ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Bio-separation, magnetic separation, magnetic particles, continuous-flow
Online: 10 July 2018 (10:53:45 CEST)
Bio-separation of natural molecules as well as clinical compounds has been constantly developed in last decades. Several techniques are available but the majority of them presents drawbacks such us impossibility to be applied for industrial purposes. The main limitations for the scaling up are high costs and the fact that the devices work with microfluid dynamics. Nevertheless, magnetic bio-separation is considered the most prone to be used for large scale applications. Herein, we propose a simple magnetic separation method that is not based on microfluid dynamics, can work in a continuous- and high-flow rate and can be easily automated in order to be used for standard separation purposes. It is based on the use of an anisotropic flexible ferric magnetic strip, Teflon hoses and a pumping device. We show the modelling of the separation process along with an experimental test on iron oxide magnetic particles. The results showed that it is possible to remove, and separately collect, more than 92% of magnetic particles from a liquid solution of 100 ml in roughly 15 minutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: carbon nanotubes; chiral separation; achiral separation; SWCNTs; MWCNTs
Online: 23 June 2017 (03:30:13 CEST)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique mechanical, physical, electrical and absorbability properties coupled with their nanometer dimensional scale that renders them extremely valuable for applications in many fields including nanotechnology and chromatographic separation. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview about the applications of CNTs in chiral and achiral separations of pharmaceuticals, biologics and chemicals. Chiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been directly applied for the enantioseparation of pharmaceuticals and biologicals by using them as stationary or pseudostationary phases in chromatographic separation techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gas chromatography (GC). Achiral MWCNTs have been used for achiral separations as efficient sorbent objects in solid-phase extraction techniques of biochemicals and drugs. Achiral SWCNTs have been applied in achiral separation of biological samples. Achiral SWCNTs and MWCNTs have been also successfully used to separate achiral mixtures of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. Collectively, functionalized CNTs have been indirectly applied in separation science by enhancing the enantioseparation of different chiral selectors whereas, non-functionalized CNTs have shown efficient capabilities for chiral separations by using techniques such as encapsulation or immobilization in polymer monolithic columns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0482.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: WBC isolation; Spiral microchannels; Inertial microfluidics; Passive cell separation; High-throughput separation
Online: 29 September 2021 (09:35:31 CEST)
Rapid isolation of white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood is an essential part of any WBC examination platform. However, most conventional cell separation techniques are labor-intensive and low throughput, require large volumes of samples, need extensive cell manipulation, and have low purity. To address these challenges, we report the design and fabrication of a passive, label-free microfluidic device with a unique U-shaped cross-section to separate WBCs from whole blood using hydrodynamic forces that exist in a microchannel with curvilinear geometry. It is shown that the spiral microchannel with a U-shaped cross-section concentrates larger blood cells (e.g., WBCs) in the inner cross-section of the microchannel by moving smaller blood cells (e.g., red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets) to the outer microchannel section and preventing them from returning to the inner microchannel section. Therefore, it overcomes the major limitation of a rectangular cross-section where secondary Dean vortices constantly enforce particles throughout the entire cross-section and decrease its isolation efficiency. Under optimal settings, more than 95% of WBCs can be isolated from whole blood under high-throughput (6 ml/min), high-purity (88%), and high-capacity (180 ml of sample in 1 hour) conditions. High efficiency, fast processing time, and non-invasive WBC isolation from large blood samples without centrifugation, RBC lysis, cell biomarkers, and chemical pre-treatments make this method an ideal choice for downstream cell study platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0023.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: dielectrophoresis; microparticles; chromatography; separation; polarizability
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:21:18 CET)
The separation of microparticles with respect to different properties such as size and material is a research field of great interest. Dielectrophoresis, a phenomenon which is capable of addressing multiple particle properties at once, can be used to perform a chromatographic separation. However, the selectivity of current dielectrophoretic particle chromatography (DPC) techniques is limited. Here we show a new approach for DPC based on differences in the dielectrophoretic mobilities and the crossover frequencies of polystyrene particles. Both differences are addressed by modulating the frequency of the electric field to generate positive and negative dielectrophoretic movement to achieve multiple trap and release cycles of the particles. A chromatographic separation of different particle sizes revealed a voltage dependency of this method. Additionally, we showed the frequency bandwidth influence on separation using one example. The DPC method developed was tested with model particles but offers possibilities to separate a broad range of plastic and metal microparticles or cells and to overcome currently existing limitations in selectivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0017.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: dominoes; toppling motion; velocity; height; thickness; separation
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:24:39 CET)
By using directed dimensional analysis and data fitting, an explicit universal scaling law for the velocity of dominoes toppling motion is formulated. The scaling law shows that domino propagational velocity is linearly proportional to the 1/2 power of domino separation and thickness, and -1/2 power of domino height and gravitation. The study also proved that dominoes width and mass have no influence on the domino wave traveling velocity. The scaling law obtained in this Letter is very useful to the dominoes game and will help the domino player to place the dominoes for fast speed and have a quick estimation on the speed without doing complicated multi-bodies dynamical simulation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0105.v1
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:13:57 CET)
Research Highlights: The correlations between the analyzed physical properties of seeds and seed mass were determined. The results were analyzed to determine most effective seed separation devices for the evaluated fir species. Background and Objectives: Information about the variations and correlations between the physical properties of seeds is essential for designing and modeling seed processing operations such as seed separation. The aim of this study was to determine the range of variations in the basic physical properties of seeds of selected fir species, and to identify the correlations between these attributes for the needs of the seed sorting processes. Materials and Methods: Terminal velocity, thickness, width, length, the angle of external friction and mass were determined in the seeds of 11 fir species. The measured parameters were used to calculate the geometric mean diameter, three aspect ratios, sphericity index and the specific mass of each seed. Results: The average values of the basic physical properties of the analyzed seeds were determined in the following range: terminal velocity – from 4.8 to 7.1 m s-1, thickness – from 1.76 to 3.22 mm, width – from 3.29 to 5.57 mm, length – from 5.44 to 11.06 mm, angle of external friction – from 26 to 33°, and mass – from 7.9 to 48.3 mg. The seeds of Sierra white fir where most similar, whereas the seeds of balsam fir differed most considerably from the seeds of the remaining fir species. Conclusions: Fir seeds should be sorted primarily with the use of mesh sieves with longitudinal openings to obtain fractions with similar seed mass and to eliminate the need for dewinging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0309.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: aromatic polyimide; crosslinking; plasticization resistance; gas separation
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:48:18 CET)
A set of aromatic copolyimides was obtained by reaction of 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA), and mixtures of the diamines 1,4-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butylbenzene (CF3TBAPB) and 3,5-diamino benzoic acid (DABA). These polymers were characterized and compared with the homopolymer derived from 6FDA and CF3TBAPB. All copolyimides showed high molecular weight values and good mechanical properties. The presence of carboxylic groups in these copolymers allowed their cross-linking by reaction with 1,4-butanediol. The crosslinked polymer films were extensively characterized and it was observed that the degree of crosslinking was low in the copolyimides possessing a small number of carboxyl groups. The degradation temperature of these crosslinked copolyimides was lower than their corresponding non-crosslinked ones. Glass transition temperatures were higher than 260 oC, showing the non-crosslinked copolyimides the highest values. Young moduli of these crosslinked showed values higher than 1.9 GPa, and slightly lower elongation at break when compared with the precursor copolyimides. All copolyimides (precursor, and crosslinked ones) films could be tested as gas separation membranes. It was seen that CO2 permeability values were around 100 barrer, having better selectivity than that of the homopolymer. Moreover, the plasticization resistance of the crosslinked material having a large number of carboxylic groups was excellent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0200.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: laminar separation; flow control; vortex generator jets
Online: 29 October 2018 (11:55:12 CET)
Active flow control of canonical laminar separation bubbles by steady and harmonic vortex generator jets (VGJs) was investigated using direct numerical simulations. Both control strategies were found to be effective in controlling the laminar boundary-layer separation. However, the present results indicate that using the same blowing amplitude, harmonic VGJs were more effective and efficient in reducing the separated region than the steady VGJs considering the fact that the harmonic VGJs use less momentum than the steady case. For steady VGJs, longitudinal structures formed immediately downstream of injection location led to formation of hairpin-type vortices causing an earlier transition to turbulence. Symmetric hairpin vortices were shown to develop downstream of the forcing location for the harmonic VGJs as well. However, the increased control effectiveness for harmonic VGJs flow control strategy is attributed to the fact that shear-layer instability mechanism was exploited. As a result, disturbances introduced by VGJs were strongly amplified leading to development of large-scale coherent structures, which are very effective in increasing the momentum exchange, thus, limiting the separated region.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0010.v1
Online: 3 September 2018 (05:31:52 CEST)
