ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Optimization; Smart Metering; IoT; Microgrid; Heuristic; Sensor Networks
Online: 4 July 2018 (15:49:59 CEST)
The unpredictable increase in electrical demand affects the quality of theenergy throughout the network. A solution to the problem is the increase of distributedgeneration units which burn fossil fuels.While this is an immediate solution to theproblem the ecosystem gets affected by the emission of CO2.A promising solutionis the integration of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) to the conventionalelectrical system, thus, introducing the concept of smart microgrids (SMG) that requirea safe, reliable and technically planned two-way communication system. This documentpresents a heuristic based on planning capable of providing a bidirectional communicationnear optimal route map, following the structure of an hybrid Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) with thepurpose of obtaining information of electrical parameters that help us to manage the useof energy by integrating conventional electrical system to SMG. A FiWi network is basedon the integration of wireless access and optical networks. This integration increases thecoverage and reliability at a lower cost. The optimization model is based on clusteringtechniques, through the construction of balanced conglomerates. The method is used forthe development of the clusters along with the Nearest-Neighbor Spanning Tree Algorithm(N-NST). Additionally, Optimal Delay Balancing (ODB) model will be used to minimizethe end to end delay of each grouping. In addition, the heuristic observes real designparameters such as: capacity and coverage. Using the Dijkstra algorithm, the routes arebuilt following the minimum shorter path. Therefore, this paper presents a heuristic able to plan the deployment of smart meters (SMs) through a tree-like hierarchical topology for theintegration of SMG at the lowest cost.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: smart system; context aware services; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); information communication technologies (ICTs); cargo transportation.
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:38:30 CEST)
The issues concerning the development of the smart systems for the management of freight transport are related to many factors which are influencing by properties of such a complex processes and ICT development. We are concerned with the recognition of a wide spectrum of services and provision specifics under conditions of wireless communication networks. Also, we are investigated for the adequate provision of context data with problematic of a definition of such context data and with possibilities to apply formalized artificial intelligence methods for recognition of this context information needs for transportation. In this stage of application of the smart system, we are solving the problem of priority of provision of possible providing services, ensuring of quite optimal quality of data supply channels and restriction of flooding of wireless communication channels. The proposed methodology is based on methods of indication of con-text-aware situations and integration of such data into the situation recognition algorithms. The constructions of smart service provision system are developed for more safety management of transportation. The experimental results are demonstrated on analysis of heterogeneity of smart services, construction of schemas for service provision priorities, and extension of potential of intelligent transport with intellectual recognition possibilities of context-aware information in the transportation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: deep Kalman filter; simultaneous sensor integration and modelling (SSIM); GNSS/IMU integration; recurrent neural network; deep learning; long-short term memory (LSTM)
Online: 15 March 2018 (07:10:32 CET)
The Bayes filters, such as Kalman and particle filters, have been used in sensor fusion to integrate two sources of information and obtain the best estimate of the unknowns. Efficient integration of multiple sensors requires deep knowledge of their error sources and it is not trivial for complicated sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Therefore, IMU error modelling and efficient integration of IMU and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations has remained a challenge. In this paper, we develop deep Kalman filter to model and remove IMU errors and consequently, improve the accuracy of IMU positioning. In other words, we add modelling step to the prediction and update steps of Kalman filter and the IMU error model is learned during integration. Therefore, our deep Kalman filter outperforms Kalman filter and reaches higher accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0321.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic compact model; silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC); photonic crystal cavity refractive index sensor; tunable sensing circuit; photonic layout rules
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:39:58 CEST)
Silicon-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is a research focus in producing high-density photonics. One of the potential applications of silicon PIC is the sensing and measurement system. In this work, we use the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) cavity design which and utilize it at the PIC level design. The 1D PhC design used as the compact model has the same characteristics as experimentally demonstrated in previous works. The compact model is made from the S-parameter extraction of the 1D-PhC device which is done by using Lumerical FDTD software. The PIC design integrates the 1D-PhC device as a sensing component with a PN-phase shifter (PN-PS) to function as a refractive index (RI) sensor calibration or tuning circuit. A custom design of PN-PS device is used by simulating and extracting the bias voltage-effective index (bias-Neff) data by using Lumerical DEVICE and MODE into the circuit simulator. The circuit-level simulation is done by using Lumerical Interconnect software. Finally, we show the GDSII layout design of the 1D-PhC based photonic sensor calibration circuit with an analysis of generic silicon PIC design rules. The designed PIC is applicable for the bio-sensing applications and photonic SOC component. This work also shows the promise of PIC design approach for further PIC development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0317.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: sensor collaborations; sensor trustworthiness; dynamic moving sensor collaboration; sensor calibration
Online: 17 September 2018 (14:52:57 CEST)
Wireless Sensor Network is an emerging technology and the collaboration of wireless sensors becomes one of the active research areas to utilize sensor data. Various sensors collaborate to recognize the changes of a target environment, to identify, if occurs, any radical change. For the accuracy improvement, the calibration of sensors has been discussed, and sensor data analytics are becoming popular in research and development. However, they are not satisfactorily efficient for the situations where sensor devices are dynamically moving, abruptly appearing or disappearing. If the abrupt appearance of sensors is a zero-day attack and the disappearance of sensors is an ill-functioning comrade, then sensor data analytics of untrusted sensors will result in an indecisive artifact. The pre-defined sensor requirements or meta-data based sensors verification is not adaptive to identify dynamically moving sensors. This paper describes a deep-learning approach to verify the trustworthiness of sensors by considering the sensor data only, without having to use meta-data about sensors or to request consultation from a cloud server. The contribution of this paper includes 1) quality preservation of sensor data for mining analytics and 2) authenticity verification of dynamically moving sensors with no external consultation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: PCF; PCF sensor; fiber sensor; photonic crystal.
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:31:51 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to create a sensor model based on optical crystal fibers (PCF). The aim of this model is to find and identify zinc cadmium. This thesis looked at three different categories of concentrations. For sensor architecture, PCF was generated using single-mode fiber-to-end split fusion (SM-PCF-SM). In this experiment, a specific wavelength spectrum was used to alter the concentration of materials covering the fiber in order to demonstrate the fiber's sensing capability. The 550nm wavelength has been used as the optical source for the fiber. The change in the output power of the external light was monitored and changes were observed for each concentration of the concentrations around the fiber. It has been found that the fiber is sensitive to small changes in concentrations. The absorption of the fiber has been calculated for the incoming capacity, as well as the losses in the capacity outside the fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0225.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chemosensors; CN− selective sensor; test strip sensor
Online: 27 March 2018 (12:13:34 CEST)
4-(thiazol-2-yldiazenyl)phenol (L1) and 2-((4-hydroxyphenyl) diazenyl)-5-nitrophenol (L2) based on azo phenol were synthesised and used as selective colorimetric sensor for CN- and AcO− ion in DMSO/H2O-HEPES (v/v; 1:1, pH–7.3 ± 0.2) and showed good sensitivity with large red shifts and nanomolar detection limit for CN- and AcO- ion. The stoichiometry of L1 with CN−/AcO− ion was found to be 1:1 and L2 with CN−/AcO− ion was found to be 1:2. Binding constant for L1+ CN−, L1 + AcO−, L2 + CN− and L2 + AcO− were calculated by B-H plot as 1.6 × 103, 8.0 × 102, 8.4 × 103 and 1.7 × 102 respectively. L2 showed high selectivity towards CN− ion with low detection limit of 81 nM and large binding constant. In addition, 1H NMR titration and DFT studies also supported the deprotonation mechanism of receptors in the presence of selective anions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0168.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: phosphor; optical sensor; temperature sensor; manganese, luminescence
Online: 18 January 2018 (05:37:15 CET)
Phosphors based on magnesium titanate activated with Mn4+ ions are of great interest because, when excited with blue light, they display a strong red-emitting luminescence. They are characterized by a luminescence decay which is strongly temperature dependent in the range from 0 to 80 °C, making these materials very promising for temperature sensing in the biochemical field. In this work the optical and thermal properties of the luminescence of Mg2TiO4 are investigated for different Mn4+ doping concentrations. The potential of this material for temperature sensing is demonstrated by fabricating a fiber optic temperature microsensor and by comparing its performance against a standard resistance thermometer. The response of the fiber optic sensor is exceptionally fast, enabling monitoring of temperature fluctuation in subsecond time domain.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: temperature sensor; fiber optic sensor; photonic sensor; atomic layer deposition; microsphere; temperature; ZnO
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:24:14 CET)
This study presents of the microsphere-based fiber-optic sensor with the ZnO ALD coating thickness of 100 nm and 200 nm for temperature measurements. Metrological properties of the sensor were investigated over the temperature range of 100°C to 300°C, with a 10°C step. The interferometric signal is used to control whether the microstructure is intact. Spectrum shift of a reflected signal is used to conclude changes in measured parameter for the sensor with a 100 nm coating, while the reflected signal intensity is an indicator during measurements executed by a sensor with a 200 nm coating. With changing temperature, the peak position or intensity of a reflected signal also changes. The R2 coefficient of the presented sensors indicates a linear fit of over 0.99 to the obtained data. The sensitivity of the sensors, investigated in this study, equals 103.5 nW/°C and 0.019 nm/°C for ZnO thickness of 200 nm and 100 nm, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0553.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: optical fiber sensor; Fabry-Perot interferometer; strain sensor
Online: 30 August 2021 (16:31:35 CEST)
Fabry-Perot air chamber was constructed at the melting point (splicing location) of two single-mode fibers by glycerin assisted self-expansion method. The morphology of the Fabry-Perot air chamber was fabricated and optimized by modulating the splicing parameters (drawing process, discharging location, time and intensity) and the fibers’ end-face (plane or arc). The in-line or reflected Fabry-Perot cavities have been applied to determine the tensile strain in the range of 0-1.2 N. The train sensing performance of the spherical shaped FP cavity has been experimentally demonstrated with the best sensitivity of 3.628 nm/N, corresponding to the resolution of ~0.005 N. The proposed FP fiber sensor has the advantages of low cost, fast fabrication and easy-integration with the common fiber system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0336.v1
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:22:52 CET)
AYUMI EYE is an accelerometer-based gait analysis device that measures the 3D accelerations of the human trunk. This study investigated the measurement accuracy of the AYUMI EYE as hardware as well as the accuracy of the gait cycle extraction program via simultaneous measurements using AYUMI EYE, a ground reaction force (GRF), and an optical motion capture system called VICON. The study was conducted with four healthy individuals as participants. The gait data were obtained by simulating four different patterns for three trials each: normal walking, anterior-tilt walking, hemiplegic walking, and shuffling walking. The AYUMI EYE and VICON showed good agreement for both the acceleration and displacement data. The durations of subsequent stride cycles calculated using the AYUMI EYE and GRF were in good agreement based on the calculated cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) with an r value of 0.896 and p-value less than 0.05, and their accuracies for these results were sufficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air flow medical sensor; emergency air flow sensor; low-cost air flow sensor; COVID-19
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:14:23 CET)
Mechanical ventilation systems, which are used for breathing support when a person is not able to do it by their own, requires a device for measuring the air flow to the patient in order to monitoring and a assure the magnitude establish by a medical staff. Flow sensors are the conventional devices used for the air flow measuring; however, there were not available in Peru, because of the international demand during COVID-19 pandemic. In this sense, a novel air flow sensor based on orifice plate and an intelligent transducer stage were developed as an integrated design. Advanced methodologies in simulations and experiments using specially designed equipment for this application were carried out. The obtained data was used for a mathematical characterization and dimensions validation of the integrated design. The device was tested in its real working conditions, it was implemented in a breathing circuit connected to a low-cost mechanical ventilation system based on cams. Results indicate that the designed air flow sensor/transducer is a low-cost complete medical device for mechanical ventilators able to provide satisfactorily all the ventilation parameters air flow, pressure and volume over time by measuring the air flow and calculating the others. Furthermore, this device provides directly a filtered equivalent electrical signal for a display or a computer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wearable system; strain sensor; bending; soft tactile sensor; textile; capacitive sensor; exoskeleton; human motion monitoring
Online: 5 September 2017 (03:44:27 CEST)
Detection of human movement requires lightweight, flexible systems to detect mechanical parameters (like strain and pressure) not interfering with user activity, and that he/she can wear comfortably. In this work we address such multifaceted challenge with the development of smart garments for lower limb motion detection, like a textile kneepad and anklet in which soft sensors and readout electronics are embedded for detecting movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed at knee and ankle. They show an excellent behavior in the ~30% strain range, hence the correlation between their responses and the optically tracked Euler angles is allowed for basic lower limb movements. Bending during knee flexion/extension is detected, and it is discriminated from any external contact by implementing in real time a low computational algorithm. The smart anklet is designed to address joint motion detection in and off the sagittal plane. In this work, ankle dorsi/plantar flexion, adduction/abduction, and rotation are retrieved. Both smart garments show a high accuracy in movement detection, with a RMSE less than 4° in the worst case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0333.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unobtrusive Sensing; Radar sensor; Thermal Sensor; Localisation; Home Environment.
