ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0377.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Sensor data, wireless body area network, wearable devices, sensor data interoperability
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:47:26 CEST)
The monitoring of maternal and child health, using wearable devices made with wireless sensor technologies, is expected to reduce maternal and child death rates. Wireless sensor technologies have been used in wireless sensor networks to enable the acquisition of data for monitoring machines, smart cities, transportation, asset tracking, and tracking of human activity. Applications based on wireless body area network (WBAN) have been used in healthcare for measuring and monitoring of patient health and activity through integration with wearable devices. Wireless sensors used in WBAN can be cost-effective, enable remote availability, and can be integrated with electronic health record (EHR) management systems. Interoperability of WBAN sensor data with other linked data has the potential to improve health for all, including maternal and child health through the improvement of data access, data quality and healthcare access. This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art techniques for managing WBAN sensor data interoperability. The findings in this study will provide reliable support to enable policymakers and health care providers to take action to enhance the use of e-health to improve maternal-child health and reduce the mortality rates of women and children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor networks; risk; security; vulnerability
Online: 18 October 2023 (10:21:41 CEST)
in our increasingly interconnected world, sensor networks are critical in gathering and sending data for various applications, from environmental monitoring and industrial automation to healthcare and smart cities. However, as sensor networks expand in importance, so does the need to solve the multidimensional concerns of security, privacy, and forensics. This article explores the complex world of sensor network security, the delicate balance between data privacy and utility, and the emerging area of sensor network forensics. This article focuses on risk assessment of a network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0507.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor network; agent cooperation; mobile agent; itinerary; multi agent system; communication
Online: 26 July 2018 (08:48:35 CEST)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is designed to collect information across a large number of limited battery sensor nodes. Therefore, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of each node, which leads to the extension of the network life. Our goal is to design an intelligent WSN that collects as much information as possible to process it intelligently. To achieve this goal, an agent has been migrated to each node in order to process the information and to cooperate with these neighboring nodes while Mobile Agents (MA) can be used to reduce information between nodes and send those to the base station (Sink). This work proposes to use communication architecture for wireless sensor networks based on the Multi Agent System (MAS) to ensure optimal information collection. The collaboration of these agents generates a simple message that summarizes the important information in order to transmit it by a mobile agent. To reduce the size of the MA, the nodes of the network have been grouped into sector. As for each MA, we have established an optimal itinerary, consuming a minimum amount of energy with the data aggregation efficiency in a minimum time. Successive simulations in large scale wireless sensor networks through the SINALGO simulator show the performance of our proposal, in terms of energy consumption and package delivery rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN); Internet of Things (I.o.T)
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Surveillance along the Kenya-Somalia border has been a big challenge that has continuously puzzled the security personnel, due to insurgency of armed militia Al-Shabaab from Somalia , the Kenyan government proposed construction of a barrier wall. This project developed a low cost wireless sensor network surveillance system to be deployed along the Kenya-Somalia border. The research study utilized two PIR sensor for detecting human intrusion, one motion is detected the sensor transmit the data via an Xbee module. Arduino microcontroller was used to process the data collected by the sensor before transmission. The system developed has two units, the Transmitter unit and a User Graphic interface running on Tuna Term software that displays the received data. During testing, the prototype system detected human intrusion, using the Arduino serial monitor the results were displayed before being package for transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DQN; reinforcement learning; autonomous navigation; sensor fusion
Online: 23 October 2023 (08:57:23 CEST)
In this work, we propose an approach for the autonomous navigation of mobile robots using fusion of sensor data by a Double Deep Q-Network with collision avoidance by detecting moving people via computer vision techniques. We evaluate two data fusion methods for the proposed autonomous navigation approach: Interactive and Late fusion strategy. Both are used to integrate mobile robot sensors through the following sensors: GPS, IMU and, an RGB-D camera. The proposed collision avoidance module is implemented along with the sensor fusion architecture in order to prevent the autonomous mobile robot from colliding with moving people. The simulation results indicate a significant impact on the success of completing the proposed mission by the mobile robot with the fusion of sensors, indicating a performance increase (success rate) of 27% in relation to navigation without sensor fusion. With the addition of moving people in the environment, deploying the people detection and collision avoidance security module has improved about 14% the success rate when compared to that of the autonomous navigation approach without the security module. Video was developed with robot navigation using the DDQN-Late Fusion https://www.loom.com/share/684afa6a5b0148afadc9a200ab9f3483.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor network; object tracking; dual sink; data collection
Online: 26 May 2017 (04:58:00 CEST)
Continuous object tracking in WSNs, such as monitoring of mud-rock flows, forest fires etc., is a challenging task due to characteristic nature of continuous objects. They can appear randomly in the network field, move continuously, and can change in size and shape. Monitoring such objects in real-time generally require tremendous amount of messaging between sensor nodes to synergistically estimate object’s movement and track its location. In this paper, we propose a novel twofold-sink mechanism, comprising of a mobile and a static sink node. Both sink nodes gather information about boundary sensor nodes, which is then used to uniformly distribute energy consumption across all network nodes, thus helping in saving residual energy of network nodes. Numerous object tracking schemes, using mobile sink, have been proposed in the literature. However, existing schemes employing mobile sink cannot be applied to track continuous objects, because of momentous variation of network topology. Therefore, we present in this paper a mechanism, transformed from K-means algorithm, to find the best sensing location of the mobile sink node. It helps to reduce transmission load on the intermediate network nodes situated between static sink node and the ordinary network sensing nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can distinctly improve life time of the network, compared to one-sink protocol employed in continuous object tracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0659.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Mobile sink; Network period; Funneling Effect; Wireless Sensor Network; Vitality Management.
Online: 27 July 2020 (07:59:21 CEST)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is considered to be a promising research area since it entails sensing capabilities. WSNs are confronted by fabricated explosion injection attacks and in return results into draining of vitality on sensor nodes routing mainly because of increased capabilities in a broad range of applications where sensor nodes use a battery as the power source. In this paper, we reveal and claim a state-of-the-art model to minimize vitality depletion of nodes within the network in return increases network period to more realistic stretch. It is revealed that the main cause is vitality consumption unbalances in different parts of the network direct resulting from having a static sink. More still, the network nodes neighboring the sink insistently partake in progressing data of other nodes to the sink. Consequently, the network nodes are supplementarily subjected to untimely vitality exhaustion. This paper mainly provides a novel movable (mobile) fuzzy logic sink approach and an intelligent system like expect systems that are able to scrutinize network situation, and make the superlative choice for spreading the network period robotically.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0092.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: communication standards; cyber security; intrusion detection system; smart grid; topology control; Wireless sensor networks
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:26:10 CEST)
An existing power grid is going through a massive transformation. Smart grid technology is a radical approach for improvisation in prevailing power grid. Integration of electrical and communication infrastructure is inevitable for the deployment of Smart grid network. Smart grid technology is characterized by full duplex communication, automatic metering infrastructure, renewable energy integration, distribution automation and complete monitoring and control of entire power grid. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are small micro electrical mechanical systems which are accomplished to collect and communicate the data from surroundings. WSNs can be used for monitoring and control of smart grid assets. Security of wireless sensor based communication network is a major concern for researchers and developers. The limited processing capabilities of wireless sensor networks make them more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The countermeasures against cyber-attacks must be less complex with an ability to offer confidentiality, data readiness and integrity. The address oriented design and development approach for usual communication network requires a paradigm shift to design data oriented WSN architecture. WSN security is an inevitable part of smart grid cyber security. This paper is expected to serve as a comprehensive assessment and analysis of communication standards, cyber security issues and solutions for WSN based smart grid infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0096.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Landslides; Factor of Safety(FoS); Wireless Sensor Network; Slope Stability
Online: 27 February 2020 (16:04:46 CET)
Landslides are a frequent and recurrent problem in hilly regions of India and predicting them is always a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt was made to deal with this problem using advanced physical and numerical modeling methods. Detailed understanding of the initial slope failures is very interesting, and challenging at the same time, in the design and development of wireless sensor network based on early warning of landslide monitoring. A small scale physical model was developed to assess the instability through a sensor network with variable rain fall intensity. This was achieved by increasing the simulated rain water flow intensity in different time spans (dry condition, at t=0 to t= 30 min, 0.5 mm/min at t=30 to t= 60 min, 0.75 mm/min at t=60 to t=91 min and 1 mm/min at t=91 to t= 120 min). The water level and movement in the slope was recorded by rainfall sensor, vibration sensor, soil moisture sensor and a digital camera. The following changes were observed during the slope failure: a) movement of small particles at top of the slope; b) initial failure of medium size soil particle; c) scouring of soil mass; d) whole slope collapse. The obtained results clearly indicated the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed system in providing a factor of safety for the progressive slope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart sensor; multi-agent system; modular architecture; Blade Health Monitoring; system on chip
Online: 1 July 2021 (12:33:59 CEST)
Blade Health Monitoring (BHM) is often necessary in power plants and in aviation to prevent excessive blade vibration and cracks. This article proposes a network of blade tip timing sensors operated in a distributed BHM system. A number of cooperating agents is implemented in smart conditioning units which can autonomously operate in an adverse environment and communicate with other nodes via a serial interface. The project uses special versions of reduced instruction set chips that are able to operate near the hot section of the engine. Due to the limited number of types of microprocessors available in the extended temperature range grading, it was necessary to fully utilize the limited hardware resources and implement preemptive multitasking. For this purpose, a custom operating system and communication protocol were designed. The protocol hosts the middle layer which hides the implementation of the distributed system. The presented architecture ensures the sufficient computational capacity in individual nodes of the network operated in adverse conditions. It is scalable and resistant to transmission errors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0319.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: IoT; Smart Farming; sensor data; agricultural; Fuzzy logic; Network coding
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:56:10 CEST)
Climate risk is one of the confronting factors in Indian agriculture. To overcome this distrust, a large number of sensors can be installed in the fields,The extensive IoT platform can process the data sent by these sensors.The Data stream can be processed in real-timeusing Fuzzylogic, to offer smart solution. Network coding can enhance throughput and security. Thus reducing human interaction and improve efficiency.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Indoor Localization; Sensor Fusion; Multimodal Deep Neural Network; Multimodal Sensing; WiFi Fingerprinting; Pedestrian Dead Reckoning
Online: 13 October 2021 (12:14:39 CEST)
Many engineered approaches have been proposed over the years for solving the hard problem of performing indoor localisation using smartphone sensors. However, specialising these solutions for difficult edge cases remains challenging. Here we propose an end-to-end hybrid multimodal deep neural network localisation system, MM-Loc, relying on zero hand-engineered features, learning them automatically from data instead. This is achieved by using modality-specific neural networks to extract preliminary features from each sensing modality, which are then combined by cross-modality neural structures. We show that our choice of modality-specific neural architectures is capable of estimating the location with good accuracy independently. But for better accuracy, a multimodal neural network fusing the features of early modality-specific representations is a better proposition. Our proposed MM-Loc solution is tested on cross-modality samples characterised by different sampling rates and data representation (inertial sensors, magnetic and WiFi signals), outperforming traditional approaches for location estimation. MM-Loc elegantly trains directly from data unlike conventional indoor positioning systems, which rely on human intuition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring; sensing element; split ring resonator; continuous monitoring; sensor network
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:48:54 CEST)
The aim of this work is to propose two different and complementary sensors for the structural health monitoring of concrete beams. In particular, a diffused sensing element and a split ring resonator network are presented. The first sensor is able to detect the variation of the dielectric properties of the concrete along the whole beam length, for a diffuse monitoring both during the important concrete curing phase and also for the entire life cycle of the concrete beams. The resonators instead work punctually, in their surroundings, allowing an accurate evaluation of the permittivity both during the drying phase and after. This allows the continuous monitoring of any presence of water both inside the concrete beam and in points that can be critical, in the case of beams in dams, bridges or in any case subject to a strong presence of water which could lead to deterioration, or worse, cause serious accidents. Moreover, the punctual sensors are able to detect the presence of cracks in the structure and to localize them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: IoT; Smart Farming; sensor data; agricultural; Fuzzy logic; Network coding
Online: 11 August 2021 (14:09:12 CEST)
Climate risk is one of the confronting factors in Indian agriculture. To overcome this distrust, a large number of sensors can be installed in the fields,The extensive IoT platform can process the data sent by these sensors.The Data stream can be processed in real-timeusing Fuzzylogic, to offer smart solution. Network coding can enhance throughput and security. Thus reducing human interaction and improve efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Acoustic Communication; Multi-hop communication; Energy-Efficient; Reliable
