a linear combination of covariates. To overcome the problem of non-existing ML parameter estimates, applying Firth’s correction (FC) was proposed. In practice, however, a principal investigator might be advised to “bring more data” in order to solve a separation issue. We illustrate the problem by means of an examples from colorectal cancer screening and ornithology. It is unclear if such an increasing sample size (ISS) strategy that keeps sampling new observations until separation is removed improves estimation compared to applying FC to the original data set. We performed an extensive simulation study where the main focus was to estimate the cost-adjusted relative efficiency of ML combined with ISS compared to FC. FC yielded reasonably small root mean squared errors and proved to be the more efficient estimator. Given our findings, we propose not to adapt the sample size when separation is encountered but to use FC as the default method of analysis whenever the number of observations or outcome events is critically low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: CO2 separation; random copolymer; PIM-polyimide; permeability-selectivity; pressure effect
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:07:23 CEST)
Random copolymers made of both (PIM-polyimide) and (6FDA-durene-PI) were prepared for the first time by a facile one-step polycondensation reaction. By combining the highly porous and contorted structure of PIM (polymers with intrinsic microporosity) and high thermomechanical properties of PI (polyimide), the membranes obtained from these random copolymers [(PIM-PI)x-(6FDA-durene-PI)y] showed high CO2 permeability (> 1047 Barrer) with moderate CO2/N2 (> 16.5) and CO2/CH4 (> 18) selectivity, together with excellent thermal and mechanical properties. The membranes prepared from three different compositions of two comonomers (1:4, 1:6 and 1:10 of x:y), all showed similar morphological and physical properties, and gas separation performance, indicating ease of synthesis and practicability for large-scale production. The gas separation performance of these membranes at various pressure ranges (100–1500 torr) was also investigated.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0278.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: photosystem II; redox potential; electron transfer; charge separation; photo-inhibition
Online: 27 June 2019 (05:54:13 CEST)
Structural perturbations in the Mn4CaO5 cluster site, an oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, such as those induced by Ca2+/Sr2+ exchanges or Ca/Mn-removal have been known to induce long-range positive shifts (+30 mV to +150 mV) in the redox potential of the primary quinone electron acceptor plastoquinone A (QA) located 40 Å distant from the OEC. Here, we reanalyzed the crystal structure of Sr-PSII solved at 2.1 Å and compare it with the native Ca-PSII of 1.9 Å with focus on the acceptor site and report on the possible long-range interactions between the donor, Mn4Ca(Sr)O5 cluster, and acceptor sites.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci1010031
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: separation technique; spectroscopic technique; hyphenated techniques; LC-NMR; natural products
Online: 14 June 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
LC–NMR combines the advantage of the outstanding separation power of liquid chromatography (LC) and the superior structural elucidating capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR has proved that it is a standout detector for LC by providing maximum structural information about plant originated extracts particularly in its isolating ability of isomeric (same molecular formula) and/or isobaric (same molecular weight) compounds as compared to other detectors. The present review provides an overview of the LC–NMR developmental trends and its application in natural products analysis. The different LC–NMR operational modes are described, as well as how technical improvements assist in establishing this powerful technique as an important analytical tool in the analysis of complex plant-derived compounds. On-flow, stop-flow and loop-storage modes, as well as the new offline mode LC–SPE–NMR and capLC-NMR configurations that avoid the ingestion of expensive deuterated solvents throughout the experiment are mentioned. Utilization of cryogenic probe and microprobe technologies which are the other important promising approaches for guaranteeing the sensitivity issues are also described. Concluding remarks and future outlooks are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0492.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membranes; vesicles; lipids; proteins; mesophase separation; domains; lipid rafts; clusters
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:38 CEST)
Cell plasma membranes display a dramatically rich structural complexity characterized by functional sub-wavelength domains with specific lipid and protein composition. Under favorable experimental conditions, patterned morphologies can also be observed in vitro on model systems such as supported membranes or lipid vesicles. Lipid mixtures separating in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases below a demixing temperature play a pivotal role in this context. Protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions also contribute to membrane shaping by promoting small domains or clusters. Such phase separations displaying characteristic length-scales falling in-between the nanoscopic, molecular scale on the one hand and the macroscopic scale on the other hand, are named mesophases in soft condensed matter physics. In this Review, we propose a classification of the diverse mechanisms leading to mesophase separation in biomembranes. We distinguish between mechanisms relying upon equilibrium thermodynamics and those involving out-of-equilibrium mechanisms, notably active membrane recycling. In equilibrium, we show that the mechanisms generically dwell on an up-down symmetry breaking between the upper and lower bilayer leaflets. Symmetry breaking is an ubiquitous mechanism in condensed matter physics at the heart of several important phenomena. In the present case, it can be either spontaneous (domain buckling) or explicit, i.e. due to an external cause (global or local vesicle bending properties). Whenever possible, theoretical predictions and simulation results are confronted to experiments on model systems or living cells, which enables us to identify the most realistic mechanisms from a biological perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river confluence; stage-discharge relationship; hydrodynamic influence; backwater; flow separation
Online: 19 October 2016 (12:31:32 CEST)
An accurate assessment of the stage-discharge relationship in open channel flows is necessary and important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and engineering in practical hydrosystems such as rivers and streams. While the flow structures and patterns at open channel junctions are interesting and have been widely studied in the literature, this paper focuses further on the effect of flow junctions on stage-discharge relationship at mountain river confluences. In this study, both the flume and physical model experiments are designed and performed carefully to test and analyze the complex flow structures and characteristics at river confluences with different configurations and hydraulic conditions. The impacts of the flow junctions on the traditional stage-discharge relationship are analyzed in this study. The results of this study are discussed in the paper for the understanding of flow structures at flow junctions and the design and management of hydraulic structures in river engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1429.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Magnetic Mesoporous Nanoparticles; Up scaled synthesis. DTPA; Metal ion separation, Toxicity
Online: 23 October 2023 (09:54:08 CEST)
(1) Background: The synthesis of core-shell magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles (MMSN) from phase transfer process is usually performed at 100-250 mg scale. At the gram scale, nanoparticles without core or with multicore systems are observed. (2) Methods: Iron oxide core nanoparticles (IO) were synthesized through thermal decomposition procedure of -FeO in oleic acid. Phase transfer from chloroform to water was then performed in order to wrap IO with mesoporous silica shell through the sol-gel procedure. MMSN were then functionalized with DTPA, and used for the separation of metal ions. Their toxicity was evaluated (3) Results: The phase transfer pro-cedure was crucial to obtained MMSN at large scale. Three synthesis parameters were rigorously controlled: temperature, time and glassware. Homogeneous dispersion of MMSN at the gram scale was successfully obtained. After functionalization with DTPA, the MMSN-DTPA were shown to have a strong affinity for Ni ions. Furthermore toxicity was evaluated in cells, zebrafish and through seahorse metabolic assays, and the nanoparticles were found nontoxic. (4) Conclusions: We developed a method of preparation of MMSN at the gram scale. After function-alization with DTPA, the nanoparticles were efficient in metal ion removal and separation, fur-thermore, no toxicity was noticed up to 125 µg.mL-1 in zebrafish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1197.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: High-grade ferronickel concentrate; Laterite nickel ore; Carbothermal reduction; Magnetic separation
Online: 19 October 2023 (08:28:28 CEST)
Nickel is widely used in industrial processes and plays a crucial role in many applications. However, most of the nickel resource mainly exists as nickel oxide in laterite nickel ore with complex composition, resulting in difficulty in upgrading the nickel content using physical separation methods. In this study, high-grade ferronickel concentrates were obtained through a carbothermal reduction and magnetic separation using laterite nickel ore and anthracite as raw materials. The effects of different types of additives (CaF2, Na2SO4 and H3BO3), carbon ratio (nc/no in metal oxides) and grinding time on the recoveries and grades of ferronickel concentrates were experimentally investigated, along with the microstructure and chemical composition of the products. CaF2 was proved to be the primary active additive in the aggregation and growth of the ferronickel particles, and the improvement of the grade of the product. Under the optimal conditions of CaF2 addition of 12 wt.%, carbon ratio of 1.4, and grinding time of 240 s, high-grade magnetically separable ferronickel concentrate with nickel grade 8.93 wt.% and iron grade 63.96 wt.% was successfully prepared. This work presents a practical method for the highly efficient recovery and utilization of iron and nickel from low-grade laterite nickel ore, contributing to the development of strategies for the sustainable extraction and utilization of nickel resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Dielectrophoresis; Microfluidics; Cell separation; Particle sorting; Clausius-Mossotti factor; Crossover frequency
Online: 20 June 2022 (09:19:42 CEST)