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:13:28 CEST)
This paper proposes the localisation of room occupants in home environments using Unobtrusive Sensing Solutions (USSs). The ability to localise room occupants in home environments can help in the objective monitoring of sedentary behaviour. While wearable sensors can provide tangible information on health and wellness, they have battery life issues and the inability to perform prolonged monitoring. This work uses heterogeneous USSs in the form of an Infrared Thermopile Array (ITA-64) thermal sensor and a Multi-Chirp Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Mono-pulse (MC-FMCW-M) Radar sensor to monitor room occupants. Digital filters and background subtraction algorithms were used to process the thermal images gleaned from the ITA-64 thermal sensors. The MC-FMCW-M Radar sensor used multi-chirp and Doppler shift principles to estimate the exact location of the targeted room occupants. The estimated distances from the Radar Sensor were compared with ground truth values. Experimental results demonstrated the ability to identify thermal blobs of occupants present in the room at any particular time. Data analyses indicated no significant difference (p = 0.975) and a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.998) between the ground truth distance values and those obtained from the Radar Sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: smart light control; microcontroller; light sensor; motion sensor; energy saving
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:50:31 CEST)
In this work, an energy-saving smart light controlling system has been proposed that can main-tain the desired intensity of light in a room automatically. Unlike the conventional light control system, the proposed system splits a large room into several zones and analyzes the light inten-sity of each zone; hence, the controlling unit adjusts the light intensity to the desired level. The main controlling unit consists of a light sensor, a motion sensor, a relay with a driver unit, an LCD display, etc. for controlling light efficiently to reduce the power waste. The sensors meas-ure the intensity of light, based on the standard light intensity data chart the controller units make a decision how many light bulbs are needed to be switched ON/OFF in a particular zone. Moreover, the system automatically switched-OFF all light bulbs when there is nobody in the room. Proteus design suite 8.0 is used to design and simulation of the proposed system. Moreo-ver, the PCB layout is designed using ExpressPCB version 7.5.0. The proposed system is capable of minimizing the power loss by up to 44% in comparison to the conventional light manage-ment system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Arduino; Bluetooth; load cell; monitoring system; temperature sensor; weight sensor
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:27:36 CET)
: This paper presents a couple of meal monitoring systems for senile dementia patients by using electronic weight and temperature sensors. These monitoring systems enable to convey the information of the amount of meal taken by the patients in real-time via wireless communication networks onto the mobile phones of their families or nurses in charge. Thereby, the nurses can easily spot the most desperate patient to take care of while the families can have relief to see the crucial information for survival of their parents at least three times a day. Meanwhile, the senile dementia patients tend to suffer the burn of their tongues because they can hardly recognize the temperature of hot meals served and therefore avoid the burn of tongues. This phenomenon can be discarded by utilizing the meal temperature monitoring system which displays alarm to the patients when the meal temperature is above the reference. These meal monitoring systems can be easily implemented by utilizing low-cost sensor chips and Arduino UNO boards so that elder-care hospitals and nursing homes can afford to exploit them with no additional cost. Hence, we believe that the proposed monitoring systems would be a potential solution to provide a great help and relief not only for the professional nursing nurses working in elder-care hospitals and nursing homes, but also for the families of the dementia patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0326.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GEO label; serverless; semantic sensor web; discovery; visualisation; sensor web
Online: 30 June 2020 (08:06:39 CEST)
As the amount of sensor data made available online increases, it becomes more difficult for users to identify useful datasets. Semantic web technologies improve discovery with meaningful ontologies, but the decision of suitability remains with the users. The GEO label provides a visual summary of the standardised metadata to aid users in this process. This work presents novel rules for deriving the information for the GEO label's multiple facets, such as user feedback or quality information, based on the Semantic Sensor Network Ontology and related ontologies. It enhances an existing implementation of the GEO label API to generate labels for resources of the Semantic Sensor Web. The prototype is deployed to serverless cloud infrastructures. We find that serverless GEO label generation is capable of handling two evaluation scenarios for concurrent users and burst generation. More real-world semantic sensor descriptions and an integration into large scale discovery platforms are needed to develop the presented solutions further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: underwater range sensor; underwater localization; sensor network; received signal strength
Online: 31 July 2018 (06:26:03 CEST)
In this paper analyses the characteristic of EM waves propagation in structured environment to identify the signal interference by the structure, and suggests the EM waves attenuation model considering the distance and penetration loss by the structure. The range sensor based on electromagnetic(EM) waves attenuation along to the distance showed the precise distance estimation with high resolution depending on the distance. However, it is hard to use in structured environments due to the lack of consideration of the EM waves attenuation characteristics in the structured underwater environment. In this paper, EM waves propagation characteristic and signal interference effects by the structures were analyzed, and the EM waves distance-attenuation model in structured environment was suggested with sensor installation guideline. The EM waves propagation characteristics and proposed sensor model were verified by the several experiments, and the localization result in structured environment showed the more reliable performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high-temperature sensor; inductive sensor; blade tip timing; blade health monitoring
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:04:14 CEST)
Magnetic sensors are widely used in health management systems for turbomachinery, but their applications in the hot zone are limited due to the loss of magnetic properties by permanent magnets with increasing temperature. The paper presents and verifies models and design solutions aimed at improving the performance of an inductive sensor for measuring the motion of rotating objects operating at elevated temperatures (200-1000C), such as compressor and turbine blades. Physical, analog and mathematical models of the interaction of blades with the sensor were developed. A prototype of the sensor was made and its tests were carried out on the RK-4 rotor rig for the speed of 7000 rpm, in which the temperature of the sensor head was gradually increased to 1100C. The sensor signal level was compared to that of an identical sensor operating at room temperature. The heated sensor works continuously producing the output signal whose level does not change significantly. What is more, a set of six probes passed an initial engine test in an SO-3 turbojet. It was confirmed that the proposed design of the inductive sensor is suitable for blade health monitoring of the last stages of compressors, steam turbines as well as previous generation gas turbines operating below 1000C, even without a dedicated cooling system. In real-engine applications, sensor performance will depend on how the sensor is installed and the available heat dissipation capability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0377.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sensor data, wireless body area network, wearable devices, sensor data interoperability
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:47:26 CEST)
The monitoring of maternal and child health, using wearable devices made with wireless sensor technologies, is expected to reduce maternal and child death rates. Wireless sensor technologies have been used in wireless sensor networks to enable the acquisition of data for monitoring machines, smart cities, transportation, asset tracking, and tracking of human activity. Applications based on wireless body area network (WBAN) have been used in healthcare for measuring and monitoring of patient health and activity through integration with wearable devices. Wireless sensors used in WBAN can be cost-effective, enable remote availability, and can be integrated with electronic health record (EHR) management systems. Interoperability of WBAN sensor data with other linked data has the potential to improve health for all, including maternal and child health through the improvement of data access, data quality and healthcare access. This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art techniques for managing WBAN sensor data interoperability. The findings in this study will provide reliable support to enable policymakers and health care providers to take action to enhance the use of e-health to improve maternal-child health and reduce the mortality rates of women and children.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Tracking; Magnetic tracker; Magnetoresistor; Magnetic Sensor; Sensor Array; Microcontroller; Eye Motion
Online: 14 December 2020 (12:59:20 CET)
We present the hardware of a cheap multi-sensor magnetometric setup, where a relatively large set of magnetic field components is measured in several positions by calibrated magnetoresistive detectors. The setup is developed to map the (inhomogeneous) field generated by a known magnetic source, which is measured and then discerned from the background (homogeneous) geomagnetic field. The data output from this hardware can be successfully and reliably used to retrieve the position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame, together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. Possible applications of the setup are briefly discussed, and a synthetic description of the methods of data elaboration and analysis is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: P3HT; PEDOT:PSS; flexible sensor; strain sensor; photoactive self-sensing thin films
Online: 10 September 2018 (07:53:44 CEST)
In this study, a flexible strain sensor is devised using corrugated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin film. In the previous studies, the P3HT-based photoactive thin film was shown to generate direct current (DC) under broadband light, and the generated DC voltage varied with applied tensile strain. Yet, the mechanical resiliency and strain sensing range of the P3HT-based thin film strain sensor were limited due to relatively more brittle thin film constituent—poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene(sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive thin film as a bottom electrode. To address this issue, it is aimed to design mechanically resilient strain sensor using corrugated thin film constituents. Buckling is induced to form corrugation in the thin films by applying pre-strain to the substrate, where the thin films are deposited, and releasing the pre-strain afterwards. It is known that corrugated thin film constituents exhibit different optical and electronic properties from non-corrugated ones. Therefore, to optimize design of the flexible strain sensor, it was studied to understand how the applied pre-strain and thickness of the PEDOT:PSS thin film affect the optical and electrical properties. Also, pre-strain effect on light absorptivity of the corrugated P3HT-based thin films was studied. In addition, strain effect was investigated on the optical and electrical properties of the corrugated thin film constituents. Finally, flexible strain sensors are fabricated by following the design guideline, which is suggested from the studies on the corrugated thin film constituents, and DC voltage strain sensing capability was validated. As a result, flexible strain sensor exhibited tensile strain sensing range up to 5% at frequency up to 15 Hz with maximum gage factor ~7.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0067.v1
Online: 8 January 2020 (08:35:48 CET)
People counting applications have been used in diverse applications. The ability and accuracy of thermal imaging over conventional image cameras has led to the implementation of thermal cameras in people counting applications. This paper present a thermal people counting smart glass windows. The people counting application would be remotely monitored from a single centralized PC station as it’s connected to a multiplex of mass monitoring of 20 thermal camera, all embedded into different glass windows. The thermal cameras would then be able to detect body temperatures of all individuals who pass through any of the camera range and also count the numbers of people who passed through the camera range. The data gotten can then be further utilized in various ways, example is in the control of air conditioning and lightening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microwaves, microfluidic, sensor, LTCC
Online: 4 January 2019 (09:00:27 CET)