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:44:22 CET)
Water covers a greater part of the earth's surface. Even though we know very little about the underwater world as most parts of it remain unexplored. Oceans including other water bodies hold huge natural resources and also the aquatic lives. These are mostly unexplored and very few of those are known due to unsuited and hazardous environments for the human to explore. This vast underwater world can be monitored remotely from a distant location with much ease and less risk. To monitor water-bodies remotely in real-time, sensor networking has been playing a great role. It is needed to deploy a wireless sensor network over the volume which we want to surveil. For vast water bodies like oceans, rivers and large lakes, data is collected from the different heights of the water level which is sent to the surface sink. Unlike terrestrial communication, radio waves and other conventional mediums can't serve the purpose of underwater communication as they pose high attenuation and very reduced transmission range. Rather an acoustic medium can transmit data more efficiently and reliably in comparison to other mediums. To transmit data reliably from the bottom of the sea to the sinks at the surface, multi-hop communication is needed which must involve a certain scheme. For seabed to surface sink communication, leading researchers have proposed different routing protocols. The goal of these routing protocols is to make underwater communication more reliable, energy-efficient and delay efficient thus to improve the performance of the overall communication. This paper surveys the advancement and applications of the routing protocols which eventually helps in finding the most efficient routing protocol for the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: multi-hop routing protocol; network lifetime; wireless body area network; wireless sensor network; adaptive routing; bio-sensors; residual energy; throughput; path loss; clustering; poisson distribution; and equilibrium model techniques
Online: 5 May 2019 (13:07:29 CEST)
A Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is combination of numerous sense nodes, positioned onto/close or inside a person body. Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASN) is a developing automation trend that exploits wireless sensor nodes to put instantaneous wearable well-being of ill person to improve individual’s existence. The sensor nodes might be used outwardly to observe abundant health parameters (like heart activity, blood pressure and cholesterol) of an ill person at a vital site within hospital. Hence the goal of WBASN is much crucial, enhancing the lifetime of nodes is compulsory to sustain many issues such as utility and efficiency. It is essential to evaluate time that when the first node will die it we want to refresh or change the battery reason is that loss of crucial information is not tolerable. The lifetime is termed as the time interval when a first node dies out due to battery exhaustion. In our proposed protocol life time of a network is the main concern as well other protocol related issues such as throughput, path loss, and residual energy. Bio-sensors are used for deployment on human body. Poisson distribution and equilibrium model techniques have been used for attaining the required results. Multi-hop network topology and random network node deployment used to achieve minimum energy consumption and longer network lifetime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0939.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN); intelligent routing protocol; support vector machine (SVM); packet delivery ratio (PDR)
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:57:46 CEST)
Underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) plays a crucial role in collecting real-time data from remote areas of the ocean. However, deploying the UASN is a challenging problem due to the harsh environment and high deployment cost. Therefore, it is essential to design an appropriate routing protocol to effectively address the issues of routing void, packet delivery delay, and energy utilization. In this paper, an adaptive support-vector-machine-based routing (ASVMR) protocol is proposed for the UASN to prolong the network lifetime and reduce the end-to-end packet delivery delay. The proposed protocol employs a distributed routing approach that dynamically optimizes the routing path in real-time by considering four types of node state information. Moreover, the ASVMR protocol establishes a "routing vector" spanning from the current node to the sink node, and selects a suitable pipe radius according to the packet delivery ratio (PDR). In addition, the ASVMR protocol incorporates future states of sensor nodes into the decision-making process, along with the adoption of a waiting time mechanism and routing void recovery mechanism. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed ASVMR protocol performs well, in terms of the PDR, the hop count, the end-to-end delay, and the energy efficiency in dynamic underwater environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1372.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Stevia Rebaudiana; soil quality; monitoring system; fuzzy logic; wireless sensor network; Mamdani
Online: 20 July 2023 (04:05:07 CEST)
Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Morita II, a perennial plant native to Paraguay and Brazil, is also widely cultivated in the state of Colima, Mexico, for its use as a sweetener in food and beverages. The op-timization of soil parameters is crucial for maximizing biomass production and stevioside levels in stevia crops. This research presents the development and implementation of a monitoring system to track essential soil parameters, including pH, temperature, humidity, electrical conductivity, ni-trogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The system employs a wireless sensor network to collect qua-si-real-time data, which is transmitted and stored in a web-based platform. A Mamdani-type fuzzy logic model is utilized to process the collected data and provide to farmers an integrated assessment of soil quality. By comparing the quality data output of the fuzzy logic model with a line-ar-regression model, the system demonstrated acceptable performance, with a determination coef-ficient of 0.532 for random data and 0.906 for gathered measurements. The system enables farmers to gain insights into the soil quality of their stevia crops and empowers them to take preventive and corrective actions to improve the soil quality specifically for stevia crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0317.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: sensor collaborations; sensor trustworthiness; dynamic moving sensor collaboration; sensor calibration
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:52:57 CEST)
Wireless Sensor Network is an emerging technology and the collaboration of wireless sensors becomes one of the active research areas to utilize sensor data. Various sensors collaborate to recognize the changes of a target environment, to identify, if occurs, any radical change. For the accuracy improvement, the calibration of sensors has been discussed, and sensor data analytics are becoming popular in research and development. However, they are not satisfactorily efficient for the situations where sensor devices are dynamically moving, abruptly appearing or disappearing. If the abrupt appearance of sensors is a zero-day attack and the disappearance of sensors is an ill-functioning comrade, then sensor data analytics of untrusted sensors will result in an indecisive artifact. The pre-defined sensor requirements or meta-data based sensors verification is not adaptive to identify dynamically moving sensors. This paper describes a deep-learning approach to verify the trustworthiness of sensors by considering the sensor data only, without having to use meta-data about sensors or to request consultation from a cloud server. The contribution of this paper includes 1) quality preservation of sensor data for mining analytics and 2) authenticity verification of dynamically moving sensors with no external consultation.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: virtual sensor; automotive control; active suspension; vehicle state estimation; neural networks; deep learning; long-short term memory; sequence regression
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:42:07 CEST)
With the automotive industry moving towards automated driving, sensing is increasingly important in enabling technology. The virtual sensors allow data fusion from various vehicle sensors and provide a prediction for measurement that is hard or too expensive to measure in another way or in the case of demand on continuous detection. In this paper, virtual sensing is discussed for the case of vehicle suspension control, where information about the relative velocity of the unsprung mass for each vehicle corner is required. The corresponding goal can be identified as a regression task with multi-input sequence input. The hypothesis is that the state-of-art method of Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory (BiLSMT) can solve it. In this paper, a virtual sensor has been proposed and developed by training a neural network model. The simulations have been performed using an experimentally validated full vehicle model in IPG Carmaker. Simulations provided the reference data which was used for Neural Network (NN) training. The extensive dataset covering 26 scenarios has been used to obtain training, validation and testing data. The Bayesian Search was used to select the best neural network structure using root mean square error as a metric. The best network is made of 167 BiLSTM, 256 fully connected hidden units and 4 output units. Error histograms and spectral analysis of the predicted signal compared to the reference signal are presented. The results demonstrate the good applicability of neural network-based virtual sensors to estimate vehicle unsprung mass relative velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Ultra-Wide Band; wireless sensor networks; monitoring; warning system; ground instability; landslide; Time Of Flight, Two-way ranging.
Online: 20 July 2018 (11:56:07 CEST)
An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) based on Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) technology for 3D accurate superficial monitoring of ground deformations, as landslides and subsidence, is proposed. The system has been designed and developed as part of an European Life+ project, called Wi-GIM (Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring). The details of the architecture, the localization via wireless technology and data processing protocols are described. The flexibility and accuracy achieved by the UWB two-way ranging technique is analysed and compared with the traditional systems, such as robotic total stations (RTSs), Ground-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-InSAR), highlighting the pros and cons of the UWB solution to detect the surface movements. An extensive field trial campaign allows the validation of the system and the analysis of its sensitivity to different factors (e.g., sensor nodes inter-visibility, effects of the temperature, etc.). The Wi-GIM system represents a promising solution for landslide monitoring and it can be adopted in conjunction with traditional systems or as an alternative in areas where the available resources are inadequate. The versatility, easy/fast deployment and cost-effectiveness, together with the good accuracy, make the Wi-GIM system a possible solution for municipalities that cannot afford expensive/complex systems to monitor potential landslides in their territory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Aerosols; dental clinics; infection control; high-volume evacuation; extra-oral suction device; particle concentration; sensor network; dispersion modeling; exposure assessment; air quality
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:32:57 CEST)
Human exposure to infectious aerosols results a transmission of diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and COVID-19. Most dental procedures generate a significant number of aerosolized particles, increasing transmission risk in dental settings. Since the generation of aerosols in dentistry is unavoidable, many clinics started using intervention strategies such as area-filtration units and extraoral evacuation equipment, especially under the relatively recent constraints of the pandemics. However, the effectiveness of these devices in dental operatories has not been studied. Therefore, the dental personnel's ability to position and operate such instruments efficiently is also limited. To address these challenges, we utilized a real-time sensor network for assessment of aerosol dynamics during dental restoration and cleaning producers with and without intervention. The strategies tested during the procedures were (i) local area high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and (ii) extra-oral suction device (EOSD). The study was conducted at the University of Washington School of Dentistry using a network of thirteen fixed sensors positioned within the operatory and one wearable sensor worn by the dental operator. The sensor network provides time and space-resolved particulate matter (PM) data. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization informs aerosol persistence in the operatory. It was found that area filters did not improve the overall aerosol concentration in dental offices significantly. An average of 16% decrease in PM concentration was observed when EOSD equipment was used during the procedures. The combination of real-time sensors and 3D visualization can provide dental personnel and facility mangers with actionable feedback to effectively assess aerosol transmission in medical settings and develop evidence-based intervention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0262.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Multi-object tracking; DeepSORT; object detection; sensor fusion; deep learning, autonomous vehicles; radars; adverse weather; fog
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:09:38 CEST)
The presence of fog in the background can prevent small and distant objects from being detected, let alone tracked. Under safety-critical conditions, multi-object tracking models require faster-tracking speed while maintaining high object-tracking accuracy. The original DeepSORT algorithm used YOLOv4 for the detection phase, and a simple neural network for deep appearance descriptor. Consequently, the feature map generated loses relevant details about the track being matched with a given detection in fog. Targets with a high degree of appearance similarity on the detection frame are more likely to be mismatched, resulting in identity switches or track failures in heavy fog. We propose an improved multi-object tracking model based on the DeepSORT algorithm to im-prove tracking accuracy and speed under foggy weather conditions. First, we employed our camera-radar fusion network (CR-YOLOnet) in the detection phase for faster and more accurate object detection. We proposed an appearance feature network to replace the basic convolutional neural network. We incorporated GhostNet to take the place of the traditional convolutional layers to generate more features and reduce computational complexities and cost. We adopted a segmentation module and fed the semantic labels of the corresponding input frame to add rich semantic information to the low-level appearance feature maps. Our proposed method outperformed YOLOv5 + DeepSORT with a 35.15% increase in multi-object tracking accuracy, a 32.65% increase in multi-object tracking precision, the speed increased by 37.56%, and identity switches decreased by 46.81%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0514.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network, Void Hole Prevention and Repair, Clustering, Virtual Routing, Multi-AUVs and Relay Selection
Online: 21 June 2021 (14:00:53 CEST)
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) enables various oceanic applications which require effective packet transmission. In this case, sparse node distribution, dynamic network topology and inappropriate selection of relay nodes cause void holes. Addressing this problem, we present a Relay based Void Hole Prevention and Repair protocol (ReVOHPR) by multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) for UWSN. ReVOHPR efficiently identifies and avoids void holes and trap relay nodes to avoid it. ReVOHPR adopts the following operations as Ocean Depth (levels) based Equal Cluster Formation, Dynamic Sleep Scheduling, Virtual Graph based Routing, and Relay Assisted Void Hole Repair. For energy efficient cluster forming, Entropy based Eligibility Ranking (E2R) is presented which elects stable cluster heads (CHs). Then, dynamic sleep scheduling is implemented Dynamic Kernel Kalman Filter (DK2F) algorithm in which Sleep and Active modes based on the nodes current status. Inter Cluster Routing is performed by maximum matching nodes which selects by Dual criteria and also data transmitted to AUV. Finally, void holes are detected and repair by Bi-Criteria Mayfly Optimization (BiCMO) algorithm. The BiCMO focuses on reducing the number of holes, data packet loss and maximizes Quality of Service (QoS) and energy efficiency of the networks. This protocol is timely deal with node failures in packet transmission via multi-hop routing. Simulation is implemented by NS3 (AquaSim module) simulator that evaluates the performance in network simulation for following metrics as average energy consumption, delay, packet delivery rate and throughput.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Self-powered sensor; flexibility sensor; triboelectric nanogenerator; liquid-solid interface; active sensor; chemical sensor.