Gas membrane-based separation is considered one of the furthermost effective technology to address energy efficiency and large footprint challenges. Various classes of advanced materials including polymers, zeolites, porous carbons and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were attempted as membranes for gas separation. MOFs, among other porous materials, possess uniquely tunable nature, in which the pore size and environment can be controlled by connecting metal ions (or metal ion clusters) with organic linkers with various functionalities. This feature makes them attractive for thin membrane fabrication, as both diffusion and solubility components of permeability can be altered. It is interesting to notice that numerous reports have addressed the synthesis of different MOFs, fabrication of their corresponding thin films and their applications, nonetheless, relatively limited studies addressed their gas separation application as membranes. In this review, we provide a synopsis of the various MOF-based membranes that were fabricated in the last decade. In this review we propose a short introduction touching on the gas separation membrane technology and we shed light on (i) the various techniques developed for the fabrication of MOF as membranes and (ii) challenges and application for MOF thin film membranes in various important gas separation applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0050.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: laminate; material properties; identification; guided waves; mode separation
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:08:23 CEST)
Numerical methods, including machine learning methods, are now actively used in the applications related to guided wave propagation. The method proposed in this study for material properties characterization is based on the algorithm of the clustering of multivariate data series obtained as a result of the application of the matrix pencil method to the experimental data. In the proposed technique, multi-objective optimization is employed to improve the accuracy of particular parameter identification. At the first stage, the computationally efficient method based on the calculation of the Fourier transform of Green's matrix is employed iteratively and the obtained solution is used for the filter construction with decreasing bandwidth, which allows us to obtain nearly noise-free classified data (with mode separation). The filter provides data separation between all guided waves in a natural way, which is needed at the second stage, where the slower method based on the minimization of the slowness residuals is applied to the data. The method might be applied for material properties identification in plates with thin coatings/interlayers, multi-layered anisotropic laminates etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0059.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: plasma membrane; rafts; microemulsion; phase-separation; domain size
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:09:41 CEST)
It is widely, but not universally, believed that the lipids of the plasma membrane are not uniformly distributed, but that "rafts'' of sphingolipids and cholesterol float in a "sea'' of unsaturated lipids. The physical origin of such heterogeneities is often attributed to a phase coexistence between the two different domains. We argue that this explanation is untenable for several reasons. Further we note that the results of recent experiments are inconsistent with this picture. However they are quite consistent with an alternate explanation, namely that the plasma membrane is an emulsion of the two kinds of regions. To show this, we briefly review a simplified version of this theory and its phase diagram. We also explicate the dependence of the predicted domain size on four physical parameters. Among them are the spontaneous curvature of the membrane and its bending modulus and surface tension. Taking values of the latter two from experiment, we obtain domain sizes for several different cell types that vary from 58 to 88 nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0165.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: magnetoencephalography; signal space separation; magnetometer; gradiometer; beamforming; regularization
Online: 27 October 2017 (03:50:25 CEST)
Background: Modern MEG devices include 102 sensor triplets containing one magnetometer and two planar gradiometers. The first processing step is often a signal space separation (SSS), which provides a powerful noise reduction. A question commonly raised by researchers and reviewers is which data should be employed in source reconstruction: (1) magnetometers only, (2) gradiometers only, (3) magnetometers and gradiometers together. The MEG community is currently divided about the proper answer and strong arguments in favor and against these three approaches often expressed. Methods: First, we provide theoretical evidence that both gradiometers and magnetometers contain the same information after SSS, and argue that they both result from the backprojection of the same SSS components. Then, we compare beamforming source reconstructions from magnetometers and gradiometers in real MEG recordings before and after SSS. Results: Without SSS, the correlation between source time series extracted from magnetometers and gradiometers was high, with Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.5-0.8. After SSS, these correlation values increased dramatically, reaching over 0.90 across all cortical areas. Conclusions: After SSS, almost identical source reconstructions (r>0.9) can be obtained with magnetometers and gradiometers, as long as regularization is selected appropriately to account for the different properties in magnetometers and gradiometers covariance matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0442.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: TDP-43; Liquid-liquid phase separation; Solution-state NMR
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:22:40 CEST)
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins has been found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells, critical in the controlling of many biological processes through forming a temporary condensed phase with different bimolecular components. TDP-43 is recruited to stress granules in cells and is the main component of TDP-43 granules and proteinaceous amyloid inclusions in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 low complexity domain (LCD) is able to demix in solution forming the protein condensed droplets. The molecular interactions regulating its LLPS were investigated at the protein fusion equilibrium stage, where the droplets stopped growing. We found the molecules in the droplet were still liquid-like but with enhanced intermolecular helix-helix interaction in the LCD. The protein would start to aggregate after about 200 minutes of lag time and aggregate slower than at the condition when the protein does not phase separate or the molecules have a reduced intermolecular helical interaction. A structural transition intermediate towards protein aggregation was also discovered involving a decrease of the intermolecular helix-helix interaction and a reduction in the helicity. Therefore, LLPS and the intermolecular helical interaction could help maintain the stability of TDP-43 LCD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0313.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: membrane transport; Cyanex 923; iron(III); manganese (II); separation.
Online: 21 October 2021 (14:10:48 CEST)
The transport of iron(III) from Fe(III)-Mn(II)-HCl mixed solutions through a flat-sheet supported liquid membrane is investigated, being the carrier phase of Cyanex 923 (commercially available phosphine oxide extractant) dissolved in Solvesso 100 (commercially available diluent), as a function of hydrodynamic conditions, concentration of manganese and HCl in the feed phase, and carrier concentration in the membrane phase. A transport model is derived that describes the transport mechanism, consisting of diffusion through a feed aqueous diffusion layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion of the Fe(III)-Cyanex 923 complex across the membrane phase. The membrane diffusional resistance (Δm) and feed diffusional resistance (Δf) are calculated from the model, and their values are 145 s/cm and 361 s/cm, respectively. It is apparent that the transport of iron(III) is mainly controlled by diffusion through the aqueous feed boundary layer, being the thickness of this layer calculated as 2.9x10-3 cm. Since Mn(II) is not transported through the membrane phase, the present system allows to the purification of this manganese-bearing solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0352.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: remote sensing; spectroscopy; blind source separation; unsupervised clustering; insects
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:16:55 CET)
Characterization of flying insects in-situ measurement using remote sensing spectroscopy is an emerging research field. Also, most analysis techniques in remote sensing spectroscopy are based on the use of an intensity threshold which introduces indeterminacies in the number of detected specimens. In this manuscript, we investigated the possibility of analysing passive remote sensing spectroscopy measurement data using the maximum noise fraction method. The results obtained show that this analysis technique can help to overcome the measurement of background noise in spectroscopic measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: inertial spiral microfluidics; dendritic cell separation; resource-limited microfluidics
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:54:44 CET)
Microfluidics technology has not impacted the delivery and accessibility of point of care health services like diagnosis of infectious disease diagnosis, monitoring health or delivering interventions. Most microfluidics prototypes from academic research are not easy to manufacture with industrial scale fabrication techniques and cannot be operated without complex manipulations of supporting equipment and additives such as labels or reagents. We propose a label- and reagent-free inertial spiral microfluidic device to separate red blood, white blood and dendritic cells from blood fluid for applications in health monitoring and immunotherapy. We demonstrate that using larger channel widths in the range of 200 to 600 µm allows separation of cells into multiple streams according to different size ranges and we utilize a novel technique to collect the closely separated focused cell streams without constricting the channel. When tested on actual human blood cells, 77% of dendritic cells were separated and 80% of cells remained viable after our assay. Our contribution is a method to adapt spiral inertial microfluidic designs to separate more than two cell types in the same device which is robust against clogging, simple to operate and suitable for fabrication and deployment in resource-limited populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0186.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: H2O permeability; inorganic nanoparticles; polyimide; activation energy; gas separation
Online: 8 November 2018 (04:16:33 CET)
Three polyimides and six inorganic fillers in a form of nanometer-sized particles were studied as thick film solution cast mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for transport of CO2, CH4 and H2O. Gas transport properties and electron microscopy images indicate good polymer-filler compatibility for all membranes. The only filler type which demonstrated good distribution throughout the membrane thickness at 10 wt. % loading was BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y0.1O3 (BCZY). The influence of this filler on MMM gas transport properties was studied in detail for 6FDA-6FpDA in a filler content range from 1 to 20 wt.% and for Matrimid® and P84® at 10 wt. % loading. The most promising result was obtained for Matrimid® - 10wt% BCZY MMM, which showed improvement in CO2 and H2O permeabilities accompanied by increased CO2/CH4 selectivity and high water selective membrane at elevated temperatures without H2O/permanent gas selectivity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0080.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: fuzzy operators; fuzzy separation axioms; fuzzy compactness; fuzzy connectedness
Online: 3 May 2018 (13:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, it is introduced the notion of r-fuzzy β-Ti, i = 0, 1, 2 separation axioms related to a fuzzy operator β on the initial set X which is a generalization of previous fuzzy separation axioms. An r-fuzzy α-connectedness related to a fuzzy operator α on the set X is introduced which is a generalization of many types of r-fuzzy connectedness. An r-fuzzy α-compactness related to a fuzzy operator α on the set X is introduced which is a generalization of many types of fuzzy compactness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0352.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: epidemiology; statistical analysis; time-scale separation; differential equations; adiabatic approximation