This paper compares two types of microfluidic sensors that are designed for operation in ISM bands at microwave frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. In the case of the first sensor, the principle of operation is based on the resonance phenomenon in a microwave circuit filled with a test sample. The second sensor is based on the interferometric principle and makes use of the superposition of two coherent microwave signals, where only one of them goes through a test sample. Both sensors are monolithic structures fabricated using low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC). The LTCC-based microwave-microfluidic sensor properties are examined and compared by measuring their responses for various concentrations of two types of test fluids: one is a mixture of water/ethanol, and the other is dopamine dissolved in a buffer solution. The experiments show a linear response for the LTCC-based microwave-microfluidic sensors as a function of the concentration of the components in both test fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor arrays; geotechnical sensors; solderless connectors; wireless sensor networks; deformation monitoring; accelerometer
Online: 17 March 2022 (07:11:47 CET)
Landslides are a global and frequent natural hazard, affecting many communities and infrastructure networks. Technological solutions are needed for long-term, large-scale condition monitoring of infrastructure earthworks, or natural slopes. However, current instruments for slope stability monitoring are often costly, require a complex installation process and/or data processing schemes, or have poor resolution. Wireless sensor networks comprising low-power, low-cost sensors have been shown to be a crucial part of landslide early warning systems. Here, we present the development of a novel sensing approach that uses linear arrays of three-axis accelerometers, used for monitoring soil deformation. By combining these deformation measurements with depth-resolved temperature measurements, we can link our data to subsurface thermal-hydrological regimes where relevant. In this research, we present a configuration of cascaded I2C sensors that (i) have ultra-low power consumption and (ii) enable an adjustable probe length. From an electromechanical perspective, we developed a novel board-to-board connection method that enables narrow, semi-flexible sensor arrays and a streamlined assembly process. The low-cost connection method relies on a specific FR4 printed circuit board design that allows board-to-board press-fitting without using electromechanical components or solder connections. The sensor assembly is placed in a thin, semi-flexible tube (inner diameter 6.35 mm) that is filled with an epoxy compound. The resulting sensor probe is connected to a AA battery powered data logger with wireless connectivity. We characterize the system's electromechanical properties and investigate the accuracy of deformation measurements. Our experiments performed with probes up to 1.8 m long demonstrate long-term connector stability, as well as probe mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, our accuracy analysis indicates that deformation measurements can be performed with a 0.390 mm resolution and a 95% confidence interval of ±0.73 mm per meter of probe length. This research shows the suitability of low-cost accelerometer arrays for distributed soil stability monitoring. In comparison to emerging low-cost measurements of surface displacement, our approach provides depth-resolved deformation, which can inform about shallow sliding surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0142.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: metal oxide; gas sensor; resistive sensor; single nanowire; fish spoilage; food freshness
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:56:33 CEST)
The response of a single tin oxide nanowire was collected at different temperatures to create a virtual array of sensors working as a nano-electronic nose. The single nanowire, acting as a chemiresistor, was first tested with pure ammonia and then used to determine the freshness status of trout fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a rapid and non-invasive way. The gas sensor reacts to total volatile basic nitrogen, detecting the freshness status of the fish samples in less than 30 seconds. The sensor response at different temperatures correlates well with the total viable count (TVC), demonstrating that it is a good (albeit indirect) way of measuring the bacterial population in the sample. The nano-electronic nose is able to classify the samples according to their degree of freshness, but also to quantitatively estimate the concentration of microorganisms present. The system was tested with samples stored at different temperatures, managing to classify them perfectly (100%) and estimating their log(TVC) with an error lower than 5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: bragg grating sensor; auxetic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:08:12 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures. The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding. Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethane string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Bragg grating sensor; auxtic sensor; silica helical core; wrap angle; braid angle
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:01:16 CEST)
This study's objective was to propose the use of textile braiding manufacturing methods, thus facilitating the application of the high precision and accurate measurability of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to various structures.The purpose of this study was to Combine 3d braid processing with the optical Bragg grating sensor's accurate metrology. Out of limits of the sensor's epoxy attachment methods, the textile braiding method can make applicable scope diversify. The braiding processing is capable of designing a 3D fabric module processing, multiple objective mechanical fiber arrangement, and material characteristics. Optical stress-strain response conditions were explored through the optimization of design elements between the Bragg grating sensor and braiding. For this study, Bragg grating sensors were located 75% apart from the fiber center. The sensor core structure is helical of 1.54 pitch. A polyurethane synthetic yarn was braided together with the sensor on the Weaving machine core part in a braiding.Prototyping results, a negative Poisson's ratio makes curled the braided Bragg grating sensor. The number of polyurethan string yarns has been conducted the role of wrap angle in braiding. The 12 strands condition showed an increase in double stress-strain response rate at a Poisson ratio of 1.3%, and 16 strands condition was found to affect the sensor with noise at a Poisson ratio of 1.5%. This study can suggest applying braid processing of the Bragg grating sensor, which is expected to create and develop a new monitoring sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0477.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: optical frequency domain reflectometry; distributed sensor; temperature sensor; tunable laser; coated fiber
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:41:37 CEST)
We present a distributed optical-fiber temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on an Al-coated fiber using the Rayleigh backscattering spectra (RBS) shift in optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). The Al-coated sensing fiber with a higher thermal expansion coefficient compared to silica produces a strain-coupled shift in the RBS under an increase in temperature. This effect leads to an enhanced temperature sensitivity of the distributed measurement scheme. Our results revealed that the temperature sensitivity obtained using the Al-coated fiber in OFDR was ~56% higher relative to that of a single-mode fiber. Moreover, the minimum measurable temperature recorded was 1 °C with a spatial resolution of 5 cm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0293.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: sensor technology; sensor research; network analysis; technological trajectories; technological change; scientific change; scientific development; wireless sensor networks; fiber optic sensors; biosensors
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:36:55 CEST)
How do sensor research and technologies grow over time? This paper applies the network analysis with a new computational approach to map the structure and evolution of sensor research and technologies over a 30-year time frame (1990-2020).The goal of this study is to analyze the evolution of ecosystem in sensor research for forecasting emerging technological trajectories. Results show that the scientific interaction within ecosystem (represented with networks) of sensor generates a co-evolution of research fields supporting the accelerated growth of different technological trajectories, such as: wireless sensors, fiber optic and optical sensors, gas and biosensors. Results suggest main theoretical implications that explain the evolution of sensor research with critical aspects of innovation management to support R&D investments towards new technological trajectories having a high potential of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0028.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: gas sensor; hydrogen sensor; diode laser; TDLAS; WMS; absorption spectroscopy; laser spectroscopy; hydrogen
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:21:16 CET)
A laser-based hydrogen (H2) sensor using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) was developed for contactless measurements of molecular hydrogen. The sensor uses a distributed feedback (DFB) laser to target the H2 quadrupole absorption line at 2121.8 nm. The H2 absorption line exhibits weak collisional broadening and strong collisional narrowing effects. Both effects were investigated by comparing measurements of the absorption linewidth with detailed models using different line profiles that include collisional narrowing effects. The collisional broadening and narrowing parameters were determined for pure hydrogen as well as for hydrogen in nitrogen and air. Performance of the sensor was evaluated and the sensor applicability for H2 measurements in a range of 0- 10 %v of H2 was demonstrated. A precision of 0.02 %v was achieved with 1 meter of absorption pathlength (0.02 %v∙m) and 1 s of integration time. For the optimum averaging time of 20 s a precision of 0.005 %v∙m was achieved. A good linear relationship between H2 concentration and the sensor response was observed. A simple and robust transmitter-receiver configuration of the sensor allows in-situ installations in harsh industrial environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0351.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: electrochemical sensor; inhibition bacteria sensor array; immobilization of bacteria; water pollution; pattern recognition
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:51:41 CEST)
The development of a novel and simple inhibition biosensor array for detection of water pollutants based on immobilized bacteria is the main goal of this work. A series of electrochemical measurements (i.e. cyclic voltammograms) were carried out on screen-printed gold electrodes with three types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, and Methylococcus capsulatus, immobilized via poly L-lysine. For comparison purposes, similar measurements were carried out on bacteria samples in solutions,; also optical measurements (fluorescence microscopy, optical density, and flow cytometry) were performed on the same bacteria in both liquid and immobilized forms. The study of the effect of heavy metal ions (lead), pesticides (atrazine) and petrochemicals (hexane) on DC electrochemical characteristics of immobilized bacteria revealed a possibility of pattern recognition of the above inhibition agents in aquatic environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0410.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Microfluidics; Impedance Spectroscopy; Pressure Sensor
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:36:30 CET)
Over the last two decades, microfluidics has received significant attention from both academia and industry, and researchers report thousands of new prototype devices each year for use in a broad range of environmental, pharmaceutical, and biomedical engineering applications. While lab-on-a-chip fabrication costs have continued to decrease, the hardware required for monitoring fluid flows within microfluidic devices themselves remains expensive and often cost prohibitive for researchers interested in starting a microfluidics project. As microfluidic devices become capable of handling complex fluidic systems, low-cost, precise and real time pressure and flow rate measurement capabilities has become increasingly important. While many labs use commercial platforms and sensor, these solutions can often cost thousands of dollars and can be too bulky for on-chip use. Here we present a new inexpensive and easy -to-use piezoresistive pressure and flow sensor that can be easily integrated into existing on-chip microfluidic channels. The sensor consists of PDMS-Carbon black conductive membranes and uses an impedance analyzer to measure impedance change due fluid pressure. The sensor costs several orders of magnitude less than existing commercial platforms and can monitor local fluid pressures and calculate flow rates based on pressure gradient.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0497.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (03:21:24 CEST)
The objective of this paper is to present an electromagnetic sensor that generates pulse inductance , integrated on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) which complements the current technology in this area, adding equipment to the detection of landmines. The electromagnetic sensor developed, locates landmines deployed during armed conflicts, which daily kill innocent people, block economic and social development, hinder the displacement of people, causing serious social and economic problems for many years. Flights can be made over mined areas allowing the identification of the exact location of each land mine.