Online: 1 June 2023 (03:01:35 CEST)
Recently, there is a growing need for sensors that can operate autonomously, without the need for an external power source. This is especially important in applications where conventional power sources, such as batteries, are impractical or difficult to replace. Self-powered sensors have emerged as a promising solution to this challenge, offering a range of benefits such as low cost, high stability, and environmental friendliness. One of the most promising self-powered sensor technologies is L-S TENG, which stands for the liquid-solid triboelectric nanogenerator. This technology works by harnessing the mechanical energy generated by external stimuli such as pressure, touch, or vibration, and converting it into electrical energy that can be used to power sensors and other electronic devices. Therefore, self-powered based on L-S TENG, which provides numerous benefits such as rapidly responding, portability, cost-effectiveness, and miniaturization, is critical for increasing living standards and optimizing industrial processes. In this review paper, the working principle with three basic modes has been briefly introduced firstly. After that, affecting parameters to L-S TENG are reviewed based on the properties of the liquid and solid phases. With different working principles, L-S TENG has designed a lot of structure that works as a self-powered sensor for pressure/force change, liquid flow motion, concentration, and chemical detection or biochemical sensing. Moreover, the continuous output signal of TENG plays an important role in a real-time sensor that is vital to the growth of the Internet of Things.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: acceleration sensor; angle sensor; multi-sensor fusion; Kalman filter; signal acquisition
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:52:57 CEST)
In order to perform multi-degree-of-freedom motion measurements of marine machinery such as ship-borne mechanical platform in an absolute environment without a reference, absolute measurement methods using acceleration sensors and tilt gyroscopes are typically employed. However, due to the influence of wave forces on ship-borne mechanical platform, the coupling between different degrees of freedom can cause mutual interference, resulting in significant sensor measurement disturbances that make efficient computation and real-time analysis challenging. Specifically, when ship-borne mechanical platform swings, the proof mass of the acceleration sensor produces an undesirable signal output in the vertical direction, which leads to imprecise acceleration integration, thereby affecting accurate motion collection and posture estimation. To address these challenges, by analyzing the influence of the inclination angle of the ship-borne mechanical platform on the sensor measurement, and using the working principle of the acceleration sensor and angle sensor, a correction method for the motion measurement of the ship-borne mechanical platform based on multi-sensor fusion is proposed. In this article, we first analyze the influence of inclination angle on the integral effect in the heave direction. Then the configuration using four groups of acceleration sensors to correct the integral effect is proposed. Finally, the optimal inclination angle is determined through Kalman filtering based on the measured value of angle sensors and estimated values from the acceleration sensor sets. Experiments have proved that the average error of the corrected heave displacement signal is 25.34 mm, which is better than the integral displacement signal of a single acceleration sensor. At the same time, the acceleration sensor is used to calculate the roll angle and pitch angle of the ship-borne mechanical platform, and combined with the angle sensor signal to perform Kalman filtering, which filters out the errors caused by the shaking and instability of the mechanical platform, and can more accurately estimate the true inclination of the platform. Therefore, this method can enhance the precision and accuracy of the ship-borne mechanical platform motion signal acquisition, providing more valuable experimental data for research in marine engineering and related fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: PCF; PCF sensor; fiber sensor; photonic crystal.
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:31:51 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to create a sensor model based on optical crystal fibers (PCF). The aim of this model is to find and identify zinc cadmium. This thesis looked at three different categories of concentrations. For sensor architecture, PCF was generated using single-mode fiber-to-end split fusion (SM-PCF-SM). In this experiment, a specific wavelength spectrum was used to alter the concentration of materials covering the fiber in order to demonstrate the fiber's sensing capability. The 550nm wavelength has been used as the optical source for the fiber. The change in the output power of the external light was monitored and changes were observed for each concentration of the concentrations around the fiber. It has been found that the fiber is sensitive to small changes in concentrations. The absorption of the fiber has been calculated for the incoming capacity, as well as the losses in the capacity outside the fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0225.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chemosensors; CN− selective sensor; test strip sensor
Online: 27 March 2018 (12:13:34 CEST)
4-(thiazol-2-yldiazenyl)phenol (L1) and 2-((4-hydroxyphenyl) diazenyl)-5-nitrophenol (L2) based on azo phenol were synthesised and used as selective colorimetric sensor for CN- and AcO− ion in DMSO/H2O-HEPES (v/v; 1:1, pH–7.3 ± 0.2) and showed good sensitivity with large red shifts and nanomolar detection limit for CN- and AcO- ion. The stoichiometry of L1 with CN−/AcO− ion was found to be 1:1 and L2 with CN−/AcO− ion was found to be 1:2. Binding constant for L1+ CN−, L1 + AcO−, L2 + CN− and L2 + AcO− were calculated by B-H plot as 1.6 × 103, 8.0 × 102, 8.4 × 103 and 1.7 × 102 respectively. L2 showed high selectivity towards CN− ion with low detection limit of 81 nM and large binding constant. In addition, 1H NMR titration and DFT studies also supported the deprotonation mechanism of receptors in the presence of selective anions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0168.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: phosphor; optical sensor; temperature sensor; manganese, luminescence
Online: 18 January 2018 (05:37:15 CET)
Phosphors based on magnesium titanate activated with Mn4+ ions are of great interest because, when excited with blue light, they display a strong red-emitting luminescence. They are characterized by a luminescence decay which is strongly temperature dependent in the range from 0 to 80 °C, making these materials very promising for temperature sensing in the biochemical field. In this work the optical and thermal properties of the luminescence of Mg2TiO4 are investigated for different Mn4+ doping concentrations. The potential of this material for temperature sensing is demonstrated by fabricating a fiber optic temperature microsensor and by comparing its performance against a standard resistance thermometer. The response of the fiber optic sensor is exceptionally fast, enabling monitoring of temperature fluctuation in subsecond time domain.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: temperature sensor; fiber optic sensor; photonic sensor; atomic layer deposition; microsphere; temperature; ZnO
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:24:14 CET)
This study presents of the microsphere-based fiber-optic sensor with the ZnO ALD coating thickness of 100 nm and 200 nm for temperature measurements. Metrological properties of the sensor were investigated over the temperature range of 100°C to 300°C, with a 10°C step. The interferometric signal is used to control whether the microstructure is intact. Spectrum shift of a reflected signal is used to conclude changes in measured parameter for the sensor with a 100 nm coating, while the reflected signal intensity is an indicator during measurements executed by a sensor with a 200 nm coating. With changing temperature, the peak position or intensity of a reflected signal also changes. The R2 coefficient of the presented sensors indicates a linear fit of over 0.99 to the obtained data. The sensitivity of the sensors, investigated in this study, equals 103.5 nW/°C and 0.019 nm/°C for ZnO thickness of 200 nm and 100 nm, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0553.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: optical fiber sensor; Fabry-Perot interferometer; strain sensor
Online: 30 August 2021 (16:31:35 CEST)
Fabry-Perot air chamber was constructed at the melting point (splicing location) of two single-mode fibers by glycerin assisted self-expansion method. The morphology of the Fabry-Perot air chamber was fabricated and optimized by modulating the splicing parameters (drawing process, discharging location, time and intensity) and the fibers’ end-face (plane or arc). The in-line or reflected Fabry-Perot cavities have been applied to determine the tensile strain in the range of 0-1.2 N. The train sensing performance of the spherical shaped FP cavity has been experimentally demonstrated with the best sensitivity of 3.628 nm/N, corresponding to the resolution of ~0.005 N. The proposed FP fiber sensor has the advantages of low cost, fast fabrication and easy-integration with the common fiber system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0336.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: AYUMI EYE; acceleration sensor; gait analysis; optical sensor
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:22:52 CET)
AYUMI EYE is an accelerometer-based gait analysis device that measures the 3D accelerations of the human trunk. This study investigated the measurement accuracy of the AYUMI EYE as hardware as well as the accuracy of the gait cycle extraction program via simultaneous measurements using AYUMI EYE, a ground reaction force (GRF), and an optical motion capture system called VICON. The study was conducted with four healthy individuals as participants. The gait data were obtained by simulating four different patterns for three trials each: normal walking, anterior-tilt walking, hemiplegic walking, and shuffling walking. The AYUMI EYE and VICON showed good agreement for both the acceleration and displacement data. The durations of subsequent stride cycles calculated using the AYUMI EYE and GRF were in good agreement based on the calculated cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) with an r value of 0.896 and p-value less than 0.05, and their accuracies for these results were sufficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1930.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: sensing solution; thermal sensor; Radar sensor; sensor fusion; data mining; in-home; machine learning
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:06:06 CEST)
Sensor fusion algorithms and models have been widely used in recent times. Although research evidence has informed the use of sensor fusion models in diverse applications, there is room for improvement, especially in home-based health monitoring applications which require less supervision and technical knowledge of users. The present work compares data mining-based fusion software packages such as RapidMiner Studio, Anaconda, Weka, and Orange, and proposes a data fusion framework suitable for in-home applications. 574 privacy-friendly (binary) images and 1,722 datasets gleaned from thermal and Radar sensing solutions respectively, were fused using the software packages on instances of homogeneous and heterogeneous data aggregation. Experimental results indicated that the proposed fusion framework achieved an average Classification Accuracy of 84.7% and 95.7% on homogeneous and heterogeneous datasets respectively, with the help of data mining and machine learning models such as Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree, Neural Network, Random Forest, Stochastic Gradient Descent, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbours and CN2 induction. Further evaluation of the sensor data fusion framework based on cross validation of features indicated average values of 94.4% for Classification Accuracy, 95.7% Precision and 96.4% for Recall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air flow medical sensor; emergency air flow sensor; low-cost air flow sensor; COVID-19
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:14:23 CET)
Mechanical ventilation systems, which are used for breathing support when a person is not able to do it by their own, requires a device for measuring the air flow to the patient in order to monitoring and a assure the magnitude establish by a medical staff. Flow sensors are the conventional devices used for the air flow measuring; however, there were not available in Peru, because of the international demand during COVID-19 pandemic. In this sense, a novel air flow sensor based on orifice plate and an intelligent transducer stage were developed as an integrated design. Advanced methodologies in simulations and experiments using specially designed equipment for this application were carried out. The obtained data was used for a mathematical characterization and dimensions validation of the integrated design. The device was tested in its real working conditions, it was implemented in a breathing circuit connected to a low-cost mechanical ventilation system based on cams. Results indicate that the designed air flow sensor/transducer is a low-cost complete medical device for mechanical ventilators able to provide satisfactorily all the ventilation parameters air flow, pressure and volume over time by measuring the air flow and calculating the others. Furthermore, this device provides directly a filtered equivalent electrical signal for a display or a computer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wearable system; strain sensor; bending; soft tactile sensor; textile; capacitive sensor; exoskeleton; human motion monitoring
Online: 5 September 2017 (03:44:27 CEST)
Detection of human movement requires lightweight, flexible systems to detect mechanical parameters (like strain and pressure) not interfering with user activity, and that he/she can wear comfortably. In this work we address such multifaceted challenge with the development of smart garments for lower limb motion detection, like a textile kneepad and anklet in which soft sensors and readout electronics are embedded for detecting movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed at knee and ankle. They show an excellent behavior in the ~30% strain range, hence the correlation between their responses and the optically tracked Euler angles is allowed for basic lower limb movements. Bending during knee flexion/extension is detected, and it is discriminated from any external contact by implementing in real time a low computational algorithm. The smart anklet is designed to address joint motion detection in and off the sagittal plane. In this work, ankle dorsi/plantar flexion, adduction/abduction, and rotation are retrieved. Both smart garments show a high accuracy in movement detection, with a RMSE less than 4° in the worst case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0064.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Through glass via; MEMS sensors; Sensor manufacturing; Sensor packaging
Online: 1 December 2023 (10:12:12 CET)
Glass has emerged as a highly versatile substrate for various sensor and MEMS packaging applications, including electromechanical, thermal, optical, biomedical, and RF devices, due to its exceptional properties such as high geometrical tolerances, outstanding heat and chemical resistance, excellent high-frequency electrical properties, and the ability to be hermetically sealed. In these applications, Through-Glass-Via (TGV) plays a vital role in manufacturing and packaging by creating electrical interconnections through glass substrates. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the research progress in TGV fabrication along with their integrations, including through-via formation and metallization. The paper also reviews the significant qualification and reliability achievements obtained by the scientific community for TGV. Additionally, the paper summarizes the application of TGV technology in various sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1977.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: molybdenum disulfide; electrochemical sensor; optical sensor; cancer biomarkers; detection
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:31:12 CEST)
Cancer is a common illness with a high mortality. Compared to traditional technologies, biomarkers detection, with low cost and simple operation, has higher sensitivity and faster speed in early screening and prognosis of cancer. Therefore, extensive research has been focused on the development of biosensors and the construction of sensing interfaces. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, whose unique adjustable bandgap shows excellent electronic and optical properties in the construction of biosensor interfaces. It not only has the advantages of high catalytic activity and low manufacturing costs, but also can further expand the application of hybrid structures by different functionalization, and is widely used in various biosensors fields. Herein, the application of electrochemical and optical sensing platforms based on MoS2 in the detection of cancer biomarkers was comprehensively reviewed. Firstly, the structure and preparation method of MoS2 were introduced, and its applicable characteristics in the field of biosensors were explored. Secondly, we comprehensively reviewed the recent construction and application of sensing platform based on MoS2 in the field of cancer biomarkers detection in both electrochemical and optical aspects. The prime characteristics and application performances of MoS2 and its composites were emphasized. Additionally, we also involved some other types of biosensors based on MoS2. Finally, we summarized the challenges and development prospects of MoS2 in the application of cancer biomarkers detection, and provided some insights for the application potential of this kind of emerging nano-materials in a broader field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Smart Sensor; Sensing System; Wearable Sensor; Health Monitoring; Encryption
Online: 2 June 2023 (02:36:36 CEST)
Programmable Object Interfaces are increasingly intriguing researchers because of their broader applications, especially in the medical field. In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), for example, the patients’ health can be monitored using clinical nano sensors. Exchanging such sensitive data requires a high level of security and protection against attacks. To that end, the literature is rich with security schemes that include the advanced encryption standard, secure hashing algorithm, and digital signatures that aim to secure the data exchange. However, such schemes elevate the time complexity rendering the data transmission slower. Cognitive Radio technology with a medical body area network system involves communication links between WBAN gateways, server and nano sensors rendering the entire system vulnerable to security attacks. In this paper, a novel DNA-based encryption technique is proposed to secure medical data sharing between sensing devices and central repositories. It has less computational time throughout authentication, encryption, and decryption. Our analysis of experimental attack scenarios shows that our technique is better than its counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0333.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Unobtrusive Sensing; Radar sensor; Thermal Sensor; Localisation; Home Environment.