Online: 28 February 2022 (09:12:54 CET)
The temporal evolution of pandemics described by the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR)-compartment model is sensitively determined by the time dependence of the infection (a(t)) and recovery (u(t)) rates regulating the transitions from the susceptible to the infected and from the infected to the recovered compartment, respectively. Here approximated SIR-solutions for different time dependencies of the infection and recovery rates are derived which are based on the adiabatic approximation assuming time-dependent ratios k(t)=u(t)/a(t) varying slowly in comparison to the typical time characteristics of the pandemic wave. For such slow variations the available analytical approximations from the KSSIR-model, valid for a stationary value of the ratio k, are used to insert a-posteriori the adopted time-dependent ratio of the two rates. Instead of investigating endless different combinations of the time dependencies of the two rates a(t) and u(t) a suitably parameterized reduced time dependence of the ratio k(tau) is adopted. Together with the definition of the reduced time this parameterized ratio k(tau) allows us to cover a great variety of different time dependencies of the infection and recovery rates. The agreement between the solutions from the adiabatic approximation in its four different studied variants and the exact numerical solutions of the SIR-equations is remarkably good providing strong confidence in the accuracy of the proposed adiabatic approximation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0076.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: phase separation; nuclear bodies; self-assembly; genome organization; gene expression
Online: 11 December 2019 (11:17:34 CET)
The importance of genome organization at the supranucleosomal scale in the control of gene expression is increasingly recognized today. In mammals, Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and the active / inactive chromosomal compartments are two of the main nuclear structures that contribute to this organization level. However, recent works reviewed here indicate that, at specific loci, chromatin interactions with nuclear bodies could also be crucial to regulate genome functions, in particular transcription. They moreover suggest that these nuclear bodies are membrane-less organelles dynamically self-assembled and disassembled through mechanisms of phase separation. We have recently developed a novel genome-wide experimental method, High-salt Recovered Sequences sequencing (HRS-seq), which allows the identification of chromatin regions associated with large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes and nuclear bodies. We argue that the physical nature of such RNP complexes and nuclear bodies appears to be central in their ability to promote efficient interactions between distant genomic regions. The development of novel experimental approaches, including our HRS-seq method, is opening new avenues to understand how self-assembly of phase separated nuclear bodies possibly contributes to mammalian genome organization and gene expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0321.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: maximum likelihood; logistic regression; firth's correction; separation; penalized likelihood; bias
Online: 28 October 2019 (12:01:17 CET)
The parameters of logistic regression models are usually obtained by the method of maximum likelihood (ML). However, in analyses of small data sets or data sets with unbalanced outcomes or exposures, ML parameter estimates may not exist. This situation has been termed “separation” as the two outcome groups are separated by the values of a covariate or a linear combination of covariates. To overcome the problem of non-existing ML parameter estimates, applying Firth’s correction (FC) was proposed. In practice, however, a principal investigator might be advised to “bring more data” in order to solve a separation issue. We illustrate the problem by means of an examples from colorectal cancer screening and ornithology. It is unclear if such an increasing sample size (ISS) strategy that keeps sampling new observations until separation is removed improves estimation compared to applying FC to the original data set. We performed an extensive simulation study where the main focus was to estimate the cost-adjusted relative efficiency of ML combined with ISS compared to FC. FC yielded reasonably small root mean squared errors and proved to be the more efficient estimator. Given our findings, we propose not to adapt the sample size when separation is encountered but to use FC as the default method of analysis whenever the number of observations or outcome events is critically low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: CO2 separation; random copolymer; PIM-polyimide; permeability-selectivity; pressure effect
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:07:23 CEST)
Random copolymers made of both (PIM-polyimide) and (6FDA-durene-PI) were prepared for the first time by a facile one-step polycondensation reaction. By combining the highly porous and contorted structure of PIM (polymers with intrinsic microporosity) and high thermomechanical properties of PI (polyimide), the membranes obtained from these random copolymers [(PIM-PI)x-(6FDA-durene-PI)y] showed high CO2 permeability (> 1047 Barrer) with moderate CO2/N2 (> 16.5) and CO2/CH4 (> 18) selectivity, together with excellent thermal and mechanical properties. The membranes prepared from three different compositions of two comonomers (1:4, 1:6 and 1:10 of x:y), all showed similar morphological and physical properties, and gas separation performance, indicating ease of synthesis and practicability for large-scale production. The gas separation performance of these membranes at various pressure ranges (100–1500 torr) was also investigated.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0278.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: photosystem II; redox potential; electron transfer; charge separation; photo-inhibition
Online: 27 June 2019 (05:54:13 CEST)
Structural perturbations in the Mn4CaO5 cluster site, an oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, such as those induced by Ca2+/Sr2+ exchanges or Ca/Mn-removal have been known to induce long-range positive shifts (+30 mV to +150 mV) in the redox potential of the primary quinone electron acceptor plastoquinone A (QA) located 40 Å distant from the OEC. Here, we reanalyzed the crystal structure of Sr-PSII solved at 2.1 Å and compare it with the native Ca-PSII of 1.9 Å with focus on the acceptor site and report on the possible long-range interactions between the donor, Mn4Ca(Sr)O5 cluster, and acceptor sites.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci1010031
Subject: Keywords: separation technique; spectroscopic technique; hyphenated techniques; LC-NMR; natural products
Online: 14 June 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
LC–NMR combines the advantage of the outstanding separation power of liquid chromatography (LC) and the superior structural elucidating capability of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR has proved that it is a standout detector for LC by providing maximum structural information about plant originated extracts particularly in its isolating ability of isomeric (same molecular formula) and/or isobaric (same molecular weight) compounds as compared to other detectors. The present review provides an overview of the LC–NMR developmental trends and its application in natural products analysis. The different LC–NMR operational modes are described, as well as how technical improvements assist in establishing this powerful technique as an important analytical tool in the analysis of complex plant-derived compounds. On-flow, stop-flow and loop-storage modes, as well as the new offline mode LC–SPE–NMR and capLC-NMR configurations that avoid the ingestion of expensive deuterated solvents throughout the experiment are mentioned. Utilization of cryogenic probe and microprobe technologies which are the other important promising approaches for guaranteeing the sensitivity issues are also described. Concluding remarks and future outlooks are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0492.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: membranes; vesicles; lipids; proteins; mesophase separation; domains; lipid rafts; clusters
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:38 CEST)
Cell plasma membranes display a dramatically rich structural complexity characterized by functional sub-wavelength domains with specific lipid and protein composition. Under favorable experimental conditions, patterned morphologies can also be observed in vitro on model systems such as supported membranes or lipid vesicles. Lipid mixtures separating in liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases below a demixing temperature play a pivotal role in this context. Protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions also contribute to membrane shaping by promoting small domains or clusters. Such phase separations displaying characteristic length-scales falling in-between the nanoscopic, molecular scale on the one hand and the macroscopic scale on the other hand, are named mesophases in soft condensed matter physics. In this Review, we propose a classification of the diverse mechanisms leading to mesophase separation in biomembranes. We distinguish between mechanisms relying upon equilibrium thermodynamics and those involving out-of-equilibrium mechanisms, notably active membrane recycling. In equilibrium, we show that the mechanisms generically dwell on an up-down symmetry breaking between the upper and lower bilayer leaflets. Symmetry breaking is an ubiquitous mechanism in condensed matter physics at the heart of several important phenomena. In the present case, it can be either spontaneous (domain buckling) or explicit, i.e. due to an external cause (global or local vesicle bending properties). Whenever possible, theoretical predictions and simulation results are confronted to experiments on model systems or living cells, which enables us to identify the most realistic mechanisms from a biological perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river confluence; stage-discharge relationship; hydrodynamic influence; backwater; flow separation
Online: 19 October 2016 (12:31:32 CEST)
An accurate assessment of the stage-discharge relationship in open channel flows is necessary and important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and engineering in practical hydrosystems such as rivers and streams. While the flow structures and patterns at open channel junctions are interesting and have been widely studied in the literature, this paper focuses further on the effect of flow junctions on stage-discharge relationship at mountain river confluences. In this study, both the flume and physical model experiments are designed and performed carefully to test and analyze the complex flow structures and characteristics at river confluences with different configurations and hydraulic conditions. The impacts of the flow junctions on the traditional stage-discharge relationship are analyzed in this study. The results of this study are discussed in the paper for the understanding of flow structures at flow junctions and the design and management of hydraulic structures in river engineering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Dielectrophoresis; Microfluidics; Cell separation; Particle sorting; Clausius-Mossotti factor; Crossover frequency
Online: 20 June 2022 (09:19:42 CEST)
Separation and detection of cells and particles in a suspension are essential for various applications, including biomedical investigations and clinical diagnostics. Microfluidics realizes the miniaturization of analytical devices by controlling the motion of a small volume of fluids in microchannels and microchambers. Accordingly, microfluidic devices have been widely used in particle/ cell manipulation processes. Different microfluidic methods for particle separation include dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and chemical techniques. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a method for manipulating polarizable particles’ trajectories in non-uniform electric fields using unique dielectric characteristics. It provides several advantages for dealing with neutral bioparticles owing to its sensitivity, selectivity, and noninvasive nature. This review provides a detailed study on the signal-based DEP methods that use the applied signal parameters, including frequency, amplitude, phase, and shape for cell/particle separation and manipulation. Rather than employing complex channels or time-consuming fabrication procedures, these methods realize sorting and detecting the cells/particles by modifying the signal parameters while using a simple device. In addition, these methods can significantly impact clinical diagnostics by making low-cost and rapid separation possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0576.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Glassy Polymers; Diffusion; Sorption; Physical Aging; Polymer Coatings; Gas Separation Membranes