Subject: Keywords: mode discrimination; multi-mode waveguide; S-bend resonator; refractive index sensor; integrated optical sensor
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:19:20 CEST)
In this paper, a multi-mode waveguide-based optical resonator is proposed for an integrated optical refractive index sensor. Conventional optical resonators have been studied for single-mode waveguide-based resonators to enhance the performance, but mass production is limited owing to the high fabrication costs of nano-scale structures. To overcome this problem, we designed an S-bend resonator based on a micro-scale multi-mode waveguide. In general, multi-mode waveguides cannot be utilized as optical resonators, because of a performance degradation resulting from modal dispersion and an output transmission with multi-peaks. Therefore, we exploited the mode discrimination phenomenon using the bending loss, and the resulting S-bend resonator yielded an output transmission without multi-peaks. This phenomenon is utilized to remove higher-order modes efficiently using the difference in the effective refractive index between the higher-order and fundamental modes. As a result, the resonator achieved a Q-factor and sensitivity of 2.3x103 and 52 nm/RIU, respectively, using the variational finite-difference time-domain method. These results show that the multi-mode waveguide-based S-bend resonator with a wide line width can be utilized as a refractive index sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0107.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: RF MEMS; pressure sensor; MEMS resonators; implantable BioMEMS; flexible electronics; touch mode capacitive sensor
Online: 6 July 2018 (07:42:03 CEST)
This paper reports the novel design of a touch mode capacitive pressure sensor (TMCPS) system with a wireless approach for a full-range continuous monitoring of ventricular pressure. The system consists of two modules: an implantable set and an external reading device. The implantable set, restricted to a 2x2 cm2 area, consists of a TMCPS array connected with a dual-layer coil, for making a reliable resonant circuit for communication with the external device. The capacitive array is modelled considering the small deflection regime for achieving a dynamic and full 5-300 mmHg pressure range. In this design, the two inductive-coupled modules are calculated considering proper electromagnetic alignment, based on two planar coils and considering the following: 13.56 MHz frequency to avoid tissue damage and three types of biological tissue as core (skin, fat and muscle). The system was validated with the Comsol Multiphysics and CoventorWare softwares; showing a 90% power transmission efficiency at a 3.5 cm distance between coils. The implantable module includes aluminum- and polyimide-based devices, which allows ergonomic, robust, reproducible, and technologically feasible integrated sensors. In addition, the module shows a simplified and low cost design approach based on PolyMEMS INAOE® technology, featured by low-temperature processing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0067.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD); boron doping; nitrogen doping; nanowire (NW); gas sensor; ultraviolet (UV) photodetector; piezoresistance (PZR) sensor; biosensor; nitrogen-vacancy (NV); magnetic quantum sensor
Online: 5 January 2021 (09:09:09 CET)
The aim of this review is to provide a survey of the recent advances and the main remaining challenges related to the ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowires and other nanostructures which exhibit excellent capability as the core components for many diverse novel sensing devices, due to the unique material properties and geometry advantages. The doping introduced in the gas phase during deposition promotes p-type or n-type conductivity. With the establishment of the UNCD nanofabrication techniques, more and more nanostructure based devices are being explored in measuring basic physical and chemical parameters via classic and quantum methods, as exemplified by gas sensors, ultraviolet photodetectors, piezoresistance effect based devices, biological applications, and nitrogen-vacancy color center based magnetic field quantum sensors. Highlighted finally are some of the remaining challenges and future outlook in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0047.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: artificial intelligence; neural network; machine learning; oxygen sensor; luminescence; optical sensor; luminescence quenching; phase fluorimetry
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:39:44 CET)
Luminescence-based sensors for measuring oxygen concentration are widely used both in industry and research due to the practical advantages and sensitivity of this type of sensing. The measuring principle is the luminescence quenching by oxygen molecules, which results in a change of the luminescence decay time and intensity. In the standard approach, this change is related to an oxygen concentration using the Stern–Volmer equation. This equation, which in most of the cases is non-linear, is parametrized through device-specific constants. Therefore, to determine these parameters every sensor needs to be precisely calibrated at one or more known concentrations. This work explores an entirely new artificial intelligence approach and demonstrates the feasibility of oxygen sensing through machine learning. The specifically developed neural network learns very efficiently to relate the input quantities to the oxygen concentration. The results show a mean deviation of the predicted from the measured concentration of 0.5 % air, comparable to many commercial and low-cost sensors. Since the network was trained using synthetically generated data, the accuracy of the model predictions is limited by the ability of the generated data to describe the measured data, opening up future possibilities for significant improvement by using a large number of experimental measurements for training. The approach described in this work demonstrates the applicability of artificial intelligence to sensing technology and paves the road for the next generation of sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0098.v1
Subject: Keywords: electric power steering systems; torque sensor; angle sensor; state switch; active return-to-center control
Online: 14 March 2018 (04:43:39 CET)
This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC) control for electric power steering (EPS) systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT). Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver’s steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0341.v1
Online: 25 March 2022 (08:44:33 CET)
Modern agriculture demands for comprehensive information about the plant itself. Conventional chemistry-based analytical methods - due to their low throughput and high associated cost - are no longer capable of providing these data. In recent years, remote reflectance-based characterization has developed as one of the most promising solutions for rapid assessments for plant attributes. However, in many cases, expensive equipment is required because accurate quantifications need assessment of the full reflectance spectrum. We examined the versatility of visible colour sensors as reflectance measuring devices for biological / biochemical quantifications on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Our results indicate for the wide potential of spectral colour sensors for quantitative determination of leaf phenolic compounds, flavonoids in particular, and non-invasive plant phenotyping in agricultural applications by low-cost sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0114.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: sensor; virus; detection; electromagnetic echo effect
Online: 4 December 2020 (14:36:35 CET)
Early identification of viruses leads to more efficient disease management and control, and is extremely important. A possible new approach for creating virus sensors is the Electromagnetic echo effect (EMEE). An important feature is that the signal from EMEE is highly dependent on the state of the irradiated body. This makes it possible to control ongoing reactions, even if these reactions are invisible to the human eye or other equipment. This article shows the possibility of registering reaction occurring in the presence of an avian coronavirus causing infectious bronchitis, strain Massachusetts. The same methodology can be applied for other types of viruses as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0105.v1
Online: 5 October 2020 (20:19:21 CEST)
Nitroxyl radical catalysts oxidize alcohols under an applied electric potential. It is possible to quantify the alcohol concentration from the resulting oxidation current. In this work, we evaluated the catalytic activity of nitroxyl radicals (or their corresponding hydroxylamines), including 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) as representative nitroxyl radicals, acetoamido-TEMPO, which shows higher oxidation potential than TEMPO owing to the acetoamido group, AZADO, Nor-AZADO, and NNO as less-hindered bicyclic nitroxyl radicals, and NHPI as an N,N-diacyl-type hydroxylamine, in acetonitrile solution. TEMPO, AZADO and NNO were also evaluated for their ability to oxidize alcohols in organic solvents, and their reactivity was compared with the electrochemical response. The most active NNO was used for electrochemical detection of cyclosporin A, a drug with a hydroxyl group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: experimental sensor; dairy cows; abomasal displacement
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:17:00 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of two surgical techniques regarding the cow respiratory rates, heart rates, and rumination time using two sensors: an experimental device that was created by the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania) and the “SCR” (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) system. The cows were divided into two groups: PA1—cows treated by percutaneous abomasopexy (n = 10), and RSO2—cows treated by right side omentopexy (n = 8). For the control group (KH), according to the principle of analogues (number of lactations, breed, and days in milk), we selected clinically healthy cows (n = 9). After the surgical treatment for the abomasal displacement, the experimental device was applied for the recording of the heart and breathing rates; 12 hour tracking of the rumination time (RT) was implemented using the system ''SCR''; and the body temperature was measured. After 12 hours, the blood was taken for biochemical and morphological tests. The experimental device recorded 12 hours of the respiratory rate (RR) and heart beat rate (HBR) information. We determined the concentrations of the blood serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe), as well as the activities of aspartarte aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). According to searches for relationships between the traditional blood biochemical and morphological parameters, and the parameters measured by the experimental device, the more efficient abomasal displacement surgical method was the right side omentopexy. With the sensors, we found, after right side omentopexy, a 5.19 beats/min lower (1.10-times) average value of the respiratory rate, 1.13-times higher level of the heart rate, a 0.15 oC higher temperature, and a 3.29-times lower rumination time compared to the clinical healthy cows. Further research with larger numbers of animals and longer experimental periods are needed prior to practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0253.v1
Online: 16 March 2020 (01:16:25 CET)
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is an attracting property of certain transition metals when they are synthesized in nano-range giving rise to promising optical applications. However, most SPR and associated applications are limited to the noble metal nanoparticles, which limits their potential due to high production cost. We report surface plasmon resonance in copper-copper oxide core-shell quantum dots synthesized via chemical route studied by using UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Tuning of the plasmonic resonance with respect to the particle diameter is achieved by an inexpensive all chemical route. Photoluminescence measurements also support the data. This size reduction leads to remarkable changes in its optical response as compared to the bulk metal. The results point towards applications of these materials in tunable SPR based biosensors.
Online: 3 November 2019 (18:03:26 CET)
An antenna sensor is proposed to execute dual functions of antenna and sensor in the wireless sensor system, in order to reduce data loss and to increase transmission rate by omitting a certain interface. The as-made sensor was test at a center frequency of 46 MHz for measuring human finger postures using principle of dipole antenna. The antenna sensor was attached on a wearable glove. The results showed that the motion sensor can accurately identify finger angles at 0°, 20°, 40°, 60° and 80°.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0022.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Down syndrome; Kinect sensor; reading skills
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:14:16 CEST)
People with Down syndrome present cognitive difficulties that affect their reading skills. In this study we present results about the use of gestural interaction with Kinect sensor to improve the reading skills of students with Down syndrome. Following a case of study method for small samples with disabilities, measuring different variables related to reading skills in an experimental group and in a control group. We found improvements in the visual association, visual comprehension, sequential memory, and visual integration after this stimulation in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, we found that the number of error and delay time of interaction decrease between sessions in the experimental group.
Online: 25 April 2019 (15:09:38 CEST)
The subject of the research is to Development of laser ablation method for Fabrication of surface acoustic wave sensors on quartz wafer, the target of the GQW – is to design Acoustic wave sensor by using laser ablation method. By using the surface acoustic wave theory to sense by the signal and using this physical phenomenon, We will design the sensor which transduce an input electrical signal into a mechanical wave which unlike an electrical signal, can be easily influenced by physical phenomena. The device then transducers this wave back into an electrical signal on the secondary terminal of the sensor. Changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, or time-delay between the input and output electrical signals can be used to measure the presence of the desired Our work in this part, especially the practical part like temperature, vibration ,etc. we design a combs on the waver of quartz to make like an electrode primary electrode & secondary electrode by putting coats of cuppers & vanadium on the waver and then using the fiber optic laser regime to design this combs to can able transfer the signal by ablation the most important here to use the regime of fiber optic laser then we using this sensor in any electronic circuit How we will select the suitable kind of laser to design, this is the most important part, and what it will be the diameter of that combs of secondary and primary , how much the value of the wave length to select the micro distant combs to avoid any inductance and interference for transferred signal , also take the benefit of using MEMS theory in our project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor; e-textile, embroidery, moisture, capacitive.
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:46:48 CET)
In this work, two embroidered textile moisture sensors are characterized with three different conductive yarns. The sensors are based on a capacitive interdigitated structure embroidered on a cotton substrate with an embroidered conductor yarn. The performance comparison of 3 different type of conductive yarns has been addressed. In order to evaluate the sensor sensitivity, the impedance of the sensor has been measured by means of a LCR meter from 20 Hz to 20 kHz on a climatic chamber with a sweep of the relative humidity from 30% to 65% at 20 ºC. The experimental results show a clear and controllable dependence of the sensor impedance with the relative humidity and the used conductor yarns. This dependence points out the optimum conductive yarn to be used to develop wearable applications for moisture measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0124.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO; nanosheet; formaldehyde; chemical sensor; FET
Online: 17 December 2018 (05:03:15 CET)