Separation and detection of cells and particles in a suspension are essential for various applications, including biomedical investigations and clinical diagnostics. Microfluidics realizes the miniaturization of analytical devices by controlling the motion of a small volume of fluids in microchannels and microchambers. Accordingly, microfluidic devices have been widely used in particle/ cell manipulation processes. Different microfluidic methods for particle separation include dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and chemical techniques. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a method for manipulating polarizable particles’ trajectories in non-uniform electric fields using unique dielectric characteristics. It provides several advantages for dealing with neutral bioparticles owing to its sensitivity, selectivity, and noninvasive nature. This review provides a detailed study on the signal-based DEP methods that use the applied signal parameters, including frequency, amplitude, phase, and shape for cell/particle separation and manipulation. Rather than employing complex channels or time-consuming fabrication procedures, these methods realize sorting and detecting the cells/particles by modifying the signal parameters while using a simple device. In addition, these methods can significantly impact clinical diagnostics by making low-cost and rapid separation possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0576.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Glassy Polymers; Diffusion; Sorption; Physical Aging; Polymer Coatings; Gas Separation Membranes
Online: 26 July 2021 (13:52:57 CEST)
For the past few decades, researchers have been intrigued with glassy polymers, which have applications ranging from gas separations to corrosion protection to drug delivery systems. The techniques employed to examine the sorption and diffusion of small molecules in glassy polymers are the subject of this review. Diffusion models in glassy polymers are regulated by Fickian and non-Fickian diffusion, with non-Fickian diffusion being more prevalent. The characteristics of glassy polymers are determined by sorption isotherms, and different models have been proposed in the literature to explain sorption in glassy polymers during the last few years. This review also includes the applications of glassy polymer. Despite having so many applications, current researchers still have difficulty in implementing coating challenges due to issues like as physical ageing, which is briefly discussed in the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0401.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gas separation; lattice dynamic; mixed gas hydrates, greenhouse gases, computer modeling
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:51:20 CET)
In this contribution, a method based on a solid solution theory of clathrate hydrate for multiple cage occupancy, host lattice relaxation and guest-guest interactions has been presented to estimate hydrate formation conditions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. We have performed molecular modeling of structure, guest distribution, and hydrate formation conditions for the CO2 + CH4, and CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrates. In all considered systems with and without N2, at high and medium content of CO2 in the gas phase we have found that CO2 is more favorable to occupy clathrate hydrate cavities than CH4 or N2. Addition of N2 to the gas phase increases ratio concentration CO2 in compressing with concentration CH4 in clathrate hydrates and makes gas replacement more effective. The mole fractions of CO2 in CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rapidly increases with the growth of its content in the gas phase. And the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rises in comparison with the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate. Obtained results agree with the known experimental data for simple CH4, CO2 gas hydrates and mixed CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries; phase-separation; fracture mechanics; surface stress; diffusion-induced stresses
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:07:05 CET)
Although lithium-ion batteries have extensively been used in various applications because of their high energy capacity, fracture and failure, the by-products of large strains and stresses caused by fast charging and discharging need yet to be addressed. The size effects on the mechanical behavior of the nano-sized structures are significant; however, the classical elasticity theory may not consider such effects. On the other hand, surface stress theory, as a robust and potential theory, is suitable in considering size effects in nano-scale structures. Therefore, in this paper, in order to involve the surface stress effects on the fracture behavior of Li-ion batteries, the following steps are taken. Firstly, a phase-field model is used to determine the evolution of the concentration profile. Subsequently, the stress distribution is obtained by using the surface stress theory combined with chemical equations for a planar electrode. Afterward, by using the weight function method for an edge crack in the plate, the stress intensity factor is derived for all time steps and possible crack lengths during the process. It is found that with increasing phase boundary thickness parameter or decreasing phase-separation phenomenon, the surface mechanics parameters become more influential. Furthermore, in the presence of positive surface stress, the diffusion-induced stress distribution decreases, which in turn reduces the stress intensity factor. In addition, in this paper, the two states of surface stress are compared either for elastic or total strain. Concerning stresses and concentrations, the results indicate a big difference at the beginning of the deintercalation process showing, in particular, 2% for stresses, but the differences diminish gradually.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0383.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Bacterial carotenoids; Cell disruption; HPLC separation; MS analysis; Food and textile applications
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:09:35 CEST)
Natural carotenoids are secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. These types of compounds are in high demand by pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and food industries, leading to the search for new natural sources of carotenoids. In recent years, the production of carotenoids from bacteria has become of great interest for industrial applications. In addition to carotenoids with C40-skeletons, some bacteria have the ability to synthesize characteristic carotenoids with C30-skeletons. In this regard, a great variety of methodologies for the extraction and identification of bacterial carotenoids has been reported and this is the first review that condenses much of this information. To understand the diversity of these carotenoids, we present their biosynthetic origin in order to focus on the methodologies employed in their extraction and characterization. Special emphasis has been made on high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for the analysis and identification of bacterial carotenoids. We end up this review showing their potential commercial use of bacterial carotenoids. This review is proposed as a guide for the identification of these metabolites, which are frequently reported in new bacteria strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Sehezar; geochemical anomaly separation; threshold; factor analysis; cluster analysis; concentration - area fractal
Online: 20 October 2019 (16:53:36 CEST)
Sehezar area is located in southern Tonokabon in Mazandaran province, north of Iran, near the Tarom – Hashdtjin belt. The existence of granitoid masses in the region can be important in terms of the potential of mineralization. Geochemical anomaly separation from the background is one of the important steps in mineral exploration. In the past decades, geochemical anomalies have been identified by means of various methods. Some of these separation methods include: statistical analysis methods (like univariate, bivariate, multivariate statistics), spatial statistical methods and fractal and multi-fractal methods. To identify the anomalous area, 71 stream sediment samples were collected from the area and analyzed by the ICP-MS method, and then interpreted. Initially, data were normalized and afterwards, univariate analysis (threshold limit and screening (P.N) methods) was used, in which results of the probable and definite anomaly of the threshold method were confirmed by the P.N screening method. Finally, the maps of the anomal zones were drawn. Then, bivariate analysis (Pearson correlation coefficients) and multivariate analysis on normal data were performed on SPSS software, in which factor analysis and cluster analysis were used for multivariate analysis. As a result of using the factor analysis method, six factors were identified and factor maps were drawn by the Surfer software. Also, by using cluster analysis, the variables were divided into two groups. In order for a better separation of the geochemical anomaly from the background, in addition to the threshold method, the Concentration - Area fractal method was used. Here, the fractal geometry using full-logarithmic graphs of the Concentration - Area obtained is capable of separating the stairs of different sections (background, threshold, and anomaly) with respect to the angle coefficient of the Concentration - Area plot. Then, in conclusion, results of these methods were compared and investigated, and finally, the anomalies area maps of the Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, W elements were drawn by Concentration - Area fractal and threshold methods and anomalous zones were introduced.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fly ash, process mineralogy, minerals, rare and precious metals, separation and enrichment
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
The separation and enrichment can be targeted to enrich the rare and precious metals in fly ash and reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash. Regarding their different properties, the single-component separation was used to obtain uncompleted burned carbon, glass microbeads, minerals, and other characteristic components from the ash. Also, the mineral composition of each component was analyzed by electron microscopy. The metal minerals were mainly concentrated in the mineral components. Besides, the electron probe micro-analysis shows that the Pt content in the minerals of fly ash was significantly correlated with the metal contents of Ni and Cu. After the obtainment of the characteristics of fly ash metal enrichment, the heavy minerals with Cu, Ni, Pt, Pd, and other target metal elements were enriched by gravity separation and flotation. The enrichment coefficients of Cu, Ni, Pt, and Pd were 1.45, 1.33, 1.90 and 1.60, respectively, and the recovery rates were 77%, 81%, 97% and 88% respectively. Since the yield of heavy minerals obtained by separation was 62.24%, it indicated the physical separation method could significantly reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash metal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: drogen purification; CO2/H2 separation; PIL–IL composite membranes; gas permeation properties