Online: 26 July 2021 (13:52:57 CEST)
For the past few decades, researchers have been intrigued with glassy polymers, which have applications ranging from gas separations to corrosion protection to drug delivery systems. The techniques employed to examine the sorption and diffusion of small molecules in glassy polymers are the subject of this review. Diffusion models in glassy polymers are regulated by Fickian and non-Fickian diffusion, with non-Fickian diffusion being more prevalent. The characteristics of glassy polymers are determined by sorption isotherms, and different models have been proposed in the literature to explain sorption in glassy polymers during the last few years. This review also includes the applications of glassy polymer. Despite having so many applications, current researchers still have difficulty in implementing coating challenges due to issues like as physical ageing, which is briefly discussed in the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0401.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: gas separation; lattice dynamic; mixed gas hydrates, greenhouse gases, computer modeling
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:51:20 CET)
In this contribution, a method based on a solid solution theory of clathrate hydrate for multiple cage occupancy, host lattice relaxation and guest-guest interactions has been presented to estimate hydrate formation conditions of binary and ternary gas mixtures. We have performed molecular modeling of structure, guest distribution, and hydrate formation conditions for the CO2 + CH4, and CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrates. In all considered systems with and without N2, at high and medium content of CO2 in the gas phase we have found that CO2 is more favorable to occupy clathrate hydrate cavities than CH4 or N2. Addition of N2 to the gas phase increases ratio concentration CO2 in compressing with concentration CH4 in clathrate hydrates and makes gas replacement more effective. The mole fractions of CO2 in CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rapidly increases with the growth of its content in the gas phase. And the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 + N2 gas hydrate rises in comparison with the formation pressure of CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate. Obtained results agree with the known experimental data for simple CH4, CO2 gas hydrates and mixed CO2 + CH4 gas hydrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries; phase-separation; fracture mechanics; surface stress; diffusion-induced stresses
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:07:05 CET)
Although lithium-ion batteries have extensively been used in various applications because of their high energy capacity, fracture and failure, the by-products of large strains and stresses caused by fast charging and discharging need yet to be addressed. The size effects on the mechanical behavior of the nano-sized structures are significant; however, the classical elasticity theory may not consider such effects. On the other hand, surface stress theory, as a robust and potential theory, is suitable in considering size effects in nano-scale structures. Therefore, in this paper, in order to involve the surface stress effects on the fracture behavior of Li-ion batteries, the following steps are taken. Firstly, a phase-field model is used to determine the evolution of the concentration profile. Subsequently, the stress distribution is obtained by using the surface stress theory combined with chemical equations for a planar electrode. Afterward, by using the weight function method for an edge crack in the plate, the stress intensity factor is derived for all time steps and possible crack lengths during the process. It is found that with increasing phase boundary thickness parameter or decreasing phase-separation phenomenon, the surface mechanics parameters become more influential. Furthermore, in the presence of positive surface stress, the diffusion-induced stress distribution decreases, which in turn reduces the stress intensity factor. In addition, in this paper, the two states of surface stress are compared either for elastic or total strain. Concerning stresses and concentrations, the results indicate a big difference at the beginning of the deintercalation process showing, in particular, 2% for stresses, but the differences diminish gradually.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0383.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Bacterial carotenoids; Cell disruption; HPLC separation; MS analysis; Food and textile applications
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:09:35 CEST)
Natural carotenoids are secondary metabolites that exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. These types of compounds are in high demand by pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and food industries, leading to the search for new natural sources of carotenoids. In recent years, the production of carotenoids from bacteria has become of great interest for industrial applications. In addition to carotenoids with C40-skeletons, some bacteria have the ability to synthesize characteristic carotenoids with C30-skeletons. In this regard, a great variety of methodologies for the extraction and identification of bacterial carotenoids has been reported and this is the first review that condenses much of this information. To understand the diversity of these carotenoids, we present their biosynthetic origin in order to focus on the methodologies employed in their extraction and characterization. Special emphasis has been made on high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for the analysis and identification of bacterial carotenoids. We end up this review showing their potential commercial use of bacterial carotenoids. This review is proposed as a guide for the identification of these metabolites, which are frequently reported in new bacteria strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Sehezar; geochemical anomaly separation; threshold; factor analysis; cluster analysis; concentration - area fractal
Online: 20 October 2019 (16:53:36 CEST)
Sehezar area is located in southern Tonokabon in Mazandaran province, north of Iran, near the Tarom – Hashdtjin belt. The existence of granitoid masses in the region can be important in terms of the potential of mineralization. Geochemical anomaly separation from the background is one of the important steps in mineral exploration. In the past decades, geochemical anomalies have been identified by means of various methods. Some of these separation methods include: statistical analysis methods (like univariate, bivariate, multivariate statistics), spatial statistical methods and fractal and multi-fractal methods. To identify the anomalous area, 71 stream sediment samples were collected from the area and analyzed by the ICP-MS method, and then interpreted. Initially, data were normalized and afterwards, univariate analysis (threshold limit and screening (P.N) methods) was used, in which results of the probable and definite anomaly of the threshold method were confirmed by the P.N screening method. Finally, the maps of the anomal zones were drawn. Then, bivariate analysis (Pearson correlation coefficients) and multivariate analysis on normal data were performed on SPSS software, in which factor analysis and cluster analysis were used for multivariate analysis. As a result of using the factor analysis method, six factors were identified and factor maps were drawn by the Surfer software. Also, by using cluster analysis, the variables were divided into two groups. In order for a better separation of the geochemical anomaly from the background, in addition to the threshold method, the Concentration - Area fractal method was used. Here, the fractal geometry using full-logarithmic graphs of the Concentration - Area obtained is capable of separating the stairs of different sections (background, threshold, and anomaly) with respect to the angle coefficient of the Concentration - Area plot. Then, in conclusion, results of these methods were compared and investigated, and finally, the anomalies area maps of the Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, W elements were drawn by Concentration - Area fractal and threshold methods and anomalous zones were introduced.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0282.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fly ash, process mineralogy, minerals, rare and precious metals, separation and enrichment
Online: 25 April 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
The separation and enrichment can be targeted to enrich the rare and precious metals in fly ash and reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash. Regarding their different properties, the single-component separation was used to obtain uncompleted burned carbon, glass microbeads, minerals, and other characteristic components from the ash. Also, the mineral composition of each component was analyzed by electron microscopy. The metal minerals were mainly concentrated in the mineral components. Besides, the electron probe micro-analysis shows that the Pt content in the minerals of fly ash was significantly correlated with the metal contents of Ni and Cu. After the obtainment of the characteristics of fly ash metal enrichment, the heavy minerals with Cu, Ni, Pt, Pd, and other target metal elements were enriched by gravity separation and flotation. The enrichment coefficients of Cu, Ni, Pt, and Pd were 1.45, 1.33, 1.90 and 1.60, respectively, and the recovery rates were 77%, 81%, 97% and 88% respectively. Since the yield of heavy minerals obtained by separation was 62.24%, it indicated the physical separation method could significantly reduce the cost of leaching and recovering of fly ash metal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: drogen purification; CO2/H2 separation; PIL–IL composite membranes; gas permeation properties
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Considering the high potential of hydrogen (H2) as a clean energy carrier, the implementation of high performance and cost-effective biohydrogen (bioH2) purification techniques is of vital importance, particularly in fuel cell applications. In this context, membrane technology is a potentially energy-saving solution to obtain high-quality biohydrogen. The most promising poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) - ionic liquid (IL) composite membranes previously studied by our group for CO2/N2 separation, containing pyrrolidinium-based PILs with fluorinated or cyano-functionalized anions, were chosen as starting point to explore the potential of PIL–IL membranes for CO2/H2 separation. The CO2 and H2 permeation properties at the typical conditions of biohydrogen production (T =308 K and 100 kPa of feed pressure) were measured and discussed. PIL–IL composites prepared with [C(CN)3]– anion showed higher CO2/H2 selectivities and H2 diffusivities compared to those containing [NTf2]– anion. All the membranes revealed CO2/H2 separation performances above the upper bound for this specific separation, highlighting the composite incorporating 60 wt% of [C2mim][C(CN)3] IL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: immunomagnetic separation (IMS); bacterial pathogen; 3D printing; preconcentration; DNA purification; molecular diagnostics
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:26:04 CEST)