Detection of formaldehyde is very important in terms of life protection, as it can cause serious injury to eyes, skin, mouth and gastrointestinal function if indirectly inhaled and hence researchers are putting effort in developing novel and sensitive device. In this work, we have fabricated an electro-chemical sensor in the form of a field effect transistor (FET) to detect formaldehyde over wide range (10 nM to 1 mM). For this, ZnO nanosheets (NS) were first synthesized by hydrothermal method with in-situ deposition on cleaned SiO2 coated Si (100) substrate. The synthesized materials were characterized for morphology and purity and surface area (31.718 m2/g). The developed device was tested for formaldehyde detection at room temperature that resulted in a linear response with concentration (96%), sensitivity value of 0.27 mA/M/cm2 and a low detection limit of 210 nM, and a high 0.93194 return.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0134.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: multi-sensor fusion; satellite; radar; precipitation
Online: 27 September 2017 (04:09:22 CEST)
This paper presents a new and enhanced fusion module for the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) that would objectively blend real-time satellite quantitative precipitation estimates (SQPE) with radar and gauge estimates. This module consists of a preprocessor that mitigates systematic bias in SQPE, and a two-way blending routine that statistically fuses adjusted SQPE with radar estimates. The preprocessor not only corrects systematic bias in SQPE, but also improves the spatial distribution of precipitation based on SQPE and makes it closely resemble that of radar-based observations. It uses a more sophisticated radar-satellite merging technique to blend preprocessed datasets, and provides a better overall QPE product. The performance of the new satellite-radar-gauge blending module is assessed using independent rain gauge data over a 5-year period between 2003-2007, and the assessment evaluates the accuracy of newly developed satellite-radar-gauge (SRG) blended products versus that of radar-gauge products (which represents MPE algorithm currently used in the NWS operations) over two regions: I) inside radar effective coverage and II) immediately outside radar coverage. The outcomes of the evaluation indicate a) ingest of SQPE over areas within effective radar coverage improve the quality of QPE by mitigating the errors in radar estimates in region I; and b) blending of radar, gauge, and satellite estimates over region II leads to reduction of errors relative to bias-corrected SQPE. In addition, the new module alleviates the discontinuities along the boundaries of radar effective coverage otherwise seen when SQPE is used directly to fill the areas outside of effective radar coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0023.v1
Online: 5 June 2017 (05:18:53 CEST)
The deformation of underground gateroads tends to be asymmetric and complex. Traditional instrumentation fails to accurately and conveniently monitor the full cross-sectional deformation of underground gateroads. Here, a full cross-sectional laser scanner was developed together with a visualization software package. The developed system used polar coordinate measuring method and the full cross-sectional measurement was realized by 360° rotation of laser sensor driven by an electrical motor. Later on, the potential impact of gateroad wall flatness, roughness and geometrical profile as well as coal dust environment on the performance of the developed laser scanner were evaluated. The studies show that a high-level flatness is favorable in application of the developed full cross-sectional deformation monitoring system. For a smooth surface of gateroad, the sensor cannot receive reflected light when the incidence angle of laser beam is large, causing data loss. Conversely, the roughness surface shows its priority as the diffuse reflection light can be received by the sensor. With regards to the coal dust in measurement environment, the fine particles of floating coal dust in the air can lead to the loss of measurement data to some certain due to scattering of laser beam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: silicon pressure sensor; shield layer; stability
Online: 13 August 2016 (10:47:16 CEST)
This paper presents a piezoresistive pressure sensor with a shield layer for improved stability. Compared with the conventional piezoresistive pressure sensors, p-type piezoresistors are covered by an n-type shield layer, which is formed by ion implantation. The proposed pressure sensors have been successfully fabricated by bulk micromachining techniques. The impact of electrical field on piezoresistors is studied by simulation. The temperature drift of the pressure sensor has been investigated by both simulation and experimental measurement. Characteristics of developed pressure sensors are tested from -40 C to 125 C. A sensitivity of 0.022 mV/V/KPa and a maximum non-linearity of 0.085% FS are measured for the fabricated sensor in a pressure range of 1 MPa. The temperature coefficients of resistance of shielded piezoresistors are found to be smaller than those of un-shielded ones. It is demonstrated that the shield layer is able to reduce the drift caused by electrical field and ambient temperature variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0373.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: delta E effect; magnetoelectric sensor; Nickel; anisotropy
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:04:37 CEST)
Magnetoelectric sensors based on microelectromechanical cantilevers consisting of TiN / AlN / Ni are investigated using finite element simulations in regard of the anisotropy of the E effect and its impact on the sensor sensitivity. The E effect is derived from the anisotropic magnetostriction and magnetization of single crystalline Nickel. The magnetic hardening of Nickel in saturation is demonstrated for the (110) as well as the (111) orientation. It is shown further, that magnetostrictive bending of the cantilever has a negligible impact on the eigenfrequency and thus sensitivity. The intrinsic E effect of Nickel decreases in magnitude depending on the crystal orientation when integrated into the magnetoelectric sensor design. The transitions of the individual magnetic domain states are found to be the dominant influencing factor on the sensitivity for all crystal orientations. The peak sensitivity was determined to 41.3 T-1 for (110) in-plane orientated Nickel at a magnetic bias flux of 1.78 mT. It is found, that the transition from domain wall shift to domain rotation along the hard axes yields much higher sensitivity than the transition from domain rotation to magnetization reversal. The results achieved in this work show that Nickel as hard magnetic material is able to reach almost identical sensitivities as soft magnetic materials, such as FeCoSiB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0690.v1
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:32:59 CEST)
The increasingly affordable price point of terrestrial laser scanners has led to a democratization of instrument availability, but the most common low-cost instruments have yet to be compared in terms of the consistency to measure forest structural attributes. Here, we compared two low-cost terrestrial laser scanners (TLS): the Leica BLK360 and the Faro Focus 120 3D. We evaluate the instruments in terms of point cloud quality, forest inventory estimates, tree-model reconstruction, and foliage profile reconstruction. Our direct comparison of the point clouds showed reduced noise in filtered Leica data. Tree diameter and height were consistent across instruments (4.4% and 1.4% error, respectively). Volumetric tree models were less consistent across instruments, with ~29% bias, depending on model reconstruction quality. In the process of comparing foliage profiles, we conducted a sensitivity analysis of factors affecting foliage profile estimates, showing a minimal effect from instrument maximum range (for forests less than ~50 m in height) and surprisingly little impact from degraded scan resolution. Filtered unstructured TLS point clouds must be artificially re-gridded to provide accurate foliage profiles. The factors evaluated in this comparison point towards necessary considerations for future low-cost laser scanner development and application in detecting forest structural parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: lidar; sensor calibration; heteroskedastic; landmark position estimation
Online: 7 December 2020 (14:00:39 CET)
We consider the problem of calibrating distance measurement of Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) sensor without using additional hardware, but rather exploiting assumptions on the environment surrounding the sensor during the calibration procedure. More specifically we consider the assumption of calibrating the sensor by placing it in an environment so that its measurements lie in a 2D plane that is parallel to the ground, and so that its measurements come from fixed objects that develop orthogonally w.r.t. the ground, so that they may be considered as fixed points in an inertial reference frame. We moreover consider the intuition that moving the distance sensor within this environment implies that its measurements should be such that the relative distances and angles among the fixed points above remain the same. We thus exploit this intuition to cast the sensor calibration problem as making its measurements comply with this assumption that “fixed features shall have fixed relative distances and angles”. The resulting calibration procedure does thus not need to use additional (typically expensive) equipment, nor deploying special hardware. As for the proposed estimation strategies, from a mathematical perspective we consider models that lead to analytically solvable equations, so to enable deployment in embedded systems. Besides proposing the estimators we moreover analyse their statistical performance both in simulation and with field tests, reporting thus the dependency of the MSE performance of the calibration procedure as a function of the sensor noise levels, and observing that in field tests the approach can lead to a ten-fold improvement in the accuracy of the raw measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: piezoceramic sensor; reinforced concrete; force; earthquake; damage.
Online: 16 June 2020 (08:34:24 CEST)
To quantify damage to reinforced concrete (RC) column members after an earthquake, an engineer needs to know the maximum applied force that was generated by the earthquake. Therefore, in this work, piezoceramic transducers are used to detect the applied force on an RC column member under dynamic loading. To investigate the use of post-embedded piezoceramic sensors in detecting the force that is applied to RC columns, eight full-size RC column specimens with various failure modes are tested under specific earthquake loadings. Post-embedded piezoceramic sensors are installed at a range of depths (70-80 mm) beneath the surface of a column specimen to examine the relationship between the signals that are obtained from them and the force applied by the dynamic actuator. The signals that are generated by the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors, which correlate with the applied force, are presented. These results indicate that the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors have great potential as tools for measuring the maximum applied force on an RC column in an earthquake. Restated, signals that are obtained from post-embedded piezoceramic sensors on an RC column in an earthquake can be used to determine the applied force and corresponding damage or residual seismic capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; Aptamer
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:30:18 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 0.8x1e6 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer or simulant Urine) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; aptamer
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:24:39 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 1.2x106 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: infrared sensors; cameras; indoor positioning; sensor fusion
Online: 29 May 2019 (04:45:00 CEST)
A method for infrared and cameras sensor fusion, applied to indoor positioning in intelligent spaces, is proposed in this work. The fused position is obtained with a maximum likelihood estimator from infrared and camera independent observations. Specific models are proposed for variance propagation from infrared and camera observations (phase shifts and image respectively) to their respective position estimates and to the final fused estimation. Model simulations are compared with real measurements in a setup designed to validate the system. The difference between theoretical prediction and real measurements is between 0.4 cm (fusion) and 2.5 cm (camera), within a 95% confidence margin. The positioning precision is in the cm level (sub-cm level can be achieved at most tested positions) in a 4x3 m locating cell with 5 infrared detectors on the ceiling and one single camera, at distances from target up to 5 m and 7 m respectively. Due to the low cost system design and the results observed, the system is expected to be feasible and scalable to large real spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: textile sensor; carbon fiber; false strain compensation
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:28:03 CET)
The paper describes preliminary studies on the influence of humidity on the electrical resistance of a textile sensor made of carbon fibers. The concept of the sensor refers to externally bonded fiber reinforcement commonly used to strengthen building structures. However, the zig-zag arrangement of carbon fiber tow allows measuring strains, as it is done in popular resistive strain gauges. The sensor tests proved its effectiveness in the measurement of strains, but also showed a high sensitivity to changes in the temperature and humidity which unfavorably affects the readings and their interpretation. The influence of these factors must be compensated. Due to the size of the sensor, there is not possible electrical compensation by the combining of several sensors into the half or full Wheatstone bridge circuit. Only mathematical compensation based on known humidity resistance functions is possible. The described research is the first step to develop such relations. The tests were carried out at temperatures of 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C, with changing the humidity in the range of 30-90%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor; e-textile, embroidery, moisture, conductive yarn
Online: 17 October 2018 (14:32:52 CEST)
In this work, an embroidered textile moisture sensor is presented. The sensor is based on a capacitive interdigitated structure embroidered on a cotton substrate with an embroidery conductor yarn composed by 99% pure silver plated nylon yarn 140/17 dtex. In order to evaluate the sensor sensitivity, the impedance of the sensor has been measured by means of a LCR meter from 20 Hz to 20 kHz on a climatic chamber with a sweep of the relative humidity from 25% to 65% at 20 ºC. The experimental results show a clear and controllable dependence of the sensor impedance with the relative humidity. Moreover, the reproducibility of the sensor performance subject to the manufacturing process variability and washing process is also evaluated. The results show that the manufacturing variability introduce a moisture measurement error up to 4%. The washing process impact on the sensor behavior after applying the first washing cycle implies a sensitivity reduction higher than 14%. Despite these effect, the textile sensor keeps its functionality and can be reused in standard conditions. Therefore, these properties point out the usefulness of the proposed sensor to develop wearable applications on health and fitness scope including the user needs to have a life cycle longer than one-time use
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0077.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Data aggregation, Security and Wireless Sensor Network
Online: 25 July 2016 (14:38:07 CEST)
Multiple sensor nodes known as detection stations make the sensor networks; each node is light and portable. Every sensor node contains power source, microcomputer, transducer and transceiver. Power source provides power to each node. Micro-computer is used for storing and processing the output coming from the sensors. The transducer is used to generate the signals and the transceiver is used to receive and transmit data to the central computer. Eavesdropping gets facilitated with wireless communication, and it has many useful applications in military, homeland, hostile and uncontrolled environments. So it is prone to the high level of security. The process in which information is gathered to form a summarized type for analysis is known as data aggregation, as it is used to reduce the energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. The security issues have become crucial in data aggregation, especially when gets deployed in hostile and remote environment. In wireless sensor networks many secure aggregations have been proposed. It still faces some resource constrained that’s why new techniques are needed. In our survey we will discuss those approaches and their pros and cons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: wireless sensor network; compressive sensing; short word-length; sensor tracking; delta modulation; sigma-delta modulation; communication energy efficiency.
