REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0039.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss; age-related sensorineural hearing loss; inflammation, immune senescence; interleukin 1 receptor type II -positive T cells; naturally occurring regulatory T cells; immune rejuvenation; thymus
Online: 4 January 2019 (11:37:31 CET)
Although congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in the bilateral cochleae mainly results from genetic abnormalities, chronic SHL progressing in later life is often influenced by systemic immune disturbances, including autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, and immunosenescence. We have investigated the relationship between the inner ear and systemic immunity and reviewed the possibilities to prevent SHL, including autoimmune SHL and age-related SHL. We also demonstrated two lymphocyte populations, interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL-1R2)-positive T cells (T1R2) and naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) in CD4+ T cells, which increase with aging, suppress host immune function and promote organ degeneration. Alterations in systemic immunity by fewer microbial antigen challenges in the living environment, elimination of immune suppressive lymphocytes, or immune rejuvenation with a reconstituted thymus may contribute not only to renew the cochlear function in SHL, but also to extend the healthy life of functional organs in a vigorous and youthful body, one of humanity’s greatest dreams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Hearing loos; conductive; sensorineural; outer ear; middle ear; inner ear; SNHL; Cochlear; auditory; physical examination; history
Online: 16 August 2022 (04:04:24 CEST)
Hearing loss in infancy leads to preventable speech, language, and cognitive developmental delay [1, 2]. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is caused by damages, problems, or issues related to the inner ear such as the cochlea with or without the auditory nerve; cranial nerve VIII, involvement. There are three anatomic areas which include the outer ear: composed of the auricle and external auditory canal and the middle ear: which includes the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and the middle ear space, the inner ear: composed of the cochlea, semi-circular canals, and internal auditory canals. The unique anatomical shape of the auricle catches the incoming sound waves to send them down the external auditory canal. Hearing risk assessment should be part of all health visits while regular hearing screening checks are done for all children from 4 to 21 years [1, 2]. Assessment of hearing loss includes history, physical examination and specific hearing assessment tests.