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:13:28 CEST)
This paper proposes the localisation of room occupants in home environments using Unobtrusive Sensing Solutions (USSs). The ability to localise room occupants in home environments can help in the objective monitoring of sedentary behaviour. While wearable sensors can provide tangible information on health and wellness, they have battery life issues and the inability to perform prolonged monitoring. This work uses heterogeneous USSs in the form of an Infrared Thermopile Array (ITA-64) thermal sensor and a Multi-Chirp Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Mono-pulse (MC-FMCW-M) Radar sensor to monitor room occupants. Digital filters and background subtraction algorithms were used to process the thermal images gleaned from the ITA-64 thermal sensors. The MC-FMCW-M Radar sensor used multi-chirp and Doppler shift principles to estimate the exact location of the targeted room occupants. The estimated distances from the Radar Sensor were compared with ground truth values. Experimental results demonstrated the ability to identify thermal blobs of occupants present in the room at any particular time. Data analyses indicated no significant difference (p = 0.975) and a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.998) between the ground truth distance values and those obtained from the Radar Sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: active crop canopy sensor; plant height; canopy temperature; sensor integration
Online: 19 October 2022 (04:02:29 CEST)
About a decade ago, active optical crop canopy sensors are being used to manage in-season variable nitrogen (N) fertilization in cornfields to match the plant demand that occurs mid season, increasing the efficiency compared to broadcast N applications. There were also initiatives of using ultrasonic sensors to measure plant height on-the-go for N application and crop water demand estimation, but no studies have integrated the optical, ultrasonic and canopy temperature for crop water stress assessment. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the crop water status using infrared thermometry integrated with optical and ultrasonic sensors. Specifics objectives are: (i) evaluate the corn canopy temperature under different previous crop, N rates and irrigation levels; (ii) test a procedure for water stress assessment in commercial cornfields using the integration of sensors, (iii) correlate plant based sensor measurements (N status, plant height and canopy temperature) with grain yield, soil attributes and detailed topographical features, and (iv) study the spatial dependence of canopy temperature. This study was conducted in one small plot study area and on three producer’s fields in 2010. The small plot experiment consisted of two irrigation levels (70 and 100% of evapotranspiration – ET), two previous crop schemes (corn after corn – CC and corn after soybeans – CS), and four N rates (0, 75, 150, 225 kg N ha-1). Canopy temperature, optical reflectance and plant height was measured from R2 until R6 in the small plots. At the producer’s fields, three long strips across center pivots were used to have a non-limited N and water crop and then continuous georeferenced sensors measurements were taken during side-dress (V11 growth stage) in about 10 hectares in each field. In the small plot study the crop canopy temperature was influenced by the irrigation levels and N rates. The procedure proposed could be used to identify zones in the producer’s field where water stress can be a yield limiting factor other than N derived. Inside the zones considered that water stress played a major whole, there were low correlations between plant height, plant N status and canopy temperature, indicating that the canopy temperature had more influence from water stress than vegetation cover. Concave and lower elevation areas had higher yields compared to convex and high elevation, showing that the detailed elevation mapping can be beneficial to delineate stables zones that possibly could be used in variable irrigation systems. The spatial dependence of canopy temperature was over 65 meters across producers’ sites, showing that the commercial high clearance applicator’s swath width was adequate to obtain accurate maps. The integration of plant N status, plant height and canopy temperature was beneficial to detect water stressed zones in the field. Opportunities can be foresee also for on-the-go N fertilization using integration of these sensors because is likely that water stress can be confounded with different N supply during the growing season and in different zones in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart light control; microcontroller; light sensor; motion sensor; energy saving
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:50:31 CEST)
In this work, an energy-saving smart light controlling system has been proposed that can main-tain the desired intensity of light in a room automatically. Unlike the conventional light control system, the proposed system splits a large room into several zones and analyzes the light inten-sity of each zone; hence, the controlling unit adjusts the light intensity to the desired level. The main controlling unit consists of a light sensor, a motion sensor, a relay with a driver unit, an LCD display, etc. for controlling light efficiently to reduce the power waste. The sensors meas-ure the intensity of light, based on the standard light intensity data chart the controller units make a decision how many light bulbs are needed to be switched ON/OFF in a particular zone. Moreover, the system automatically switched-OFF all light bulbs when there is nobody in the room. Proteus design suite 8.0 is used to design and simulation of the proposed system. Moreo-ver, the PCB layout is designed using ExpressPCB version 7.5.0. The proposed system is capable of minimizing the power loss by up to 44% in comparison to the conventional light manage-ment system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Arduino; Bluetooth; load cell; monitoring system; temperature sensor; weight sensor
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:27:36 CET)
: This paper presents a couple of meal monitoring systems for senile dementia patients by using electronic weight and temperature sensors. These monitoring systems enable to convey the information of the amount of meal taken by the patients in real-time via wireless communication networks onto the mobile phones of their families or nurses in charge. Thereby, the nurses can easily spot the most desperate patient to take care of while the families can have relief to see the crucial information for survival of their parents at least three times a day. Meanwhile, the senile dementia patients tend to suffer the burn of their tongues because they can hardly recognize the temperature of hot meals served and therefore avoid the burn of tongues. This phenomenon can be discarded by utilizing the meal temperature monitoring system which displays alarm to the patients when the meal temperature is above the reference. These meal monitoring systems can be easily implemented by utilizing low-cost sensor chips and Arduino UNO boards so that elder-care hospitals and nursing homes can afford to exploit them with no additional cost. Hence, we believe that the proposed monitoring systems would be a potential solution to provide a great help and relief not only for the professional nursing nurses working in elder-care hospitals and nursing homes, but also for the families of the dementia patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0326.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GEO label; serverless; semantic sensor web; discovery; visualisation; sensor web
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:06:39 CEST)
As the amount of sensor data made available online increases, it becomes more difficult for users to identify useful datasets. Semantic web technologies improve discovery with meaningful ontologies, but the decision of suitability remains with the users. The GEO label provides a visual summary of the standardised metadata to aid users in this process. This work presents novel rules for deriving the information for the GEO label's multiple facets, such as user feedback or quality information, based on the Semantic Sensor Network Ontology and related ontologies. It enhances an existing implementation of the GEO label API to generate labels for resources of the Semantic Sensor Web. The prototype is deployed to serverless cloud infrastructures. We find that serverless GEO label generation is capable of handling two evaluation scenarios for concurrent users and burst generation. More real-world semantic sensor descriptions and an integration into large scale discovery platforms are needed to develop the presented solutions further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: underwater range sensor; underwater localization; sensor network; received signal strength
Online: 31 July 2018 (06:26:03 CEST)
In this paper analyses the characteristic of EM waves propagation in structured environment to identify the signal interference by the structure, and suggests the EM waves attenuation model considering the distance and penetration loss by the structure. The range sensor based on electromagnetic(EM) waves attenuation along to the distance showed the precise distance estimation with high resolution depending on the distance. However, it is hard to use in structured environments due to the lack of consideration of the EM waves attenuation characteristics in the structured underwater environment. In this paper, EM waves propagation characteristic and signal interference effects by the structures were analyzed, and the EM waves distance-attenuation model in structured environment was suggested with sensor installation guideline. The EM waves propagation characteristics and proposed sensor model were verified by the several experiments, and the localization result in structured environment showed the more reliable performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high-temperature sensor; inductive sensor; blade tip timing; blade health monitoring
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:04:14 CEST)
Magnetic sensors are widely used in health management systems for turbomachinery, but their applications in the hot zone are limited due to the loss of magnetic properties by permanent magnets with increasing temperature. The paper presents and verifies models and design solutions aimed at improving the performance of an inductive sensor for measuring the motion of rotating objects operating at elevated temperatures (200-1000C), such as compressor and turbine blades. Physical, analog and mathematical models of the interaction of blades with the sensor were developed. A prototype of the sensor was made and its tests were carried out on the RK-4 rotor rig for the speed of 7000 rpm, in which the temperature of the sensor head was gradually increased to 1100C. The sensor signal level was compared to that of an identical sensor operating at room temperature. The heated sensor works continuously producing the output signal whose level does not change significantly. What is more, a set of six probes passed an initial engine test in an SO-3 turbojet. It was confirmed that the proposed design of the inductive sensor is suitable for blade health monitoring of the last stages of compressors, steam turbines as well as previous generation gas turbines operating below 1000C, even without a dedicated cooling system. In real-engine applications, sensor performance will depend on how the sensor is installed and the available heat dissipation capability
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Tracking; Magnetic tracker; Magnetoresistor; Magnetic Sensor; Sensor Array; Microcontroller; Eye Motion
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:59:20 CET)
We present the hardware of a cheap multi-sensor magnetometric setup, where a relatively large set of magnetic field components is measured in several positions by calibrated magnetoresistive detectors. The setup is developed to map the (inhomogeneous) field generated by a known magnetic source, which is measured and then discerned from the background (homogeneous) geomagnetic field. The data output from this hardware can be successfully and reliably used to retrieve the position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame, together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. Possible applications of the setup are briefly discussed, and a synthetic description of the methods of data elaboration and analysis is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: P3HT; PEDOT:PSS; flexible sensor; strain sensor; photoactive self-sensing thin films
Online: 10 September 2018 (07:53:44 CEST)
In this study, a flexible strain sensor is devised using corrugated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film. In the previous studies, the P3HT-based photoactive thin film was shown to generate direct current (DC) under broadband light, and the generated DC voltage varied with applied tensile strain. Yet, the mechanical resiliency and strain sensing range of the P3HT-based thin film strain sensor were limited due to relatively more brittle thin film constituent—poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene(sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive thin film as a bottom electrode. To address this issue, it is aimed to design mechanically resilient strain sensor using corrugated thin film constituents. Buckling is induced to form corrugation in the thin films by applying pre-strain to the substrate, where the thin films are deposited, and releasing the pre-strain afterwards. It is known that corrugated thin film constituents exhibit different optical and electronic properties from non-corrugated ones. Therefore, to optimize design of the flexible strain sensor, it was studied to understand how the applied pre-strain and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS thin film affect the optical and electrical properties. Also, pre-strain effect on light absorptivity of the corrugated P3HT-based thin films was studied. In addition, strain effect was investigated on the optical and electrical properties of the corrugated thin film constituents. Finally, flexible strain sensors are fabricated by following the design guideline, which is suggested from the studies on the corrugated thin film constituents, and DC voltage strain sensing capability was validated. As a result, flexible strain sensor exhibited tensile strain sensing range up to 5% at frequency up to 15 Hz with maximum gage factor ~7.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0067.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: people; counting; thermal; sensor
Online: 8 January 2020 (08:35:48 CET)
People counting applications have been used in diverse applications. The ability and accuracy of thermal imaging over conventional image cameras has led to the implementation of thermal cameras in people counting applications. This paper present a thermal people counting smart glass windows. The people counting application would be remotely monitored from a single centralized PC station as it’s connected to a multiplex of mass monitoring of 20 thermal camera, all embedded into different glass windows. The thermal cameras would then be able to detect body temperatures of all individuals who pass through any of the camera range and also count the numbers of people who passed through the camera range. The data gotten can then be further utilized in various ways, example is in the control of air conditioning and lightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwaves, microfluidic, sensor, LTCC
Online: 4 January 2019 (09:00:27 CET)