Online: 30 August 2021 (14:24:44 CEST)
This work combines compressive sensing and short word-length techniques to achieve localization and target tracking in wireless sensor networks with energy-efficient communication between the network anchors and the fusion center. Gradient descent localization is performed using time-of-arrival (TOA) data which are indicative of the distance between anchors and the target thereby achieving range-based localization. The short word-length techniques considered are delta modulation and sigma-delta modulation. The energy efficiency is due to the reduction of the data volume transmitted from anchors to the fusion center by employing any of the two delta modulation variants with compressive sensing techniques. Delta modulation allows the transmission of one bit per TOA sample. The communication energy efficiency is increased by RⱮ, R≥1, where R is the sample reduction ratio of compressive sensing and Ɱ is the number of bits originally present in a TOA-sample word. It is found that the localization system involving sigma-delta modulation has a superior performance to that using delta-modulation or pure compressive sampling alone, in terms of both energy efficiency and localization error in the presence of TOA measurement noise, owing to the noise shaping property of sigma-delta modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Sensor; optoelectronics; shear; force; biomechanics; gait; wearables; healthcare
Online: 23 February 2022 (13:35:58 CET)
The need for miniaturized shear force sensors is expanding, particularly for biomedical applications. Examples include measuring interfacial shear stresses between a human and an external device (e.g., footwear or a prosthesis). However, there are considerable challenges in designing a shear sensor for these applications due to the need for a small package, low power requirements, and resistance to interference from motion artifact and electromagnetic fields. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization sensor that measures two-axis shear force by detecting displacement between a color panel and a red, green, and blue light-sensing photodiode. The sensor response to applied displacements and forces was characterized under benchtop testing conditions. We also present the design of a prototype wireless version of the sensor for integration into footwear. The sensor exhibited strong agreement with gold standard measurements for two axis shear displacements (R2>0.99, RMSE≤5.0 µm) and forces (R2>0.99, RMSE≤0.94 N). This performance, along with the sensor’s scalability, miniaturized form, and low power requirements make it well-suited a variety of biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0024.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: wireless sensor networks; heterogeneous; hazardous environment; energy efficient.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:17:02 CET)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) continue to provide essential services for various applications such as surveillance, data gathering, and data transmission from the hazardous environments to safer destinations. This has been enhanced by the energy-efficient routing protocols that are mostly designed for such purposes. Gateway-based Energy-Aware Multi-hop Routing protocol (MGEAR) is one of the homogenous routing schemes that was recently designed to more efficiently reduce the energy consumption of distant nodes. However, it has been found that the protocol has a high energy consumption rate, lower stability period, less data transmission to the Base station (BS). In this paper, an enhanced Heterogeneous Gateway-based Energy-Aware multi-hop routing protocol ( HMGEAR) is proposed. The proposed routing scheme is based on the introduction of heterogeneous nodes in the existing scheme, selection of the head based on the residual energy, introduction of multi-hop communication strategy in all the regions of the network, and implementation of energy hole elimination technique. Results show that the proposed routing scheme outperforms two existing ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0514.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical fiber; distributed sensor; mechanical vibrations; ϕ-OTDR
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:48:46 CEST)
The distributed long-range sensing system using the standard telecommunication single-mode optical fiber in a function of a distributed sensor for sensing of mechanical vibrations is described. Various events generating vibrations such as walking or running person, moving cars, trains and others can be detected, localized and classified. The sensor and related sensing system components were designed and constructed and the system was tested both in the laboratory and in the real situation with 88 km telecom optical link, and the results are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Wireless Sensor network (WSN); Internet of Things (I.o.T)
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Surveillance along the Kenya-Somalia border has been a big challenge that has continuously puzzled the security personnel, due to insurgency of armed militia Al-Shabaab from Somalia , the Kenyan government proposed construction of a barrier wall. This project developed a low cost wireless sensor network surveillance system to be deployed along the Kenya-Somalia border. The research study utilized two PIR sensor for detecting human intrusion, one motion is detected the sensor transmit the data via an Xbee module. Arduino microcontroller was used to process the data collected by the sensor before transmission. The system developed has two units, the Transmitter unit and a User Graphic interface running on Tuna Term software that displays the received data. During testing, the prototype system detected human intrusion, using the Arduino serial monitor the results were displayed before being package for transmission.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PVDF; piezoelectric polymer; wearable device; flexible sensor; electromechanical
Online: 9 November 2020 (08:31:08 CET)
The technological development of piezoelectric materials is crucial for developing wearable and flexible electromechanical devices. There are many inorganic materials with piezoelectric effects, such as piezoelectric ceramics, aluminum nitride, and zinc oxide. They all have very high piezoelectric coefficients and large piezoelectric response ranges. The characteristics of high hardness and low tenacity make inorganic piezoelectric materials unsuitable for flexible devices that require frequent bending. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its derivatives are the most popular materials used in flexible electromechanical devices in recent years and have high flexibility, high sensitivity, high ductility, and a certain piezoelectric coefficient. Owing to increasing the piezoelectric coefficient of PVDF, researchers are committed to optimizing PVDF materials and enhancing their polarity by a series of means to further improve their mechanical–electrical conversion efficiency. This paper reviews the latest PVDF-related optimization materials, related processing and polarization methods, and the applications of these materials such as those in wearable functional devices, chemical sensors, biosensors, and flexible actuator devices for flexible micro-electromechanical devices. We also discuss the challenges of wearable devices based on flexible piezoelectric polymer, consider where further practical applications could be.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: biosensor; optical fiber sensor; two-mode fiber; sensitivity
Online: 20 February 2020 (05:33:03 CET)
Conventional method for monitoring the IgG levels suffered from some apparent problems such as long assay time, multistep processing, and high overall cost. An effective and suitable optical platform for label-free biosensing has been investigated by the implementation of antibody/antigen immunoassays. Thus, the ultrasensitive detection of IgG levels can be achieved by exploiting the dispersion turning point (DTP) existed in the tapered two-mode fibers (TTMFs) due to the sensitivity will reach ±∞ on either side of the DTP. Tracking the resonant wavelength shift it was found that the fabricated TTMF device exhibited limits of detection (LOD) down up to concentrations of 10 fg/mL of IgG in PBS solution. Such immunosensors based on the DTP have great significance on trace detection of IgG due to simple detection scheme, quick response time, and miniaturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0058.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: indoor navigation; wayfinding; visually impaired navigation; sensor fusion
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:37:53 CET)
Indoor navigation systems must deal with absence of GPS signals, since they are only available in outdoor environments. Therefore, indoor systems have to rely upon other techniques for positioning users. Recently various indoor navigation systems have been designed and developed to help visually impaired people. In this paper an overview of some existing indoor navigation systems for visually impaired people are presented and they are compared from different perspectives. The evaluated techniques are ultrasonic systems, RFID-based solutions, computer vision aided navigation systems, ans smartphone-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0239.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: wireless sensor networks; user authentication; biometric; smart card
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:15:26 CET)
Wireless sensor networks are widely used in many applications such as environmental monitoring, health care, smart grid and surveillance. Many security protocols have been proposed and intensively studied due to the inherent nature of wireless networks. In particular, Wu et al. proposed a promising authentication scheme which is sufficiently robust against various attacks. However, according to our analysis, Wu et al.'s scheme has two serious security weaknesses against malicious outsiders. First, their scheme can lead to user impersonation attacks. Second, user anonymity is not preserved in their scheme. In this paper, we present these vulnerabilities of Wu et al.'s scheme in detail. We also propose a new scheme by fixing such vulnerabilities and improving the performance of the protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0597.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: NiFe alloy; graphene oxide; glucose; non-enzymatic sensor
Online: 25 October 2018 (06:20:16 CEST)
NiFe alloy nanoparticles/graphene oxide hybrid (NiFe/GO) was prepared for electrochemical glucose sensing. The as-prepared NiFe/GO hybrid was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that NiFe alloy nanoparticles can be successfully deposited on GO. The electrochemical glucose sensing performance of the as-prepared NiFe/GO was studied by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric measurement. Results showed that NiFe/GO modified glassy carbon electrode had sensitivity of 173 μA mM−1cm−2 for glucose sensing with a linear range up to 5 mM, which was superior to commonly used Ni nanoparticles. Furthermore, high selectivity for glucose detection can be achieved by NiFe/GO. All the results demonstrated that NiFe/GO hybrid was promising for using in electrochemical glucose sensing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0519.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: CFRP strengthening; textile sensor; strain gauge errors compensation
Online: 26 September 2018 (14:56:29 CEST)
Monitoring of structures is one of the engineering challenges of the 21st century. At the same time, as a result of changes in the conditions of use, design errors, many building structures require strengthening. The article presents research on the development of the external strengthening carbon fiber textile with an option of self-sensing. The idea is based on the pattern of resistive strain gauge, where thread is provided in a zig-zag of parallel lines. Already the first laboratory tests showed the high efficiency of the system in the measurement of strains, but also revealed the sensitivity of measurement to environmental conditions. The article presents studies on the influence of temperature and humidity on the measurement. To separate those effects, resistance changes were tested on unloaded concrete and wooden samples. The models were placed in a climatic chamber and the daily cycle of temperature and humidity changes was simulated. The results of the research confirm preliminary observations. Resistivity growths with the temperature. This effect is more visible on concrete samples, presumably due to its greater natural humidity. The strain measurement with carbon fibers is very sensitive to temperature changes and application of this method in practice requires compensation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0509.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: visual-inertial odometry; UAV navigation; sensor fusion; optimization
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:23:48 CEST)
Visual inertial odometry (VIO) has recently received much attention for efficient and accurate ego-motion estimation of unmanned aerial vehicle systems (UAVs). Recent studies have shown that optimization-based algorithms achieve typically high accuracy when given enough amount of information, but occasionally suffer from divergence when solving highly non-linear problems. Further, their performance significantly depends on the accuracy of the initialization of inertial measurement unit (IMU) parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel VIO algorithm of estimating the motional state of UAVs with high accuracy. The main technical contributions are the fusion of visual information and pre-integrated inertial measurements in a joint optimization framework, and the stable initialization of scale and gravity using relative pose constraints. To count for ambiguity and uncertainty of VIO initialization, a local scale parameter is adopted in the online optimization. Quantitative comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms on the EuRoC dataset verify the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0419.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: carbon nanotubes; nanocomposite sensor; tensile testing; impedance measurement
Online: 23 July 2018 (11:52:09 CEST)
We address Multi-Wall Carbon NanoTubes (MWCNTs) for structural health monitoring in adhesive bonds such as in building structures. MWCNT-loaded composites are employed to sense strain changes under tension load using an AC impedance measurement setup. Different weight percentages of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 wt.% MWCNT are added to the base epoxy resin using different dispersion times, i.e. 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The equivalent parallel resistance of the specimens is measured by applying an alternating voltage at different frequencies. To determine the mechanical as well as sensory properties, the specimens are subjected to a tensile test with concurrent impedance measurement. Using alternating voltage, a higher sensitivity of the impedance reading can be achieved. Employing these sensors in buildings and combining the readings of a network of such devices can significantly improve the buildings’ safety. Additionally, networks of such sensors can be used to identify necessary maintenance actions and locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: diabetes; chronic wounds; smart wound dressing; biochemical sensor
Online: 28 May 2018 (10:22:39 CEST)
Given their severity and non-healing nature, diabetic chronic wounds are a significant concern to the 30.3 million Americans diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (2015). Peripheral arterial diseases, neuropathy, and infection contribute to the development of these wounds, which lead to an increased incidence of lower extremity amputations. Early recognition, debridement, offloading, and controlling infection are imperative for timely treatment. However, wound characterization and treatment are highly subjective and based largely on the experience of the treating clinician. Many wound dressings have been designed to address particular clinical presentations, but a prescriptive method is lacking for identifying the particular state of chronic, non-healing wounds. The authors suggest that recent developments in wound dressings and biosensing may allow for the quantitative, real-time representation of the wound environment, including exudate levels, pathogen concentrations, and tissue regeneration. Development of such sensing capability could enable more strategic, personalized care at the onset of ulceration and limit the infection leading to amputation. This review presents an overview of the pathophysiology of diabetic chronic wounds, a brief summary of biomaterial wound dressing treatment options, and biosensor development for biomarker sensing in the wound environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0183.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Modelica; testbed; control requirements; modeling; EMS; sensor placement;
Online: 13 April 2018 (16:01:09 CEST)
There is a continuous growth of heat pump installations in residential buildings in Germany. The heat pumps were not only used for space heating and domestic hot water consumption but also to offer flexibility to the grid. the high coefficient of performance and the low cost of heat storages made the heat pumps an optimal candidate for the power to heat applications. Thus, several questions are raised about the optimal integration and control of the heat pump system with buffer storages to maximize its operation efficiency and minimize the operation costs. In this paper, an experimental investigation is performed to study the performance of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) with a combi-storage under several configurations and control factors. The experiments were performed on an innovative modular testbed that is capable of emulating a ground source to provide the heat pump with different temperature levels at different times of the day. Moreover, it can emulate the different building loads such as the space heating load and the domestic hot water consumption in real-time. The data gathered from the testbed and different experimental studies were used to develop a simulation model based on Modelica that can accurately simulate the dynamics of a GSHP in a building. The model was validated based on different metrics. Energetically, the difference between the developed model and the measured values was only 3.08\% and 4.18\% for the heat generation and electricity consumption, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: smartphone; magnetic sensor, magnetic field; lab physics; quadrupole
Online: 26 January 2018 (16:17:43 CET)