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Considering the high potential of hydrogen (H2) as a clean energy carrier, the implementation of high performance and cost-effective biohydrogen (bioH2) purification techniques is of vital importance, particularly in fuel cell applications. In this context, membrane technology is a potentially energy-saving solution to obtain high-quality biohydrogen. The most promising poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) - ionic liquid (IL) composite membranes previously studied by our group for CO2/N2 separation, containing pyrrolidinium-based PILs with fluorinated or cyano-functionalized anions, were chosen as starting point to explore the potential of PIL–IL membranes for CO2/H2 separation. The CO2 and H2 permeation properties at the typical conditions of biohydrogen production (T =308 K and 100 kPa of feed pressure) were measured and discussed. PIL–IL composites prepared with [C(CN)3]– anion showed higher CO2/H2 selectivities and H2 diffusivities compared to those containing [NTf2]– anion. All the membranes revealed CO2/H2 separation performances above the upper bound for this specific separation, highlighting the composite incorporating 60 wt% of [C2mim][C(CN)3] IL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0214.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: immunomagnetic separation (IMS); bacterial pathogen; 3D printing; preconcentration; DNA purification; molecular diagnostics
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:26:04 CEST)
Molecular detection of pathogens in clinical samples often requires pretreatment techniques, including immunomagnetic separation and magnetic silica bead (MSB)-based DNA purification to obtain the purified DNA of pathogens. These two techniques usually rely on handling small tubes containing a few millilitres of the sample and manual operation, implying that an automated system encompassing both techniques is needed for larger quantities of the samples. Here, we report a 3D-printed microfluidic platform that enables bacterial preconcentration and genomic DNA (gDNA) purification for improving the molecular detection of target pathogens in blood samples. The device consists of two microchannels and one chamber, which can be used to preconcentrate pathogens bound to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs) and subsequently extract gDNA using magnetic silica beads (MSBs) in a sequential manner. The device was able to preconcentrate very low concentrations of pathogens and extract their genomic DNA in 10 mL of 10% blood within 30 min, and thus allowed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR to detect 1 colony forming unit of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in 10% blood. The results suggest that the 3D-printed microfluidic platform is highly useful for lowering the limitations on molecular detection in blood by preconcentrating the target pathogen and isolating its DNA in a large volume of the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0653.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZIF-L; Nanofibers; Heavy metal separation membrane; Heavy metal ions; Filtration rate; Permeability
Online: 11 October 2023 (06:31:24 CEST)
Composite polymolecular separation membranes were prepared by combining multi-branched ZIF-L with high porosity electrospinning nanofibers PI. Meanwhile, PDA and PEI were introduced into the membrane in order to improve its adhesion. The new membrane is so called “PI@PDA@PEI/ZIF-L-4” composite membrane; compared with PI@PDA@PEI/ZIF-8 composite membrane, the new membrane’s filtration rates for heavy metal ions such as Cd2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+ were increased by 7.0%, 6.6% and 9.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the new membrane has a permeability up to 1,140.0 L·m−2·h−1·bar−1, and were presenting a very stable performances after four repeated uses. The separation mechanism of PI@PDA@PEI/ZIF-L composite membranes was further analyzed in order to provide a base support for producing separation membranes with high barrier rate and high flux.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0334.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: South Polar Region; Antarctica; Microplastics (MPs); Density Separation; Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:56:32 CEST)
Antarctica and its surrounding environment are considered untouched and thought that it is free from microplastics (MPs) pollution. However, recent studies and science projects have reported MPs in both water and sediment in the South Polar Regions. The reports state that the MP’s pollution occurs in this region due to fishing, tourism, and research activities by the nearby countries and nature's circulation is also part of it. The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) has received attention on MP’s pollution and initiated research on it. MPs are tiny plastic particles with a size of less than 5 mm. It has two types, 1. Primary MPs have been manufactured directly for various applications like cosmetics and scrubbing etc 2. The secondary MPs are generated by photochemical degradation of large plastics.Although several studies have been done there is a quite gap in our understanding of the concentration, characteristics, and impact of plastics on the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. The impact of MP’s pollution in this region may be very high. The presence of MP is a serious issue that is affecting not only the aquatic environment but also humans. It is an alarming situation that causes environmental damage. The main objective of this paper is to review MP's introduction, occurrence, sources, harmful effects, and detection methods. This review highlighted the various methodologies and analyses like density separation, microscope observation of MP’s properties Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Raman spectrometer respectively, and urged for more research in the future and gave several recommendations to maintain the pristine region near Antarctica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0684.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: polyurethane sponge; reduced graphene oxide; silicone oil; magnetic; superhydrophobic/superoleophilic; oil/water separation
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:47:38 CEST)
Wastewater treatment from oils and oil products, organic mixtures are a very relevant topic that can be successfully used to solve problems of serious environmental pollution, such as oil spills, industrial oily wastewater discharges and water treatment in the water treatment process. In this work, we have developed new superhydrophobic magnetic polyurethane (PU) sponges functionalized with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), MgFe2O4 nanoparticles, and silicone oil (SO) as a selective and reusable sorbent for purification and separation of wastewater from oils and organic solvents. The surface morphology and wettability of the sponge surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a contact angle analysis system, respectively. The results showed that the obtained PU sponge PU/RGO/MgFe2O4/SO had excellent mechanical and water-repellent properties, reusable properties (more than 20 cycles), as well as fast (immersion time 20 sec) and excellent adsorption capacity (16.61- 44.86 g / g), and good magnetic properties made it easy to separate the sponge from the water with a magnet. And the presence of RGO in the composition of the nanomaterial improves the separating and cleaning properties of materials, and also leads to an increase in the absorption capacity of oil and various organic solvents. The synthesized PU sponge has great potential for practical applications due to its facile fabrication and excellent oil-water separation property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: ERP classification; single trial averaging; interclass separation; convolution neural networks; support vector machines.
Online: 17 July 2023 (02:32:36 CEST)
Event-related potentials (ERPs) are estimated by averaging time-locked single trial electroencephalography (EEG) signals in response to specific events or stimuli. Classifying ERPs accurately is a challenge because (a) single trials have poor signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) and (b) it is difficult to collect large single trial ensembles to generate high SNR ERPs for classifier training and testing. The m-subsample averaging (m-SA) strategy which generates small-sample ERPs by repeated averaging of a small number of single trials drawn without replacement, has been proposed as a solution to the two problems. An ERP formed by averaging m single trials is referred to as an m-ERP where m is referred to as the averaging parameter. In this study, we conduct thorough analyses of m-SA and focus on issues not addressed in previous studies to better understand the beneficial properties of m-SA and to further support its application for ERP classification. Specifically, we (a) analyze the improvement in SNR as a function of m using the mean-root-mean-square SNR and visual analyses of m-ERP plots with confidence intervals, (b) analyze the improvement in interclass separation as a function of m, (c) determine how the SNR and interclass separation analyses can help to select the averaging parameter m, (d) determine the number of distinct m-ERPs that can be drawn from a single-trial ensemble, and (e) determine several probabilities related to the generation of distinct m-ERPs. Furthermore, an extensive set of experiments are designed to analyze the performance of support vector machine and convolution neural network classifiers employing m-SA with various combinations of the averaging parameters used for generating the training and test sets. The results confirm that ERPs can be classified accurately using small subsample averaging. Most importantly, it is concluded that m-SA can be deployed in practice to accurately classify ERPs in brain activity research and in clinical applications without having to collect a prohibitively large number of single trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Membrane oscillation; shear rate; slotted structure membrane; oil water separation and membrane fouling
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:51:11 CEST)
A new method is proposed to increase rejection in microfiltration by applying membrane oscillation using a new type of microfiltration membranes with slotted pores. The oscillations applied to the membrane surface result in reducing membrane fouling and increasing separation efficiency. An exact mathematical solution of the flow in the surrounding solution outside the oscillating membrane is developed. The oscillation results in appearance of the lift velocity, which moves oil particles away from the membrane. The latter results in both reducing membrane fouling and increasing oil droplets rejection. This developed model was supported by the experimental results for oil water separation in produced water treatment. It was proven that oil droplet concentration reduced notably in the permeate due to the membrane oscillation and that applied shear rate caused by the membrane oscillation is also reduce pore blockage. New generation of microfiltration membranes with slotted pores was used in the experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0463.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: saponite-containing waters; diamond processing plants; cryogenic treatment; electrochemical separation; saponite product applications