This paper compares two types of microfluidic sensors that are designed for operation in ISM bands at microwave frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. In the case of the first sensor, the principle of operation is based on the resonance phenomenon in a microwave circuit filled with a test sample. The second sensor is based on the interferometric principle and makes use of the superposition of two coherent microwave signals, where only one of them goes through a test sample. Both sensors are monolithic structures fabricated using low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). The LTCC-based microwave-microfluidic sensor properties are examined and compared by measuring their responses for various concentrations of two types of test fluids: one is a mixture of water/ethanol, and the other is dopamine dissolved in a buffer solution. The experiments show a linear response for the LTCC-based microwave-microfluidic sensors as a function of the concentration of the components in both test fluids.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1780.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible touch sensor; biomimetics; bio‐inspired material; bio‐inspired structure; bioinspired sensor
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:56:58 CEST)
Wearable touch sensors, which can convert force or pressure signals into quantitative electronic signals, have emerged as an essential smart sensing devices and played an important role in various cutting-edge fields, including wearable health monitoring, soft robots, electronic skin, artificial prosthetics, AR/VR, and the Internet of Things. Flexible touch sensors have made significant advancements, while construction of novel touch sensors via mimicking the unique properties of biological materials and biogenetic structures always remains a hot research topic and significant technological pathway. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the research status of wearable touch sensors constructed by imitating the material and structural characteristics in nature, and also summarizes the scientific challenges and development tendency of this aspect. Firstly, the research status for constructing flexible touch sensors based on biomimetic materials is summarized, including hydrogel materials, self-healing materials, and other bioinspired or biomimetic materials with extraordinary properties. Then, design and fabrication of flexible touch sensors based on bionic structures for performance enhancement are fully discussed. These bionic structures include special structures in plants, special structures insects/animal, and special structures in human body. Moreover, a summary of the current issues and future prospects for developing wearable sensors based on bioinspired materials and structures is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1818.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: olfactory receptor; odor sensor; cell array sensor; odor matrix; odor matrix library
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:38:05 CEST)
Among the five human senses, light, sound, and force perceived by eye, ear, and skin, respectively are physical actions, and therefore can be easily measured and expressed as objective, univocal, and simple digital data with physical quantity. However, taste and odor molecules perceived by tongue and nose are chemical actions, it has been difficult to express them as objective and univocal digital data, since no reference chemicals can be defined. Therefore, while the recording, saving, transmitting to remote locations, and replaying human visual, auditory, and tactile information as digital data in digital devices has been realized (this series of data flow is defined as DX (digital transformation) in this review), the DX of human taste and odor information is not yet in the realization stage. Particularly, since there are at least 400,000 types of odor molecules and an infinite number of complex odors that are mixtures of these molecules, it has been considered extremely difficult to realize "human olfactory DX" by converting all odors perceived by the human olfaction into digital data. In this review, we discuss the current status and future prospects of the development of "human olfactory DX," which we believe can be realized by utilizing odor sensors that employ the olfactory receptors (ORs) that support human olfaction as sensing molecules (i.e., human OR sensor).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sensor fusion; sensor noise; optimization; feedback; real-time optimization; velocity-based controller
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:27:25 CET)
Classical and optimal control architectures for motion mechanics with fusion of noisy sensors use different algorithms and calculations to perform and control any number of physical demands, to varying degrees of accuracy, precision, and cost. Their performances are tested for the purpose of comparison through the means of a Monte Carlo simulation that simulates how different parameters might vary under noise, representing real-world imperfect sensors. We find that improvements in one figure of merit often come at a cost in the performance in the others, especially depending on the presence of noise in the system sensors. If sensor noise is negligible, open-loop optimal control performs the best. However, in the overpowering presence of sensor noise, using a control law inversion patching filter performs as the best replacement, but has significant computational strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor arrays; geotechnical sensors; solderless connectors; wireless sensor networks; deformation monitoring; accelerometer
Online: 17 March 2022 (07:11:47 CET)
Landslides are a global and frequent natural hazard, affecting many communities and infrastructure networks. Technological solutions are needed for long-term, large-scale condition monitoring of infrastructure earthworks, or natural slopes. However, current instruments for slope stability monitoring are often costly, require a complex installation process and/or data processing schemes, or have poor resolution. Wireless sensor networks comprising low-power, low-cost sensors have been shown to be a crucial part of landslide early warning systems. Here, we present the development of a novel sensing approach that uses linear arrays of three-axis accelerometers, used for monitoring soil deformation. By combining these deformation measurements with depth-resolved temperature measurements, we can link our data to subsurface thermal-hydrological regimes where relevant. In this research, we present a configuration of cascaded I2C sensors that (i) have ultra-low power consumption and (ii) enable an adjustable probe length. From an electromechanical perspective, we developed a novel board-to-board connection method that enables narrow, semi-flexible sensor arrays and a streamlined assembly process. The low-cost connection method relies on a specific FR4 printed circuit board design that allows board-to-board press-fitting without using electromechanical components or solder connections. The sensor assembly is placed in a thin, semi-flexible tube (inner diameter 6.35 mm) that is filled with an epoxy compound. The resulting sensor probe is connected to a AA battery powered data logger with wireless connectivity. We characterize the system's electromechanical properties and investigate the accuracy of deformation measurements. Our experiments performed with probes up to 1.8 m long demonstrate long-term connector stability, as well as probe mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, our accuracy analysis indicates that deformation measurements can be performed with a 0.390 mm resolution and a 95% confidence interval of ±0.73 mm per meter of probe length. This research shows the suitability of low-cost accelerometer arrays for distributed soil stability monitoring. In comparison to emerging low-cost measurements of surface displacement, our approach provides depth-resolved deformation, which can inform about shallow sliding surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metal oxide; gas sensor; resistive sensor; single nanowire; fish spoilage; food freshness
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:56:33 CEST)
The response of a single tin oxide nanowire was collected at different temperatures to create a virtual array of sensors working as a nano-electronic nose. The single nanowire, acting as a chemiresistor, was first tested with pure ammonia and then used to determine the freshness status of trout fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a rapid and non-invasive way. The gas sensor reacts to total volatile basic nitrogen, detecting the freshness status of the fish samples in less than 30 seconds. The sensor response at different temperatures correlates well with the total viable count (TVC), demonstrating that it is a good (albeit indirect) way of measuring the bacterial population in the sample. The nano-electronic nose is able to classify the samples according to their degree of freshness, but also to quantitatively estimate the concentration of microorganisms present. The system was tested with samples stored at different temperatures, managing to classify them perfectly (100%) and estimating their log(TVC) with an error lower than 5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: bragg grating sensor; auxetic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:08:12 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures. The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding. Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethane string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Bragg grating sensor; auxtic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:01:16 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures.The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding.Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethan string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0477.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: optical frequency domain reflectometry; distributed sensor; temperature sensor; tunable laser; coated fiber
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:41:37 CEST)
We present a distributed optical-fiber temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on an Al-coated fiber using the Rayleigh backscattering spectra (RBS) shift in optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). The Al-coated sensing fiber with a higher thermal expansion coefficient compared to silica produces a strain-coupled shift in the RBS under an increase in temperature. This effect leads to an enhanced temperature sensitivity of the distributed measurement scheme. Our results revealed that the temperature sensitivity obtained using the Al-coated fiber in OFDR was ~56% higher relative to that of a single-mode fiber. Moreover, the minimum measurable temperature recorded was 1 °C with a spatial resolution of 5 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0293.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Sensor research; Sensor technology; Network analysis; Technological trajectories; Technological change; Scientific change; Scientific development; Wireless sensor networks; Fiber optic sensors; Biosensors
Online: 5 October 2022 (15:28:11 CEST)
How do sensor research and technologies grow over time? This paper applies the network analysis with a new computational approach to map the structure and evolution of sensor research and technologies over a 30-year time frame (1990-2020).The goal of this study is to analyze the evolution of sensor research for forecasting emerging scientific and technological trajectories. Results show that the scientific interaction within ecosystem (represented with networks) of sensor generates a co-evolution of scientific fields supporting the accelerated growth of different technological tra-jectories, such as: wireless sensors, fiber optic and optical sensors, gas sensors and biosensors. These results suggest main theoretical implications that explain the evolution of sensor research with critical aspects of innovation management to support R&D investments towards new technological trajectories having a high potential of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0467.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: Flexible gas sensor, SWCNT-PPy composite, Acetone gas sensor, Polyimide substrate, Room temperature
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:50:27 CEST)
A nanocomposite rod-shaped structure with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) embedded in polypyrrole (PPy) doped with nonafluorobutanesulfonic acid (C4F), SWCNT/C4F-PPy, was synthesized using emulsion polymerization. The hybrid ink was then directly coated on a polyimide film interdigitated with the Cu/Ni/Au electrodes via a screen-printing technique to create a flexible film sensor. The sensor film showed a response of 1.72% at 25 °C/atmospheric pressure when acetone gas of 5 ppm was injected, which corresponds to almost 95% compared to the Si wafer-based array interdigitated with the Au electrode. Additionally, C4F was used as a hydrophobic dopant of PPy to improve the stability of humidity and to produce a highly sensitive film-type gas sensor that provides stable detection even in humid conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1376.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: multimodal sensors; autonomous driving; dataset collection framework; sensor calibration and synchronization; sensor fusion
Online: 29 June 2023 (08:32:46 CEST)
Autonomous driving vehicles rely on sensors for the robust perception of surroundings. Such vehicles are equipped with multiple perceptive sensors with a high level of redundancy to ensure safety and reliability in any driving condition. However, multi-sensor, such as camera, LiDAR and radar, systems bring up the requirements related to sensor calibration and synchronization, which are the fundamental blocks of any autonomous system. On the other hand, sensor fusion and integration have become important aspects of autonomous driving research and directly determine the efficiency and accuracy of advanced functions such as object detection and path planning. Classical model-based estimation and data-driven models are two mainstream approaches to achieving such integration. Most recent research is shifting to the latter, showing high robustness in real-world applications but requiring large quantities of data to be collected, synchronized, and properly categorized. To generalize the implementation of the multi-sensor perceptive system, we introduce an end-to-end generic sensor dataset collection framework that includes both hardware deploying solutions and sensor fusion algorithms. The framework prototype integrates a diverse set of sensors, such as cameras, LiDAR, and radar. Furthermore, we present a universal toolbox to calibrate and synchronize three types of sensors based on their characteristics. The framework also includes the fusion algorithms, which utilize the merits of three sensors , namely, camera, LiDAR and radar, and fuse their sensory information in a manner that is helpful for object detection and tracking research. The generality of this framework makes it applicable in any robotic or autonomous applications, also suitable for quick and large-scale practical deployment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0028.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: gas sensor; hydrogen sensor; diode laser; TDLAS; WMS; absorption spectroscopy; laser spectroscopy; hydrogen
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:21:16 CET)
A laser-based hydrogen (H2) sensor using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) was developed for contactless measurements of molecular hydrogen. The sensor uses a distributed feedback (DFB) laser to target the H2 quadrupole absorption line at 2121.8 nm. The H2 absorption line exhibits weak collisional broadening and strong collisional narrowing effects. Both effects were investigated by comparing measurements of the absorption linewidth with detailed models using different line profiles that include collisional narrowing effects. The collisional broadening and narrowing parameters were determined for pure hydrogen as well as for hydrogen in nitrogen and air. Performance of the sensor was evaluated and the sensor applicability for H2 measurements in a range of 0- 10 %v of H2 was demonstrated. A precision of 0.02 %v was achieved with 1 meter of absorption pathlength (0.02 %v∙m) and 1 s of integration time. For the optimum averaging time of 20 s a precision of 0.005 %v∙m was achieved. A good linear relationship between H2 concentration and the sensor response was observed. A simple and robust transmitter-receiver configuration of the sensor allows in-situ installations in harsh industrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0351.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: electrochemical sensor; inhibition bacteria sensor array; immobilization of bacteria; water pollution; pattern recognition