We believe that a natural focus of the Physics Education Research community is on understanding and improving student learning in our physics courses. For this purpose, we are introducing smartphones in the physics laboratory. Current smartphones measure each component of the magnetic field, bearing in mind that any current perpendicular to a magnetic field produces a small potential difference, transversal to the said current, being this voltage easily measurable by Hall sensors. In this work, we have considered the magnetic field created by a linear quadrupole and we have studied its dependence on distance. Using an experimental procedure that is simple we have measured the magnetic field using the Hall sensor that most smartphones have, together with the corresponding app. The purpose of this work is to show that the laboratory is a powerful tool that increases significant learning under three conditions: 1) the practice must not be too sophisticated; 2) students must handle objects in the lab; and 3) the practice must be scientifically accurate, including the adjustments by minimum squares, and the following and necessary error calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: non-invasive apoptosis detection sensor; breast cancer; HDACi
Online: 1 December 2017 (12:08:13 CET)
Breast cancer is the most common malignancies in women and the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype is a breast cancer subset without ER, PR and HER2 expression, limiting treatment options and presenting a poorer survival rate. Thus, we investigated whether HDACi would be used as potential anti-cancer therapy on breast cancer cells. In this study, we found TNBC and HER2-enrich breast cancers are extremely sensitive to Panobinostat, Belinostat of HDACi via experiments of cell viability assay, apoptotic marker identification and flow cytometry measurement. On the other hand, we developed a bioluminescence based live cell non-invasive apoptosis detection sensor (IADS) detection system to evaluate the quantitative and kinetic analyses of apoptotic cell death by HDAC treatment on breast cancer cells. In addition, the use of HDACi may also be accompanied with chemotherapeutic agent such as doxorubicin to synergic drug sensitivity on TNBC cell (MDA-MB-231), but not in breast normal epithelia cells (MCF-10A), providing therapeutic benefits against breast tumor in clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: calibration; binocular vision sensor; unknown-sized elliptical stripe
Online: 2 November 2017 (17:37:06 CET)
Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS) depend on high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult to manufacture and costly. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Data Distribution; Multi-Path; RPL; Wireless Sensor Network
Online: 18 September 2017 (17:36:09 CEST)
The RPL protocol is a routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In such a network, energy is a very scarce resource; so many studies are focused on minimizing global energy consumption. End-to-end latency is another important performance indicator of the network, but existing research tends to focus more on energy consumption and ignore the end-to-end delay of data transmission. In this paper, we propose a kind of energy equalization routing protocol to maximize the surviving time of the restricted nodes so that the energy consumed by each node is close to each other. At the same time, a multi-path forwarding route is proposed based on the cache utilization. The data is sent to the sink node through different parent nodes at a certain probability, not only by selecting the preferred parent node, thus avoiding buffer overflow and reducing end-to-end delay. Finally, the two algorithms are combined to accommodate different application scenarios. The experimental results show that the proposed three improved schemes improve the reliability of the routing, extend the lifetime of the network, reduce the end-to-end delay, and reduce the number of DAG reconfiguration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: activity classification; activity monitoring; wearable sensors; sensor positions
Online: 16 March 2017 (17:19:01 CET)
This paper focuses on optimal sensor positioning for monitoring activities of daily living and investigates different combinations of features and models on different sensor positions, i.e., the side of the waist, front of the waist, chest, thigh, head, upper arm, wrist, and ankle. Sixteen features are extracted and the feature importance is measured by using the Relief-F feature selection algorithm. Eight classification algorithms are evaluated on a dataset collected from young subjects and that collected from elderly subjects, with two different experimental settings. To deal with different sampling rates, signals with a high data rate are down-sampled and a transformation matrix is used for aligning signals to the same coordinate system. The thigh, chest, side of the waist, and front of the waist are the best four sensor positions for the first dataset (young subjects), with average accuracy values being greater than 95%. The best model obtained from the first dataset for the side of the waist is validated on the second dataset (elderly subjects). The most appropriate number of features for each sensor position is reported. The results provide a reference for building activity recognition models for different sensor positions, as well as for data acquired from different hardware platforms and subject groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0147.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: piezoresistive sensor; electron microscope; in situ mechanical test
Online: 30 December 2016 (04:16:25 CET)
In this work, we designed a MEMS device which allows simultaneous direct measurement of mechanical properties during deformation under external stress and characterization of the evolution of microstructure of nanomaterials within a transmission electron microscope. This MEMS device makes it easy to establish the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of nanomaterials. The device uses piezoresistive sensors to qualitatively measure the force and displacement of nanomaterials, e.g., in wire and thin plate forms. The device has a theoretical displacement resolution of 0.19 nm and a force resolution of 2.1 μN. The device has a theoretical displacement range limit of 2.74 μm and a load range limit of 27.75 mN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Formal Methods; Dependability; Metrics; Modeling
Online: 11 November 2016 (14:08:48 CET)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being increasingly adopted in critical applications, where verifying the correct operation of sensor nodes is a major concern. Undesired events may undermine the mission of the WSNs. Hence their effects need to be properly assessed before deployment to obtain a good level of expected performance and during the operation in order to avoid dangerous unexpected results. In this paper we propose a methodology to support design and deployment of dependable WSNs by means of an event-based formal verification technique. The methodology includes a process to guide designers towards the realization of a dependable WSN and a tool ("ADVISES") to simplify its adoption. The tool allows to generate automatically formal specifications used to check correctness properties and evaluate dependability metrics at design time and at runtime. During the runtime we can check the behavior of theWSN accordingly to the results obtained at design time and we can detect sudden and unexpected failures, in order to trigger recovery procedures. The effectiveness of the methodology is shown in the context of two case studies, aiming to illustrate how the tool is helpful to drive design choices and to check the correctness properties of theWSN at runtime
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: event-driven architectures; asynchronous transactions; sensor web; spatio-temporal data; real-time data; stream processing; spatial data infrastructures; sensor networks
Online: 7 August 2018 (03:54:13 CEST)
The nature of contemporary Spatial Data Infrastructures lies in the provision of geospatial information in an on-demand fashion. Though recent applications identified the need to react to real-time information in a time-critical way. In particular, research efforts in the field of geospatial Internet of Things have identified substantial gaps in this context, ranging from a lack of standardization for event-based architectures to the meaningful handling of real-time information as ''events''. This manuscript presents work in the field of Event-driven Spatial Data Infrastructures with a particular focus on sensor networks and the devices capturing in-situ measurements. The current landscape of Spatial Data Infrastructures is outlined and used as the basis for identifying existing gaps that retain certain geospatial applications from using real-time information. We present a selection of approaches - developed in different research projects - to overcome these gaps. Being designed for specific application domains, these approaches share commonalities as well as orthogonal solutions and can build the foundation of an overall Event-driven Spatial Data Infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Quasi-distributed sensor; Low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer; Sensor simulation; Frequency-domain multiplexing and resolution vs. signal-to-noise ratio
Online: 3 April 2017 (15:56:28 CEST)
The application of the sensors optical fiber in the areas of scientific instrumentation and industrial instrumentation is very attractive due to its numerous advantages. In the industry of civil engineering for example, quasi-distributed sensors made with optical fiber are used for reliable strain and temperature measurements. Here, a quasi-distributed sensor in the frequency domain is discussed. The sensor consists of a series of low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers where each Fabry-Perot interferometer acts as a local sensor. Fabry-Perot interferometers are formed by pairs of identical low reflective Bragg gratings imprinted in a single mode fiber. All interferometer sensors have different cavity length, provoking the frequency-domain multiplexing. The optical signal represents the superposition of all interference patterns which can be decomposed using the Fourier transform. The frequency spectrum is analyzed and sensor´s properties were defined. Following, a quasi-distributed sensor was numerically simulated. Our sensor simulation considers sensor properties, signal processing, noise system and instrumentation. The numerical results show the behavior of resolution vs. signal-to-noise ratio. From our results, the Fabry-Perot sensor has high resolution and low resolutions. Both resolutions are conceivable because the FDPA algorithm elaborates two evaluations of Bragg wavelength shift
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Sensors; Sensor research; Research fields; Technological trajectories; Biosensors; Wearable sensors; Wireless sensor network; Evolution of science; Dynamics of science; Scientific development
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:19:44 CEST)
The fundamental question in the field of sensor research is new directions of scientific fields, which play a vital role in the progress of science and technology. This study confronts this question here by developing a bibliometric analysis, which endeavors to explain the evolution of sensor research and new technologies that are critical to science and society. The database of Scopus concerning scientific documents and patents is used for statistical and computational analyses in these topics. Results suggest that emerging technological trajectories in sensors are wireless sensor networks, wearable sensors and biosensors. Main characteristics of these growing research fields and technologies in sensors are described for fruitful implications of research and innovation policy directed to science advances and technological change in society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0276.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Sensor fusion; Camera and LiDAR fusion; Odometry; Explainable AI
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:27:42 CEST)
Recent deep learning frameworks draw a strong research interest in the application of ego-motion estimation as they demonstrate a superior result compared to geometric approaches. However, due to the lack of multimodal datasets, most of these studies primarily focused on a single sensor-based estimation. To overcome this challenge, we collect a unique multimodal dataset named LboroAV2, using multiple sensors including camera, Light Detecting And Ranging (LiDAR), ultrasound, e-compass and rotary encoder. We also propose an end-to-end deep learning architecture for fusion of RGB images and LiDAR laser scan data for odometry application. The proposed method contains a convolutional encoder, a compressed representation and a recurrent neural network. Besides feature extraction and outlier rejection, the convolutional encoder produces a compressed representation which is used to visualise the network's learning process and to pass useful sequential information. The recurrent neural network uses this compressed sequential data to learn the relation between consecutive time steps. We use the LboroAV2 and KITTI VO datasets to experiment and evaluate our results. In addition to visualising the network's learning process, our approach gives superior results compared to other similar methods. The code for the proposed architecture is released in GitHub and accessible publicly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Fault Detection; 3D Printer; Error Detection; FFF; Contact Sensor
Online: 29 December 2021 (09:10:49 CET)
Desktop fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printers have been growing in popularity among hobbyist and professional users as a prototyping and low-volume manufacturing tool. One issue these printers face is the inability to determine when a defect has occurred rendering the print unusable. Several techniques have been proposed to detect such defects but many of these approaches are tailored to one specific fault (e.g., filament runout/jam), use expensive hardware such as laser distance sensors, and/or use machine vision algorithms which are sensitive to ambient conditions, and hence can be unreliable. This paper proposes a versatile, reliable, and low-cost system, named MTouch, to detect millimeter-scale defects that tend to make prints unusable. At the core of MTouch is an actuated contact probe designed using a low-power solenoid, magnet, and hall effect sensor. This sensor is used to check for the presence, or absence, of the printed object at specific locations. The MTouch probe demonstrated 100% reliability, which was significantly higher than the 74% reliability achieved using a commercially available contact probe (the BLTouch). Additionally, an algorithm was developed to automatically detect common print failures such as layer shifting, bed separation, and filament runout using the MTouch probe. The algorithm was implemented on a Raspberry Pi mini-computer via an Octoprint plug-in. In head-to-head testing against a commercially available print defect detection system (The Spaghetti Detective), the MTouch was able to detect faults 44% faster on average while only increasing the print time by 8.49%. In addition, MTouch was able to detect faults The Spaghetti Detective was unable to identify such as layer shifting and filament runout/jam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cutting Tool Wear; Chip Color; Color Correction; Multi-sensor
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:35:22 CEST)
Often, engineers with machining experience often judge machining state and tool life according to chips’ features. Engineers' experience is digitized in this study. During the cutting process, the cutting tool coming in contact with the workpiece produces a shear zone, which causes plastic deformation and shear slip. The chips closest to the shear zone can directly show the state of the tool and workpiece when the material is SKD61. This study used chip color, vibration, and current signal integration for prediction of machining state and cutting tool life. When the cutting tool wears increased, the chip surface color changed in the following way: purpleè purple blueè blue ècyan, or even green and yellow. When the cutting tool was in the accelerating wear phase, the color change was particularly obvious. The Back-Propagation Levenberg–Marquardt (BP-LM) predictive methodology was used to compare the predictive ability of voltage, vibration signal, and chip color. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) for the voltage signal was 12.28%, for the vibration signal it was 11.38%, and for the chip color combined with multi-sensor characteristics it was 7.85%. The MAPE of the chip color was the smallest. Using the General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) methodology, the MAPE for the voltage signal was 10.74%, for the vibration signal 7.96%, and for the chip color combined with multi-sensor characteristics was 6.59%. The MAPE of the chip color was the smallest. Obviously, the chip color combined with multi-sensor signals provided better predictive results than the vibration signal or voltage signal alone. There is currently no research on the usefulness of monitoring chip color for tool life prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0428.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: whispering gallery modes; microsphere; membrane; pressure sensor; optical interference
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:28:30 CEST)
We propose the physical proof-of-concept of a new simple miniature pressure sensor based on the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) optically excited in a dielectric microsphere placed near a flexible reflective membrane, which acts as an ambient pressure sensing element. WGMs excitation is carried out by free-space coupling of optical radiation to a microsphere. The distinctive feature of proposed sensor design is double excitation of optical eigenmodes by forward and backward propagating radiation reflected from a membrane that causes WGMs interference in particle volume. The optical intensity of resulting resonant field established in the microsphere carries information about the exact position of the pressure-loaded reflecting membrane. The sensitivity of the proposed sensor strongly depends on the quality factor of the excited resonant mode, as well as geometrical and mechanical parameters of the flexible membrane. We propose to register not the displacement of the position of the WGM resonance, but the change in its amplitude under the influence of the change in the distance between the sphere and the mirror under the influence of pressure. Important advantages of the proposed sensor are miniature design (linear sensor dimensions depends only on the membrane diameter) and the absence of a mechanical contact of pressure-sensitive element with WGM resonator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0181.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Plasmonics; metal-insulator-metal waveguide; refractive index sensor; biosensing.