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:34:23 CEST)
The analysis of methods of cleaning and processing of saponite-bearing technogenic waters of diamond mining enterprises of the Arkhangelsk region is carried out. The perspective of the electrochemical separation method for extracting saponite from man-caused waters, providing a targeted change in its structural-texture, physico-chemical and mechanical properties, is shown. The possible directions of realization of saponite and products of its modification in various branches of industry are considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: thin composite hollow fiber; water treatment; water vapor separation; dehydration of alcohols; pervaporation
Online: 11 June 2018 (04:47:30 CEST)
Nowadays asymmetric thin film composite (TFC) polymeric hollow fiber (HF) membranes are extensively used in industrial gas/vapor separations, water treatment etc. There are numerous advantages to use hollow fibers such as: low energy requirements, simplicity of operation, and high specificity. In the present article we discuss the progress made during the past decade in the preparation of the HF substrate and preparation/modification of the thin selective layer. Their applications in water treatment, dehydration of alcohols via pervaporation and gas/vapor separation are also demonstrated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0734.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cell-cell adhesion; force sensing; junctional adhesion molecule; JAM-A; phase separation; tight junction
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:24:21 CET)
Tight junctions (TJ) are cell-cell adhesive structures that define the permeability of barrier-forming epithelia and endothelia. In contrast to this seemingly static function, TJs display a surprisingly high molecular complexity and an unexpected dynamic regulation, which allows the TJs to maintain a barrier in the presence of physiological forces and in response to perturbations. Cell-cell adhesion receptors play key roles during the dynamic regulation of TJs. They connect individual cells within cellular sheets and link sites of cell-cell contacts to the underlying actin cytoskeleton. Recent findings support roles of adhesion receptors in transmitting mechanical forces and promoting phase separation. In this review, we discuss newly discovered functions of cell adhesion receptors localized at the TJs and their role in the regulation of the barrier function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: particle separation; parasite egg identification and quantification; diagnostic microfluidic device; extreme point-of-care
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:18:51 CEST)
A recently proposed single image parasite quantification (SIMPAQ) platform based on a Lab-On-a-Disc (LOD) device has been earlier successfully tested in field conditions demonstrating the efficiency in soil-transmitted helminths (STH) egg detection and analysis. A related study (Micromachines 2021, 12, 1032) revealed the effects that can limit the performance of a SIMPAQ method due to the action of the Euler and Coriolis forces, and the interaction of the moving eggs with the walls of the LOD chamber. Here we propose a new improved design that allows to overcome those limitations and enhance the yield of the SIMPAQ LOD device which is demonstrated in the experiments with synthetic particle model system and real parasite eggs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1602.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermal plasma; mass separation; Nuclear waste treatment; High-level radioactive waste treatment; material processing
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:22:56 CEST)
Solid spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants has 3.4% fission products (80-160amu), contributing to over 99.8% radioactivity. On the other hand, liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from spent fuel reprocessing has 98.9% bulk elements (0-60amu) with 0.1% radioactivity. A separation mechanism on the mass categories as groups presents unique opportunities in managing HLRW for the long term with a considerable cost reduction. This paper proposes a thermal plasma-based separation system incorporating atmospheric pressure plasma torches for HLRW mass separation into low-resolution mass groups. Several engineering issues, such as waste preparation, waste injection into the plasma and waste collecting after mass separation, need to be addressed. Using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation, the generic system can be studied using noble gas mass separation and further analyze the mass filter capabilities. This paper provides the history of plasma-based mass separation. Functional modelling of a thermal plasma mass separation system is proposed under atmospheric pressure. Finally, aspects of mass separation simulation using noble gas Argon and Helium inside the plasma mass separation system were studied in COMSOL Multiphysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: diffusion dialysis; concentration; electrodialysis; ion-exchange membrane; separation of acids and salts; acid recovery
Online: 7 November 2022 (06:10:02 CET)
In the present study, the problem of the sulfuric acid recycling from spent copper plating solution was solved using a hybrid membrane technology, including diffusion dialysis and electrodialysis. A real solution from the production of copper-coated steel wire, containing 1.45 mol/L of sulfuric acid, 0.67 mol/L of ferrous sulfate and 0.176 mol/L of copper sulfate was processed. Diffusion dialysis with anion-exchange membranes was used to separate sulfuric acid and salts of heavy metals. Then purified dilute sulfuric acid was concentrated by electrodialysis. Energy consumption for sulfuric acid electrodialysis concentration at a current density of 400 A/m2 was 162 W·h/mol with current efficiency 16 %. After processing according to the hybrid membrane scheme, the solution contained 1.13 mol/L sulfuric acid, 0.077 mol/L ferrous sulfate and 0.022 mol/L copper sulfate. The resulting acid solution with a small amount of ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate met the established requirements for a copper plating bath solution and can be reused in production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0113.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Blind Source Separation; Component Analysis; Chemometrics; Unsupervised Machine Learning; Endmember Extraction; Spectral Unmixing; NMR
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:18:38 CET)
NMR spectral datasets, especially in systems with limited samples, can be difficult to interpret if they contain multiple chemical components (phases, polymorphs, molecules, crystals, glasses, etc…) and the possibility of overlapping resonances. In this paper, we benchmark several blind source separation techniques for analysis of NMR spectral datasets containing negative intensity. For benchmarking purposes, we generated a large synthetic datasbase of quadrupolar solid-state NMR-like spectra that model spin-lattice T1 relaxation or nutation tip/flip angle experiments. Our benchmarking approach focused exclusively on the ability of blind source separation techniques to reproduce the spectra of the underlying pure components. In general, we find that FastICA (Fast Independent Component Analysis), SIMPLISMA (SIMPLe-to-use-Interactive Self-modeling Mixture Analysis), and NNMF (Non-Negative Matrix Factorization) are top-performing techniques. We demonstrate that dataset normalization approaches prior to blind source separation do not considerably improve outcomes. Within the range of noise levels studied, we did not find drastic changes to the ranking of techniques. The accuracy of FastICA and SIMPLISMA degrades quickly if excess (unreal) pure components are predicted. Our results indicate poor performance of SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) methods, and we propose alternative techniques for matrix initialization. The benchmarked techniques are also applied to real solid state NMR datasets. In general, the recommendations from the synthetic datasets agree with the recommendations and results from the real data analysis. The discussion provides some additional recommendations for spectroscopists applying blind source separation to NMR datasets, and for future benchmark studies. Applications of blind source separation to NMR datasets containing negative intensity may be especially useful for understanding complex and disordered systems with limited samples and mixtures of chemical components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0022.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: silicon; nanostructures; percolated networks; nanocomposites; thin films; laser processing; phase separation; liquid phase crystallization
Online: 4 June 2018 (08:10:30 CEST)
Three-dimensional nanocomposite networks consisting of percolated Si nanowires in a SiO2 matrix, Si:SiO2, were studied. The structures were obtained by reactive ion beam sputter deposition of SiOx (x ≈ 0.6) thin films at 450 °C and subsequent crystallization using conventional oven as well as millisecond line focus laser annealing. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy were applied for sample characterization. While oven annealing resulted in a mean Si wire diameter of 10 nm and a crystallinity of 72 % within the Si volume, almost single-domain Si structures with 30 nm in diameter and almost free of amorphous Si were obtained by millisecond laser application. The structural differences are attributed to the different crystallization processes: Conventional oven tempering proceeds via solid state, millisecond laser application via liquid phase crystallization of Si. The 5 orders of magnitude larger diffusion constant in the liquid phase is responsible for the three times larger Si nanostructure diameter. In conclusion, laser annealing offers not only significantly shorter process times but moreover a superior structural order of nano-Si compared to conventional heating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems; RPAS; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; UAV; Unmanned Aerial Systems; UAS; Detect and Avoid; DAA; Separation Assurance; Self Separation; Collision Avoidance; Situational Awareness; Drones; Aircraft; ADS-B; Real Time Simulations
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:31:56 CEST)
Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are increasingly becoming relevant actors flying through the airspace and will assume much more importance in the future perspective. In order to allow their safe integration with manned conventional traffic in non-segregated airspaces, in accordance with the overall Air Traffic Management (ATM) paradigm, specific enabling technologies are needed. As well known, among the enabling technologies identified as crucial for RPAS integration into the overall ATM system, the Detect and Avoid (DAA) technology is fundamental. In the meantime, to support extended surveillance, the universal introduction on-board of aircraft of cooperative Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) is increasingly implemented, having the potential to allow coverage of the whole airspace also in remote areas not usually covered by conventional radar surveillance. In this paper, the experimental results are presented and discussed that have been obtained through the real-time validation, with hardware and human in the loop (RTS-HIL) simulations, of an automatic ADS-B based Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance System aimed to support RPAS automatic operations as well as remote pilot decision making. In the paper, after an introductory outline of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) of the system and of its architectural organization, while also providing basic information about the main system functionalities, the description is reported of the tests that have been carried out and the obtained results are described and discussed, in order to emphasize the performances and limitations of the proposed system. In particular, not only the quantitative performances obtained are reported and commented but also the feedbacks received by the pilots in order to improve the system are described, for instance in terms of preferred typology of conflict resolution manoeuver elaborated by the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1866.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: non-solvent induce phase separation; hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane; silica aerogel; low thermal-conductivity; membranes distillation
Online: 27 July 2023 (07:26:20 CEST)
in order to enhance the separation performance and to reduce the heat loss of the transmembrane for membrane distillation, the thermal efficiency and hydrophobicity of the membrane distillation should be simultaneously enhanced. In this work, a PVDF/PET hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane is prepared by non-solvent phase inducing method. Nanosized silica aerogel (SiAG) with high porosity is added to the composite membranes. The modifying effects and operating conditions on permeate flux and thermal efficiency in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) are investigated. Furthermore, the latent heat of vaporization and the heat transfer across the membranes are compared for SiAG addition, which indicates that the composite PVDF@SiAG/PET membranes display a great potential for distillation-separation application with high heat efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: three-direction deformation estimation; coupling strain separation; strain monitoring; sensor layout; long-gauge FBG sensing
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:36:38 CEST)
Deformation monitoring is beneficial to ensure the service safety of long tunnel. An three-direction (vertical, transverse and axial) deformation estimation method using long-gauge fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology is proposed and applied to a long tunnel by integrating mechanical analysis and field monitoring during the service state. The key issues of the proposed method for identifying the three-direction deformation are discussed, such as establishing the separation model of coupling strain on cross section, deriving the theory of deformation identification in three directions, and determining the sensor layout of the long tunnel. A major advantage of the proposed method is that the three-direction deformation of the tunnel can be monitored in real time using distributed long-gauge strain sensors. The numerical analysis and field test results verify the feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0041.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Fractional calculus; Generalized Oldroyd-B fluid; separation of variables method; Unidirectional flow; Caputo fractional derivative
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:58:29 CEST)
For solving the fractional differential equations in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), it’s complicated and difficult by the Laplace and Fourier transforms. Based on the Caputo fractional derivative, the analytical solutions for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid are deduced by the separation of variables method. Results show that the analytical solutions are given easily, and have good university. For some specific parameter values, the well-known analytical solutions for the generalized second grade fluid, the generalized Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid as well as the ordinary Oldroyd-B fluid can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: inorganic ceramic membrane; carbon capture; carbon emission; contact angle measurement; FTIR analysis; SEM analysis; gas separation
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:32:33 CEST)
membrane separation technology shows promise, particularly gas separation membranes, including ceramic membrane. Ceramic membranes are increasingly gaining attention for their acid and alkali stability, corrosion resistance, high-temperature tolerance, and mechanical strength. This study focuses on alumina support ceramic membrane for CO2 capture. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophilic, while SEM analysis showed even particle distribution in the alumina ceramic membranes respectively. EDAX analysis revealed the elemental composition in the alumina support matrix. FTIR analysis demonstrated chemical interactions of the support membrane. Single gas permeation experiments were conducted. It can be observed that Nitrogen gas permeated faster with increase in feed pressure through the unmodified ceramic inorganic hydrophobic membrane more than the other two single gases, O2, and CO2). As a result, only high permeance separation membranes with realistic size and pressure conditions may be considered of as a practical alternative for CO2 capture. However, the presence of non-selective defects limited the improvement in selectivity of hydrophilic ceramic membrane. In this case, there is need to modify the ceramic membrane used to increase the flux, permeance of CO2, and selectivity of CO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0966.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Inorganic ceramic membrane, carbon capture, carbon emission, contact angle measurement, FTIR analysis, SEM analysis, gas separation
Online: 16 October 2023 (15:38:47 CEST)
Abstract: membrane separation technology shows promise, particularly gas separation membranes, including ceramic membrane. Ceramic membranes are increasingly gaining attention for their acid and alkali stability, corrosion resistance, high-temperature tolerance, and mechanical strength. This study focuses on alumina support ceramic membrane for CO2 capture. The membranes were characterized using contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophilic, while SEM analysis showed even particle distribution in the alumina ceramic membranes respectively. EDAX analysis revealed the elemental composition in the alumina support matrix. FTIR analysis demonstrated chemical interactions of the support membrane. Single gas permeation experiments were conducted. It can be observed that Nitrogen gas permeated faster with increase in feed pressure through the unmodified ceramic inorganic membrane more than the other two single gases, O2, and CO2). As a result, only high permeance separation membranes with realistic size and pressure conditions may be considered of as a practical alternative for CO2 capture. However, the presence of non-selective defects limited the improvement in selectivity of hydrophilic ceramic membrane. In this case, there is need to modify the ceramic membrane used to increase the flux, permeance of CO2, and selectivity of CO2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0145.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: definition; degrees of separation; objective; primary conservation; secondary conservation; tertiary conservation; native species; ecological replacement species
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:19:57 CEST)
The term “conservation,” as it relates to biodiversity in a Western context, has had a contested history and as conservation science and societal values have evolved, consensus over its precise meaning has remained elusive. The broad scope of contemporary definitions hampers effective communication during a period of environmental crisis and is troublesome for any derivative concept which aims to quantify the efforts of the conservation community. This presents an avoidable hindrance to the systematic planning of the conservation field. To remedy this situation, we provide an outcome separation framework that is based on the expected degree of separation of the action’s proximate outcome from its intended, ultimate outcome for native habitat and/or native or ecological replacement species. Framing a definition of conservation through this lens of outcome separation allows for conservation-related actions to be clearly categorized into one of three discrete tiers (primary, secondary, and tertiary) based on both the proximate outcome’s degree of separation from its intended, ultimate outcome and the conservation status of native habitat and/or native or ecological replacement species. A distillation of this tiered framework also provides a fully inclusive, succinct definition of biodiversity conservation that is resilient to future conceptual evolutions of the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0450.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: coal-gangue separation chamber; structure characteristics; weak-stratum horizon; deformation and failure law; optimal layout methods
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:58:37 CEST)
The layout of deep chamber for coal-gangue separation (DCCS) based on the horizon of the weak stratum can affect the stability of its surrounding rocks. First, the work summarized the main structural characteristics of DCCS. Similar simulation tests were performed to analyze the deformation and failure law of surrounding rocks of DCCS under different horizons of the weak stratum. Then, 60 numerical simulation schemes were designed by considering the lateral pressure coefficient and the thickness and horizon of the weak stratum. A comprehensive evaluation method was proposed for the stability of surrounding rocks. The optimal layout methods of the DCCS were determined based on the thickness and horizon of the weak stratum in different ground stress fields. If the thickness of the weak stratum was large and lateral pressure coefficient λ < 0.6 or λ > 1, the stability of surrounding rocks was optimal to arrange the side of DCCS along the weak stratum. When 0.6 ≤ λ ≤ 1, the optimal approach for controlling surrounding rocks was to position the floor of DCCS along the weak stratum. If the thickness of the weak stratum was small and λ<0.6 or λ>1, the stability of surrounding rocks was optimal to arrange the side of DCCS near roof along the weak stratum. When 0.6 ≤ λ ≤ 1, the optimal approach for controlling surrounding rocks was to arrange the side of DCCS near the floor along the weak stratum. The results can provide an important theoretical reference for the spatial layout and support design of DCCS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Household solid waste; Dominican Republic; separation at source; Organic solid waste, Household survey; Cibao; North region.)