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:51:41 CEST)
The development of a novel and simple inhibition biosensor array for detection of water pollutants based on immobilized bacteria is the main goal of this work. A series of electrochemical measurements (i.e. cyclic voltammograms) were carried out on screen-printed gold electrodes with three types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, and Methylococcus capsulatus, immobilized via poly L-lysine. For comparison purposes, similar measurements were carried out on bacteria samples in solutions,; also optical measurements (fluorescence microscopy, optical density, and flow cytometry) were performed on the same bacteria in both liquid and immobilized forms. The study of the effect of heavy metal ions (lead), pesticides (atrazine) and petrochemicals (hexane) on DC electrochemical characteristics of immobilized bacteria revealed a possibility of pattern recognition of the above inhibition agents in aquatic environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1462.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Sign Language Recognition; sensor fusion
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:33:08 CEST)
Sign language recognition is essential in hearing-impaired people’s communication. Sign language recognition is an important concern in computer vision and has been developed with rapid progress in image recognition technology. However, sign language recognition using a general monocular camera has problems with occlusion and recognition accuracy in sign language recognition. In this research, we aim to improve accuracy by using a 2-axis bending sensor as an aid in addition to image recognition. We aim to achieve higher recognition accuracy by acquiring hand keypoint information of sign language actions captured by a monocular RGB camera and adding sensor assist. To improve sign language recognition, we need to propose new AI models. In addition, the amount of dataset is small because it uses the original data set of our laboratory. To learn using sensor data and image data, we used MediaPipe, CNN, and BiLSTM to perform sign language recognition. MediaPipe is a method for estimating the skeleton of the hand and face provided by Google. In addition, CNN is a method that can learn spatial information, and BiLSTM can learn time series data. Combining the CNN and BiLSTM methods yields higher recognition accuracy. We will use these techniques to learn hand skeletal information and sensor data. Additionally, the 2-axis Bending sensor glove data support training AI model. Using these methods, we aim to improve the recognition accuracy of sign language recognition by combining sensor data and hand skeleton data. Our method performed better than using skeletal information, achieving 96.5% accuracy in Top-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0410.v2
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:36:30 CET)
Over the last two decades, microfluidics has received significant attention from both academia and industry, and researchers report thousands of new prototype devices each year for use in a broad range of environmental, pharmaceutical, and biomedical engineering applications. While lab-on-a-chip fabrication costs have continued to decrease, the hardware required for monitoring fluid flows within microfluidic devices themselves remains expensive and often cost prohibitive for researchers interested in starting a microfluidics project. As microfluidic devices become capable of handling complex fluidic systems, low-cost, precise and real time pressure and flow rate measurement capabilities has become increasingly important. While many labs use commercial platforms and sensor, these solutions can often cost thousands of dollars and can be too bulky for on-chip use. Here we present a new inexpensive and easy -to-use piezoresistive pressure and flow sensor that can be easily integrated into existing on-chip microfluidic channels. The sensor consists of PDMS-Carbon black conductive membranes and uses an impedance analyzer to measure impedance change due fluid pressure. The sensor costs several orders of magnitude less than existing commercial platforms and can monitor local fluid pressures and calculate flow rates based on pressure gradient.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0497.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Landmines, Electromagnetic sensor, UAV tracker
Online: 26 July 2018 (03:21:24 CEST)
The objective of this paper is to present an electromagnetic sensor that generates pulse inductance , integrated on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) which complements the current technology in this area, adding equipment to the detection of landmines. The electromagnetic sensor developed, locates landmines deployed during armed conflicts, which daily kill innocent people, block economic and social development, hinder the displacement of people, causing serious social and economic problems for many years. Flights can be made over mined areas allowing the identification of the exact location of each land mine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1020.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: magnetic field sensor; current sensor; temperature independent measuremenents; polarimetry; fibre optic sensors; spectral interrogation
Online: 17 October 2023 (07:00:43 CEST)
We report on the study of the temperature dependence of the response of a BSO crystal based polarimetric current sensor with spectral interrogation. Two possible interrogation schemes are discussed. The spectral dependence of the optical rotation along the crystal caused by temperature and current changes has been investigated and approximate dependences for the sensitivities to current SI and temperature ST have been derived. A mixed term in the response with spectral interrogation has been revealed, the elimination of which is done by tracking wavelength shifts of two distinct extrema in the polarimetric response. A temperature independent second degree equation for the current changes as a function of the spectral shifts has been derived and tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2000.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Non-enzymatic Detection; Laser-scribed Graphene; Gold Nanostructures; Neutral medium; Disposable sensor; Glucose sensor
Online: 29 May 2023 (08:54:03 CEST)
The authors present a novel sensing platform for a disposable electrochemical, non-enzymatic glucose sensor strip at physiological pH. The sensing material is based on dendritic gold nanostructures (AuNs) resembling feather branches, which are electrodeposited onto a Laser-scribed 3D-Graphene electrode (LSGE). The LSGEs were fabricated via a one-step laser scribing process on a commercially available polyimide sheet. This study investigates several parameters that influence the morphology of the deposited Au nanostructures and the catalytic activity towards glucose electro-oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of AuNs-LSGE was evaluated using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV), and Amperometry, and was compared to commercially available carbon electrodes prepared under the same electrodeposition conditions. The sensor demonstrated good stability and high selectivity of the amperometric response in the presence of interfering agents, such as ascorbic acid, when a Nafion membrane was applied over the electrode surface. The proposed sensing strategy offers a wide linear detection range, from 0.5 to 20 mM, which covers normal and elevated levels of glucose in the blood, with a detection limit of 0.21 mM. The AuNs-LSGE platform exhibits great potential for use as a disposable glucose sensor strip for point-of-care applications, including self-monitoring and food management. Its non-enzymatic features reduce dependence on enzymes, making it suitable for practical and cost-effective biosensing solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0443.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Eye Tracking; Magnetic tracker; Magnetic Sensor; Sensor Array; eye motion; Donders' Law; Listing's law
Online: 8 December 2022 (11:02:26 CET)
We analyze the information that can be retrieved from the tracking parameters produced by an innovative wearable eye tracker. The latter is based on a permanent-magnet marked corneal lens and by an array of magnetoresistive detectors that measure the magnetostatic field in several positions in the eye proximity. We demonstrate that, despite missing information due to the axial symmetry of the measured field, physiological constraints or measurement conditions make possible to infer complete eye-pose data. Angular precision and accuracy achieved with the current prototypical device are also assessed and briefly discussed. The results show that the instrumentation considered is suitable as a new, moderately invasive medical diagnostics for the characterization of ocular movements and associated disorders.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: mode discrimination; multi-mode waveguide; S-bend resonator; refractive index sensor; integrated optical sensor
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:19:20 CEST)
In this paper, a multi-mode waveguide-based optical resonator is proposed for an integrated optical refractive index sensor. Conventional optical resonators have been studied for single-mode waveguide-based resonators to enhance the performance, but mass production is limited owing to the high fabrication costs of nano-scale structures. To overcome this problem, we designed an S-bend resonator based on a micro-scale multi-mode waveguide. In general, multi-mode waveguides cannot be utilized as optical resonators, because of a performance degradation resulting from modal dispersion and an output transmission with multi-peaks. Therefore, we exploited the mode discrimination phenomenon using the bending loss, and the resulting S-bend resonator yielded an output transmission without multi-peaks. This phenomenon is utilized to remove higher-order modes efficiently using the difference in the effective refractive index between the higher-order and fundamental modes. As a result, the resonator achieved a Q-factor and sensitivity of 2.3x103 and 52 nm/RIU, respectively, using the variational finite-difference time-domain method. These results show that the multi-mode waveguide-based S-bend resonator with a wide line width can be utilized as a refractive index sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0107.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: RF MEMS; pressure sensor; MEMS resonators; implantable BioMEMS; flexible electronics; touch mode capacitive sensor
Online: 6 July 2018 (07:42:03 CEST)
This paper reports the novel design of a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) system with a wireless approach for a full-range continuous monitoring of ventricular pressure. The system consists of two modules: an implantable set and an external reading device. The implantable set, restricted to a 2x2 cm2 area, consists of a TMCPS array connected with a dual-layer coil, for making a reliable resonant circuit for communication with the external device. The capacitive array is modelled considering the small deflection regime for achieving a dynamic and full 5-300 mmHg pressure range. In this design, the two inductive-coupled modules are calculated considering proper electromagnetic alignment, based on two planar coils and considering the following: 13.56 MHz frequency to avoid tissue damage and three types of biological tissue as core (skin, fat and muscle). The system was validated with the Comsol Multiphysics and CoventorWare softwares; showing a 90% power transmission efficiency at a 3.5 cm distance between coils. The implantable module includes aluminum- and polyimide-based devices, which allows ergonomic, robust, reproducible, and technologically feasible integrated sensors. In addition, the module shows a simplified and low cost design approach based on PolyMEMS INAOE® technology, featured by low-temperature processing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0067.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD); boron doping; nitrogen doping; nanowire (NW); gas sensor; ultraviolet (UV) photodetector; piezoresistance (PZR) sensor; biosensor; nitrogen-vacancy (NV); magnetic quantum sensor
Online: 5 January 2021 (09:09:09 CET)
The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the recent advances and the main remaining challenges related to the ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires and other nanostructures which exhibit excellent capability as the core components for many diverse novel sensing devices, due to the unique material properties and geometry advantages. The doping introduced in the gas phase during deposition promotes p-type or n-type conductivity. With the establishment of the UNCD nanofabrication techniques, more and more nanostructure based devices are being explored in measuring basic physical and chemical parameters via classic and quantum methods, as exemplified by gas sensors, ultraviolet photodetectors, piezoresistance effect based devices, biological applications, and nitrogen-vacancy color center based magnetic field quantum sensors. Highlighted finally are some of the remaining challenges and future outlook in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0047.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: artificial intelligence; neural network; machine learning; oxygen sensor; luminescence; optical sensor; luminescence quenching; phase fluorimetry
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:39:44 CET)
Luminescence-based sensors for measuring oxygen concentration are widely used both in industry and research due to the practical advantages and sensitivity of this type of sensing. The measuring principle is the luminescence quenching by oxygen molecules, which results in a change of the luminescence decay time and intensity. In the standard approach, this change is related to an oxygen concentration using the Stern–Volmer equation. This equation, which in most of the cases is non-linear, is parametrized through device-specific constants. Therefore, to determine these parameters every sensor needs to be precisely calibrated at one or more known concentrations. This work explores an entirely new artificial intelligence approach and demonstrates the feasibility of oxygen sensing through machine learning. The specifically developed neural network learns very efficiently to relate the input quantities to the oxygen concentration. The results show a mean deviation of the predicted from the measured concentration of 0.5 % air, comparable to many commercial and low-cost sensors. Since the network was trained using synthetically generated data, the accuracy of the model predictions is limited by the ability of the generated data to describe the measured data, opening up future possibilities for significant improvement by using a large number of experimental measurements for training. The approach described in this work demonstrates the applicability of artificial intelligence to sensing technology and paves the road for the next generation of sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electric power steering systems; torque sensor; angle sensor; state switch; active return-to-center control
Online: 14 March 2018 (04:43:39 CET)
This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC) control for electric power steering (EPS) systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT). Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver’s steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Flow sensor; Accelerated degradation testing; Reliability
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:33:17 CEST)