Molecular detection of pathogens in clinical samples often requires pretreatment techniques, including immunomagnetic separation and magnetic silica bead (MSB)-based DNA purification to obtain the purified DNA of pathogens. These two techniques usually rely on handling small tubes containing a few millilitres of the sample and manual operation, implying that an automated system encompassing both techniques is needed for larger quantities of the samples. Here, we report a 3D-printed microfluidic platform that enables bacterial preconcentration and genomic DNA (gDNA) purification for improving the molecular detection of target pathogens in blood samples. The device consists of two microchannels and one chamber, which can be used to preconcentrate pathogens bound to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs) and subsequently extract gDNA using magnetic silica beads (MSBs) in a sequential manner. The device was able to preconcentrate very low concentrations of pathogens and extract their genomic DNA in 10 mL of 10% blood within 30 min, and thus allowed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR to detect 1 colony forming unit of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in 10% blood. The results suggest that the 3D-printed microfluidic platform is highly useful for lowering the limitations on molecular detection in blood by preconcentrating the target pathogen and isolating its DNA in a large volume of the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Membrane oscillation; shear rate; slotted structure membrane; oil water separation and membrane fouling
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:51:11 CEST)
A new method is proposed to increase rejection in microfiltration by applying membrane oscillation using a new type of microfiltration membranes with slotted pores. The oscillations applied to the membrane surface result in reducing membrane fouling and increasing separation efficiency. An exact mathematical solution of the flow in the surrounding solution outside the oscillating membrane is developed. The oscillation results in appearance of the lift velocity, which moves oil particles away from the membrane. The latter results in both reducing membrane fouling and increasing oil droplets rejection. This developed model was supported by the experimental results for oil water separation in produced water treatment. It was proven that oil droplet concentration reduced notably in the permeate due to the membrane oscillation and that applied shear rate caused by the membrane oscillation is also reduce pore blockage. New generation of microfiltration membranes with slotted pores was used in the experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0463.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: saponite-containing waters; diamond processing plants; cryogenic treatment; electrochemical separation; saponite product applications
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:34:23 CEST)
The analysis of methods of cleaning and processing of saponite-bearing technogenic waters of diamond mining enterprises of the Arkhangelsk region is carried out. The perspective of the electrochemical separation method for extracting saponite from man-caused waters, providing a targeted change in its structural-texture, physico-chemical and mechanical properties, is shown. The possible directions of realization of saponite and products of its modification in various branches of industry are considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0146.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: thin composite hollow fiber; water treatment; water vapor separation; dehydration of alcohols; pervaporation
Online: 11 June 2018 (04:47:30 CEST)
Nowadays asymmetric thin film composite (TFC) polymeric hollow fiber (HF) membranes are extensively used in industrial gas/vapor separations, water treatment etc. There are numerous advantages to use hollow fibers such as: low energy requirements, simplicity of operation, and high specificity. In the present article we discuss the progress made during the past decade in the preparation of the HF substrate and preparation/modification of the thin selective layer. Their applications in water treatment, dehydration of alcohols via pervaporation and gas/vapor separation are also demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0108.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: diffusion dialysis; concentration; electrodialysis; ion-exchange membrane; separation of acids and salts; acid recovery
Online: 7 November 2022 (06:10:02 CET)
In the present study, the problem of the sulfuric acid recycling from spent copper plating solution was solved using a hybrid membrane technology, including diffusion dialysis and electrodialysis. A real solution from the production of copper-coated steel wire, containing 1.45 mol/L of sulfuric acid, 0.67 mol/L of ferrous sulfate and 0.176 mol/L of copper sulfate was processed. Diffusion dialysis with anion-exchange membranes was used to separate sulfuric acid and salts of heavy metals. Then purified dilute sulfuric acid was concentrated by electrodialysis. Energy consumption for sulfuric acid electrodialysis concentration at a current density of 400 A/m2 was 162 W·h/mol with current efficiency 16 %. After processing according to the hybrid membrane scheme, the solution contained 1.13 mol/L sulfuric acid, 0.077 mol/L ferrous sulfate and 0.022 mol/L copper sulfate. The resulting acid solution with a small amount of ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate met the established requirements for a copper plating bath solution and can be reused in production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0113.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Blind Source Separation; Component Analysis; Chemometrics; Unsupervised Machine Learning; Endmember Extraction; Spectral Unmixing; NMR
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:18:38 CET)
NMR spectral datasets, especially in systems with limited samples, can be difficult to interpret if they contain multiple chemical components (phases, polymorphs, molecules, crystals, glasses, etc…) and the possibility of overlapping resonances. In this paper, we benchmark several blind source separation techniques for analysis of NMR spectral datasets containing negative intensity. For benchmarking purposes, we generated a large synthetic datasbase of quadrupolar solid-state NMR-like spectra that model spin-lattice T1 relaxation or nutation tip/flip angle experiments. Our benchmarking approach focused exclusively on the ability of blind source separation techniques to reproduce the spectra of the underlying pure components. In general, we find that FastICA (Fast Independent Component Analysis), SIMPLISMA (SIMPLe-to-use-Interactive Self-modeling Mixture Analysis), and NNMF (Non-Negative Matrix Factorization) are top-performing techniques. We demonstrate that dataset normalization approaches prior to blind source separation do not considerably improve outcomes. Within the range of noise levels studied, we did not find drastic changes to the ranking of techniques. The accuracy of FastICA and SIMPLISMA degrades quickly if excess (unreal) pure components are predicted. Our results indicate poor performance of SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) methods, and we propose alternative techniques for matrix initialization. The benchmarked techniques are also applied to real solid state NMR datasets. In general, the recommendations from the synthetic datasets agree with the recommendations and results from the real data analysis. The discussion provides some additional recommendations for spectroscopists applying blind source separation to NMR datasets, and for future benchmark studies. Applications of blind source separation to NMR datasets containing negative intensity may be especially useful for understanding complex and disordered systems with limited samples and mixtures of chemical components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0022.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: silicon; nanostructures; percolated networks; nanocomposites; thin films; laser processing; phase separation; liquid phase crystallization
Online: 4 June 2018 (08:10:30 CEST)
Three-dimensional nanocomposite networks consisting of percolated Si nanowires in a SiO2 matrix, Si:SiO2, were studied. The structures were obtained by reactive ion beam sputter deposition of SiOx (x ≈ 0.6) thin films at 450 °C and subsequent crystallization using conventional oven as well as millisecond line focus laser annealing. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy were applied for sample characterization. While oven annealing resulted in a mean Si wire diameter of 10 nm and a crystallinity of 72 % within the Si volume, almost single-domain Si structures with 30 nm in diameter and almost free of amorphous Si were obtained by millisecond laser application. The structural differences are attributed to the different crystallization processes: Conventional oven tempering proceeds via solid state, millisecond laser application via liquid phase crystallization of Si. The 5 orders of magnitude larger diffusion constant in the liquid phase is responsible for the three times larger Si nanostructure diameter. In conclusion, laser annealing offers not only significantly shorter process times but moreover a superior structural order of nano-Si compared to conventional heating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems; RPAS; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; UAV; Unmanned Aerial Systems; UAS; Detect and Avoid; DAA; Separation Assurance; Self Separation; Collision Avoidance; Situational Awareness; Drones; Aircraft; ADS-B; Real Time Simulations
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:31:56 CEST)
Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are increasingly becoming relevant actors flying through the airspace and will assume much more importance in the future perspective. In order to allow their safe integration with manned conventional traffic in non-segregated airspaces, in accordance with the overall Air Traffic Management (ATM) paradigm, specific enabling technologies are needed. As well known, among the enabling technologies identified as crucial for RPAS integration into the overall ATM system, the Detect and Avoid (DAA) technology is fundamental. In the meantime, to support extended surveillance, the universal introduction on-board of aircraft of cooperative Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) is increasingly implemented, having the potential to allow coverage of the whole airspace also in remote areas not usually covered by conventional radar surveillance. In this paper, the experimental results are presented and discussed that have been obtained through the real-time validation, with hardware and human in the loop (RTS-HIL) simulations, of an automatic ADS-B based Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance System aimed to support RPAS automatic operations as well as remote pilot decision making. In the paper, after an introductory outline of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) of the system and of its architectural organization, while also providing basic information about the main system functionalities, the description is reported of the tests that have been carried out and the obtained results are described and discussed, in order to emphasize the performances and limitations of the proposed system. In particular, not only the quantitative performances obtained are reported and commented but also the feedbacks received by the pilots in order to improve the system are described, for instance in terms of preferred typology of conflict resolution manoeuver elaborated by the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0041.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Fractional calculus; Generalized Oldroyd-B fluid; separation of variables method; Unidirectional flow; Caputo fractional derivative
Online: 3 June 2022 (09:58:29 CEST)
For solving the fractional differential equations in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), it’s complicated and difficult by the Laplace and Fourier transforms. Based on the Caputo fractional derivative, the analytical solutions for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid are deduced by the separation of variables method. Results show that the analytical solutions are given easily, and have good university. For some specific parameter values, the well-known analytical solutions for the generalized second grade fluid, the generalized Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid as well as the ordinary Oldroyd-B fluid can be obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0570.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Household solid waste; Dominican Republic; separation at source; Organic solid waste, Household survey; Cibao; North region.)
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:56:26 CET)
One of the biggest problems that the Dominican Republic has had in recent decades is the efficient management of solid waste produced by the population. This problem has worsened in recent years due to the decrease in available areas for the construction of sanitary landfills, the lack of recycling culture in the population, the deficiency in waste collection, and the scarce legal controls aimed at preserving water and air and soil, among other factors. The objective of this study was to explore the management of solid waste by the population and the municipality of Puñal, province of Santiago, to evaluate and analyze the situation and generation of solid waste, municipal solid waste management services, and the attitudes of the population regarding recycling projects and waste management, to evaluate the viability and sustainability of the use organic waste for energy generation. A total of 275 households from 29 localities in the municipality of Puñal were surveyed, which allowed for a significant population sample. According to the results obtained, the most significant type of waste produced by families is organic waste, followed by plastic waste and paper. Of the total organic waste produced in the municipality, 53% of solid waste is disregarded through the municipal waste collection system, while 47% is used as plant fertilizers or animal feed. On the other hand, most households receive the municipal waste collection service and pay for this service. The results of our research show that the implementation of an energy production system based on organic waste would be viable in the municipality of Puñal. However, a more efficient waste collection system would be necessary and the development of programs and projects that allow all households to participate in the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0543.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Blind Source Separation (BSS), Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE), convolutive mixture, source Prior, generalized Gaussian distribution
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:50:37 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel efficient multistage algorithm to extract source speech signals from a noisy convolutive mixture. The proposed approach comprises of two stages named Blind Source Separation (BSS) and De-noising. A hybrid source prior model separates the source signals from the noisy reverberant mixture in the BSS stage. Moreover, we model the low and high-energy components by generalized multivariate Gaussian and super-Gaussian models, respectively. We use Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to reduce noise in the noisy convolutive mixture signal in the de-noising stage. Furthermore, two proposed models investigate the performance gain. In the first model, the speech signal is separated from the observed noisy convolutive mixture in the BSS stage, followed by suppression of noise in the estimated source signals in the de-noising module. In the second approach, the noise is reduced using the MMSE filtering technique in the received noisy convolutive mixture at the de-noising stage, followed by separation of source signals from the de-noised reverberant mixture at the BSS stage. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) with respect to other well-known multistage BSS methods. The results show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm over the other state-of-the-art methods.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: surface-enhanced fluorescence; quenching; Rhodamine 6G; hot spot; separation layer; high reproducibility; finite difference time domain
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:45:00 CET)
The surface enhanced fluorescence（SEF）detection bases by plasmonic nanopillars array with nanoparticles has opened up a new gate in the application of biological imaging and sensing. The fluorescence enhancement of the probe molecule depends on its position in equilibrium, which is close to the hot spot leading to the electromagnetic field enhancement, but not too close to the metal surface resulting in quenching. Here, a large scale SiO2-Ag-cicada wing SEF substrate was fabricated by magnetron sputtering with correction enhancement factor of 797.6. Thereinto the cicada wing provides the skeleton of the nanopillars array structure, the deposited Ag constructs two kinds of hot spots, and SiO2 forms a separation layer to prevent quenching. Moreover, the substrate exhibited good reproducibility, high sensitivity with low limits of detection (LOD) and high stability for oxidation resistance. We propose that SEF substrate with modification of SiO2 can not only improve the enhancement performance, but also expanding its application in the biological investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: flotation; separation of microorganisms; bioseparation; heteroaggregation; population balance modeling; coupling of aggregation and CFD; model comparison
Online: 22 August 2018 (11:58:12 CEST)
Bioprocesses for the production of renewable energies and materials lack efficient separation processes for the utilized microorganisms such as algae and yeasts. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) and microflotation are promising approaches to overcome this problem. The efficiency of these processes depends on the ability of microorganisms to aggregate with microbubbles in the flotation tank. In this study, different new or adapted aggregation models for microbubbles and microorganisms are compared and investigated for their range of suitability to predict the separation efficiency of microorganisms from fermentation broths. The complexity of the heteroaggregation models range from an algebraic model to a 2D population balance model (PBM) including the formation of clusters containing several bubbles and microorganisms. The effect of bubble and cell size distributions on the flotation efficiency is considered by applying PBMs, as well. To determine the impact of the model assumptions, the modeling approaches are compared and classified for their range of applicability. Evaluating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of a DAF system shows the heterogeneity of the fluid dynamics in the flotation tank. Since analysis of the streamlines of the tank show negligible backmixing, the proposed aggregation models are coupled to the CFD data by applying a Lagrangian approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: robust principal component analysis; video separation; compressive measurements; prior information; optical flow; motion estimation; motion compensation
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:19:49 CEST)
In the context of video background-foreground separation, we propose a compressive online Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) with optical flow that separates recursively a sequence of video frames into foreground (sparse) and background (low-rank) components. This separation method can process per video frame from a small set of measurements, in contrast to conventional batch-based RPCA, which processes the full data. The proposed method also leverages multiple prior information by incorporating previously separated background and foreground frames in an n-l1 minimization problem. Moreover, optical flow is utilized to estimate motions between the previous foreground frames and then compensate the motions to achieve higher quality prior foregrounds for improving the separation. Our method is tested on several video sequences in different scenarios for online background-foreground separation given compressive measurements. The visual and quantitative results show that the proposed method outperforms other existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0083.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers; SBA-15; Panax notoginseng saponins; separation and determination; solid-phase extraction
Online: 14 November 2017 (04:47:13 CET)
The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs) based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs) for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) and notoginsenoside R1 (R1) (Panax notoginseng saponins, PNS) from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the separation and determination of trace PNS in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63-0.75 ng mL-1 and 2.1-2.5 ng mL-1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 3.3-4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace PNS in the biological samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: high speed flows; shock wave; turbulent boundary layer; shock-unsteadiness; separation bubble; turbulence modeling; single fin
Online: 26 July 2017 (07:48:07 CEST)
The three-dimensional single fin configuration finds application in an intake geometry where the cowl-shock wave interacts with the side-wall boundary-layer. Accurate numerical simulation of such three-dimensional shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction flows, which are characterized by the appearance of strong crossflow separation, is a challenging task. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations using the shock-unsteadiness modified Spalart-Allmaras model is carried out at Mach of 5 at large fin angle of 23◦. The computed results using the modified model are compared to the standard Spalart-Allmaras model and validated against the experimental data. The focus of work is to implement the modified model and to study the flow physics in detail in the complex region of swept-shock-wave turbulent boundary-layer interaction in terms of the shock structure, expansion fan, shear layer and the surface streamlines. The flow structure is correlated to the wall pressure and skin friction in detail. It is observed that the standard model predicts an initial pressure location downstream of the experiments. The modified model reduces the eddy viscosity at the shock and predicts close to the experiments. Overall, the surface pressure using modified model is predicted accurately at all the locations. The skin friction is under predicted by both the models in the reattachment region and is attributed to the poor performance of turbulence models due to flow laminarization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0109.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: photoinduced electron transfer; triplet state formation; charge recombination; charge separation; intersystem crossing; SOCT-ISC; SOCME; electronic coupling
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
The conformational dependence of the matrix element for spin-orbit coupling and of the electronic coupling for charge separation are determined for an electron donor-acceptor system containing a pyrene acceptor and a dimethylaniline donor. Different kinetic and energetic aspects that play a role in the spin-orbit charge transfer intersystem crossing (SOCT-ISC) mechanism are discussed. This includes parameters related to initial charge separation and the charge recombination pathways using the (Semi-Classical) Marcus Theory for electron transfer. The spin-orbit coupling, which plays a significant role in charge recombination to the triplet state can be probed by (TD-)DFT, using the latter as a tool to understand and predict the SOCT-ISC mechanism. The matrix elements for spin-orbit coupling for acetone and 4-thio-thymine are used for benchmarking. (Time Dependent-) Density Functional Theory (DFT and TD-DFT) calculations are applied using the quantum chemical program Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0162.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: amyloids; frozen accident; genetic code; hydrogels; liquid-liquid phase separation; mRNA; polyglycine; rRNA; ribosomes; translational fidelity; tRNA
Online: 21 October 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The genetic code evolved by parallel tracks of chaotic and ordered processes. Liquid-liquid phase separation (hydrogels), a chaotic process, constructs diverse membraneless compartments within cells, resulting in regulated hydration and sequestration and concentration of reaction components. Hydrogels relate to chaotic amyloid fiber production. We propose that polyglycine and related hydrogels (i.e. GADV; G is glycine), phase separations, membraneless droplets and amyloid accretions organized protocell domains to drive the earliest evolution of the genetic code and the pre-life to cellular life transition. By contrast, evolution of tRNA, tRNAomes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and translation systems followed highly ordered and systematic pathways, described by well-defined mechanisms and rules. The pathway of evolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which tracked evolution of the genetic code, is clarified. Hydrogels and amyloids form a chaotic component, therefore, that complemented otherwise systematic processes. We describe with detail a pre-life world in which hydrogels and amyloids provided the selections of the first life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: is*-open set, is*-continuous, is*-open, is*-irresolute, is*-totally continuous, is-contra-continuous mappings, is*-separation
Online: 28 June 2019 (11:45:03 CEST)
In this paper, we introduce a new class of open sets that is called is*-open set . Also, we present the notion of is*-continuous, is*-open, is*-irresolute, is*-totally continuous, and is-contra-continuous mappings, and we investigate some properties of these mappings. Furthermore, we introduce some is*-separation axioms, and is*-mappings are related with is*-separation axioms. . .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bias; efficiency; element size; LAD; LAI; leaf and wood separation; LiDAR; multiple viewpoints; point cloud; TLS; UAV; voxel
Online: 24 May 2019 (07:53:44 CEST)
The amount and spatial distribution of foliage in a tree canopy have fundamental functions in ecosystems as they affect energy and mass fluxes through photosynthesis and transpiration. They are usually described by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the Leaf Area Density (LAD), which can be measured through a variety of methods, including voxel-based methods applied to LiDAR point clouds. A theoretical study recently compared the numerical errors arising from different voxel-based estimation methods for Plant Area Density (PAD) based on Beer’s law-based, contact frequency and Maximum-Likelihood Estimation, showing that the bias-corrected Maximum Likelihood Estimator was theoretically the most efficient. However, this earlier study i) ignored wood volumes; ii) neglected vegetation clumping inside the voxel; iii) ignored instrument characteristics in terms of effective footprint, iv) was limited to a single viewpoint. In practice, retrieving LAD from PAD is not straightforward, vegetation is not randomly distributed in volumes of interest, beams are divergent and forestry plots are usually sampled from more than one viewpoint, to mitigate the effect of occlusion. In the present short communication, we extend the previous efficient formulation to actual field conditions to i) account for the presence of both wood volumes and wood hits, ii) rigorously include correction terms for vegetation and instrument characteristics, iii) integrate multiview data. A numerical comparison with other methods commonly used to combine information from different viewpoints led to error reduction, especially in poorly-explored volumes, which are frequent in actual canopies. Beyond its concision, completeness and efficiency, this new formulation -which can be applied to multiview TLS, but also UAV LiDAR scanning - can help reducing errors in LAD estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0068.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Source separation system; Greywater treatment; Water reuse; Hydroponic system; Green wall; Heavy metals bioaccumulation; QMRA; Health risk assessment
Online: 8 May 2017 (17:39:16 CEST)
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today and the expansion of water reuse have been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of source separation system; on-site greywater treatment system; green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for E. coli and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. QMRA results indicated that the system attained the health-based targets, 10–6 DALYs per person per year. Similarly, health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0065.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: red mud; bauxite residue; reduction roasting; sodium sulfate; magnetic separation; alumina; high pressure acid leaching; hydrochloric acid; recycling; utilization
Online: 1 February 2021 (17:32:51 CET)
Red mud is a hazardous waste of alumina industry that contains high amounts of iron, aluminum, titanium and REEs. One of the promising methods for the extraction of iron from red mud is car-bothermic reduction with the addition of sodium salts. This research focuses on the process of hy-drochloric high-pressure acid leaching using 10–20% HCl of two samples of non-magnetic tailings obtained by 60-minute carbothermic roasting of red mud at 1300 °C and the mixture of 84.6 wt. % of red mud and 15.4 wt. % Na2SO4 at 1150 °C, respectively, with subsequent magnetic separation of metallic iron. An influence of temperature, leaching duration, solid-to-liquid-ratio and acid con-centration on dissolution behavior of Al, Ti, Mg, Ca, Si, Fe, Na, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sc, Zr were studied. Based on the investigation of the obtained residues, mechanism of passing of valuable elements into the solution was proposed. It has shown that 90% Al, 91% Sc and above 80% of other REEs can be dissolved under optimal conditions; Ti can be extracted into the solution or the residue depending on the leaching temperature and acid concentration. Based on the research results, novel flowsheets for red mud treatment were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0314.v1
Subject: Keywords: Clifford algebra; Abelian Lie algebra; eigen function; separation of variables; Dirac equation; Pauli equation, dipole magnetic field; axisymmetric potential
Online: 20 March 2020 (09:55:59 CET)
Clifford algebra is unified language and efficient tool for geometry and physics. In this paper, we introduce this algebra to derive the integrable conditions for Dirac and Pauli equations. This algebra shows the standard operation procedure and deep insights into the structure of the equations. Usually, the integrable condition is related to the special symmetry of transformation group, which involves some advanced mathematical tools and its availability is limited. In this paper, the integrable conditions are only regarded as algebraic conditions. The commutators expressed by Clifford algebra have a neat and covariant form, which are naturally valid in curvilinear coordinate system and curved space-time. For Pauli and Schr\"odinger equation, many solutions in axisymmetric potential and magnetic field are also integrable. We get the scalar eigen equation in dipole magnetic field. By the virtue of Clifford algebra, the physical researches may be greatly promoted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Adipose-derived Stem Cell; Flow-Cytometry; Mesenchymal Stem Cell; Stromal Vascular Fraction; Immunophenotyping; Immunohistochemistry; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Cell Separation Method
Online: 8 September 2021 (10:50:49 CEST)
Background: Developing an efficient and standardized method to isolate and characterize adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the adipose tissue for clinical application represents one of the major challenges in cell therapy and tissue engineering. Methods: In this study, we proposed an innovative, non-enzymatic protocol to collect clinically useful ASCs within freshly isolated SVF from adipose tissue by centrifugation of the infranatant portion of lipoaspirate and to determine the characteristic cytofluorimetric pattern, prior to in vitro culture. Results: The SVF yielded a mean of 73,32 \pm\ 10,89% cell viability evaluated with CALCEINA-FITC, i.e. cell-permeant dye. The ASCs were positive for PC7-labeled mAb anti-CD34 and negative for both PE-labeled mAb anti-CD31 and APC-labeled mAb anti-CD45. The frequency of ASCs estimated according to the panel of cell surface markers used was 51,06%\ \pm 5,26% versus the unstained ASCs subpopulation that was 0,74%\pm0,84% (P<0.0001). The ASCs events/\muL were 1602,13/\muL \pm 731,87/\muL. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that ASCs found in freshly isolated adipose SVF obtained by centrifugation of lipoaspirate can be immunophenotypically identified with a basic panel of cell surface markers. These findings aimed to provide standardization and contribute to reducing the inconsistency on reported cell surface antigens of ASC derived from the existing literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0272.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbon materials synthesis and functionalization; energy; graphene; gas separation; hydrothermal and solvothermal carbonization; microwave-assisted synthesis; nanocomposite membranes; sensing; water treatment
Online: 12 April 2021 (09:32:49 CEST)
There is great importance and need of improving existing carbon materials fabrication methods. As such, this work proposes to discuss, interrogate, and propose viable hydrothermal, solvothermal, and other advanced carbon materials synthetic methods. The advanced carbon materials to be interrogated will include the synthesis of carbon dots, carbon nanotubes, nitrogen/titania-doped carbons, graphene quantum dots, and their nanocomposites with solid/polymeric/metal oxide supports. This will be done with special mind to microwave-assisted solvothermal and hydrothermal synthesis due to their favourable properties such as rapidity, low cost, and green/environmentally-friendliness. Thus, these methods are important during the current and future synthesis and modification of advanced carbon materials for application in energy, gas separation, sensing, and water treatment. Simultaneously, the work will pay special cognizance to methods reducing the fabrication costs and environmental impact while enhancing the properties as a direct result of the synthesis methods. As a direct result, the expectation is to impart a significant contribution to the scientific body of work regarding the improvement of the said fabrication methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0561.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: finite element method; mesh strategy; linear elastic fracture mechanics; mesh refinement; fracture mechanics; numerical crack; h-AES method; interelement method; edge separation; crack propagation
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:43:56 CET)
H-adaptivity is an effective tool to introduce local mesh refinement in FEM-based numerical simulation of crack propagation. The implementation of h-adaptivity could benefit the numerical simulation of fatigue or accidental load scenarios involving large structures such as ship hulls. In engineering applications, the element deletion method is frequently used to represent cracks. However, the element deletion method has some drawbacks such as strong mesh dependency and loss of mass or energy. In order to mitigate this problem, the element splitting method could be applied. In this study, a numerical method called ‘h-adaptive element splitting’ (h-AES) is introduced. The h-AES method is applied in FEM programs by combining h-adaptivity with the element splitting method. Two examples using the h-AES method to simulate cracks in large structures under linear-elastic fracture mechanics scenario are presented. The numerical results are verified against analytical solutions. Based on the examples, the h-AES method is proven to be able to introduce mesh refinement in large-scale numerical models that consist of structured coarse meshes. By employing the mesh refinement introduced in this paper, very small cracks are well represented in large structures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: corticotropin releasing factor; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); maternal separation (MS); neurotransmitters; pain; psychosocial stress; visceral hyperalgesia; water avoidance stress (WAS); wrap restrain stress (WRS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:39:49 CET)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases in humans. It is characterized by visceral pain and/or discomfort, hypersensitivity and abnormal motor responses along with change in gut habits. Although the etio-pathogenesis of IBS is only partially understood, a main role has been attributed to psychosocial stress of different origin. Animals models such as neonatal maternal separation, water avoidance stress and wrap restraint stress have been developed as psychosocial stressors in the attempt to reproduce the IBS symptomatology and identify the cellular mechanisms responsible for the disease. The study of these models has led to the production of drugs potentially useful for IBS treatment. This review intends to give an overview on the results obtained with the animal models; to emphasize the role of the enteric nervous system in IBS appearance and evolution and as a possible target of drug therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0069.v1
Subject: Keywords: waste management; waste minimization; recycling; rural district municipalities; community residents; households; satisfaction levels; willingness to recycle; waste separation; municipal solid waste; benefits and barriers
Online: 25 July 2017 (05:14:07 CEST)
Whereas waste management research has focused on mostly urban municipalities in South Africa, not much is known about the current performance of waste management services from the perspective of community residents in rural municipalities. This study reports on the status and effectiveness of waste management practices from the perspective of community residents in the Umkhanyakude and Zululand Districts in the rural areas of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Making use of structured questionnaires, primary data was obtained by interviewing 333 respondents representing households in the study area. Results have revealed several shortfalls in the provision of municipal waste management services, except for solid waste removal from households (66%), and management of landfill sites (41%). The degree of dissatisfaction for waste management services rendered was very high (97.3%). Furthermore, the majority (61.4%) of respondents were not willing to participate in waste segregation due to lack of appropriate knowledge and infrastructure. The study also pinpointed some benefits associated with waste minimization, as well as barriers constraining effective waste recycling. Based on these findings, there is a dire need for transforming current waste management practices toward increased recycling rates by creating more environmental awareness and a supporting infrastructure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0510.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: disease-associated mutation; IDR; intrinsically disordered region; LLPS; phase separation; PTM; Ahr; AhRR; SIM1; SIM2; Hif-2α; NPAS4; ARNT2; BMAL1; disorder prediction; LLPS prediction; cancer; HuVarBase; catGranule prediction
Online: 26 October 2020 (10:30:47 CET)
The bHLH-PAS proteins are a family of transcription factors regulating expression of a wide range of genes involved in different functions, from differentiation and development control, by oxygen and toxins sensing to circadian clock setting. In addition to the well-preserved DNA-binding bHLH and PAS domains, bHLH-PAS proteins contain long intrinsically disordered C-terminal regions, responsible for their activity regulation. Our aim was to analyse the potential connection between disordered regions of the bHLH-PAS transcription factors with posttranscriptional modifications and liquid-liquid phase separation in the context of the disease-associated missense mutations. Highly flexible disordered regions, enriched in short more ordered motives, are responsible for wide spectrum of interactions with transcriptional co-regulators. Based on our in silico analysis and taking into account fact that transcription factors functions can be modulated by posttranslational modifications and spontaneous phase separation, we assume that the location of missense mutations inducing disease states, is clearly related to sequences directly undergoing these processes or to sequences responsible for their activity regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Affinity chromatography; matrix; solid support; resin; support materials; glass filter; glass frit; high-pressure; HPLC; FPLC; antibodies; immunoglobulins; purification; downstream processing; protein purification; preparative; analytical; separation; clean-up; automation
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:37:01 CET)
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 minute. Due to the glass material's excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0108.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Nucleolar sequestration, nucleolus, physiological amyloids, ribosomal intergenic spacer, rIGSRNA, liquid-liquid phase separation, liquid-to-solid phase transition, complex coacervation, biomolecular condensates, beta-amyloid, MDM2, VHL, Cdc14, low complexity RNA, acidosis, heat shock
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:12:29 CET)
This year marks the 20th anniversary of the discovery that proteins with various cellular functions can be temporarily immobilized in the nucleolus, a process known as nucleolar sequestration. This review reflects on the progress made to understand the physiological roles of nucleolar sequestration and the mechanisms involved in protein immobilization. We discuss how nucleolar sequestration consists of a highly choreographed amyloidogenic liquid-to-solid phase transition that converts the nucleolus into Amyloid bodies (A-bodies). The study of solid condensates A-bodies will offer unique perspectives on cellular assembly of membrane-less compartments and provide alternative insights on pathological amyloidogenesis involved in neurological disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0377.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Global salt cycle; Wilson cycle; Giant salt accumulations; Subduction; Rifting; Mantle; upwelling; Hydrated mantle; Hydrothermal salt expulsion; Hydrothermal circulation; Basin subsidence; Supercritical fluids; Phase separation; Saline brine; Salt diapir; Bedded salts; Inherited composition; Inherited structures; Lower crustal body; Electrical conductivity; Magnetotelluric method; Seismic velocity; Brittle-ductile behaviour; Continental crust formation; Oceanic crust formation; Hydration of oceanic crust; Serpentinization; Volcanism; Mineral solubility.
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:34:42 CEST)
The main objective of this communication is to describe the ‘Global Salt Cycle’. Giant salt accumulations are commonly found along continental margins of former rifts. The first stage in the accumulation process is saturation of newly formed oceanic crust with seawater. Final mobilisation and accumulation of the salts occurs during rifting, localised in the vicinity of relict subduction zones. Oceanic crust is created along the spreading ridges in the deep oceans of the Earth. It exchanges mass and energy with seawater in hydrothermal circulation cells that penetrate deep into the new and fractured crust. Water-rock interactions include the formation of hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, e.g., serpentinites and clay minerals. By incorporating hydroxyl groups and water in their crystal lattices, the salinity of remaining brines increases. Subduction of oceanic crust and serpentinised lithosphere transports water, hydrated minerals, and marine salts deep into the crust and mantle. Upon pressurisation and heating of the subducting slab, different parts of this water are expelled at different depths/temperatures. The resulting fluids will contain salts brought in with the slab, as well as new salts formed by water-rock interaction. The combination of elevated pressures and temperatures, water, salinity, and CO2, create permeability in the normally impermeable, peridotitic mantle, by altering the fluid-rock dihedral angles of mineral grains. This P/T-determined intergranular permeability allows ascent of saline fluids, under lithostatic pressure, within the mantle wedge, or the slab itself. The fluids produce a mechanically weakened and buoyant zone within the mantle wedge due to high pore pressure between mineral grains and reduced mantle density. During the lifetime of a subduction zone, a substantial accumulation of saline fluids within the mantle wedge and crust, is evident. Deep, fluid reservoirs accumulate between the subduction trench and the volcanic front. They may exist for hundreds of millions of years, even after the extinction of the subduction zone. Saline fluids may escape to the surface along deep faults, due to overfilling of available pores/fractures. Fluids within the mantle wedge may form rock melts or exist as supercritical, mineral rich fluids. The combination of reduced pressure due to rifting, and a saline and buoyant mantle, creates a mantle circulation that brings the accumulated, saline fluids, to crustal levels. Salts will therefore accumulate during initial stages of rifting as a result of massive fluid expulsion, phase change and boiling of mantle fluids. No extra energy is required to produce phase change and boiling. The result is formation of solid salts or dense brines/slurries invading fractured crustal rocks, or escaping to the surface/seabed. This process may take place both before and after the sea has invaded a continental rift.