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:56:26 CET)
One of the biggest problems that the Dominican Republic has had in recent decades is the efficient management of solid waste produced by the population. This problem has worsened in recent years due to the decrease in available areas for the construction of sanitary landfills, the lack of recycling culture in the population, the deficiency in waste collection, and the scarce legal controls aimed at preserving water and air and soil, among other factors. The objective of this study was to explore the management of solid waste by the population and the municipality of Puñal, province of Santiago, to evaluate and analyze the situation and generation of solid waste, municipal solid waste management services, and the attitudes of the population regarding recycling projects and waste management, to evaluate the viability and sustainability of the use organic waste for energy generation. A total of 275 households from 29 localities in the municipality of Puñal were surveyed, which allowed for a significant population sample. According to the results obtained, the most significant type of waste produced by families is organic waste, followed by plastic waste and paper. Of the total organic waste produced in the municipality, 53% of solid waste is disregarded through the municipal waste collection system, while 47% is used as plant fertilizers or animal feed. On the other hand, most households receive the municipal waste collection service and pay for this service. The results of our research show that the implementation of an energy production system based on organic waste would be viable in the municipality of Puñal. However, a more efficient waste collection system would be necessary and the development of programs and projects that allow all households to participate in the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0543.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Blind Source Separation (BSS), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), convolutive mixture, source Prior, generalized Gaussian distribution
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:50:37 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel efficient multistage algorithm to extract source speech signals from a noisy convolutive mixture. The proposed approach comprises of two stages named Blind Source Separation (BSS) and De-noising. A hybrid source prior model separates the source signals from the noisy reverberant mixture in the BSS stage. Moreover, we model the low and high-energy components by generalized multivariate Gaussian and super-Gaussian models, respectively. We use Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to reduce noise in the noisy convolutive mixture signal in the de-noising stage. Furthermore, two proposed models investigate the performance gain. In the first model, the speech signal is separated from the observed noisy convolutive mixture in the BSS stage, followed by suppression of noise in the estimated source signals in the de-noising module. In the second approach, the noise is reduced using the MMSE filtering technique in the received noisy convolutive mixture at the de-noising stage, followed by separation of source signals from the de-noised reverberant mixture at the BSS stage. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) with respect to other well-known multistage BSS methods. The results show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the other state-of-the-art methods.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: surface-enhanced fluorescence; quenching; Rhodamine 6G; hot spot; separation layer; high reproducibility; finite difference time domain
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:45:00 CET)
The surface enhanced fluorescence（SEF）detection bases by plasmonic nanopillars array with nanoparticles has opened up a new gate in the application of biological imaging and sensing. The fluorescence enhancement of the probe molecule depends on its position in equilibrium, which is close to the hot spot leading to the electromagnetic field enhancement, but not too close to the metal surface resulting in quenching. Here, a large scale SiO2-Ag-cicada wing SEF substrate was fabricated by magnetron sputtering with correction enhancement factor of 797.6. Thereinto the cicada wing provides the skeleton of the nanopillars array structure, the deposited Ag constructs two kinds of hot spots, and SiO2 forms a separation layer to prevent quenching. Moreover, the substrate exhibited good reproducibility, high sensitivity with low limits of detection (LOD) and high stability for oxidation resistance. We propose that SEF substrate with modification of SiO2 can not only improve the enhancement performance, but also expanding its application in the biological investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: flotation; separation of microorganisms; bioseparation; heteroaggregation; population balance modeling; coupling of aggregation and CFD; model comparison
Online: 22 August 2018 (11:58:12 CEST)
Bioprocesses for the production of renewable energies and materials lack efficient separation processes for the utilized microorganisms such as algae and yeasts. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) and microflotation are promising approaches to overcome this problem. The efficiency of these processes depends on the ability of microorganisms to aggregate with microbubbles in the flotation tank. In this study, different new or adapted aggregation models for microbubbles and microorganisms are compared and investigated for their range of suitability to predict the separation efficiency of microorganisms from fermentation broths. The complexity of the heteroaggregation models range from an algebraic model to a 2D population balance model (PBM) including the formation of clusters containing several bubbles and microorganisms. The effect of bubble and cell size distributions on the flotation efficiency is considered by applying PBMs, as well. To determine the impact of the model assumptions, the modeling approaches are compared and classified for their range of applicability. Evaluating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of a DAF system shows the heterogeneity of the fluid dynamics in the flotation tank. Since analysis of the streamlines of the tank show negligible backmixing, the proposed aggregation models are coupled to the CFD data by applying a Lagrangian approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: robust principal component analysis; video separation; compressive measurements; prior information; optical flow; motion estimation; motion compensation
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:19:49 CEST)
In the context of video background-foreground separation, we propose a compressive online Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) with optical flow that separates recursively a sequence of video frames into foreground (sparse) and background (low-rank) components. This separation method can process per video frame from a small set of measurements, in contrast to conventional batch-based RPCA, which processes the full data. The proposed method also leverages multiple prior information by incorporating previously separated background and foreground frames in an n-l1 minimization problem. Moreover, optical flow is utilized to estimate motions between the previous foreground frames and then compensate the motions to achieve higher quality prior foregrounds for improving the separation. Our method is tested on several video sequences in different scenarios for online background-foreground separation given compressive measurements. The visual and quantitative results show that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0083.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers; SBA-15; Panax notoginseng saponins; separation and determination; solid-phase extraction
Online: 14 November 2017 (04:47:13 CET)
The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs) based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs) for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and notoginsenoside R1 (R1) (Panax notoginseng saponins, PNS) from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the separation and determination of trace PNS in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63-0.75 ng mL-1 and 2.1-2.5 ng mL-1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 3.3-4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace PNS in the biological samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high speed flows; shock wave; turbulent boundary layer; shock-unsteadiness; separation bubble; turbulence modeling; single fin
Online: 26 July 2017 (07:48:07 CEST)
The three-dimensional single fin configuration finds application in an intake geometry where the cowl-shock wave interacts with the side-wall boundary-layer. Accurate numerical simulation of such three-dimensional shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction flows, which are characterized by the appearance of strong crossflow separation, is a challenging task. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations using the shock-unsteadiness modified Spalart-Allmaras model is carried out at Mach of 5 at large fin angle of 23◦. The computed results using the modified model are compared to the standard Spalart-Allmaras model and validated against the experimental data. The focus of work is to implement the modified model and to study the flow physics in detail in the complex region of swept-shock-wave turbulent boundary-layer interaction in terms of the shock structure, expansion fan, shear layer and the surface streamlines. The flow structure is correlated to the wall pressure and skin friction in detail. It is observed that the standard model predicts an initial pressure location downstream of the experiments. The modified model reduces the eddy viscosity at the shock and predicts close to the experiments. Overall, the surface pressure using modified model is predicted accurately at all the locations. The skin friction is under predicted by both the models in the reattachment region and is attributed to the poor performance of turbulence models due to flow laminarization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1909.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Keyframe selection; Dimensionality Reduction; ReliefF; Bi-normal separation; Indexing; KD-tree; retrieval of flower video; Deep Flower
Online: 29 November 2023 (16:41:55 CET)
This paper presents a model for archival and retrieval of the videos of natural flowers. To design an efficient video retrieval system the stages namely, keyframe selection, feature extraction, feature dimensionality reduction and indexing are essential for fast browsing and accessing of videos. Three different keyframe selection approaches are proposed using clustering algorithms after segmenting flower regions from its background. Deep Convolutional Neural Network is used as a feature extractor. After keyframe selection, a video is represented with a set of keyframes. To reduce the feature dimension of a video, two feature selection methods are utilized. For an efficient archival and fast retrieval of flower videos an indexing method called KD-tree is recommended. For a given query video, similar videos are retrieved both in relative and absolute search modalities. An extensive experimentation conducted on a relatively large flower video dataset. The data set consists of 7788 videos of 30 different species of flowers. The videos are captured with three different devices in different resolutions. The comparative study reveals proposed keyframe selection approaches gives better results. It has also been observed that the videos retrieved in absolute approach with features selected from Binormal separation metric and indexing gives good results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1235.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Landau diamagnetism; de Haas van Alphen oscillations; nano-dimensional 2D phase separation regions; domain walls; super-lattices
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:43:26 CEST)
This paper presents results of the magnetic dynamics study (the microwave power absorptions at the fixed frequencies, during magnetic field sweeping) in samples of Y3Fe5O12 single crystals in the form of plates and spheres of various sizes, at frequencies exceeding 30 GHz, in magnetic fields up to 18 kOe, at room temperature and T=77 K. It was found, that in this case, the inhomogeneity’s of the magnetic state manifested itself in the Y3Fe5O12 samples in as 2D local phase separation regions. These 2D phase separation regions formed inside domain walls representing superlattices with size’s 700 – 900 Å. Landau diamagnetism or de Haas van Alphen oscillations observed in the 2D phase separation regions at room temperature and T=77 K, depending on the shape and size of the studied plates and spheres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0109.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: photoinduced electron transfer; triplet state formation; charge recombination; charge separation; intersystem crossing; SOCT-ISC; SOCME; electronic coupling