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:06:16 CEST)
Herein, a novel cavity design of racetrack integrated circular cavity established on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide is suggested for refractive index sensing application. Over the past few years, we have witnessed several unique cavity designs to improve the sensing performance of the plasmonic sensors created on the MIM waveguide. The optimized cavity design can provide the best sensing performance. In this work, we have numerically analyzed the device design by utilizing the finite element method (FEM). The small variations in the geometric parameter of the device can bring a significant shift in the sensitivity and FOM of the device. The best sensitivity and FOM of the anticipated device are 1400 nm/RIU and ~12.01, respectively. We believe that the sensor design analyzed in this work can be utilized in the on-chip detection of biochemical analytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0749.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cutting tool wear; chip color; color correction; Multi-sensor
Online: 28 April 2021 (14:16:16 CEST)
In the mold machining process, the cutting tool is worn with machining time, thereby affecting the surface accuracy, leading to poor workpiece dimensions, even fracture. At present, many studies have used multiple sensors to detect the machining conditions of cutting tool and workpiece, including indirect measurement method and direct measurement method. The indirect measurement method, which has been studied widely, mainly uses sensors to capture signals for subsequent data analysis; the direct measurement method mainly analyzes the state of cutting shear zone. Due to the cut-in of cutting tool in the machining process, the workpiece is dislocated rapidly, generating considerable amount of heat, which is transferred to the chips, inducing color change on the surface of chips. Many engineers with machining experience often judge the machining state and tool life according to the chips. The engineers' experience is digitized in this study, and indirect measuring sensors are used to predict the tool life, so as to attain the objective for smart manufacturing, the average percentage error of MAPE using single vibration and voltage eigenvalues as input features is 10%, the voltage signal characteristic values and vibration signal characteristic values are combined. Finally, the chip surface chromaticity eigenvalue is combined with signal characteristic value. The average prediction error of BP-LM method is 7.85%, the average prediction error of GRNN method is 6.59%. Therefore, when the eigenvalue of chip surface chromaticity is added to the prediction result, it can enhance the accuracy of cutting tool wear value prediction more effectively than single sensor signal characteristic value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: current-reuse; injection-locked frequency divider; radar sensor; wideband
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:33:22 CET)
An 18.8–33.9-GHz, 2.26-mW current-reuse (CR) injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for radar sensor applications is presented in this paper. A fourth-order resonator is designed using a transformer with a distributed inductor for wideband operating of the ILFD. The CR core is employed to reduce the power consumption compared to conventional cross-coupled pair ILFDs. The targeted input center frequency is 24 GHz for radar application. The self-oscillated frequency of the proposed CR-ILFD is 14.08 GHz. The input frequency locking range is from 18.8 to 33.8 GHz (57%) at an injection power of 0 dBm without a capacitor bank or varactors. The proposed CR-ILFD consumes 2.26 mW of power from a 1-V supply voltage. The entire die size is 0.75 mm ´ 0.45 mm. This CR-ILFD is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0577.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Tracking; Magnetic tracking; Eye tracking; Sensor Array; Eye Motion
Online: 28 January 2021 (08:10:19 CET)
We characterize the performance of a system based on a magnetoresistor array. This instrument is developed to map the magnetic field, and to track a dipolar magnetic source in the presence of a static homogeneous field. The position and orientation of the magnetic source with respect to the sensor frame is retrieved together with the orientation of the frame with respect to the environmental field. A nonlinear best-fit procedure is used, and its precision, time performance, and reliability are analyzed. This analysis is performed in view of the practical application for which the system is designed that is an eye-tracking diagnostics and rehabilitative tool for medical purposes, which require high speed ($\ge 100$~Sa/s) and sub-millimetric spatial resolution. A throughout investigation on the results makes it possible to list several observations, suggestions, and hints, which will be useful in the design of similar setups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: zinc sensor; 8-amidoquinoline; fluorescent probe; chemosensor; systematic review
Online: 6 October 2020 (14:55:13 CEST)
Abundant of preparatory works have recognized that fluorescent sensors based on 8-aminoquinoline are popular tools to detect Zn2+ ions in environmental and biological applications. Along with these studies, researchers started to introduce a variety of carboxamido group into an 8-aminoquinoline molecule in forming 8-amidoquinoline derivatives. Therefore, this systematic review aims to introduce a general overview of the fluorophore 8-aminoquinoline as Zn2+ receptors and to provide comparisons of collected studies that related to 8-amidoquinoline derivatives as fluorophore probe of the sensor. According to PRISMA systematic searches strategy, 13 articles were analyzed for trends, research designs, results and discussion, subject samples, and remarks or conclusions. We found cross-sectional studies with four aspects in zinc sensing that have been targeted; binding studies via titration, detection's limit, interferences studies, and validation of the study. Hence, this paper also included assessments of those criteria and the trends of development of 8-amidoquinoline derivatives based-zinc fluorescent chemosensor. It also showed that most of the researches conducted in China. In conclusion, this study identified various research designs of fluorescent chemosensors based on 8-amidoquinoline prolong with the effectiveness and potential as a recognition probe to assist the detection of zinc. Hence, elucidation of those derivatives essential to be explored because more studies are needed to improve the sensing criteria of the zinc sensor
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Digitalization; sensor technology; block chain technology; data models; livestock
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:29:39 CEST)
As the global human population increases, animal agriculture must adapt to provide more animal products while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss the digitalization of animal farming with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biosensors, big data, and block chain technology. Biosensors are noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to monitor individual animals and integrate this data for population-level analyses. The data from the sensors is processed using big data-processing techniques such as data modelling. These technologies use algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with biologically relevant and usable data. Blockchain technology allows for traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. With these PLF technologies, animal agriculture can become more transparent and regain consumer trust. While the digitalization of animal farming has the potential to address a number of pressing concerns, these technologies are relatively new. The implementation of PLF technologies on farms will require increased collaboration between farmers, animal scientists, and engineers to ensure that technologies can be used in realistic, on-farm conditions. These technologies will call for data models that can sort through large amounts of data while accounting for specific variables and ensuring automation, accessibility, and accuracy of data. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration will need to be addressed before there can be multi-farm databases. Lastly, the usage of blockchain technology in animal agriculture is still in its infancy; blockchain technology has the potential to improve the traceability and transparency of animal products, but more research is needed to realize its full potential. The digitalization of animal farming can supply the necessary tools to provide sustainable animal products on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0408.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: metasurface; localized surface plasmon resonance; thin-film sensor; terahertz.
Online: 23 April 2020 (10:01:15 CEST)
In this paper, we study the sensing performance of metasurfaces comprised by spiral-disk-shaped metallic elements patterned on polypropylene substrates, which exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances in the low-frequency region of the THz spectrum (0.2-0.5 THz). Optimal designs of spiral disks with C-shaped resonators placed near the disks were determined and fabricated. The experimentally measured transmittance spectra of samples coated with very thin photoresistive layers (d ~ 10-4-10-3 λ) showed good agreement with simulations. The resonance frequency shift Δf increases with increasing d, while saturating near d = 50 µm. The narrow-band magnetic dark modes excited on symmetrical spiral disks with a 90⁰-C-resonator demonstrated very high FOM values reaching 1670 [RIU·mm]-1 at 0.3μm-thick analyte. The hybrid high order resonances excited on asymmetrical densely packed spiral disks showed about two times larger FOM values (up to 2950 [RIU·mm]-1) as compared to symmetrical distantly spaced spirals that resembles the best FOM results found in literature for metasurfaces fabricated with a similar technique. The demonstrated high sensing performance of spiral disks is evaluated to be promising for bio-sensing applications in the THz range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0207.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: conducting polymers; metal nanoparticles; gas sensor; hydrogen sulfide gas
Online: 17 November 2019 (14:21:38 CET)
This research paper presents a new application of electroactive polyimide doped with gold nanoparticles (PI/AuNPs) as a chemiresistor sensor for detecting hydrogen sulfide gas. The synthesis of PI/AuNPs was done in a simple 3-step process of polymerization using the as prepared amine-capped aniline trimer (ACAT), followed by imidization, and doping. Spectral analyses via FTIR, LC-MS and 1H-NMR confirmed the formation of amine-capped aniline trimer with a MW of 288 g mol-1. Comparison of ACAT, BSAA, and PI FTIR spectra showed successful polymerization of the last, while XRD validated the incorporation of metal nanoparticles onto the polymer matrix showing characteristic diffraction peaks corresponding to gold. Furthermore, TEM, and FE-SEM revealed the presence of well-dispersed Au nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 60nm. The electroactive PI/AuNPs-based sensor showed a sensitivity of 0.29% ppm-1 H2S at a linear concentration range of 50 to 300 ppm H2S (r = 0.9777). The theoretical limit of detection was found at 0.142 ppm or 142 ppb H2S gas. The sensor provided a stable response reading at an average response time of 43±5 seconds, which was easily recovered after an average time of 99±5 seconds. The sensor response was highly repeatable and reversible with RSD values of 8.88%, and 8.60%, respectively. Compared with the performance of the conventional conducting polyaniline also doped with gold nanoparticles (PANI/AuNPs), the fabricated electroactive PI/AuNPs exhibited improved sensing performance making it a potential candidate in monitoring H2S in the environment and for work-related safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0210.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: scanning magnetic microscopy; Hall sensor; magnetic measurements; geological sample
Online: 18 October 2019 (08:53:15 CEST)
Scanning magnetic microscopy is a new tool that has recently been used to map magnetic fields with good spatial resolution and field sensitivity. This technology has great advantages over other instruments; for example, its operation does not require cryogenic technology, which reduces its operational cost and complexity. Here, we describe the construction of a customizing scanning magnetic microscope based on commercial Hall-effect sensors at room temperature that achieves a spatial resolution of 200 µm. Two scanning stages on the x- and y-axes of precision, consisting of two coupled actuators, control the position of the sample, and this microscope can operate inside or outside a magnetic shield. We obtained magnetic field sensitivities better than 521 nTrms/√Hz between 1 and 10 Hz, which correspond to a magnetic momentum sensitivity of 9.20 × 10–10 Am2. In order to demonstrate the capability of the microscopy, polished thin sections of geological samples, samples containing microparticles and magnetic nanoparticles were measured. For the geological samples, a theoretical model was adapted from the magnetic maps obtained by the equipment. Vector field maps are valuable tools for the magnetic interpretation of samples with a high spatial variability of magnetization. These maps can provide comprehensive information regarding the spatial distribution of magnetic carriers. In addition, this model may be useful for characterizing isolated areas over samples or investigating the spatial magnetization distribution of bulk samples at the micro and millimeter scales. As an auxiliary technique, a magnetic sweep map was created using Raman spectroscopy; this map allowed the verification of different minerals in the samples. This equipment can be useful for many applications that require samples that need to be mapped without a magnetic field at room temperature, including rock magnetism, the nondestructive testing of steel materials and the testing of biological samples. The equipment can not only be used in cutting-edge research but also serve as a teaching tool to introduce undergraduate, master's and Ph.D. students to the measurement methods and processing techniques used in scanning magnetic microscopy.