With the wide application of flow sensor, their reliability under extreme conditions has been concerned in recent years. The reliability of a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems flow sensor under temperature (Ts) is researched in this paper. Firstly, the Step-stress accelerated degradation test is designed. Because this flow sensor consists flow sensor chip and signal processing system, the accelerated degradation testing is implemented, respectively. While the results show that the biggest drift is 3.15% for flow sensor chips with 150℃ conditions, and 32.91% for this flowmeter. By analysis, it could be found that the attenuation of the signal processing system is significant to the degeneration of this flowmeter. The minimum drift of the signal processing system accounts for 82.01% of this flowmeter. Secondly, using the Coffin-Manson model, the relationship between cycle-index and Ts is established. And the lifetime with different Ts is estimated by the Arrhenius model. In addition, the Weibull distribution is applied to evaluate the lifetime distribution. Finally, the reliability function of the Weibull distribution is demonstrated, and the survival rate within one year is 87.69% with 85℃ conditions. Thus, by the application of accelerated degradation testing, the acquired results are innovative and original. This research illustrates the reliability research, which provides a relational database for the application of this flow sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Radar; Validation Measurements; Sensor Models
Online: 30 August 2023 (13:53:29 CEST)
Virtual validation of radar sensor models is becoming increasingly important for the safety validation of adf. Therefore, methods for quantitative comparison of radar measurements in the context of model validation need to be developed. This paper presents a novel methodology for accessing and quantifying validation measurements of radar sensor models. This method uses edf and the so-called dvm to effectively quantify deviations between distributions. By applying this metric, the study measures the consistency, reproducibility and repeatability of radar sensor measurements. Different interfaces and different levels of detail are investigated. By comparing the radar signals from real world experiments where different objects are present, valuable insights are gained into the performance of the sensor. In particular, the research extends to assessing the impact of varying rain intensities on the measurement results, providing a comprehensive understanding of the sensor’s behaviour under these conditions. This holistic approach significantly advances the evaluation of radar sensor capabilities and enables the quantification of the maximum required quality of radar simulation models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1654.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: antioxidants; biocatalyst; biosensor; electrochemical method; sensor
Online: 28 July 2023 (08:40:19 CEST)
Antioxidants are very beneficial for health because they protect the body from the effects of free radicals on various degenerative diseases caused by food contamination, air pollution, sunlight, etc. In general, methods for measuring the capacity of antioxidants generally use accurate meth-ods such as spectrophotometry and chromatography. Still, it takes time, sample preparation and must be done in a laboratory with particular expertise. Therefore, a new, more practical method needs to be developed for determining antioxidants, namely the electrochemical method. The electrochemical method is promising to develop because it has several advantages, including high sensitivity and fast response. The electrochemical method discussed in this article reviews sensors, biosensors, and nanosensors. This paper comprehensively analyzes contemporary developments in electrochemical biosensor techniques and antioxidant evaluation methodologies. The discussion centers on utilizing multiple biosensors. Electrochemical biosensors have been determined to be prevalent in analyzing food quality, assessing active factor functionality, and screening practical components. The present study outlines the difficulties linked with electrochemical bio-sensor technology and provides insights into the potential avenues for future research in this domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0682.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrochemical sensor; carbon paste electrode; antibiotics
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:22:36 CEST)
In this work we successfully prepared a modified cobalt oxide (Co3O4) carbon paste electrode to detect Levofloxacin (LEV). By synthesizing Co3O4 nanoparticles through the chemical coprecipitation method, the electrochemical properties of the electrode and LEV were thoroughly investigated using CV, SWV, EIS, while material properties were scrutinized using ICP-OES, TEM, SEM, and XRD. The results showed that the prepared electrode displayed a better electrocatalytic response than the bare carbon paste electrode. After optimizing SWV, the electrode exhibited a wide linear working range from 1 to 85 μM at pH 5 of BRBS as the supporting electrolyte. The selectivity of the proposed method was satisfactory, with good repeatability and reproducibility, strongly suggesting a potential application for determining LEV in real samples, particularly in pharmaceutical formulations. The practicality of the approach was demonstrated through good recoveries, and the morphology of the materials was found to be closely related to other parameters, indicating that the developed method can provide a cost-effective, rapid, selective, and sensitive means for LEV monitoring. Overall, this project has made significant progress towards developing a reliable method for detecting LEV and has opened up new opportunities for future research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1748.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: electrochemical; sensor; Au/g-C3N4; pimobendan
Online: 26 June 2023 (05:32:37 CEST)
In this study, the preparation of the composite 3% Au/graphite-C3N4 (3% Au/g-C3N4) sensing material was prepared by doping 3% Au onto the surface of graphitic carbonitride (C3N4) for detection pimobendan. By the way of sensing materials characterization, the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron Microscope (TEM) were performed. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to measure the concentration and redox properties of pimobendan. It can be seen that when the voltage value is 0.05 V, and a reduction peak was appeared and the pimobendan concentration (0 to 55 μM) has a relationship with the reduction current value. At low concentrations of pimobendan concentration from 0.0 to 0.8 μM, the linearity R2 = 0.9642 with a detection limit of 0.28 μM. A possible pimobendan sensing mechanism on 3% Au/g-C3N4 was proposed.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Reflectance; Ocimum basilicum; Colour sensor; Phenotyping
Online: 25 March 2022 (08:44:33 CET)
Modern agriculture demands for comprehensive information about the plant itself. Conventional chemistry-based analytical methods - due to their low throughput and high associated cost - are no longer capable of providing these data. In recent years, remote reflectance-based characterization has developed as one of the most promising solutions for rapid assessments for plant attributes. However, in many cases, expensive equipment is required because accurate quantifications need assessment of the full reflectance spectrum. We examined the versatility of visible colour sensors as reflectance measuring devices for biological / biochemical quantifications on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Our results indicate for the wide potential of spectral colour sensors for quantitative determination of leaf phenolic compounds, flavonoids in particular, and non-invasive plant phenotyping in agricultural applications by low-cost sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sensor; virus; detection; electromagnetic echo effect
Online: 4 December 2020 (14:36:35 CET)
Early identification of viruses leads to more efficient disease management and control, and is extremely important. A possible new approach for creating virus sensors is the Electromagnetic echo effect (EMEE). An important feature is that the signal from EMEE is highly dependent on the state of the irradiated body. This makes it possible to control ongoing reactions, even if these reactions are invisible to the human eye or other equipment. This article shows the possibility of registering reaction occurring in the presence of an avian coronavirus causing infectious bronchitis, strain Massachusetts. The same methodology can be applied for other types of viruses as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: nitroxyl radical; TEMPO; cyclosporine A; sensor
Online: 5 October 2020 (20:19:21 CEST)
Nitroxyl radical catalysts oxidize alcohols under an applied electric potential. It is possible to quantify the alcohol concentration from the resulting oxidation current. In this work, we evaluated the catalytic activity of nitroxyl radicals (or their corresponding hydroxylamines), including 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as representative nitroxyl radicals, acetoamido-TEMPO, which shows higher oxidation potential than TEMPO owing to the acetoamido group, AZADO, Nor-AZADO, and NNO as less-hindered bicyclic nitroxyl radicals, and NHPI as an N,N-diacyl-type hydroxylamine, in acetonitrile solution. TEMPO, AZADO and NNO were also evaluated for their ability to oxidize alcohols in organic solvents, and their reactivity was compared with the electrochemical response. The most active NNO was used for electrochemical detection of cyclosporin A, a drug with a hydroxyl group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: experimental sensor; dairy cows; abomasal displacement
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:17:00 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of two surgical techniques regarding the cow respiratory rates, heart rates, and rumination time using two sensors: an experimental device that was created by the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania) and the “SCR” (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) system. The cows were divided into two groups: PA1—cows treated by percutaneous abomasopexy (n = 10), and RSO2—cows treated by right side omentopexy (n = 8). For the control group (KH), according to the principle of analogues (number of lactations, breed, and days in milk), we selected clinically healthy cows (n = 9). After the surgical treatment for the abomasal displacement, the experimental device was applied for the recording of the heart and breathing rates; 12 hour tracking of the rumination time (RT) was implemented using the system ''SCR''; and the body temperature was measured. After 12 hours, the blood was taken for biochemical and morphological tests. The experimental device recorded 12 hours of the respiratory rate (RR) and heart beat rate (HBR) information. We determined the concentrations of the blood serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe), as well as the activities of aspartarte aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). According to searches for relationships between the traditional blood biochemical and morphological parameters, and the parameters measured by the experimental device, the more efficient abomasal displacement surgical method was the right side omentopexy. With the sensors, we found, after right side omentopexy, a 5.19 beats/min lower (1.10-times) average value of the respiratory rate, 1.13-times higher level of the heart rate, a 0.15 oC higher temperature, and a 3.29-times lower rumination time compared to the clinical healthy cows. Further research with larger numbers of animals and longer experimental periods are needed prior to practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0253.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: copper; surface plasmon resonance; bio-sensor
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:16:25 CET)
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is an attracting property of certain transition metals when they are synthesized in nano-range giving rise to promising optical applications. However, most SPR and associated applications are limited to the noble metal nanoparticles, which limits their potential due to high production cost. We report surface plasmon resonance in copper-copper oxide core-shell quantum dots synthesized via chemical route studied by using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Tuning of the plasmonic resonance with respect to the particle diameter is achieved by an inexpensive all chemical route. Photoluminescence measurements also support the data. This size reduction leads to remarkable changes in its optical response as compared to the bulk metal. The results point towards applications of these materials in tunable SPR based biosensors.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: antenna sensor; radio frequency; dipole antenna
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:03:26 CET)
An antenna sensor is proposed to execute dual functions of antenna and sensor in the wireless sensor system, in order to reduce data loss and to increase transmission rate by omitting a certain interface. The as-made sensor was test at a center frequency of 46 MHz for measuring human finger postures using principle of dipole antenna. The antenna sensor was attached on a wearable glove. The results showed that the motion sensor can accurately identify finger angles at 0°, 20°, 40°, 60° and 80°.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Down syndrome; Kinect sensor; reading skills
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:14:16 CEST)
People with Down syndrome present cognitive difficulties that affect their reading skills. In this study we present results about the use of gestural interaction with Kinect sensor to improve the reading skills of students with Down syndrome. Following a case of study method for small samples with disabilities, measuring different variables related to reading skills in an experimental group and in a control group. We found improvements in the visual association, visual comprehension, sequential memory, and visual integration after this stimulation in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, we found that the number of error and delay time of interaction decrease between sessions in the experimental group.
Online: 25 April 2019 (15:09:38 CEST)
The subject of the research is to Development of laser ablation method for Fabrication of surface acoustic wave sensors on quartz wafer, the target of the GQW – is to design Acoustic wave sensor by using laser ablation method. By using the surface acoustic wave theory to sense by the signal and using this physical phenomenon, We will design the sensor which transduce an input electrical signal into a mechanical wave which unlike an electrical signal, can be easily influenced by physical phenomena. The device then transducers this wave back into an electrical signal on the secondary terminal of the sensor. Changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, or time-delay between the input and output electrical signals can be used to measure the presence of the desired Our work in this part, especially the practical part like temperature, vibration ,etc. we design a combs on the waver of quartz to make like an electrode primary electrode & secondary electrode by putting coats of cuppers & vanadium on the waver and then using the fiber optic laser regime to design this combs to can able transfer the signal by ablation the most important here to use the regime of fiber optic laser then we using this sensor in any electronic circuit How we will select the suitable kind of laser to design, this is the most important part, and what it will be the diameter of that combs of secondary and primary , how much the value of the wave length to select the micro distant combs to avoid any inductance and interference for transferred signal , also take the benefit of using MEMS theory in our project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor; e-textile, embroidery, moisture, capacitive.
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:46:48 CET)
In this work, two embroidered textile moisture sensors are characterized with three different conductive yarns. The sensors are based on a capacitive interdigitated structure embroidered on a cotton substrate with an embroidered conductor yarn. The performance comparison of 3 different type of conductive yarns has been addressed. In order to evaluate the sensor sensitivity, the impedance of the sensor has been measured by means of a LCR meter from 20 Hz to 20 kHz on a climatic chamber with a sweep of the relative humidity from 30% to 65% at 20 ºC. The experimental results show a clear and controllable dependence of the sensor impedance with the relative humidity and the used conductor yarns. This dependence points out the optimum conductive yarn to be used to develop wearable applications for moisture measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0124.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZnO; nanosheet; formaldehyde; chemical sensor; FET
Online: 17 December 2018 (05:03:15 CET)
Detection of formaldehyde is very important in terms of life protection, as it can cause serious injury to eyes, skin, mouth and gastrointestinal function if indirectly inhaled and hence researchers are putting effort in developing novel and sensitive device. In this work, we have fabricated an electro-chemical sensor in the form of a field effect transistor (FET) to detect formaldehyde over wide range (10 nM to 1 mM). For this, ZnO nanosheets (NS) were first synthesized by hydrothermal method with in-situ deposition on cleaned SiO2 coated Si (100) substrate. The synthesized materials were characterized for morphology and purity and surface area (31.718 m2/g). The developed device was tested for formaldehyde detection at room temperature that resulted in a linear response with concentration (96%), sensitivity value of 0.27 mA/M/cm2 and a low detection limit of 210 nM, and a high 0.93194 return.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: multi-sensor fusion; satellite; radar; precipitation
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:09:22 CEST)
This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE) with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a 5-year period between 2003-2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG) blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS operations) over two regions: I) inside radar effective coverage and II) immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate a) ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and b) blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: laser sensor; deformation monitoring; underground gateroad
Online: 5 June 2017 (05:18:53 CEST)
The deformation of underground gateroads tends to be asymmetric and complex. Traditional instrumentation fails to accurately and conveniently monitor the full cross-sectional deformation of underground gateroads. Here, a full cross-sectional laser scanner was developed together with a visualization software package. The developed system used polar coordinate measuring method and the full cross-sectional measurement was realized by 360° rotation of laser sensor driven by an electrical motor. Later on, the potential impact of gateroad wall flatness, roughness and geometrical profile as well as coal dust environment on the performance of the developed laser scanner were evaluated. The studies show that a high-level flatness is favorable in application of the developed full cross-sectional deformation monitoring system. For a smooth surface of gateroad, the sensor cannot receive reflected light when the incidence angle of laser beam is large, causing data loss. Conversely, the roughness surface shows its priority as the diffuse reflection light can be received by the sensor. With regards to the coal dust in measurement environment, the fine particles of floating coal dust in the air can lead to the loss of measurement data to some certain due to scattering of laser beam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: silicon pressure sensor; shield layer; stability
Online: 13 August 2016 (10:47:16 CEST)
This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, p-type piezoresistors are covered by an n-type shield layer, which is formed by ion implantation. The proposed pressure sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk micromachining techniques. The impact of electrical field on piezoresistors is studied by simulation. The temperature drift of the pressure sensor has been investigated by both simulation and experimental measurement. Characteristics of developed pressure sensors are tested from -40 C to 125 C. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/KPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are measured for the fabricated sensor in a pressure range of 1 MPa. The temperature coefficients of resistance of shielded piezoresistors are found to be smaller than those of un-shielded ones. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: electronic cigarette; vaping; puff topography; aerosol; nicotine; e-liquid; atomizer; particulate matter; photometric sensor; pressure sensor
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:36:56 CEST)
To study and monitor the adverse health consequences from using electronic cigarettes, a user’s puff topography, which are quantification parameters of the user’s vaping habits, plays a central role. In this work, we introduce a topography sensor to measure the mass of total particulate matter generated in every puff and to estimate the nicotine yield. The sensor is compact and low-cost, and is integrated into the electronic cigarette device to promptly and conveniently monitor the user’s daily puff topography. The topography sensor is comprised of a photometric sensor and a pressure sensor. The photometric sensor measures the mass concentration of the aerosol, based on scattering of near-infrared light from airborne particles, while the pressure sensor measures the flow rate. The topography sensor was experimented under various conditions with a wide range of atomizer power, puff duration, and inhalation pressure. The sensor’s accuracy was validated by comparing the sensor’s readings with reference measurements, and the results matched closely with the trends reported by existing studies on electronic cigarettes. An example application of tracking a user’s puff topography was also demonstrated. Our topography sensor holds great promise in mitigating health risks of vaping, and in promoting quality control of electronic cigarette products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0936.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: planar microwave sensor; humidity sensor; microstrip technology; detection of sweat; detection of urine leakage; enuresis; hyperhidrosis
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:20:36 CEST)
A planar microwave sensor devoted to the detection of humidity in underwear and clothes in general is proposed. The ultimate goal of the sensor is to detect the presence of liquids in fabrics, of interest to aid patients that suffer from certain pathologies, such as hyperhidrosis and enuresis. The main target in the design of the sensor, considering the envisaged application, is simplicity. Thus, the sensor operates at a single frequency, and the working principle is the variation in the mag-nitude of the transmission coefficient of a matched line loaded with an open-ended quar-ter-wavelength sensing stub resonator. The stub, which must be in contact with the so-called fabric under test (FUT), generates a notch in the transmission coefficient with a resonance frequency that depends on the humidity level of the fabric. By designing the stub with a moderately high quality factor, the variation in the resonance frequency causes a significant change in the magnitude level at the operating frequency, the resonance frequency when the sensing stub is loaded with the dry fabric, and the presence of liquid can be detected by means of an amplitude detector. A prototype device is proposed and experimentally validated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: addressed fiber Bragg structure; fiber Bragg grating; fiber-optic sensor; microwave photonics; microwave-photonic sensor systems
Online: 9 October 2022 (08:10:39 CEST)
Five years ago, the concept of addressed fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) was proposed, which simultaneously perform the functions of a two-frequency radiation shaper, the difference frequency of which is the AFBS address, and a sensitive element, since the value of the difference frequency is invariant to measured physical fields, and the set of difference frequencies, moreover, is orthogonal in the array of such sensors, enabling their address multiplexing. In this article, we provide an overview of the theory and technology of AFBS, including the structures with three or more spectral components with various combinations of difference frequencies, symmetrical and asymmetric, performing the functions of the address and converting information signals to the low-frequency range at the same time, along with other functions. The subjects of interrogation of these structures, their fabrication and calibration are discussed as well. We also consider a wide range of applications in which AFBS can be used, covering such areas as oil and gas production, power engineering, transport, medicine, etc. In addition, the prospects of AFBS further development are proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0909.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Blood Pressure; Ischemia Monitoring; Wearable Ultrasonic Sensor
Online: 15 November 2023 (03:51:00 CET)
Ischemia, the inadequate blood flow, can arise from pre-existing or traumatic events, remain an undetectable issue, and impact the body's ability to provide oxygen to necessary limbs, organs, muscles, or tissue. New technology involving wearable ultrasonic devices allows medical professionals to gain real-time insight into the cardiovascular system of their patients. A non-invasive, postage-stamp-sized ultrasonic sensor can be attached to a patient, allowing for continuous monitoring of the patient’s blood pressure outside of the hospital. After reviewing 16 papers on ultrasonic sensors, this paper intends to review the current use of wearable ultrasonic sensors and the advantages and limitations of the technology used to obtain accurate blood pressure readings. This review will bring attention to the evolving and expanding world of wearable ultrasonic sensors for medical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0857.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Gas sensor; ammonia; zinc oxide; microcrystalline cellulose
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:03:01 CET)
Cellulose-based carbon (CBC) has been widely concerned with its porous structure, high specific surface area, and is liable to adsorb gas molecules and macromolecular pollutants. However, the application of CBC in gas sensing has been little studied. In this paper, ZnO/CBC heterojunction was formed by means of simple co-precipitation and high temperature carbonization. As a new ammonia sensor, the prepared ZnO/CBC sensor can detect ammonia compared with that of the previous pure ZnO ammonia sensor can not at room temperature. It has great gas sensing response, stability and selectivity to ammonia concentration at 200 ppm. This study provides a new idea for the design and synthesis of biomass carbon-metal oxide composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1047.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: SP-SMF; refractive index; analytes; optical sensor
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:38:16 CEST)
In this paper, we introduced a comprehensive study, based on both numerical and experimental analyses, of side polished (SP) single mode fibers (SMF) to investigate their evanescent field interaction with air and liquid analytes. In particular, the finite element method (FEM) and the beam propagation method (BPM) are employed to predict the optical properties of the SP-SMF. An ad-hoc experimental setup has been designed and built to characterize the side polished single mode fiber when air, water, and isopropanol are set in the side polished region. The sensitivity of the analytes is obtained as 1.207 V/RIU. The performance in terms of effective refractive index and transmittance are reported to show how these SP-SMF can be efficiently used for calculating the liquid refractive index. The simulation and experimental results display the significant performance of the SP-SMF as a sensing element.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0135.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: PurpleAir; low-cost sensor; PM2.5; IDW; Kriging
Online: 4 July 2023 (04:19:19 CEST)
Regulatory monitoring networks are often too sparse to support community-scale PM2.5 exposure assessment while emerging low-cost sensors have the potential to ﬁll in the gaps. Recent advances in air quality monitoring have produced portable, easy-to use, low-cost, sensor-based monitors, which has given a new dimension to the air pollutant monitoring and has democratized the air quality monitoring process by making monitors and results directly available at community level. This study used PurpleAir(c) sensors for PM2.5 assessment in California, USA. Evaluation of PM2.5 from sensors included Quality Assurance & Quality Control (QAQC) procedures, assessment with respect to reference monitored PM2.5 concentrations, and formulation of a decision support system integrating these observations using geostatistical techniques. The hourly and daily average observed PM2.5 concentrations from PurpleAir monitors followed the trends of observed PM2.5 at regulatory monitors. PurpleAir monitored PM2.5 also captured the peak PM2.5 concentrations due to incidents like forest fire. In comparison with reference monitored PM2.5 levels, it was found that PurpleAir PM2.5 concentrations were mostly higher. The most important reason for PurpleAir higher PM2.5 concentrations was the inclusion of moisture or water vapor as aerosol in contrast to measurements of PM2.5 excluding water content in FEM/FRM and non-FEM/FRM monitors. On long term assessment (2016-2020), R2 was between 0.54 and 0.86 at selected collocated PurpleAir and regulatory monitors for hourly PM2.5 concentrations. Past research studies have been conducted for mostly shorter time periods (<3-4 months) that resulted in higher R2 values between 0.80 to 0.98. This study aims to provide reasonable estimations of PM2.5 concentrations with high spatiotemporal resolutions based on statistical models using PurpleAir measurements. The methods of Kriging and IDW, geostatistical interpolation techniques, showed similar spatio-temporal patterns. Overall, this study revealed that low-cost, sensor based PurpleAir sensors could be effective and reliable tools for episodic and long-term ambient air quality monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0331.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: strain sensor; monitoring; the pavement; perception system
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:58:32 CEST)
This chapter aims to construct a relatively complete, universal, and highly reliable road surface state monitoring and perception system through the research of the A1 contact road reconstruction project of an international airport (hereinafter referred to as the “airport”). The system design is based on on-the-spot investigation, theoretical analysis, and engineering practice, using vibrating string type and resistive strain sensors as sensing means, real-time high-frequency signal acquisition technology as the guide, 4G router for wireless communication technology as the media, and storage technology for monitoring system based on server storage terminals. In combination with engineering background, aircraft motion state, main landing gear configuration, sensor selection and evaluation, and other major factors, the actual monitoring information needs of the plane are fully taken into account, as well as the difference in sensor information types, and the system design is carried out by stratification and classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ag; Au; Nanoparticles; SERS; thyroxine; DDA; Sensor
Online: 5 June 2023 (04:09:39 CEST)
Detecting low concentrations of thyroxine hormone (T4) is of utmost importance to prevent diseases and medical issues caused by hypothyroidism. In this work, we propose the use of a simple technique for T4 sensing, the well-known surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Spherical Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and functionalized with ascorbic acid and tannic acid, respectively. They synthesized by a seed-mediated growth method, were used as SERS substrates to quantify T4 at different concentrations. The NPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both, Au and Ag NPs, have an average diameter of 50 nm, the first ones have a surface plasmon resonance at 537 nm, while the latter have it at 421 nm. It was noticed the SERS substrates are composed of isolated and agglomerated NPs. From theoreti-cal-numerical calculations, we identified the hot spots |E| of the agglomerate NPs is at least 7 times more intense than that of the isolated NPs. We show the substrates can detect up to 0.01 mM and, for the range of concentration studied, the Ag substrate is more sensitive than Au. Thus, the proposed substrates and the SERS technique constitute a potential prospect for sensing hormones and organic molecules at low concentrations.