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
The conformational dependence of the matrix element for spin-orbit coupling and of the electronic coupling for charge separation are determined for an electron donor-acceptor system containing a pyrene acceptor and a dimethylaniline donor. Different kinetic and energetic aspects that play a role in the spin-orbit charge transfer intersystem crossing (SOCT-ISC) mechanism are discussed. This includes parameters related to initial charge separation and the charge recombination pathways using the (Semi-Classical) Marcus Theory for electron transfer. The spin-orbit coupling, which plays a significant role in charge recombination to the triplet state can be probed by (TD-)DFT, using the latter as a tool to understand and predict the SOCT-ISC mechanism. The matrix elements for spin-orbit coupling for acetone and 4-thio-thymine are used for benchmarking. (Time Dependent-) Density Functional Theory (DFT and TD-DFT) calculations are applied using the quantum chemical program Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0162.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: amyloids; frozen accident; genetic code; hydrogels; liquid-liquid phase separation; mRNA; polyglycine; rRNA; ribosomes; translational fidelity; tRNA
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The genetic code evolved by parallel tracks of chaotic and ordered processes. Liquid-liquid phase separation (hydrogels), a chaotic process, constructs diverse membraneless compartments within cells, resulting in regulated hydration and sequestration and concentration of reaction components. Hydrogels relate to chaotic amyloid fiber production. We propose that polyglycine and related hydrogels (i.e. GADV; G is glycine), phase separations, membraneless droplets and amyloid accretions organized protocell domains to drive the earliest evolution of the genetic code and the pre-life to cellular life transition. By contrast, evolution of tRNA, tRNAomes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translation systems followed highly ordered and systematic pathways, described by well-defined mechanisms and rules. The pathway of evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which tracked evolution of the genetic code, is clarified. Hydrogels and amyloids form a chaotic component, therefore, that complemented otherwise systematic processes. We describe with detail a pre-life world in which hydrogels and amyloids provided the selections of the first life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1597.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membraneless organelles; mRNA; HILO microscopy; liquid-liquid phase separation; biomolecular condensates; RNP granules; colocalization; intermolecular interactions; Donnan potential
Online: 22 August 2023 (16:35:13 CEST)
Cellular biomolecular condensates termed ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules often are enriched in messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules relative to the surrounding cytoplasm. Yet, the spatial localization and diffusion of mRNAs in close proximity to phase separated RNP granules is not well understood. In this study, we performed single molecule fluorescence imaging experiments of mRNAs in live cells in the presence of two types of RNP granules, stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB), which are distinct in their molecular composition and function. We developed a photobleaching- and noise-corrected colocalization imaging algorithm that was employed to determine the accurate positions of individual mRNAs relative to the granule’s boundaries. We found that mRNAs are often localized at granule boundaries, an observation consistent with recently published data. We suggest that mRNA molecules become spontaneously confined at the RNP granule boundary similar to the adsorption of polymer molecules at liquid-liquid interfaces, which is observed in various technological and biological processes. We also suggest that this confinement could be due to a combination of intermolecular interactions associated with, first, the screening of a portion of the RNP granule interface by the polymer and, second, electrostatic interactions due to a strong electric field induced by a Donnan potential generated across the thin interface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0509.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: separation-based analytical techniques; large volume injection; solid phase enrichment; solid phase analytical derivatization; packed reactor; trace analysis
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:17:13 CEST)
Despite the fact that strong routine separation methodologies can give reliable specificity and validity at usual working pharmaceuticals concentrations, they may fail at very low concentration levels. This poses considerable challenges for researchers inves-tigating product purity and therapeutic drug monitoring. Sensitivity enhancement pro-cedures are thus required to maximize the performance of separation techniques. Large volume injection, solid phase extraction/solid phase enrichment (SPE/SPEn), pre-, post-, and in-column derivatization, as well as the use of sensitive detection devices are the simplest strategies for improving sensitivity of the separation-based analytical techniques. Large volume injection of samples with online SPE/SPEn coupled with separation techniques increased sensitivity and improved detection as well as quantification limits without affecting peak shape and system performance. Although the primary purpose of derivatization is to improve sensitivity and selectivity, greener derivatization is growing in popularity and should be considered in analytical chemistry. In general, two strategies are essential for accomplishing greener derivatization goals. The first is the search for and use of ecologically acceptable derivatizing reagents, solvents, and reaction conditions. The second is miniaturization and automation of analytical methods. This review discusses significant advances in separation-based analytical techniques, specifically enrichment approaches and detector signal improvement for pharmaceutical quantification in various matrices at very low concentration levels. As a result of improved analytical systems setup in drug assays, the possibility of high-throughput analyses was also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: amyloid bodies; intrinsically disordered protein; liquid-liquid phase separation; membrane-less organelle; nuclear stress bodies; nucleolar biomolecular condensates
Online: 30 April 2023 (05:18:24 CEST)
Radical changes in the idea of the organization of the intracellular space that occurred in the early 2010-s made it possible to consider the formation and functioning of the so-called membrane-less organelles (MLOs) based on a single physical principle: the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of biopolymers. Weak nonspecific inter- and intramolecular interactions of disordered polymers, primarily of intrinsically disordered proteins and RNA, play a central role in the initiation and regulation of these processes. On the other hand, in some cases, the "maturation" of MLOs can be accompanied by the "liquid-gel” phase transition, where other types of interactions can play a significant role in reorganization of their structure. In this work, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of the propensity of the proteomes of two membrane-less organelles formed in response to stress in the same compartment, nucleolus, for spontaneous phase separation and looked at their intrinsic disorder predispositions. These nucleolar MLOs, amyloid bodies (A-bodies) formed in the response to acidosis and heat shock and nuclear stress bodies (nSBs), are characterized by the partially overlapping composition, but show different functional activities and morphologies. We show that the proteomes of these nucleolar biocondensates are differently enriched in proteins, many of with high potential for spontaneous LLPS that correlates with different morphology and function of these organelles. The results of these analyses allowed us to evaluate the role of weak interactions in the formation and functioning of these important organelles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0448.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: LLPS; liquid-liquid phase separation; non-coding RNA; intrinsically disordered proteins; membrane-less organelles; stress-response; biomolecular condensates
Online: 27 March 2023 (05:43:50 CEST)
At the beginning of the 21st century, it became obvious that radical changes had taken place in the concept of living matter and, in particular, in the concept of the organization of intracellular space. The accumulated data testify to the essential importance of phase transitions of biopolymers (first of all, intrinsically disordered proteins and RNA) in the spatiotemporal organization of the intracellular space. Of particular interest is the stress-induced reorganization of the intracellular space. Examples of organelles formed in response to stress are nuclear A-bodies and nuclear stress granules. The formation of these organelles is based on LLPS of intrinsically disordered proteins and non-coding RNA. Despite the overlapping composition and similar mechanism of formation, these organelles have different functional activities and physical properties. In this review, we will focus our attention on these MLOs and describe their functions, structure, and mechanism of formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0294.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: is*-open set, is*-continuous, is*-open, is*-irresolute, is*-totally continuous, is-contra-continuous mappings, is*-separation
Online: 28 June 2019 (11:45:03 CEST)
In this paper, we introduce a new class of open sets that is called is*-open set . Also, we present the notion of is*-continuous, is*-open, is*-irresolute, is*-totally continuous, and is-contra-continuous mappings, and we investigate some properties of these mappings. Furthermore, we introduce some is*-separation axioms, and is*-mappings are related with is*-separation axioms. . .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bias; efficiency; element size; LAD; LAI; leaf and wood separation; LiDAR; multiple viewpoints; point cloud; TLS; UAV; voxel
Online: 24 May 2019 (07:53:44 CEST)
The amount and spatial distribution of foliage in a tree canopy have fundamental functions in ecosystems as they affect energy and mass fluxes through photosynthesis and transpiration. They are usually described by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the Leaf Area Density (LAD), which can be measured through a variety of methods, including voxel-based methods applied to LiDAR point clouds. A theoretical study recently compared the numerical errors arising from different voxel-based estimation methods for Plant Area Density (PAD) based on Beer’s law-based, contact frequency and Maximum-Likelihood Estimation, showing that the bias-corrected Maximum Likelihood Estimator was theoretically the most efficient. However, this earlier study i) ignored wood volumes; ii) neglected vegetation clumping inside the voxel; iii) ignored instrument characteristics in terms of effective footprint, iv) was limited to a single viewpoint. In practice, retrieving LAD from PAD is not straightforward, vegetation is not randomly distributed in volumes of interest, beams are divergent and forestry plots are usually sampled from more than one viewpoint, to mitigate the effect of occlusion. In the present short communication, we extend the previous efficient formulation to actual field conditions to i) account for the presence of both wood volumes and wood hits, ii) rigorously include correction terms for vegetation and instrument characteristics, iii) integrate multiview data. A numerical comparison with other methods commonly used to combine information from different viewpoints led to error reduction, especially in poorly-explored volumes, which are frequent in actual canopies. Beyond its concision, completeness and efficiency, this new formulation -which can be applied to multiview TLS, but also UAV LiDAR scanning - can help reducing errors in LAD estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Source separation system; Greywater treatment; Water reuse; Hydroponic system; Green wall; Heavy metals bioaccumulation; QMRA; Health risk assessment
Online: 8 May 2017 (17:39:16 CEST)
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today and the expansion of water reuse have been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of source separation system; on-site greywater treatment system; green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for E. coli and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. QMRA results indicated that the system attained the health-based targets, 10–6 DALYs per person per year. Similarly, health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1400.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: PMLbodies; intrinsically disordered proteins; intrinsically disordered regions; liquidliquid phase separation; membrane-less organelles; protein-protein interactions; posttranslational modifications; SUMOyltion
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:49:13 CEST)
The formation and functioning of membrane-less organelles (MLOs) is one of the main driving forces in the molecular life of the cell. These processes are based on the separation of biopolymers into phases regulated by multiple specific and nonspecific inter- and intramolecular interactions. Among the realm of MLOs, a special place is taken by the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs or PML bodies), which are the intranuclear compartments involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism, transcription, maintenance of genome stability, response to viral infection, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. According to the accepted models, specific interactions, such as SUMO/SIM, formation of disulfide bonds, etc., play a decisive role in the biogenesis of PML bodies. In this work, a number of bioinformatics approaches were used to study proteins found in the proteome of PML-bodies for their tendency to spontaneous liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), which is usually caused by weak nonspecific interactions. 205 proteins found in PML bodies have been identified. It has been suggested that UBC9, P53, HIPK2, and SUMO1 can be considered as the scaffold proteins of PML bodies. It was shown that more than half of the proteins in the analyzed proteome are capable of spontaneous LLPS, with 85% of the analyzed proteins being intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), and remaining 15% being proteins with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). About 44% of all proteins analyzed in this study contain SUMO binding sites and can potentially be SOMYylated. These data suggest that weak nonspecific interactions play a significantly larger role in the formation and biogenesis of PML bodies than previously expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1576.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymer inclusion membranes; iron(III); nickel(II); cobalt(II); lithium(II); ionic liquids; tetrabutyl ammonium bromide(TBAB); separation processes
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:58:58 CEST)
The selective extraction of metals from aqueous solutions is very important stage in hydrometallurgical processing of metallic waste. Leach solutions are usually a multi-component mixture. The main impurity of aqueous solutions obtained after leaching using inorganic acids is iron. In this work, the membrane separation of iron(III) from nickel(II), cobalt(II) and lithium(II) was studied. The facilitated transport of metal ion using the polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as an ion carrier under various conditions was analyzed in detail. The several factors such as the ion carrier concentration in the membrane as well as the effect of the inorganic acids concentration in the source/receiving phases on the kinetic parameters were investigated. The results show that ionic liquid TBAB is a very selective ion carrier of Fe(III) towards Ni(II), Co(II) and Li(I) .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: red mud; bauxite residue; reduction roasting; sodium sulfate; magnetic separation; alumina; high pressure acid leaching; hydrochloric acid; recycling; utilization
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:32:51 CET)
Red mud is a hazardous waste of alumina industry that contains high amounts of iron, aluminum, titanium and REEs. One of the promising methods for the extraction of iron from red mud is car-bothermic reduction with the addition of sodium salts. This research focuses on the process of hy-drochloric high-pressure acid leaching using 10–20% HCl of two samples of non-magnetic tailings obtained by 60-minute carbothermic roasting of red mud at 1300 °C and the mixture of 84.6 wt. % of red mud and 15.4 wt. % Na2SO4 at 1150 °C, respectively, with subsequent magnetic separation of metallic iron. An influence of temperature, leaching duration, solid-to-liquid-ratio and acid con-centration on dissolution behavior of Al, Ti, Mg, Ca, Si, Fe, Na, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sc, Zr were studied. Based on the investigation of the obtained residues, mechanism of passing of valuable elements into the solution was proposed. It has shown that 90% Al, 91% Sc and above 80% of other REEs can be dissolved under optimal conditions; Ti can be extracted into the solution or the residue depending on the leaching temperature and acid concentration. Based on the research results, novel flowsheets for red mud treatment were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0314.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Clifford algebra; Abelian Lie algebra; eigen function; separation of variables; Dirac equation; Pauli equation, dipole magnetic field; axisymmetric potential
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:55:59 CET)
Clifford algebra is unified language and efficient tool for geometry and physics. In this paper, we introduce this algebra to derive the integrable conditions for Dirac and Pauli equations. This algebra shows the standard operation procedure and deep insights into the structure of the equations. Usually, the integrable condition is related to the special symmetry of transformation group, which involves some advanced mathematical tools and its availability is limited. In this paper, the integrable conditions are only regarded as algebraic conditions. The commutators expressed by Clifford algebra have a neat and covariant form, which are naturally valid in curvilinear coordinate system and curved space-time. For Pauli and Schr\"odinger equation, many solutions in axisymmetric potential and magnetic field are also integrable. We get the scalar eigen equation in dipole magnetic field. By the virtue of Clifford algebra, the physical researches may be greatly promoted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1240.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: thermoplastic polyurethane; poly(butylene adipate) diol; polycaprolactone diol; phase separation; crystallization kinetics; differential scanning calorimetry; infrared spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Online: 21 November 2023 (06:03:12 CET)
The structural evolution and phase composition of multi-block thermoplastic polyurethanes, with different nature of the soft segments based on poly(butylene adipate) (PBA), were analyzed during in-situ thermal treatments. A combination of synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and FTIR spectroscopy was used to determine the influence of macrodiol nature and crystallization conditions on the polymorphic behavior of PBA. Using a new synthesis scheme, a relatively high degree of crystallinity for urethane blocks was achieved, which depends on the diisocyanate type in the structure of the soft segment. The hard segment domains impose geometrical constraints on PBA, thereby altering its crystallization process compared to the neat oligomer. Thus, crystallization after annealing at a low temperature (80 °C) is fast, predominantly yielding a metastable β-phase. When heated to 180 °C, which is higher than the hard-segment melting temperature, a phase-separated structure is observed. Subsequent crystallization is slower, favoring the formation of the stable α-PBA modification. The phase separation can be observed even after the hard block melting. A notably slow crystallization from an isotropic melt was documented after the disruption of phase separation at 230 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0139.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Adipose-derived Stem Cell; Flow-Cytometry; Mesenchymal Stem Cell; Stromal Vascular Fraction; Immunophenotyping; Immunohistochemistry; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Cell Separation Method
Online: 8 September 2021 (10:50:49 CEST)
Background: Developing an efficient and standardized method to isolate and characterize adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the adipose tissue for clinical application represents one of the major challenges in cell therapy and tissue engineering. Methods: In this study, we proposed an innovative, non-enzymatic protocol to collect clinically useful ASCs within freshly isolated SVF from adipose tissue by centrifugation of the infranatant portion of lipoaspirate and to determine the characteristic cytofluorimetric pattern, prior to in vitro culture. Results: The SVF yielded a mean of 73,32 \pm\ 10,89% cell viability evaluated with CALCEINA-FITC, i.e. cell-permeant dye. The ASCs were positive for PC7-labeled mAb anti-CD34 and negative for both PE-labeled mAb anti-CD31 and APC-labeled mAb anti-CD45. The frequency of ASCs estimated according to the panel of cell surface markers used was 51,06%\ \pm 5,26% versus the unstained ASCs subpopulation that was 0,74%\pm0,84% (P<0.0001). The ASCs events/\muL were 1602,13/\muL \pm 731,87/\muL. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that ASCs found in freshly isolated adipose SVF obtained by centrifugation of lipoaspirate can be immunophenotypically identified with a basic panel of cell surface markers. These findings aimed to provide standardization and contribute to reducing the inconsistency on reported cell surface antigens of ASC derived from the existing literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0272.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbon materials synthesis and functionalization; energy; graphene; gas separation; hydrothermal and solvothermal carbonization; microwave-assisted synthesis; nanocomposite membranes; sensing; water treatment
Online: 12 April 2021 (09:32:49 CEST)
There is great importance and need of improving existing carbon materials fabrication methods. As such, this work proposes to discuss, interrogate, and propose viable hydrothermal, solvothermal, and other advanced carbon materials synthetic methods. The advanced carbon materials to be interrogated will include the synthesis of carbon dots, carbon nanotubes, nitrogen/titania-doped carbons, graphene quantum dots, and their nanocomposites with solid/polymeric/metal oxide supports. This will be done with special mind to microwave-assisted solvothermal and hydrothermal synthesis due to their favourable properties such as rapidity, low cost, and green/environmentally-friendliness. Thus, these methods are important during the current and future synthesis and modification of advanced carbon materials for application in energy, gas separation, sensing, and water treatment. Simultaneously, the work will pay special cognizance to methods reducing the fabrication costs and environmental impact while enhancing the properties as a direct result of the synthesis methods. As a direct result, the expectation is to impart a significant contribution to the scientific body of work regarding the improvement of the said fabrication methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0561.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: finite element method; mesh strategy; linear elastic fracture mechanics; mesh refinement; fracture mechanics; numerical crack; h-AES method; interelement method; edge separation; crack propagation
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:43:56 CET)
H-adaptivity is an effective tool to introduce local mesh refinement in FEM-based numerical simulation of crack propagation. The implementation of h-adaptivity could benefit the numerical simulation of fatigue or accidental load scenarios involving large structures such as ship hulls. In engineering applications, the element deletion method is frequently used to represent cracks. However, the element deletion method has some drawbacks such as strong mesh dependency and loss of mass or energy. In order to mitigate this problem, the element splitting method could be applied. In this study, a numerical method called ‘h-adaptive element splitting’ (h-AES) is introduced. The h-AES method is applied in FEM programs by combining h-adaptivity with the element splitting method. Two examples using the h-AES method to simulate cracks in large structures under linear-elastic fracture mechanics scenario are presented. The numerical results are verified against analytical solutions. Based on the examples, the h-AES method is proven to be able to introduce mesh refinement in large-scale numerical models that consist of structured coarse meshes. By employing the mesh refinement introduced in this paper, very small cracks are well represented in large structures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); maternal separation (MS); neurotransmitters; pain; psychosocial stress; visceral hyperalgesia; water avoidance stress (WAS); wrap restrain stress (WRS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:39:49 CET)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animals models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies.