ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: cognitive radio; cognitive vehicular networks; spectrum sensing; sensing/reporting channel; correlated rayleigh fading channel; hard fusion
Online: 25 December 2017 (10:42:53 CET)
An explosive growth in vehicular wireless services and applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used to vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective detection of licensed user is a critical issue to realize cognitive radio applications. However, spectrum sensing in vehicular environments is a very challenging task due to vehicles mobility. For instance, vehicle mobility has a large effect on the wireless channel, thereby impacting the detection performance of spectrum sensing. Thus, gargantuan efforts have been made in order to analyze the fading properties of mobile radio channel in vehicular environments. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that the wireless channel in vehicular environments can be characterized by a temporally correlated Rayleigh fading. In this paper, we focus on energy detection for spectrum sensing and a counting rule for cooperative sensing based on Neyman-Pearson criteria. Further, we go into the effect of the sensing and reporting channels condition on spectrum sensing performance under temporally correlated Rayleigh sensing channel. For local and cooperative sensing, we derive some alternative expressions for average probability of miss detection. The pertinent numerical and simulating results are provided to further validate our theoretical analyses under a variety of scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: massive MIMO; compressive sensing; channel estimation
Online: 25 June 2019 (08:52:36 CEST)
This paper proposes the use of compressive sensing to tackle the Massive MIMO channel estimation problem. As our results show compressive sensing-based estimators perform as well as the optimum MMSE estimator.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: corporate sustainability reporting; environmental accounting and reporting; public universities; sustainability reporting; CSR
Online: 23 March 2020 (01:10:51 CET)
Corporate sustainability reporting, also known as Triple-bottom-line reporting, involves reporting nonfinancial and financial information to a broader set of stakeholders than just shareholders and seek to fortify an organization’s ability to manage key risks. The current case is that, the quality, rigor, and utility of sustainability reporting remains contentious with concerns about the suitability of the criteria or standards used to prepare the reports. Despite the rapid increase in the number of companies around the world adopting Global Reporting Initiative standards, little is known about the extent of practice of corporate sustainability reporting in public universities in Kenya. The study selected five universities that had their 2017-18 audited financial reports available online for the readers, which served as the main source of secondary data. The guidelines on corporate sustainability reporting was derived from literature review, which provided key indicators upon which the data from each university was evaluated. It was observed that almost all the institutions recognize the critical role of both internal and external independent audit of financial statements. In conclusion, financial reporting sustainability is guided by strict compliance to the factors of sustainability.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0246.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: reproducibility; minimum guidelines; reporting; data analysis; reporting
Online: 8 March 2019 (09:06:02 CET)
Despite the proposal of minimum reporting guidelines for metabolomics over a decade ago, reporting on the data analysis step in metabolomics studies has been shown to be unclear and incomplete. Major omissions and a lack of logical flow render the data analysis’ sections in metabolomics studies impossible to follow, and therefore replicate or even imitate. Here, we propose possible reasons why the original reporting guidelines have had poor adherence and present an approach to improve their uptake. We present in this paper an R markdown reporting template file that guides the production of text and generates workflow diagrams based on user input. This R Markdown template contains, as an example in this instance, a set of minimum information requirements specifically for the data pre-treatment and data analysis section of biomarker discovery metabolomics studies, (gleaned directly from the original proposed guidelines by Goodacre at al.). These minimum requirements are presented in the format of a questionnaire checklist in an R markdown template file. The R Markdown reporting template proposed here can be presented as a starting point to encourage the data analysis section of a metabolomics manuscript to have a more logical presentation and to contain enough information to be understandable and reusable. The idea is that these guidelines would be open to user feedback, modification and updating by the metabolomics community via GitHub.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0666.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Compressed sensing MRI; GAN; U-net; dilated-residual blocks; channel attention mechanism
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:23:45 CEST)
Compressed Sensing (CS) MRI has shown great potential in enhancing time efficiency. Deep learning techniques, specifically Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), have emerged as potent tools for speedy CS-MRI reconstruction. Yet, as the complexity of deep learning recon-struction models increases, this can lead to prolonged reconstruction time and challenges in achieving convergence. In this study we present a novel GAN-based model that delivers superior performance without escalating model complexity. Our generator module, built on the U-net architecture, incorporates dilated residual (DR) networks, thus expanding the network's receptive field without increasing parameters or computational load. At every step of the downsampling path, this revamped generator module includes a DR network, with the dilation rates adjusted according to the depth of the network layer. Moreover, we have introduced a channel attention mechanism (CAM) to distinguish between channels and reduce background noise, thereby fo-cusing on key information. This mechanism adeptly combines global maximum and average pooling approaches to refine channel attention. We conducted comprehensive experiments with the designed model using public domain MRI datasets of the human brain. Ablation studies af-firmed the efficacy of the modified modules within the network. Compared to other relevant models, our proposed model exhibits exceptional performance, achieving not only excellent sta-bility but also outperforming other networks in terms of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM). The model presents a promising pathway for enhancing the efficiency and quality of CS-MRI reconstruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: competency framework; reporting guideline; competency development
Online: 13 April 2022 (13:37:11 CEST)
Competency frameworks outline the perceived knowledge, skills and other attributes required for professional practice. Competency frameworks have gained in popularity, in part for their ability to inform health professions education, assessment, professional mobility, and other activities. Previous research has shown inadequate reporting within reports describing their development and that may jeopardize their use and application. We aimed to develop a set of minimum criteria that provides guidance to authors (and consumers) in an effort to improve reporting of the development of competency frameworks. The checklist was developed by a 35-member expert panel and a five-member research team following published guidance from the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) Network. The final checklist contains 20 essential reporting items including guidance on reporting title and abstract, framework development, the development process, testing and funding/conflicts of interest. The intent of the COmpeteNcy FramEwoRk Development in Health Professions (CONFERD-HP) reporting guideline is to help readers (including researchers, educators, regulators, health professionals, and patients) develop a greater understanding of relevant terminology, core concepts, and key items to report for competency framework development in health professions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability Reporting; Law; Upstream Oil; Gas
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:26:59 CEST)
sustainability reporting, critical paradigm, upstream oil, and gasThe operating activities of the upstream oil and gas industry directly impact the environment. This industry faces significant social challenges and directly impacts the environment. Many Reputable international sustainability institutions organize sustainability awards. However, community conditions do not have a positive impact on sustainability practices. There are vari-ous serious violations related to sustainability, environmental pollution, multiple cases of cor-ruption, human rights, and other violations. In contrast, the companies receiving this award also received inspection findings of violations committed by The Audit Board of the Republic of In-donesia. This study uses critical discourse analysis that begins with phenomena related to viola-tions of sustainability reporting from scientific journals and other references using a systematic literature review approach over the last ten years. It produces a critical paradigm that is not val-ue-free, which is the basis for framing thought utilizing the theory of hegemony. The results of this study indicate that the upstream oil and gas industries are obliged to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices and Sustainability Reports (SR), has biased factors that are contrary to the sustainability concept and are not under the sustainability award based on evi-dence obtained from the stages of manuscript analysis with systematic literature review
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1936.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accountability; Essence; Financial Reporting; Effective Communication; Public
Online: 30 October 2023 (13:23:33 CET)
The concept of public financial accountability, often associated with account-rendering, lacks a clear and comprehensive definition in the realm of accounting literature. Disentanglement the true essence of a phenomenon is essential, as formal definitions can only provide a superficial understanding. This study seeks to delve into the core principles of public financial accountability and their implications for financial reporting in the public sector. Applying a qualitative approach, data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 25 Nigerian scholars, professionals, and public affairs experts. The analysis reveals that the essence of public financial accountability lies in upholding citisens' trust in public officials, ensuring the responsible management of public financial resources for the greater public good, and effectively communicating financial decisions, actions, and outcomes to the public through a transparent reporting mechanism. This study sheds light on the fundamental nature of financial accountability in the public sector, enhancing our understanding of its significance in governance and financial reporting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0334.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: CSR; non-financial reporting; non-financial disclosures
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:53:02 CEST)
Reporting on CSR activities has become the essence of reporting for modern business entities. In this regard, particular attention is paid to public interest companies. Therefore, the following paper aims to answer the question of whether there are differences in the linguistic structure of the studied CSR reports in three selected industry indices on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) in Poland, i.e. WIG-energy index, WIG-fuel index, WIG-mining index and their relationship with the performance of selected companies. The study was conducted on a purposely selected sample of companies between 2013 and 2018. A total of 138 CSR reports and 138 annual separate financial statements prepared in accordance with international balance sheet law were collected. The study was carried out based on a panel regression model. It was found that CSR reports contained similar average percentages of parts of speech such as nouns and adjectives. When linking the economic performance of companies, expressed with selected indices, to the information on the implementation of CSR concepts, it was revealed that the results are more likely to describe business performance when it is satisfactory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0203.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability reporting; earnings management; European Directive 2014/95/EU; non-financial reporting; sustainable development goals (SDGs); empirical research
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:33:10 CEST)
In light of the worldwide spreading requirements related to the disclosure of non-financial information, which are aligning to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed by the United Nations (UN) in 2015, the study aims to analyse the influence of sustainability and other non-financial reporting on companies’ engagement in earnings management practices, through a pre-post adoption of European Directive 2014/95/EU comparative analysis for firms listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE) in the period 2015-2019. To conduct the investigation, the research involves the assessment and analysis of three earnings management metrics resulted by running multiple linear regression models on a sample of 31 companies listed on BSE. Research findings emphasise a decrease in the use of income smoothing practices by sampled companies in the post-adoption period 2017-2019, compared to the period preceding the implementation of the EU directive related to mandatory disclosure of non-financial information, 2015-2016. Thus, firms characterised by a higher transparency in terms of sustainability reporting are less inclined to engage in earnings management practices. This research complements the literature in the field of sustainability reporting and earnings management, providing empirical evidence on the significance and impact of publishing non-financial information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0243.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccines; Adverse Events; Self-reporting; Pandemic
Online: 18 May 2022 (11:06:19 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on health systems worldwide. Mass vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has reduced morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite their safety profiles, vaccines like any other medical product can cause adverse events. Yet, in countries with poor epidemiological surveillance and monitoring systems, reporting vaccine-related adverse events is scarce. The objective of this study was to describe self-reported vaccine adverse events after receiving one of the available COVID-19 vaccine schemes in Ecuador. A cross-sectional analysis based on an online self-reporting 32-questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April 1st to July 15th, 2021. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 6,654 participants were included in this study. A 38.2% of the participants reported having at least one comorbidity. Patients received AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Sinovac vaccines, and these were distributed 38.4%, 31.1%, and 30.5%, respectively. Pain, inflammation at the injection site (20,01%), and headache (16,91%) were the most reported adverse events. Women addressed ESAVIs (64%), more often than men (36%). After receiving the first dose of any available COVID-19 vaccine, a total of 19,481 self-reported ESAVIs were informed (86.9% were mild, 11.6% moderate and 1.5% severe). In terms of vaccine type and brand, the most reactogenic vaccine was AstraZeneca with 57.8%, followed by Pfizer (24.9%) and Sinovac (17, 3 %). After the second dose, 6,757 self-reported ESAVIs were reported (87.0% mild, 10.9% moderate, and 2.1% severe). AstraZeneca vaccine users reported a higher proportion of ESAVIs (72.2%) in comparison to Pfizer/BioNTech (15.9%) and Sinovac Vaccine (11.9%). Swelling at the injection site, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue were the most common ESAVIs for the first as well as second dose. In conclusion, most ESAVIs were mild. AstraZeneca users were more likely to report adverse events. Participants without a history of COVID-19 infection, as well as those who receive the first dose, were more prone to report ESAVIs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0441.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainability reporting; NGOs; stakeholder theory; Africa; NGO participation
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:46:29 CEST)
There is growing adoption of corporate sustainability practice in both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. This proliferation is largely due to the increasing concerns for social, environmental and economic factors in which we assume shared responsibility. Despite the growing attention of researchers and practitioners, several corporations failed to meet their sustainability responsibilities. Several reasons could be associated to this phenomenon such as lack of regulatory mechanism, accountability, etc. This review, however, seeks to examine how nongovernmental organizations (henceforth, NGOs) influence corporate sustainability adoption (i.e. sustainability reporting). In the review of prior research, we leveraged the institutional-legitimacy and corporate governance theories. The findings suggest that NGOs have greater potential in sustainability discourse through two salient actions, namely (1) collaborative partnership, and (2) confrontational tactics. While the former promotes stakeholder involvement in corporate decision making through dialogue, joint-projects on CSR, sustainability reporting, the latter, however, is the last resort – involving “naming and shaming” corporations for poor social and environmental performance through public and social media. The objective of such action is to cause reputational damage to businesses. Finally, it is also observed that crucial to NGO power and influence is the collaboration with government and civil society organizations in the fight for environmental sustainability and accountability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adverse drug reactions; spontaneous reporting; causality; ADR; severity
Online: 18 August 2018 (05:17:05 CEST)
Hospital-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting programs intend to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of drugs. To examine the causality, preventability and severity of ADR in a hospital setting; a prospective cohort study on spontaneous ADR reporting was conducted from December 2015 to May 2016. Incidence of ADRs, causality, type, severity and preventability were assessed using necessary assessment scales. The study included 3157 hospitalized individuals, in whom 51 ADRs were detected among 49 patients. The overall incidence of suspected ADRs was found to be 1.6%. According to the causality assessment, most of the ADRs reported were probable (n = 26, 51.0%), and type A (augmented/pharmacological) reactions (n = 39, 76%) were the most common type of ADR found. The majority of ADRs were moderate to severe (n = 35, 68.6%), of which 37.3% were found to be potentially preventable. Predictability was observed in 28 (54.9%) reported ADRs. The drugs most frequently associated with ADRs were antibiotics, antiepileptics and antihypertensives. This feasibility study was able to highlight the clinical pharmacist’s role in ADR monitoring service and create awareness about the way it could be done to promote safer drug use. Similar ADR reporting programs are necessary to educate and to improve awareness among the healthcare professionals in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: machine learning; computer-assisted reporting; RadLex®; natural language processing; contextual reporting; The Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS)
Online: 20 April 2020 (01:31:44 CEST)
Objectives: Studies evaluating machine learning (ML) algorithms on cross-lingual RadLex® mappings for developing context-sensitive radiological reporting tools are lacking. Therefore, we investigated whether ML-based approaches can be utilized to assist radiologists in providing key imaging biomarkers – such as The Alberta stroke programme early CT score (APECTS). Material and Methods: A stratified random sample (age, gender, year) of CT reports (n=206) with suspected ischemic stroke was generated out of 3997 reports signed off between 2015-2019. Three independent, blinded readers assessed these reports and manually annotated clinico-radiologically relevant key features. The primary outcome was whether ASPECTS should have been provided (yes/no: 154/52). For all reports, both the findings and impressions underwent cross-lingual (German to English) RadLex®-mappings using natural language processing. Well-established ML-algorithms including classification trees, random forests, elastic net, support vector machines (SVMs) and boosted trees were evaluated in a 5 x 5-fold nested cross-validation framework. Further, a linear classifier (fastText) was directly fitted on the German reports. Ensemble learning was used to provide robust importance rankings of these ML-algorithms. Performance was evaluated using derivates of the confusion matrix and metrics of calibration including AUC, brier score and log loss as well as visually by calibration plots. Results: On this imbalanced classification task SVMs showed the highest accuracies both on human-extracted- (87%) and fully automated RadLex® features (findings: 82.5%; impressions: 85.4%). FastText without pre-trained language model showed the highest accuracy (89.3%) and AUC (92%) on the impressions. Ensemble learner revealed that boosted trees, fastText and SVMs are the most important ML-classifiers. Boosted trees fitted on the findings showed the best overall calibration curve. Conclusions: Contextual ML-based assistance suggesting ASPECTS while reporting neuroradiological emergencies is feasible, even if ML-models are restricted to be developed on limited and highly imbalanced data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0113.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: bank reporting; country risk; financial stability; panel data modeling
Online: 15 March 2018 (04:46:05 CET)
This paper relies on accounting-based measures of country risk to investigate U.S. global banks' exposure to foreign country risk over the 2017 fiscal year as measured by the sum of cross-border risk, foreign office risk, and derivative risk claims. We achieve this using panel linear modeling methods with country level heterogeneity and time fixed effects, along with a constructed panel data of 284 observations on 71 countries distributed across 6 world regional blocks, and observed over 4 consecutive quarters starting from 4th quarter 2016 and ending with 3rd quarter 2017. The results show that on average, over the four quarters, a 1% increase in foreign banking sector's claims significantly increases U.S. global banks cross border risk exposure by 0.34%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.22%, but have no significant impact on foreign office risk exposure. Similar results are observed with public sector claims which significantly increase banks' exposure to cross border risk by 0.21%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.19%. Conversely however, non-bank financial sector claims are found to have no significant affect on cross-border risk exposure, but significantly reduce foreign office risk exposure by 0.09%, while increasing derivative risk exposure by 0.06%. These results indicate the presence of sectoral heterogeneities in U.S. banks' exposure to foreign counterparties' risk, and also that overall, over the course of 2017 the level of U.S. global banks' cross-border risk exposure increased, while their level of derivative risk exposure decreased, and the level of foreign office risk exposure remained relatively unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: opioids; adverse effect database; FAERS, reporting odds ratio; cluster analysis
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:07:36 CEST)
Adverse events associated with opioid use in palliative care have been extensively studied. However, predicting the occurrence of adverse events based on the specific opioid used remains unclear. This study aimed to comprehensively analyze the adverse events caused by µ receptor stimulation of opioids approved in Japan and investigate the tendencies of adverse event occur-rence among different opioids.We utilized the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database to extract reported adverse events of opioids approved in Japan. Cluster analysis was performed on reporting odds ratios (RORs) of adverse event names among opioids to visualize relationships between opioids and adverse events, facilitating a comparative study of their clas-sifications.We calculated the RORs of adverse events for the target opioids. Based on these RORs, we performed a cluster analysis, which resulted in the classification of 11 target opioids into five distinct groups. we were able to comprehensively compare and examine the relationships between opioids and adverse events. This analysis helps in understanding and managing the risks and benefits of each drug in palliative care settings. By analyzing relationships between opioids and adverse events, clinicians can make informed decisions about opioid selection, dosage, and monitoring to maximize patient safety and comfort.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Data Quality; Sequence reporting standards; RaTG13 Sequence; De-novo assembly
Online: 26 July 2021 (12:08:30 CEST)
The origin of SARS-CoV-2 is debated, even after 18 months into the COVID-19 pandemic and a special investigation conducted by the World Health Organization. The RaTG13 sequence has been a highlight of discussions surrounding the origin of SARS-CoV-2. Here we express our opinion about the need for better reporting standards for information about sequencing data, especially for pathogens, citing our findings with the reported RaTG13 genome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1147.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial performance; sustainability reporting; sustainable performance; content analysis; Istanbul Stock Exchange
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:51:51 CEST)
This study investigated the impact of sustainability reporting on financial performance, with a focus on companies in the Turkish food, beverage and tobacco and textile, wearing apparel and leather sectors. The sustainability reports of 48 companies listed on the Istanbul Stock Exchange for 2022 were studied, and the quality of sustainability practices was determined by using a general index (Sustainability Reporting Disclosure Quality Index (SRDQI)) and three partial indices (Environmental Disclosure Quality Index, Social Disclosure Quality Index, and Corporate Governance Disclosure Quality Index (CGDQI)). To analyze the relationships between financial performance and sustainability practices two types of regression models were developed, based on which eight models were directly examined. The results indicate the complete absence of a statistically significant impact of SRDQI on all financial performance measures used. Among the partial indices, only CGDQI has a significant positive effect on the Assets Turnover Ratio. An analysis of the influence of control variables shows a multidirectional dependence of individual financial performance measures on the size of companies, their age, industry affiliation, as well as on the structure of capital used. Finally, this study provides directions for improving the institutional environment of sustainability reporting for Turkish companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0352.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainability Reporting; Climate Change; Energy Requirements; Companies; Boards; Governance; Literature Review
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:27:22 CEST)
The perceived poor performance of publicly traded companies on their sustainability commitments and the quality of sustainability reporting has prompted stakeholders to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts of corporate activities. Economic activities have led to various threats in the form of climate change, pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, natural disasters, and other issues that have negatively impacted the environment and stakeholders. Companies are expected to report to stakeholders on their sustainability performance, but reality proves that present reporting falls below stakeholders’ expectations mainly due to its still voluntary nature. The present study aims to provide a literature review of the relationship between sustainability reporting and the role of companies governance, especially observing if climate change requirements and energy-needed changes are being accounted. Results highlight mixed evidence for the influence of board governance attributes, providing interesting insights for research advancement. The study has practical implications for businesses, regulators, governments, and other stakeholders in their policy deliberations and investment decisions. Further empirical studies are recommended to re-examine sustainability reporting using the variables identified as important factors and gaps in this study and other board characteristics to improve the generalizability of the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0205.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: integrity of financial reporting information; good corporate governance; firm size; leverage
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:05:12 CEST)
This research aims to determine the influence of the independent commissioners, audit committee, institutional ownership, firm size and leverage against the integrity of the financial reporting information. This research is quantitative research with the causal approach. This study uses secondary data and panel data regression analysis method. The research results prove that audit committee, institutional ownership and leverage effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information. But it does not prove that the independent commissioner and firm size effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability reporting; local government organizations; sustainable development; mail Survey; public sector
Online: 8 September 2017 (06:24:14 CEST)
The role of public-sector organizations (PSOs) for promoting the agenda of sustainability accounting and accountability is often not adequately considered . In the public sector universe, Local Governments are close to their communities and thus have a particularly important role to play in the pursuit of sustainability goals [2,3]. Hence, further research is still needed to understand if Local Governments Organizations (LGOs) are still using reporting tools to promote sustainable development. The empirical data show that the Sustainability Report (SR) is not having the spread assumed in the past years; over time, the great majority of Italian Municipalities does not continue or embark on a path of sustainability reporting. The findings suggest the fashion of SR in Italy is falling and it seems that the SR tool is a “mere trend reporting based on descriptive indicators leads to decreasing interest from internal and external audiences” . The carrot is unsuccessful; maybe the mandatory requirements could be a stick?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0021.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social and environmental risks disclosure, sustainability reporting, G4 GRI, management accounting
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:18:54 CEST)
Recent policies’ changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB), the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB-GRI) and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) are stressing about the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social and environmental risks within social and environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting-up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure call for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the GRI G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only few of them seems to adopt a management accounting perspective linking strategy, risk metrics and disclosure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0053.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pedometrics; chemometrics; remote sensing; proximal soil sensing
Online: 6 November 2019 (05:08:36 CET)
Visible and near-infrared reflectance (Vis–NIR) techniques are a plausible method to soil analyses. The main objective of the study was to investigate the capacity to predicting soil properties Al, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, pH, total carbon (TC), H and N, by using different spectral (350–2500 nm) pre-treatments and machine learning algorithms such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Random Forest (RF), Partial Least-squares Regression (PLSR) and Cubist (CB). The 300 soil samples were sampled in the upper part of the Itatiaia National Park (INP), located in Southeastern region of Brazil. The 10 K-fold cross validation was used with the models. The best spectral pre-treatment was the Inverse of Reflectance by a Factor of 104 (IRF4) for TC with CB, giving an averaged R² among the folds of 0.85, RMSE of 1.96; and 0.67 with 0.041 respectively for H. Into the K-folds models of TC, the highest prediction had a R² of 0.95. These results are relevant for the INP management plan, and also to similar environments. The good correlation with Vis–NIR techniques can be used for remote sense monitoring, especially in areas with very restricted access such as INP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1179.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: reporting; system; chemical; drug overdose; poisoning; surveillance; Makkah Almukarramah; Saudi Arabia
Online: 17 November 2023 (15:04:33 CET)
Background: Poisoning is a growing public problem that has shown increased prevalence in many countries worldwide, contributing to increased costs and mortalities. A lack of or insufficient information regarding the circumstances, chemicals, drugs and people at risk due to imperfect reporting system is regarded as a barrier to successful poisoning prevention and intervention efforts. In Saudi Arabia, poisoning cases are monitored at the central level in the Ministry of Health, with meticulous follow-up of cases across country areas through public health departments. The current study's objective was to describe the poisoning notification and reporting system in Makkah.Subjects and methods: All reports of chemical and drug overdose poisoning delivered to the environmental health and occupational safety department in Makkah Almukarramah over two years (2018-2019) were reviewed, together with verification of all systems, rules and guidelines organizing the performance of the department.Results: The total number of cases reported in 2018 was 209 cases, while it reached 42 cases in 2019. The overwhelming majority of the cases were Saudi (91.6%), with a slight predominance of males (57.4%) over females (42.6%). Generally, almost two-thirds of the cases occurred in children below 13 years (61.4%), most of the poisoning cases resulted from drug overdose (63.3%), while 34.7% were chemical poisoning. The most common drug poisoning was attributed to analgesics followed by antiepileptics, antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics and antimicrobials, while cleaning and detergent agents were the most commonly poisoned chemicals. The majority of these agents were taken by the oral route. Children's chemical poisoning was significantly higher than that in older age groups (p<0.05). All intentional poisoning occurred in adults; the great majority of them (88.9%) used drug overdosing rather than chemical substances.Conclusion and recommendations: The current study results are consistent with most of the previous studies carried out in different regions in Saudi Arabia. Reviewing the performance and adherence of the “Environmental Health and Occupational Safety Department” to the guidelines and instruction regulating monitoring, notification and reporting of poison cases are satisfactory and the poisoning surveillance system is effective. Further in-depth studies are needed to elaborate other socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with chemical and drug overdose poisoning. Public health plans, policies and legislations should be implemented to reduce these factors, including prohibition over-the-counter pharmaceutical sales, selling the possibly harmful substances in kid-proof bottles and additional stringent rules governing chemical sale and storage. Intensive supervision of children is needed. Suicidal poisoning patients should seek psychiatric help to limit the possibility of attempting suicide again in the future. Furthermore, efforts are needed to plan and implement health education programs and campaigns about the factors proven in the current study to be significantly related to chemical and drug overdose poisoning to raise public knowledge about exposure to chemicals and its consequences. Popular communication media, commercial malls, road ads, learning institutions and workplaces can be used to deliver health education campaigns and programs. Advice on how to store chemicals safely and how to keep kids safe should be focused on during such programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1191.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ESG; sustainability reporting; due diligence; impact; footprint; double materiality; key performance indicators
Online: 19 October 2023 (08:02:43 CEST)
This article conceptualises the link between firms’ value chains and distribution networks and the requirements for double materiality assessments in contemporary reporting regulations worldwide. The new European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS) and the standards for sustainability reporting issued by the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB), called IFRS S1 and IFRS S2, require companies to report their own direct (scope 1) and indirect (scope 2) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as GHG emissions in their value chains and distribution networks (both scope 3). However, GHG emissions comprise just one dimension of information that is relevant to understand when assessing, managing and reporting the footprints and impacts of a firm and are, therefore, only a fraction of the key performance indicators (KPIs) related to ESG that should be disclosed. Through a case study, this article demonstrates the connection between the due diligence analysis of firms’ value chains and distribution networks, the analysis of the competitive parameters of the business model, the identified impacts, risks and opportunities, and the double materiality perspective. The double materiality perspective prioritises actions based on probability and significance, creating a natural space to identify KPIs. The article concludes by applying the REGS model and illustrating how it can assist firms in identifying relevant KPIs based on double-materiality assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0207.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Adverse Drug Reaction; Spontaneous reporting; Active surveillance; Underreporting; Antiglau-coma; Artificial tear
Online: 11 October 2022 (03:18:55 CEST)
(1)Aims of the study: calculating the underreporting ratio for two different medications, a fixed combination of 0.5% timolol + 0.2% brimonidine + 2.0% dorzolamide (antiglaucoma) and a fixed combination of sodium hyaluronate 0.1% + chondroitin sulfate 0.18% (artificial tear) and characterizing the features influencing the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in spontaneous reporting; (2) Methods: the underreporting ratio was calculated by comparing the adverse drug reactions reported in the spontaneous reporting database for every 10,000 defined daily doses marketed and the adverse drug reactions from an active surveillance study for every 10,000 defined daily doses used for different drugs (antiglaucoma and artificial tear). The factors related to the report in spontaneous reporting through statistical tests were also determined; (3) Results: The underreporting ratio of spontaneous reporting was 0.006029% for antiglaucoma and 0.003552% for artificial tear; additionally, statistically significant differences were found for severity, unexpected adverse drug reactions, and incidence of adverse drug reactions in females; (4) Conclusions: The underreporting ratio of ADRs related to ophthalmic medications indicates worry since the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance focuses on spontaneous reporting. Besides, since underreporting seems to be selective, the role of certain aspects like gender, seriousness, severity, and unexpected ADRs, must be considered in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0472.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: chitosan; quorum sensing; antibacterial activity; quorum sensing inhibition
Online: 25 July 2018 (08:32:31 CEST)
New approaches to deal with drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria are urgent. We studied the antibacterial effect of chitosans against an E. coli quorum sensing biosensor reporter strain, and selected a non-toxic chitosan to evaluate its QS inhibition activity and its effect on bacterial aggregation. To this end, chitosans of varying DA (12 to 69%) and Mw (29 to 288 KDa) were studied. Only chitosans of low DA (~12%) inhibited the bacterial growth, regardless of the Mw. Chitosan MDP DA30 (DA 42% and Mw 115 kDa) was selected for further QS inhibition and SEM imaging studies. MDP DA30 chitosan exhibited QS inhibition activity in an inverse dose-dependent manner (≤12.5 µg/mL). SEM images revealed that this chitosan, when added at low concentration (≤30.6 µg/mL), induced substantial bacterial aggregation, whereas at high concentration (234.3 µg/mL), it did not. Aggregation explains the QS inhibition activity as the consequence of retardation of the diffusion of AHL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0267.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: sporadic E; Es; amateur radio reporting networks; ionosphere; mesosphere-lower thermosphere; citizen science
Online: 28 April 2022 (03:30:55 CEST)
A case study is presented which demonstrates the value and validity of a novel approach to the use of consolidated amateur (‘ham’) radio reception reports as indicators of the presence of intense ionospheric sporadic E (Es). It is shown that the use of amateur data can provide an important supplement to other techniques, allowing the detection and tracking of Es where no suitable ionosonde or other measurements are available. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by reference to ionosonde data, and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: quorum sensing; quorum sensing inhibitors; Chromobacterium violaceum; plant extracts
Online: 15 May 2023 (05:07:34 CEST)
In the new antibiotic era, the exponential increase of multiresistant bacterial strains become the main global health problem. Many researchers focused their efforts to explore novel or combined strategies for combating bacterial resistance. The good knowledge of molecular mechanisms of resistance and bacterial virulence factors as key targets gives us a good scenario to resolve the problem. One particularly attractive and promising way is to attack the main regulatory “network” of bacterial virulence determinants known as Quorum sensing (QS). The inhibition of QS signals will be a novel way for screening more effective Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) and will put a key role in next-generation antimicrobials in the resistance battle. This determined the aim of the present review: comprehensive clarification of the regulatory mechanisms of quorum-sensing signaling pathways in Chromobacterium violaceum and discovery of potential plant quorum sensing inhibitors.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Unreported COVID-19 Death; Provisional COVID-19 Death; Death Reporting Discrepancy; Bangladesh
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:32:05 CEST)
Objective: We aim to assess the reporting discrepancy and the difference between confirmed and unreported COVID-19-like death counts.Study Design: The study is based on time-series data.Methods: We used publicly available data to explore the differences between confirmed death counts and deaths with Codiv-19 symptoms between March 8, 2020, and July 11, 2020, in Bangladesh.Results: During the week ending May 9, 2020, the unreported COVID-19-like death count was higher than the confirmed COVID-19 death count; however, it was lower in the following weeks. On average, unreported COVID-19-like death counts were similar to the confirmed COVID-19 death counts during the same period. However, the reporting authority neither considers these deaths nor adjusts for potential seasonal influenza or other related deaths, which might produce incomplete COVID-19 data and respective mortality rates. Conclusions: Documenting unreported deaths with COVID-19 symptoms needs to be included in provisional death counts because it is essential to estimate a robust COVID-19 mortality rate and to offer data-driven pandemic response strategies. An urgent initiative is needed to prepare an acceptable guideline for COVID-19 death reporting.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: ontology; nutritional epidemiology; minimal data information; data quality descriptors; study reporting guidelines; Semantic Web
Online: 15 May 2019 (05:51:53 CEST)
1) Background: The use of linked data in Semantic Web are promising approaches to add value to nutrition research. An ontology, which defines the logical relationships between well-defined taxonomic terms, enables linking and harmonizing research output. To enable the description of domain-specific output in nutritional epidemiology, we propose the Ontology for Nutritional Epidemiology (ONE) according to authoritative guidance for nutritional epidemiologic research; 2) Methods: First, a scoping review was conducted to identify existing ontology terms for reuse in ONE. Second, existing data standards and manuscript reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology were converted into ontology, and the terms used in the standards were summarized and listed separately in a taxonomic hierarchy. Third, the ontologies of the nutritional epidemiologic standards, reporting guidelines and the core concepts were gathered in ONE. Three case studies were illustrated for its potential applications. (i) annotation of existing manuscripts and data, (ii) ontology-based inference, and (iii) estimation of reporting completeness in a sample of nine manuscripts; 3) Results: Ontologies for “food and nutrition” (n=33), “disease and special population” (n=86), “data description” (n=21), “research description” (n=32) and “supplementary (meta) data description” (n=44) were reviewed and listed. ONE consists of 339 classes (79 new classes to describe nutrition data and 24 new classes to describe the content of nutrition manuscripts). The case studies demonstrated the application of ONE. 4) Conclusion: ONE is a resource to automate data integration, searching and browsing, and can be used to assess reporting completeness in nutritional epidemiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Unobtrusive Sensing; Data Fusion; Data Mining; Radar Sensing; Thermal Sensing; Sprained Ankle; Infrared Thermopile Array; Home Environment.
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:12:24 CEST)
The ability to monitor Sprained Ankle Rehabilitation Exercises (SPAREs) in home environments can help therapists to ascertain if exercises have been performed as prescribed. Whilst wearable devices have been shown to provide advantages such as high accuracy and precision during monitoring activities, disadvantages such as limited battery life, users' inability to remember to charge and wear the devices are often the challenges for their usage. Also, video cameras, which are notable for high frame rates and granularity, are not privacy-friendly. This paper, therefore, proposes the use and fusion of unobtrusive and privacy-friendly sensing solutions for data collection and processing during SPAREs in home environments. Two Infrared Thermopile Array (ITA-32) thermal sensors and two Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar sensors were used to simultaneously monitor 15 healthy participants during SPAREs which involved twisting their ankle in 4-fundamental movement patterns namely (i) extension, (ii) flexion, (iii) eversion and (iv) inversion. Experimental results indicated the ability to identify thermal blobs of participants performing the 4 fundamental movement patterns of the human ankle. Cluster-based analysis of data gleaned from the ITA-32 sensors and the FMCW Radar sensors indicated average classification accuracy of 96.9% with K-Nearest Neighbours, Neural Network, AdaBoost, Decision Tree, Stochastic Gradient Descent and Support Vector Machine, amongst others.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0186.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: pH sensing; pH in cancers; pH & nanotechnology; wearable sensor; pH sensing fluorophore; pH sensing microelectrode; pH – future trends
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:30:29 CEST)
pH is considered one of the paramount factors in bodily functions, because most of the cellular tasks exclusively rely on precise pH values. The regulation of pH is a necessary feature of the intracellular atmosphere and can be established as a strong indicator to judge a physiological abnormality in most of the cases. In this context, the current techniques for pH sensing provide us with the futuristic insight to further design therapeutic and diagnostic tools. Thus, pH-sensing (electrochemically and optically) is rapidly evolving toward exciting new applications and expanding researchers’ interests in many chemical contexts, especially in biomedical applications. The adaptation of cutting-edge technology is subsequently producing the modest form of these biosensors as wearable devices, which are providing us the opportunity to target the real-time collection of vital parameters, including pH for improved healthcare systems. The motif of this review is to provide an insight of trending tech-based systems employed in real time or in-vivo pH responsive monitoring. Herein, we briefly go through the pH regulation in the human body to help the beginners and scientific community with quick background knowledge, recent advances in the field, and pH detection in cancerous environments. In the end, we summarize our review by providing an outlook; challenges that need to be addressed and prospective integration of various pH in vivo platforms with modern electronics that can open new avenues of cutting-edge techniques for disease diagnostics and prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainable development goals (sdgs); sustainability reporting; quality, environmental and occupational health and safety; certified organizations
Online: 18 September 2019 (15:38:36 CEST)
Organizations can play a significant role in the advancement of Sustainable Development, and companies with Quality, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (QEOHS) certified management systems address the three Sustainability Dimensions (economic, environmental and social). This research aims to map the present level of engagement of those companies in contributing and reporting to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of The United Nations 2030 Agenda. The content of companies reports (available in web sites, by 31 December 2017) of a total of 235 Portuguese organizations with QEOHS certified management systems, was analyzed. The results show a moderate reporting of SDGs by those companies, with the top five being SDG 12 - Responsible consumption and production (23.8%), SDG 13 – Climate action (22.1%), SDG 09 - Industry, innovation, and infrastructure (21.3%), SDG 08 - Decent work and economic growth (20.0%) and SDG 17 - Partnerships for the goals (19.6%). The results of the statistical tests indicate that the communication of SDGs is more prominent in organizations (QEOHS) with higher business volume, that are members of the United Nations Global Compact Network Portugal, and that disclose their sustainability reports on their web site. This study can be useful for decision-makers that aim to support organizations to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability reporting; non-financial information; corporate social responsibility; accounting regulation; directive 2014/95; oil & gas
Online: 12 July 2017 (08:50:58 CEST)
The Directive 2014/95, in force in 2017, is the first European step that requires mandatory non-financial information to undertakings (all “public interest entities” with more than 500 employees). The regulation is concerning sustainability information as environmental, social and employee, human rights and anti-corruption and bribery matters and disclosure of diversity policy for board members. The study, in the strand of the regulation of accounting, part of the broader field of research into accounting regulation, contributes to the debate on the quality of regulation, in this specific case referred to sustainability disclosure. The regulation of sustainability matters is studied in literature broadly in a post-implementation phase and at national level. This research, instead, aims to analyse, through the causal chain of regulatory policy, in the ex-ante stage, the quality of the regulation and, at least, the usefulness of the normative pressure. The Oil & Gas sector is chosen as sample of the study, because it is one of the most advanced sectors in sustainability disclosure. The examination of the law, in terms of content requirements (what) and location of information (where), is the basis to apply the disclosure-scoring system, a partial form of content analysis, to the reports of the sample. The findings reveal a good level of completeness of non-financial information, however, there are some areas that have to be improved to reach the requests of the Directive. Results show also the presence of overlap between financial reports and sustainability ones. In conclusion, the regulation is useful to prompt undertakings to reflect on their reporting and so doing improve their sustainability approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: tactile sensing; vision-based tactile sensing; event-based vision; robotic manufacturing
Online: 10 April 2023 (03:06:15 CEST)
Vision-based tactile sensors (VBTS) have become the de facto method of giving robots the ability to obtain tactile feedback from their environment. Unlike other solutions to tactile sensing, VBTS offers high spatial resolution feedback without compromising on instrumentation costs or incurring additional maintenance expenses. However, conventional cameras used in VBTS have a fixed update rate and output redundant data, leading to computational overhead downstream. In this work, we present a neuromorphic vision-based tactile sensor (N-VBTS) that employs observations from an event-based camera for contact angle prediction. Particularly, we design and develop a novel graph neural network, dubbed TactiGraph, that asynchronously operates on graphs constructed from raw N-VBTS streams exploiting their spatiotemporal correlations to perform predictions. Although conventional VBTS uses an internal illumination source, TactiGraph is reported to perform efficiently in both scenarios, with and without an internal illumination source. Rigorous experimental results revealed that TactiGraph achieved a mean absolute error of 0.62∘ in predicting the contact angle and was faster and more efficient than both conventional VBTS and other N-VBTS, with lower instrumentation costs. Specifically, N-VBTS requires only 5.5% of the compute-time needed by VBTS when both are tested on the same scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid logic circuits; magnetic tunnel junction; differential sensing amplifier; sensing margin
Online: 7 April 2022 (11:31:05 CEST)
Recently, hybrid logic circuits based on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have been widely investigated to realize zero standby power. However, such hybrid CMOS/MTJ logic circuits suffer from a severe sensing reliability due to the limited tunnel magnetoresistance ratio (TMR≤150%) of the MTJ and the large process variation in the deep sub-micrometer technology node. In this paper, a novel differential sensing amplifier (DSA) is proposed, in which two PMOS transistors are added to connect the discharging branches and evaluation branches. Owing to the positive feedback realized by these two added PMOS transistors, it can achieve a large sensing margin. By using an industrial CMOS 40 nm design kit and a physics-based MTJ compact model, hybrid CMOS/MTJ simulations have been performed to demonstrate its functionality and evaluate its performance. Simulation results show that it can achieve a smaller sensing error rate of 9% in comparison with the previously proposed DSAs with the TMR ratio of 100% and process variation of 10%, while maintaining almost the same sensing delay of 74.5 ps and sensing energy of 1.92 fJ/bit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0105.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: quorum sensing; furanones; biofilm
Online: 4 November 2021 (16:18:19 CET)
Clinical evidence has shown that bacterial infections are more difficult to eradicate when form-ing a biofilm aggregate than when are produced by bacteria in planktonic form. Therefore, com-pounds that inhibit biofilm formation could be used against severe infections. It has been re-ported that bromo 2-(5H) furanones inhibited biofilm formation by their anti-quorum sensing properties. To determine if the 2-(5H) furanone moiety is essential to induce inhibition of biofilm formation, we evaluated ten halogen 2-(5H) furanones derivates previously synthesized. Besides evaluating the inhibition of biofilm formation, we assessed pyocyanin production, swarming motility, and transcription of essential QS genes: rsaL, rhlA, pqsA and phz1 genes. Our results showed that although three bromo-furan-2(5H)-one-type derivatives (A1-A3) and two bromo-4-(phenylamino)-furan-2(5H)-one-type compounds (B2 and B6) inhibited the biofilm formation in both P. aeruginosa PA14 (reference) and PA64 (drug-resistant) strains only the furanones A1-A3 were efficient to inhibit QSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Sensing materials; CuO/rGO hybrid; graphene; QCM; gas sensor; room temperature sensing
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:10:36 CET)
Oxide semiconductors are conventionally being used as sensing materials in gas sensors, limiting the detection of gases at room temperature (RT). In this work, a hybrid of copper oxide (CuO) with functionalized graphene (rGO) is proposed to achieve gas sensing at RT. The combination of high surface area and presence of many functional groups in CuO/rGO hybrid material makes it highly sensitive for gas absorption and desorption. To prepare the hybrid material, a copper oxide suspension synthesized using copper acetate precursor is added to the graphene oxide solution during its reduction using ascorbic acid. Material properties of CuO/rGO hybrid and its drop-casted thin films are investigated using Raman, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and four-point probe measurement systems. We find that the hybrid material is enriched with oxygen functional groups (OFGs) and defective sites along with electrical conductivity (~1.5 kΩ/□). The fabricated QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) sensor with a thin layer of CuO/rGO hybrid, demonstrates a high sensing response which is twice the response of the rGO-based sensor for CO2 gas at RT. We believe that the CuO/rGO hybrid can be highly suitable for existing and future gas sensors used for domestic and industrial safety.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2133.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: metasurface; metasurface sensing; electrophoresis; nanoparticles; sensing; microwave sensors; materials science; millimeter wave devices
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:23:02 CEST)
A novel electrophoretic technique to improve the sensing capabilities of charged particles in solution is presented. The proposed technique may improve the ability of metasurfaces to sense charged particles in solution by forcing them to preferentially sediment within metasurface regions of greatest sensitivity. Such a technique may be useful in various sensing applications, such as in biological, polymer, or environmental sciences, where low concentration particles in solution are of interest. The electrophoretic technique was simulated and experimentally tested using latex nanoparticles in solution. The results suggest that, using this technique, one may theoretically increase the particle density within the metasurface regions of greatest sensitivity by nearly 1900% in comparison to random sedimentation due to evaporation. Such an increase in particle density within the regions of greatest sensitivity may facilitate more precise material property measurements and enhance identification and detection capabilities of metasurfaces to low concentration particles in solution. It was experimentally verified that the electrophoretic technique enabled the preferential gathering of latex nanoparticles within the most sensitive metasurface regions, resulting in 900% - 1700% enhancements in metasurface sensing capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Alerts; Village Health Teams; Community Based Surveillance; Integrated Disease Surveillance and Reporting; Elgon; Climate Change; One Health
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:20:13 CEST)
In mountain communities like Sebei, Uganda, that are highly vulnerable to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, community-based surveillance plays an important role in the monitoring of public health hazards. In this survey, we explored capacities of Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Sebei communities of Mount Elgon in undertaking surveillance tasks for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of a changing climate. We used participatory epidemiology techniques to elucidate VHTs’ perceptions on climate change and public health and assess their capacities in conducting surveillance for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Overall, VHTs perceived climate change to be occurring with wider impacts on public health. However, they have inadequate capacities in collecting sur-veillance data. The VHTs lack transport to navigate through their communities and have in-sufficient capacities in using mobile phones for sending alerts. They do not engage in reporting other hazards related with the environment, wildlife and domestic livestock that would ac-celerate infectious disease outbreaks. Records are not maintained for disease surveillance ac-tivities and the abilities of VHTs to analyze data are also limited. However, VHTs have access to platforms that can enable them to disseminate public health information. The VHTs thus need to be retooled to conduct their work effectively and efficiently through equipping them with adequate logistics and knowledge on collecting, storing, analyzing, and relaying data, which will improve infectious disease response and mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: oleylamine; WS2; nanoflowers; gas sensing
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:17:35 CEST)
Oleylamine capped WS2 nanostructures were successfully formed at 320 °C via a relatively simple colloidal route. SEM and TEM analyses showed that the 3D nanoflowers that were initially formed disintegrated into 2D nanosheets after prolonged incubation. XPS and XRD analyses confirmed oxidation of WS2 into WO3. Sensors based on these oleylamine capped WS2 nanoflowers and nanosheets still showed a change in electrical response towards various concentrations of NH3 vapour at room temperature in a 25% relative humidity background despite the oxidation. The nanoflowers exhibited n-type response while the nanosheets displayed a p-type response towards NH3 exposure. The nanoflower based sensors showed better response to NH3 vapour exposure than the nanosheets. The sensors showed a good selectivity towards NH3 relative to acetone, ethanol, chloroform and toluene. Meanwhile, a strong interference of humidity to the NH3 response was displayed at high relative humidity levels. The results demonstrated that oleylamine limited the extent of oxidation of WS2 nanostructures. The superior sensing performance of the nanoflowers can be attributed to their hierarchical morphology which enhances the surface area and diffusion of the analyte.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0442.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sea; remote sensing; oil pollution
Online: 27 July 2018 (06:19:37 CEST)
Oil spills are adverse events that may be very harmful to ecosystems and food chain. In particular, large sea oil spills are very dramatic occurrence often affecting sea and coastal areas. Therefore the sustainability of oil rig infrastructures and oil transportation via oil tankers are linked to law enforcement based on proper monitoring techniques which are also fundamental to mitigate the impact of such pollution. Within this context, in this study a meaningful showcase is analyzed using remotely sensed measurements collected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operated by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation. The showcase presented refers to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil incident that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It is one of the world's largest incidental oil pollution event that affected a sea area larger than 10,000 km2. In this study we exploit, for the first time, dual co-polarization SAR data collected by the Italian CSK X-band SAR constellation showing the key benefits of HH-VV SAR measurements in observing such a huge oil pollution event, especially in terms of the very dense revisit time offered by the CSK constellation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0247.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: drought; diversity; oaks; remote sensing
Online: 26 January 2018 (04:52:27 CET)
Drought periods have an adverse impact on the condition of oak stands. Research on different types of ecosystems has confirmed a correlation between plant species diversity and the adverse effects of droughts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes which occurred in an oak stand (Krotoszyn Plateau, Poland) under the impact of the summer drought in 2015. We used a method based on remote sensing indices from satellite images in order to detect changes in the vegetation in 2014 and 2015. A positive difference was interpreted as an improvement, whereas a negative one was treated as a deterioration of the stand condition. The Shannon-Wiener species diversity was estimated using an iterative PCA algorithm based on aerial images. We observed a relationship between the species indices of the individual forest divisions and their response to drought. The highest correlation between the index differences and the Shannon-Wiener indices was found for the GNDVI index (+0.74). In addition, correlations were observed between the mean index difference and the percentage shares in the forest divisions of species such as Pinus sylvestris (+0.67 ± 0.08) and Quercus robur (-0.65 ± 0.10). Our results lead us to infer that forest management based on highly diverse habitats is more suitable to meet the challenges in the context of global climatic changes, characterized by increasingly frequent droughts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0002.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: microresonator; whispering gallery mode; long period grating; fiber coupling; distributed sensing; chemical/biological sensing
Online: 2 July 2018 (07:49:08 CEST)
A comprehensive model for designing robust all-in-fiber microresonator-based optical sensing setups is illustrated. The investigated all-in-fiber setups allow light to selectively excite high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs) into optical microresonators, thanks to a pair of identical long period gratings (LPGs) written in the same optical fiber. Microspheres and microbubbles are used as microresonators and evanescently side-coupled to a thick fiber taper, with a waist diameter of about 18 µm, in-between the two LPGs. The model is validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental data. A good agreement between the simulated and experimental results is obtained. As an application example, the sensing of the concentration of an aqueous glycerol solution is demonstrated. The model is general and by exploiting the refractive index and/or absorption characteristics at suitable wavelengths, the sensing of other substances or pollutants can be also predicted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare workers; health personnel; risk management; medical error; incident reporting; patient safety; patient security; professional education; safety management
Online: 31 July 2023 (04:48:34 CEST)
Patient safety is a top priority for all healthcare systems globally. Promoting the adoption of policies for reporting and learning from errors is an important strategy for improving care safety. Therefore, the aim of our study was to detect how much patient safety culture influences the reporting of adverse events and the use of the incident reporting tool. The study protocol was developed according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were searched electronically in PubMed/MEDLINE, the COCHRANE library, and Google Scholar by two independent reviewers, and those that met the eligibility criteria were included. Synthesis of qualitative data from included studies was performed by graphical descriptive statistical analysis. The results of the systematic review showed that health care organizations' increasing focus on staff development of a safety culture has led to a significant increase in incident reporting rates over the years. Moreover, in situations where safety culture is placed at the top of the nations, there is a higher frequency of incident reporting. An efficient incident reporting system should be an essential foundation for healthcare organizations, as it allows them to collect experiences and data and provide feedback to healthcare providers and staff involved in care.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS); Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS); differential diagnosis; hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); tuberculosis
Online: 8 December 2020 (14:59:44 CET)
Background: The liver is involved in disseminated tuberculosis in more than 80% of the cases while primary liver involvement is rare, representing < 1% of all cases. Hepatic tuberculosis (TB) can be treated by conventional anti-TB therapy, however, diagnosing this disease still remains a challenge. The diagnosis might be particularly difficult in patients with a single liver lesion that could be misdiagnosed as a tumor or other focal liver lesions. While computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings have been described, there is a paucity of literature on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of hepatic TB. Case Summary: herein, we describe a case of a patient with tuberculous lymphadenopathy and chronic HCV-related liver disease who developed a single macronodular hepatic TB lesion. Due to the finding of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) highly suggestive CEUS pattern, specifically a LR5 category according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), and a good response to antitubercular therapy, a non-invasive diagnosis of HCC was made, and the patient underwent liver resection. We also review the published literature on imaging features of hepatic TB and discuss the diagnostic challenge represented by hepatic TB when occurs as a single focal liver lesion. Conclusions: this report shows for the first time that CEUS pattern of hepatic TB might be misinterpreted as HCC and specific imaging features are lacking. Personal history and epidemiological data are mandatory in interpreting CEUS findings of a focal liver lesion even when the imaging pattern is highly suggestive of HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0401.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Islamic accounting; mudarabah investment deposit; financial reporting of Islamic banks; profit equalization reserve; risk management for Islamic banks
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:22:54 CET)
The aim of this cross-country research is to examine how the profit and loss sharing mudarabah investment deposits are classified and disclosed in the financial statement of Islamic banks. The cross-country study examined the financial statements of fifty-one fully-fledged Islamic banks. The results of the data analysis show that Islamic banks disclose the mudarabah investment account in different ways. The absence of standardized disclosure for mudarabah investment deposit confuses the stakeholders. This research suggests to the regulators to fully or partially adopt the AAOIFI standards specifically for Islamic financial institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health data science; clinical trials; research participant reporting; personal health data diary; personal private webserver; research data integrity
Online: 6 June 2018 (09:40:35 CEST)
We describe how clinical researchers can exploit the Android cell phone as an economic platform for the gathering of data from clinical trial participants. The aim was to provide a solution with the shortest possible learning curve for researchers who are comfortable with setting up web pages. The additional requirement is that they extend their skills to the installation of a local webserver on the cell phone and then use four simple PHP templates to construct the clinical research data collection and processing forms. Data so collected is automatically written to local csv files on the cell phone. These csv phones can be retrieved from the device by the researcher simply by plugging the cell phone into their desktop PC and accessing the cell phone memory in just the same way as they would a USB memory stick. The results are presented as a list of recommended Android Apps along with settings that have proved to provide a stable combination likely to be easily used by clinical research participants. We have made a limited ‘user trial’ of this approach with satisfactory feedback received. We have concluded that this approach will reward researchers with a solution that is user friendly, will provide transcription free data and that is more than cost competitive with the conventional error prone/poor compliance ‘paper based participant form – researcher transcription’ cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0102.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Content-Based Remote Sensing Image Retrieval; Change Information Detection; Information Management; Remote Sensing Data Service
Online: 29 August 2017 (16:18:20 CEST)
With the rapid development of satellite remote sensing technology, the volume of image datasets in many application areas is growing exponentially and the demand for Land-Cover and Land-Use change remote sensing data is growing rapidly. It is thus becoming hard to efficiently and intelligently retrieve the change information that users need from massive image databases. In this paper, content-based image retrieval is successfully applied to change detection and a content-based remote sensing image change information retrieval model is introduced. First, the construction of a new model framework for change information retrieval in a remote sensing database is described. Then, as the target content cannot be expressed by one kind of feature alone, a multiple-feature integrated retrieval model is proposed. Thirdly, an experimental prototype system that was set up to demonstrate the validity and practicability of the model is described. The proposed model is a new method of acquiring change detection information from remote sensing imagery and so can reduce the need for image pre-processing, deal with problems related toseasonal changes as well as other problems encountered in the field of change detection. Meanwhile, the new model has important implications for improving remote sensing image management and autonomous information retrieval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0432.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: sensing; coherent photon states; quantum correlations
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:10:42 CET)
Many quantum devices signals are proportional to the number of the participating atoms that take part in the detection devices. Among these are optical magnetometers, atomic clocks, and atoms interferometers. One way to enhance the signal to noise ratio is to introduce atoms entanglement that increases the signal in a super-radiant like effect. An initial novel experiment to test the realization of atoms correlation is described here. A Cs optical magnetometer is used as a tool to test the operation of a cell-in-cavity laser and its characteristics. A vapor cell is inserted in-to an elongated external cavity of the pump laser in Littrow configuration. Higher atom polarization and reduced laser linewidth are obtained leading to better magnetometer sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. The Larmor frequency changes of the Free Induction Decay of optically pumped Cs atomic polarization in ambient earth magnetic field at room temperature is measured. Temporal changes in the magnetic field of less than 10 pT/Hz are measured. The first order dependence of the magnetic field on temperature and temperature gradients is eliminated, important in many practical applications. Single and gradiometric magnetometer con-figurations are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0034.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: transformer; cloud detection; remote-sensing images
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:29:14 CET)
Cloud detection in remote sensing images is a crucial preprocessing step that efficiently identifies and extracts cloud-covered areas within the images, ensuring the precision and reliability of subsequent analyses and applications. Given the diversity of clouds and the intricacies of the surface, distinguishing the boundaries between thin clouds and the underlying surface is a major challenge in cloud detection. To address these challenges, an advanced cloud detection method, CloudformerV3, is presented in this paper. The proposed method employs a multi-scale adapter to incorporate dark and bright channel prior information into the model's backbone, enhancing the model's ability to capture prior information and multi-scale details from remote sensing images. Additionally, multi-level large window attention is utilized, enabling high-resolution feature maps and low-resolution feature maps to mutually focus and subsequently merge during the resolution recovery phase. This facilitates the establishment of connections between different levels of feature maps and offers comprehensive contextual information for the model's decoder. Experimental results on the GF1_WHU dataset demonstrate that the method introduced in this paper exhibits superior detection accuracy when compared to state-of-the-art cloud detection models. Furthermore, enhanced detection performance is achieved along cloud edges and with respect to thin clouds, showcasing the efficacy of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1877.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Meteorology; Precipitations; Remote-sensing; Deep Learning
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:06:45 CEST)
Estimating precipitation is of critical importance to climate systems and decision-making processes. This paper presents Espresso, a deep learning model designed for estimating precipitation from satellite observations on a global scale. Conventional methods, like ground-based radars, are limited in terms of spatial coverage. Satellite observations, on the other hand, allow global coverage. Combined with deep learning methods these observations offer the opportunity to address the challenge of estimating precicpation on a global scale. This research paper presents the development of a deep learning model using geostationary satellite data as input and generating instantaneous rainfall rates, calibrated using data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPMCO). The performance impact of various input data configurations on Espresso was investigated. These configurations include a sequence of four images from geostationary satellites and the optimal selection of channels. Additional descriptive features were explored to enhance the model’s robustness for global aplications. When evaluated against the GPMCO test set, Espresso demonstrated highly accurate precipitation estimation, especially within equatorial regions. A comparison against six other operational products using multiple metrics indicated its competitive performance. The model’s superior storm localization and intensity estimation were further confirmed through visual comparisons in case studies. Espresso has been incorporated as an operational product at Météo-France, delivering high-quality, real-time global precipitation estimates every 30 minutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0142.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Rockfall Hazard; Remote Sensing; 3D Modelling.
Online: 8 December 2022 (02:56:53 CET)
The increased accessibility of drone technology and the wide use of Structure from Motion 3D scene reconstruction have transformed the approach for mapping inaccessible slopes undergoing active rockfalls. The Poggio Baldi landslide offers the possibility for many of these techniques to be deployed and integrated with the aim of defining a suitable workflow for the analysis of hazards in mountainous regions. The generation of multitemporal digital slope twins (2016 – 2019), informed a rockfall trajectory analysis that was carried out with a physical-based GIS model. We tested the rockfall scenario reconstructed and calibrated on the analysis of the rock mass characteristics and the geometrical and physical constraints given by the multi-temporal analysis of the SfM point clouds. This time-independent rockfall hazard analysis is a critical component to any subsequent holistic risk analysis on this case study, and any potential similar mountainous setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0357.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote Sensing; Archaeology; Lidar; Dacians; Romania
Online: 18 November 2022 (13:37:21 CET)
Throughout history, the unique Dacian landscape has aroused the imagination of many. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by the magnificent structures the Dacians built and how they altered the mountains to their advantage. Dacian sites, despite their grandeur, remain mostly unknown due to their position deep within Romania's vast forests, generally in remote regions and hidden from the naked eye. Ground exploration in densely forested mountain regions is extremely difficult, and even if such campaigns existed, they would be insufficient to provide a comprehensive picture of the Dacian world. The lack of high-resolution remote-sensing data for wide areas made big-scale assessments of the landscape impractical. This is about to change, as new large datasets of LiDAR-derived digital elevation models, covering the entire heart of Dacian world, are now freely available. This paper reports on one of the most recent freely available LiDAR-based high-resolution digital elevation models in Romania, its impact on Romanian mountain archaeology, and how this can shape future research directions in understanding the Dacian landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0014.v4
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Distributed Acoustic Sensing; Borehole; Time-Lapse
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:39:03 CET)
The distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has great potential for monitoring natural-resource reservoirs and borehole conditions. However, the large volume of data and complicated wavefield add challenges to processing and interpretation. In this study, we demonstrate that seismic interferometry based on deconvolution is a convenient tool for analyzing this complicated wavefield. We extract coherent wave from the observation of a borehole DAS system at the Brady geothermal field in Nevada. Then, we analyze the coherent reverberating waves, which are used for monitoring temporal changes of the system. These reverberations are tirelessly observed in the vertical borehole DAS data due to cable or casing ringing. The deconvolution method allows us to examine the wavefield at different boundary conditions. We interpret the deconvolved wavefields using a simple 1D string model. The velocity of this wave varies with depth, observation time, temperature, and pressure. We find the velocity is sensitive to disturbances in the borehole related to increasing operation intensity. The velocity decreases with rising temperature, which potentially suggests that the DAS cable or the casing are subjected to high temperature. This reverberation can be decomposed into distinct vibration modes in the spectrum. We find that the wave is dispersive, and the the fundamental mode propagate with a large velocity. The method can be useful for monitoring borehole conditions or reservoir property changes. For the later, we need better coupling than through only friction in the vertical borehole to obtain coherent energy from the formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: remote sensing; deep learning; image classification
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:38:55 CEST)
Autonomous image recognition has numerous potential applications in the field of planetary science and geology. For instance, having the ability to classify images of rocks would allow geologists to have immediate feedback without having to bring back samples to the laboratory. Also, planetary rovers could classify rocks in remote places and even in other planets without needing human intervention. Shu et al. classified 9 different types of rock images using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) with the image features extracted autonomously. Through this method, the authors achieved a test accuracy of 96.71%. In this research, Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) have been used to classify the same set of rock images. Results show that a 3-layer network obtains an average accuracy of 99.60% across 10 trials on the test set. A version of Self-taught Learning was also implemented to prove the generalizability of the features extracted by the CNN. Finally, one model has been chosen to be deployed on a mobile device to demonstrate practicality and portability. The deployed model achieves a perfect classification accuracy on the test set, while taking only 0.068 seconds to make a prediction, equivalent to about 14 frames per second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0560.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEBAL, Remote Sensing, GIS, Groundwater Irrigation
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:15:05 CEST)
Irrigation water management components evaluation is mandatory for sustainable irrigated agriculture production in the era of water scarcity. In this research spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water components were evaluated at canal command area in Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) using remote sensing based geo-informatics approach. Satellite derived MODIS product-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used for the estimation of the Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Satellite derived SEBAL based ETa was calibrated and validated using the ground data-based advection aridity method (AA). Statistical analysis of the SEBAL based ETa and AA shows the mean 87.1 mm and 47.9 mm and, 100 mm and 77 mm, Standard deviation of 27.7 mm and 15.9 mm and, 34.9 mm and 16.1 mm, R of 0.93 and 0.94, NSE of 0.72 and 0.85, PBIASE -12.9 and -4.4, RMSE 34.9 and 5.76 for the Kharif and Rabi season, respectively. Rainfall data was acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). TRMM based rainfall was calibrated with the point observatory data of the Pakistan Metrological Department Stations. Canal water data was collected from the Punjab Irrigation department for the assessment of canal water availability. Water The water balance approach was applied in the unsaturated zone for the quantification of the gross and net Groundwater irrigation. Mmonthly variation of ETa with the minimum average value of 63.3 mm in January and the maximum average value of 110.6 mm in August was found. While, the average annual of four cropping years (2011-12 to 2014-15) ETa was found 899 mm. Average of the sum of Net Canal Water Use (NCWU) and Rainfall during the study period of four years was only 548 mm (36% of ETa) and this resulted the 739.6 mm of groundwater extraction. While the annual based variation in groundwater extraction of 632 mm and 780 mm was found. Seasonal analysis revealed 39% and 61% of groundwater extraction proportion during Rabi and Kharif season, respectively. The variation in four cropping year’s monthly groundwater extraction was found 28.7 mm to 120.3 mm. This variation was high in the 2011-12 to 2012-13 cropping year (0 mm to 148.7 mm), dependent upon the occurrence of rainfall and crop phenology. Net groundwater irrigation, estimated after incorporating the efficiencies was 503 mm year-1 on average for the four cropping years.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: laser interferometry; displacement sensing; ghost beams
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:13:44 CET)
We present a compact optical head design for wide-range and low noise displacement sensing using deep frequency modulation interferometry. The on-axis beam topology is realised in a quasi-monolithic component and relies on cube beamsplitters and beam transmission through perpendicular surfaces to keep angular alignment constant when operating in air or vacuum, which leads to the generation of ghost beams that can limit the phase readout linearity. We investigate the coupling of these beams into the non-linear phase readout scheme of DFMI and demonstrate adjustments of the phase estimation algorithm to reduce this effect. This is done through a combination of balanced detection and the inherent orthogonality of beat signals with different relative time-delays in deep frequency modulation interferometry that is a unique feature not available for heterodyne, quadrature or homodyne interferometry.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0785.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: built environment; image analysis; remote sensing
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:51:50 CET)
The development of unmanned satellite space technology is increasingly willing, the emergence of medium resolution satellites with sensitivity and spectral variants such as Landsat is very effective in observing environmental changes, while the purpose of this study is to monitor the development of built-in land using image transformation techniques, estimating built-in land changes. The research method uses the NDVI image transformation technique, NDBI and Built Up Index, with Landsat satellite image data obtained from USGS. Accuracy sampling is done by purposive sampling with confusion matrix accuracy test technique. The research results were found. developed land for the period 2004 - 2010 with a percentage of 19.25%, for stages 2010 - 2018 with a percentage of 30.25%. The land development was built based on the area of the highest sub-district in the Kubung area in the early period with a percentage of 7.20% then in the second period with a percentage of 32.23%. The quality of the accuracy of the results of image analysis using confusion matrix technique with an image accuracy level in a field sample of 185 with an image accuracy of 86.04%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0654.v1
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:57:17 CET)
Paddy field is an old agriculture practice that very common especially in Asia. The earliest paddy field found dated back to 4330 BC. Most paddy fields in the world are having rectangular shapes. Whereas, in Flores island, indigenous people have developed a spider web or circular paddy field instead of regular rectangular shape and this driven by culture and local wisdom. In here, the objectives of this study are to assess the characteristic, ecology and fertility of circular paddy field compared to common rectangular shape. Fertility values were assessed using Landsat 8 remote sensing with RGB combination of NIR, SWIR 1 and blue. The study site was paddy field within Flores island. The result shows that spider web paddy field appeared in many sizes, number, altitude, ecosystem and terrain. Remote sensing result confirms that the fertility of circular paddy field is similar to the rectangular shape. Likewise, circular field has higher NDVI than rectangular field. Considering semiarid environment, limited labor and resources in Flores island, circular paddy field shape can allow the use of pivot irrigation that more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0749.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Cave, hydrothermal, Landsat, Pawon, remote sensing
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:19:27 CEST)
Relationship between caveman prehistoric life in terms of heat induced food processing and its geological ecosystems have received many attentions. Previous studies have investigated the sources of heat included using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and biomarker approaches. Here this study proposes the use of remote sensing to identify the relationship of 9500 year old (9.5 ka) prehistoric mongoloid occupancy with hydrothermal manifestations at Pawon cave of West Java. The hydrothermal manifestations around Pawon cave were identified using Landsat 8 band combinations, land surface temperature, and sedimentary lithology. The results showed the hydrothermal manifestations surrounding Pawon cave were within a distance of 0.5-2 km. The results also showed bones representing 12 animal taxon groups with high abundance of rodents. To conclude this study sheds the light of proximity and preferences of mongoloid prehistoric occupancy towards hydrothermal landscape due to its advantage as heat sources for food processing purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0100.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wetland; endorheic; saline; fluctuations; remote sensing
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:15:58 CEST)
This study has been monitored for five years by Sentinel-2 satellite images, at different seasons of the year, of the fluctuations in the water level of the Gallocanta Lake (between the provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain) considered a hypersaline and endorheic wetland, which has characteristics that make it unique in the geographical area in which it is located, as well as for the operation of the system. Rainfall in the area has a wide variation giving the maximums in the months of May and June and the minimums in January and February. There are considerable fluctuations in the water level from the almost total drying of the lagoon to the filling with a depth of approximately 3 meters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0075.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: subcarrier level spectrum sensing；spectrum utilization
Online: 6 August 2019 (12:20:09 CEST)
Abstract: As the massive deployment of the heterogeneous IoT devices in the coexisting environment such as smart homes，Traditional channel-based spectrum sharing algorithms such as CSMA has great limitations to further optimize spectrum utilization. Therefore, exploring more efficient spectrum sensing algorithm becomes hot topic these years. This paper proposes Subcarrier-Sniffer, which utilizes Channel State Information (CSI) to sense the subcarrier-level detailed status of the spectrum. In order to evaluate the performance of Subcarrier-Sniffer, we implemented Subcarrier-Sniffer by USRP B200min, and the experimental results show that when the distance between Subcarrier-Sniffer and the monitored devices is not great than 7 m, the accuracy of subcarrier-level spectrum sensing could achieve 100% in our settings.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0484.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: ice; surface roughness; remote sensing; MISR
Online: 22 October 2018 (09:50:48 CEST)
Sea ice surface roughness affects ice-atmosphere interactions, serves as an indicator of ice age, shows patterns of ice convergence and divergence, affects the spatial extent of summer melt ponds, and ice albedo. We have developed a method for mapping sea ice surface roughness using angular reflectance data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and lidar-derived roughness measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). Using an empirical data modeling approach, we derived estimates of Arctic sea ice roughness ranging from centimeters to decimeters meters within the MISR 275-m pixel size. Using independent ATM data for validation, we find that histograms of lidar and multi-angular roughness values are nearly identical for areas with roughness <20 cm but that for rougher regions, the MISR-derived roughness has a narrower range of values than the ATM data. The algorithm is able to accurately identify areas that transition between smooth and rough ice. Because of its coarser spatial scale, MISR-derived roughness data have a variance of about half that ATM roughness data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tree fruit; pruning; sensing; automation; robotics
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:32:11 CEST)
Pruning is one of the most important tree fruit production activities, which is highly dependent on human labor. Skilled labor is in short supply, and the increasing cost of labor is becoming a big issue for the tree fruit industry. Growers are motivated to seek mechanical or robotic solutions for reducing the amount of hand labor required for pruning. This paper reviews the research and development of sensing and automated systems for branch pruning for tree fruit production. Horticultural advancements, pruning strategies, 3D structure reconstruction of tree branches, as well as practice mechanisms or robotics are some of the developments that need to be addressed for an effective tree branch pruning system. Our study summarizes the potential opportunities for automatic pruning with machine-friendly modern tree architectures, previous studies on sensor development, and efforts to develop and deploy mechanical/robotic systems for automated branch pruning. We also describe two examples of qualified pruning strategies that could potentially simplify the automated pruning decision and pruning end-effector design. Finally, the limitations of current pruning technologies and other challenges for automated branch pruning are described, and possible solutions are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0241.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: compound glass; microsphere; resonator; lasing; sensing
Online: 14 June 2018 (16:29:54 CEST)
In recent years, compound glass microsphere resonator devices have attracted increasing interest and have been widely used in sensing, microsphere lasers, and nonlinear optics. Compared with traditional silica resonators, compound glass microsphere resonators have many significant and attractive properties, such as high-Q factor, an ability to achieve high rare earth ion, wide infrared transmittance and low phonon energy. This review provides a summary and a critical assessment of the fabrication and the optical characterization of compound glasses and the related fabrication and applications of compound glass microsphere resonators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: arc sensing; P-GMAW; mathematical model
Online: 13 March 2017 (16:25:49 CET)
Arc sensors have been used in seam tracking and widely studied since the 80s; commercial arc sensing products for T and V shaped grooves have been developed. However, it is difficult to use these arc sensors in narrow gap welding because arc stability and sensing accuracy are not satisfactory. Pulse gas melting arc welding (P-GMAW) has been successfully applied in narrow gap welding and all position welding processes, so it is worthwhile to research P-GMAW arc sensing technology. In this paper, we derived a linear mathematical P-GMAW model for arc sensing, and the assumptions for the model are verified through experiments and finite element methods. Finally, the linear characteristics of the mathematical model were investigated. In torch height changing experiments, uphill experiments, and groove angle changing experiments the P-GMAW arc signals all satisfied the linear rules. In addition, the faster the welding speed, the higher the arc signal sensitivities; the smaller the groove angle, the greater the arc sensitivities. The arc signal variation rate needs to be modified according to the welding power, groove angles, and swing or rotate speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0054.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: plasmonics; infrared detector; MEMS; gas sensing
Online: 10 March 2017 (10:21:40 CET)
A lead zirconate titanate [PZT;Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3] layer embedded infrared (IR) detector decorated with wavelength-selective plasmonic crystals has been investigated for high-performance non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy. A plasmonic IR detector with an enhanced IR absorption band has been designed based on numerical simulations, fabricated by conventional microfabrication techniques, and characterized with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser. The enhanced responsivity of the plasmonic IR detector at specific wavelength band has improved the performance of NDIR spectroscopy and pushed the limit of detection (LOD) by an order of magnitude. In this paper, a 13 fold enhancement in the LOD of a methane gas sensing using NDIR spectroscopy is demonstrated with the plasmonic IR detector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma; corticosteroids; intraocular pressure; Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report; spontaneous reporting system; volcano plot; hierarchical clustering; principal component analysis
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:43:13 CEST)
: Glaucoma is the most common cause of blindness, which significantly reduces quality of life. Most glaucoma cases are primary glaucoma; nevertheless, many patients suffer from glaucoma caused by drugs, such as corticosteroids. A comprehensive review of the risks associated with corticosteroid-induced glaucoma is limited. Therefore, we used the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Reporting Database (JADER) published by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) to analyze the risk factors associated with glaucoma and the trends and characteristics of corticosteroid-induced glaucoma. We did not find sex or age differences associated with the onset of glaucoma. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that triamcinolone acetonide and betamethasone sodium phosphate, which are used around the eyes in Japan, are more likely to induce intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation compared with other corticosteroids. Increased IOP is a direct cause of glaucoma. Based on these findings, it may be necessary to limit or avoid the use of these corticosteroids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0009.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: multi-task learning; non-linear regression; neural networks; luminescence; luminescence quenching; oxygen sensing; phase fluorimetry; temperature sensing
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:17:07 CEST)
The classical approach to non-linear regression in physics, is to take a mathematical model describing the functional dependence of the dependent variable from a set of independent variables, and then, using non-linear fitting algorithms, extract the parameters used in the modeling. Particularly challenging are real systems, characterised by several additional influencing factors related to specific components, like electronics or optical parts. In such cases, to make the model reproduce the data, empirically determined terms are built-in the models to compensate for the impossibility of modeling things that are, by construction, impossible to model. A new approach to solve this issue is to use neural networks, particularly feed-forward architectures with a sufficient number of hidden layers and an appropriate number of output neurons, each responsible for predicting the desired variables. Unfortunately, feed-forward neural networks (FFNNs) usually perform less efficiently when applied to multi-dimensional regression problems, that is when they are required to predict simultaneously multiple variables that depend from the input dataset in fundamentally different ways. To address this problem, we propose multi-task learning (MTL) architectures. These are characterized by multiple branches of task-specific layers, which have as input the output of a common set of layers. To demonstrate the power of this approach for multi-dimensional regression, the method is applied to luminescence sensing. Here the MTL architecture allows predicting multiple parameters, the oxygen concentration and the temperature, from a single set of measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Coastal Monitoring, Remote Sensing, In-Situ Sensing, Augmented Virtuality, AUV, Drones, RFID, Wireless Sensor Networks, 3D imaging
Online: 21 December 2017 (16:00:25 CET)
In this paper the authors describe the architecture of a multidisciplinary data acquisition and visualization platform devoted to the management of coastal environments. The platform integrates heterogeneous data acquisition sub-systems that can be roughly divided in two main categories: remote sensing systems and in-situ sensing systems. Remote sensing solutions include aerial and underwater remote data acquisition while in-situ sensing solutions include the use of RFID tracers, Wireless Sensor Networks and imaging techniques. All the data collected by these subsystems are stored, integrated and fused on a single platform that is also in charge of data visualization. This last task is carried out according to the paradigm of Augmented Virtuality which foresees the augmentation of a virtually reconstructed environment with data collected in the real world. The described solution proposes a novel holistic approach where different disciplines concur, with different data acquisition techniques, to a large scale definition of coastal dynamics, in order to better describe and face the coastal erosion phenomenon. The overall framework has been conceived by the so-called Team COSTE, a joint research team between the Universities of Pisa, Siena and Florence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: radar 3D imaging; synthetic aperture radar; millimeter wave radar; remote sensing; compressed sensing; inverse Radon transform; portable
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:44:25 CET)
In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is proposed. The user just needs to move the radar along a circular track, a high resolution 3D imaging can be generated. The proposed radar uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D imaging. To improve the sensing result, compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave imaging radar is illustrated in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0571.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability; Sport Performance; Sport Management; Value Added Reporting; Value Added Income Statement; Listed Football Clubs; Communities development; Fair Income Distribution.
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:48:28 CET)
Sports are framed within the context of the Olympic spirit and are, therefore, within the vision and mission of the Olympic Committee, aimed at “building a better world”. This is identified as a fundamental value and sustainability is therefore explicitly considered to be a “working principle” of this. In this research an analysis of the performance of professional European football teams publicly listed on stock markets, restating the income statements according to the Value-Added perspective is carried out. This takes into account the effective sustainable contribution in the distribution of added value with reference to the human, structural, debt, infrastructural, and risk capitals of these organisations. The Value-Added Statement is considered as a part of the broader CSR Reporting and can be traced back to the late 1970s. However, it is in widespread contemporary use and is regarded as being both a credible and a tested measure. In this paper, the authors apply a slightly modified and simplified version of this tool to these publicly listed European football clubs as a proxy for wider professional sport. This research demonstrates that, although professional sports clubs are profit-oriented, the distribution of wealth generated by the added value is unbalanced. In most cases, at least in financial terms, shareholders are the most disadvantaged and athletes are the most rewarded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0709.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; psychological impacts; self-harm; suicide; COVID-19 suicide; teenage suicide; adolescent suicide; youth suicide; press reporting suicide
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:43:25 CEST)
Background: The incidences of COVID-19 related suicide among adolescents and youths have been reported across the world. There is no cumulative study focusing on nature, patterns, and causative factors that lead to the present investigation. Methods: A purposive sampling of google news between 15 February to 6 July was performed. After excluding duplicate reports, the final list comprised a total of 37-suicide cases across 11 countries. Results: More male suicides were reported (21-cases, i.e., 56.76%), and the mean age of the total victims was 16.6±2.7 years (out of a total of 29-cases). About two-thirds of the suicides were from three countries named India (11-cases), United Kingdom (8-cases), and the USA (6-cases). Out of 23-student victims, 14 were school-going students. Hanging was the most common suicide method accounting in 51.4% of cases. The most common suicide causalities were related to mental sufferings such as depression, loneliness, psychological distress, etc., whereas either online schooling or overwhelming academic distress was placed as the second most risk factors followed by TikTok addiction-related psychological distress, and tested with COVID-19. Conclusion: The finding of the temporal distribution of suicides concerning lockdowns may help in exploring and evolving public measures to prevent/decrease pandemic-related suicides in young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0264.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Remote sensing; Run theory; Drought; Semi-arid
Online: 6 November 2023 (03:10:12 CET)
Drought is a powerful natural hazard that has significant effects on ecosystems amid the constant threats posed by climate change. This study investigates agricultural drought in a semi-arid Mediterranean basin through the interconnections of four indices: precipitation (meteorological reanalysis), vegetation development, thermal stress, and soil water deficit (remote sensing observations). The study focuses on the determination of agricultural drought periods. Firstly, the temporal connections between the various indices at different spatial scales and in different parts of the basin are investigated. Thereafter, a modified run-theory approach based on normality and dryness thresholds is applied. The Pearson correlations at different spatial scales showed a medium to low level of agreement between the indices, which was explained by the geographical heterogeneity and the climatic variability between the agrosystems within the basin. It is also shown that the cascade of impacts expected from lower precipitations is revealed by the cross-correlation analysis. The connection between precipitation deficit and vegetation remains significant for at least one month for most pairs of indices, especially during drought events, suggesting that agricultural drought spells can be connected in time through the three or four selected indices. Short-, mid-, and long-term impacts of precipitation deficiencies on soil moisture, vegetation, and temperature were revealed. As expected, the more instantaneous variables of soil moisture and surface temperature showed no lag with precipitation. Vegetation anomalies at the monthly time step showed a two-month lag with a preceding effect of vegetation to precipitation. Finally, the determination of drought events and stages with varying thresholds on the run-theory showed the large variability of duration, magnitude, and intensity according to the choice of both normality and dryness thresholds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Aerosol; ENSO; Black Carbon; Remote Sensing; Amazon
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:49:12 CEST)
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) stands as the paramount tropical phenomenon of climatic magnitude resulting from ocean-atmosphere interaction. Due to its atmospheric teleconnection mechanism, ENSO wields influence over diverse environmental variables spanning distinct atmospheric scales, thereby potentially impacting the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Within this framework, this study aims to appraise the relationship between ENSO and atmospheric aerosols across the Legal Amazon during the period between 2006 and 2011. Over this quinquennium, four ENSO events were identified. Concurrently, an analysis was conducted on the spatiotemporal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and AOD extinction for Black Carbon (EAOD-BC), concomitant with said ENSO events, utilizing data derived from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), MERRA-2 model, and ERSSTV5. Through the Windowed Cross Correlation (WCC) approach, statistically significant phase lags of up to 4 to 6 months were observed between ENSO indicators and atmospheric aerosols. Moreover, conspicuous increases of over 100% in atmospheric aerosol concentration were evidenced subsequent to El Niño periods, especially during the intervals encompassing the La Niña phase, particularly within the La Niña CP (Central Pacific)/Modoki category. By analyzing specific humidity anomalies (QA), exceptional scenarios in the region were detectable. This observation suggests a notable singularity when juxtaposed with antecedent investigations and typical average patterns characterizing the impacts on the Amazonian region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1328.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: agriculture; land cover; remote sensing; fertilizer; yield
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:14:06 CEST)
Nitrogen is crucial for plant physiology due to the fact that plants consume a significant amount of nitrogen during the development period. Nitrogen supports the root, leaf, stem, branch, shoot and fruit development of plants. At the same time, it also increases flowering. To monitor the vegetation nitrogen concentration, one of the best indicator developed in the literature is Normalized Difference Nitrogen Index (NDNI) which is based on the usage of the spectral bands: 1510 and 1680 nm. from Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) region of electromagnetic spectrum. However, majority of the remote sensing sensors like cameras and/or satellites do not have a SWIR sensor due to the high costs. Many vegetation indexes like NDVI, EVI, MNLI, have been developed in also VNIR region to monitor the greenness and healthy of the crops. However these indexes are not very correlated to the nitrogen content. Therefore, in this study, a novel method is developed which transforms the estimated VNIR band indexes to NDNI by using a regression method between a group of VNIR indexes and NDNI. Training is employed by using VNIR band indexes as input and NDNI as output which are both calculated from the same location. After training, 0.93 correlation is achieved. Therefore, by using only VNIR band sensors, it is possible to estimate the nitrogen content of the plant with high accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1518.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: planting structure; evapotranspiration; remote sensing; climate change
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:58:04 CEST)
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential part of energy flow between the surface of the earth and the atmosphere, simultaneously involving the water, carbon, and energy cycles. It is mainly determined by climate change, land use, and land cover changes. Climate change is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle and alter ET. Land use affects ET within regional ecosystems mainly through vegetation changes and agricultural activities such as farmland reclamation, crop cultivation, and agricultural management. However, there is still a need for quantitative characterization of the impacts of climate change and human activities on ET and regional water resource efficiency in arid and semiarid regions. Based on Landsat-8 remote sensing imagery and land use data, the planting structure in the Liangzhou District of the middle reaches of the Shiyang River Basin was identified using a multiband and multitemporal approach in this study. Subsequently, the ET of major cash crops was inverted using the three-temperature model. This research quantitatively describes the responses of wheat and corn to the climate and human activities over a two-year period. Furthermore, the impact of planting structure and climatic factors on ET was elucidated. The results indicate that a combination of multitemporal green and shortwave infrared 1 bands is the optimal spectral combination to extract the planting structure. Compared to 2019, the wheat area decreased by 23.27% in 2020, while the corn area increased by 5.96%. Both crops exhibited significant spatial heterogeneity in ET during the growing season. The typical daily range of ET for wheat was 0.4–7.2 mm/day, and for corn, it was 1.5–4.0 mm/day. Among the climatic factors, temperature showed the highest correlation with ET (R = 0.80, p ≤ 0.05). Our research findings provide valuable insights for the fine identification of planting structures and a better understanding of the response of ET to climatic factors and human activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biomass; ecophysiology; GIS remote sensing; agroecology; Togo
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:02:46 CEST)
In the context of climate change, the need for stakeholders to contribute to achieving SDG2 is no longer in doubt especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study of the landscape within 10 km of the Donomadé model farm, southeastern Togo, we sought to assess vegetation health in ecosystems and agrosystems, including their capacity to produce biomass for agroecological practices. Sentinel-2 sensor data from 2015, 2017, 2020, and 2022 were preprocessed and used to calculate normalized vegetation fire ratio index (NBR), vegetation fire severity index (dNBR), and CASA-SEBAL models. From these different analyses, it was found that vegetation stress increased across the landscape depending on the year of the time series. We estimated that 9952.215 ha, 10,397.43 ha, and 9854.90 ha were highly stressed in 2015, 2017, and 2020, respectively. Analysis of the level of interannual severity revealed the existence of highly photosynthetic areas which had experienced stress. These areas, which were likely to have been subjected to agricultural practices, were estimated to be 8704.871 ha (dNBR2017–2015), 8253.17 ha (dNBR2020–2017), and 7513.93 ha (dNBR2022–2020). In 2022, the total available biomass estimated by remote sensing for was 3,741,715 ± 119.26 kgC/ha/y. The annual average was 3401.55 ± 119.26 kgC/ha/y. In contrast, the total area of healthy vegetation was estimated to be 4594.43 ha, 4301.30 ha, and 4320.85 ha, in 2015, 2017, and 2022, respectively. The acceptance threshold of the net primary productivity (NPP) of the study area was 96%. The coefficient of skewness (0.81 ± 0.073) indicated a mosaic landscape. Productive and functional ecosystem components were present, but these were highly dispersed. These findings suggest a great opportunity to promote agroecological practices. Mulching may be an excellent technique for enhancing overall ecosystem services as targeted by the SDGs, by means of reconversion of plant biomass consumed by vegetation fires or slash-and-burn agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: blockchain; protocols; Industry 5.0; sensing; 5G networks
Online: 16 June 2023 (02:33:10 CEST)
"Industry 5.0” is the latest industrial revolution. A variety of cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things (IoT), and others, come together to form it. This new era will bring about significant changes in the way businesses operate, allowing them to become more cost-effective, more efficient, and produce higher-quality goods and services. Because sen-sors are getting better, 5G networks are being put in place, and more industrial equipment and machinery are becoming available, the manufacturing sector is going through a significant period of transition right now. These newly scalable opportunities make it possible to use and spread blockchain architectures on the shop floor, which is made possible by the ever-decreasing costs associated with implementing blockchain technology. Even though modern production models make use of the cloud (both internal and external services), networks and systems can take ad-vantage of the cloud's relatively low cost, scalability, increased computational power, real-time communication, and data transfer capabilities to create much smarter and more autonomous systems. This paper presents the results of an investigation into how blockchain services for large-scale industry networks could benefit from increased levels of security, transparency, and efficiency. We discuss the ways in which decentralized networks that make use of protocols and meshes might make things better with these technologies, which are not going away anytime soon. We emphasize the significance of new design in regards to cybersecurity, data integrity, and storage by using straightforward examples that have the potential to lead to the excellence of distributed systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0219.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: MOFs; fluorescent probe; dye; styrene; temperature sensing
Online: 2 June 2023 (15:52:27 CEST)
A novel fluorescent probe (C460@Tb-MOFs) was designed and synthesized through encapsulating the fluorescent dye 7-diethylamino-4-methyl coumarin into terbium-based metal-organic framework by a simple ultrasonic impregnation method. It is impressive that this dye-modified metal-organic framework can specifically detect styrene and temperature upon luminescence quenching. The sensing platform of this material exhibit great selectivity, fast response and good cyclability toward styrene detection. It is worth mentioning that the sensing process undergoes a distinct color change from blue to colourless, providing conditions for accurate visual detection of styrene liquid and gas. The significant fluorescence quenching mechanism of styrene toward C460@Tb-MOFs is explored in detail. Moreover, the dye-modified metal-organic framework can also achieve temperature sensing from 298 to 498 K with high relative sensitivity at 498 K. The preparation of functionalized MOFs composites by fluorescent dyes provides an effective strategy for the construction of sensors for multifunctional applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1843.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Uncertainty; Neural Networks; Bayesian Inversion; Remote Sensing
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:22:05 CEST)
The Ocean Color - Simultaneous Marine and Aerosol Retrieval Tool (OC-SMART) is a robust data processing platform that supports a large array of multi-spectral and hyper-spectral sensors. It provides accurate aerosol optical depths and remote sensing reflectances (Rrs estimates) that can be used to generate products such as absorption coefficients due to phytoplankton and detritus/Gelbstoff as well as backscattering coefficients due to particulate matter. The OC-SMART platform yields improved performance in complex environments by utilizing scientific machine learning (SciML) in conjunction with comprehensive radiative transfer computations. This paper expands the capability of OC-SMART by quantifying uncertainties in ocean color retrievals. Bayesian inversion is used to relate measured top of atmosphere radiances and a priori data to estimate posterior probability density functions and associated uncertainties. A framework of the methodology and implementation strategy is presented and uncertainty estimates for Rrs retrievals are provided to demonstrate the approach by applying it to MODIS, OLCI Sentinel-3, and VIIRS sensor data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Nanoparticles; nanotoxicity; mechanobiology; cell cytoskeleton; rigidity sensing
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:39:53 CEST)
Nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used in healthcare and nano therapy, but their toxicity at high concentrations is well-known. Recent research has shown that NPs can also cause toxicity at low concentrations, disrupting various cellular functions and leading to altered mechanobiological behavior. While researchers have used different methods to investigate the effects of NPs on cells, including gene expression and cell adhesion assays, the use of mechanobiological tools in this context has been underutilized. This review emphasizes the importance of further exploring the mechanobiological effects of NPs, which could reveal valuable insights into the mechanisms behind NP toxicity. Such investigations could aid in developing new strategies to mitigate NP toxicity and improve their safety for biomedical applications. Moreover, understanding how NPs affect cell cytoskeletal functions through mechanobiology could have significant implications, including the development of innovative drug delivery systems and tissue engineering techniques. In summary, this review highlights the significance of incorporating mechanobiology into the study of NP toxicity and demonstrates the potential of this interdisciplinary field to advance our knowledge and practical use of NPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Irrigation water management; Agriculture; Remote sensing; Optimization
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:29:15 CEST)
Due to the impacts from climate change, the allocation of water resources must urgently be optimized worldwide to ensure that the needs of both water managers and farmers are balanced. In this study, manager-oriented and farmer-oriented assessment models were developed for irrigation water optimization and allocation. The distance from water sources and hydraulic head were the main factors in the manager-oriented assessment model; crop value, water demand of crops, and soil type were additional factors in the farmer-oriented assessment model. The developed assessment models were used to assess irrigation water allocation in five villages in Neimen District. Cadasters at high elevation were discovered to not be suitable for cultivation of crops because of the difficulties in constructing irrigation facilities and the loss of irrigation water during transportation. The result obtained from the manager-oriented assessment system was related to the costs involved in the construction and maintenance of irrigation facilities, which indicated that cadasters located at long distances from water sources and at high elevation are unsuitable for cultivation. By contrast, the result obtained from the farmer-oriented assessment system was related to the profits of farmers and revealed that more cadasters would be suitable for cultivation if suitable crops were chosen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0535.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: cropland, evapotranspiration; LAI; aspect; remote sensing; mHM
Online: 28 December 2022 (09:19:18 CET)
The spatial heterogeneity in hydrologic simulations is a key difference between lumped and distributed models. Not all distributed models benefit from pedo-transfer functions based on soil properties and crop-vegetation dynamics. Mostly coarse scale meteorological forcing is used to estimate water balance at the catchment outlet only. Mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is one of the rare models that incorporates remote sensing data i.e. leaf area index (LAI) and aspect to improve actual evapotranspiration (AET) simulations and water balance together. The user can select either LAI or aspect to scale PET. However, herein we introduced a new weighting parameter “alphax” that allows user to incorporate both LAI and aspect together for PET scaling. With this mHM code enhancement, the modeler has an also option of using raw PET with no scaling. In this study, streamflow, and AET are simulated using the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) in Main (Germany) basin for the period of 2002-2014. The additional value of PET scaling with LAI and aspect for model performance is investigated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AET and LAI products. From 69 mHM parameters, 26 parameters are selected for calibration using Optimization Software Toolkit (OSTRICH). For calibration and evaluation, KGE metric is used for water balance and SPAEF metric is used for evaluating spatial patterns of AET. Our results show that AET performance of the mHM is highest when using both LAI and aspect indicating that LAI and aspect contain valuable spatial heterogeneity information from topography and canopy (e.g., forests, grasslands, and croplands) that should be preserved during modeling. The additional “alphax” parameter makes the model physically more flexible and robust as the model can decide the weights according to the study domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural networks; remote sensing
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:20:07 CET)
Deep Learning is an extremely important research topic in Earth Observation. Current use-cases range from semantic image segmentation, object detection to more common problems found in computer vision such as object identification. Earth Observation is an excellent source for different types of problems and data for Machine Learning in general and Deep Learning in particular. It can be argued that both Earth Observation and Deep Learning as fields of research will benefit greatly from this recent trend of research. In this paper we take several state of the art Deep Learning network topologies and provide a detailed analysis of their performance for semantic image segmentation for building footprint detection. The dataset used is comprised of high resolution images depicting urban scenes. We focused on single model performance on simple RGB images. In most situations several methods have been applied to increase the accuracy of prediction when using deep learning such as ensembling, alternating between optimisers during training and using pretrained weights to bootstrap new models. These methods although effective, are not indicative of single model performance. Instead, in this paper, we present different topology variations of these state of the art topologies and study how these variations effect both training convergence and out of sample, single model, performance.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0506.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: sea ice; surface roughness; remote sensing; MISR
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:44:08 CEST)
Sea ice roughness can serve as a proxy for other sea ice characteristics such as ice thickness and ice age. Arctic-wide maps that represent spatial patterns of sea ice roughness can be used to better characterize spatial patterns of ice convergence and divergence processes. Sea ice surface roughness can also control and quantify turbulent exchange between sea ice surface and atmosphere and therefore influence surface energy balance at the basin scale. We have developed a data processing system that produces georeferenced sea ice roughness rasters that can be mosaicked to produce Arctic-wide maps of sea ice roughness. This approach starts with Top-of-Atmosphere radiance data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). We used red-band angular data from three MISR cameras (Ca, Cf, An). We created a training data set in which MISR pixels were matched with co-located and concurrent lidar-derived roughness measurements from the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). We used a K-nearest neighbor algorithm with the training data to calibrate the multi-angle data to values of surface roughness and then applied the algorithm to Arctic-wide MISR data for two 16-day periods in April (spring) and July (summer). After georeferencing the roughness rasters, we then mosaicked each 16-day roughness dataset to produce Arctic-wide maps of sea ice roughness for spring and summer. Assessment of the results shows good agreement with independent ATM roughness data, not used in model development. A preliminary exploration of spatial and seasonal changes in sea ice roughness for two locations shows the ability to characterize the roughness of different ice types and the results align with previous studies. This processing system and its data products can help the sea ice research community to gain insights into the seasonal and interannual changes in sea ice roughness over the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0050.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: quorum sensing; resistance random network; complex networks
Online: 2 August 2022 (08:21:25 CEST)
We propose a model for bacterial Quorum Sensing based on an auxiliary electrostatic-like interaction originating from a fictitious electrical charge that represents bacteria activity. A cooperative mechanism for charge/activity exchange is introduced to implement chemotaxis and replication. The bacteria system is thus represented by means of a complex resistor network where link resistances take into account the allowed activity-flow among individuals. By explicit spatial stochastic simulations, we show that the model exhibits different quasi-realistic behaviors from colony formation to biofilm aggregation. The electrical signal associated with Quorum Sensing is analyzed in space and time and provides useful information about the colony dynamics. In particular, we analyze the transition between the planktonic and the colony phases as the intensity of Quorum Sensing is varied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0007.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: African agriculture; Irrigation; Landsat; Remote Sensing; Reservoir.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:26:45 CET)
Agriculture in Morocco has been extensive until the middle of the 20th century due to the distribution of rainfall and the availability of water. In the middle of the last century hydraulic works were built that allowed the transition to intensive agriculture by the increase of irrigated areas, allowing that in the territories where there is water for irrigation and the climate allows it, the crops adapt to the demands of the market. The objective of the study is to assess by satellite images the land cover between 1985 and 2020, analyzing the changes in cultivation areas, as well as the changes in desert, sub-desert and forest areas of the Oum Er Rbia hydrological basin in Morocco. Landsat satellite images have been used since 1984 by the US government (Aerospace and Geological Agencies). A series of vegetation indices (NDVI, RVI, TNDVI and EVI) have been used; among which TNDVI (Transformed Normalized Vegetation Index) stands out for its better accuracy, which has allowed us to distinguish vegetation in cultivated and forest areas, as well as arid zones. In addition, the study has compared the use of two methodologies to calculate changes in the coverage of the Earth’s surface, has used local image processing from the Sentinel Application Platform tool and has also used the Google Earth Engine tool. The latter being the most optimal, although at the moment it has great limitations. In both methodologies and in the different indices it has been possible to observe during these 35 years as the cultivated area has increased (related to the availability of water by the construction of reservoirs and canals), how plant cover has improved in forest areas, and a range of variations in arid areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0199.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: urban structure, remote sensing, temporal change, NYC
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:26:15 CEST)
Surface temperature influences human health directly and alters the biodiversity and productivity of the environment. While previous research has identified that the composition of urban landscapes influences the physical properties of the environment such as surface temperature, a generalizable and flexible framework is needed that can be used to compare cities across time and space. This study employs the Structure of Urban Landscapes (STURLA) classification combined with remote sensing of New York City’s (NYC) surface temperature. These are then linked using machine learning and statistical modeling to identify how greenspace and the built environment influence urban surface temperature. It was observed that areas with urban units composed of largely the built environment hosted the hottest temperatures while those with vegetation and water were coolest. Likewise, this is reinforced by borough-level spatial differences in both urban structure and heat. Comparison of these relationships over the period between2008 and 2017 identified changes in surface temperature that are likely due to the changes in prevalence in water, lowrise buildings, and pavement across the city. This research reinforces how human alteration of the environment changes ecosystem function and offers units of analysis that can be used for research and urban planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0498.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: proximal hyperspectral sensing; precision agriculture; random forest
Online: 22 February 2021 (17:20:41 CET)
A strategy to reduce qualitative and quantitative losses in crop-yields refers to early and accurate detection of insect-damage caused in plants. Remote sensing systems like hyperspectral proximal sensors are a promising strategy for managing crops. In this aspect, machine learning predictions associated with clustering techniques may be an interesting approach mainly because of its robustness to evaluate high dimensional data. In this paper, we model the spectral response of insect-herbivory-damage in maize plants and propose an approach based on machine learning and a clustering method to predict whether the plant is herbivore-attacked or not using leaf reflectance measurements. We differentiate insect-type damage based on the spectral response and indicate the most contributive wavelengths to perform it. For this, we used a maize experiment in semi-field conditions. The maize plants were submitted to three different treatments: control (health plants); plants submitted to Spodoptera frugiperda herbivory-damage, and; plants submitted to Dichelops melacanthus herbivory-damage. The leaf spectral response of all plants (controlled and submitted to herbivory) was measured with a FieldSpec 3.0 Spectroradiometer from 350 to 2500 nm for eight consecutive days. We evaluated the performance of different learners like random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), extreme gradient boost (XGB), neural networks (MLP), and measured the impact of a day-by-day analysis into the prediction. We proposed a novel framework with a ranking strategy, based on the accuracy returned by predictions, and a clusterization method based on a self-organizing map (SOM) to identify important regions in the reflectance measurement. Our results indicated that the RF-based framework algorithm is the overall best learner to deal with this type of data. After the 5th day of analysis, the accuracy of the algorithm improved substantially. It separated the three treatments into different groups with an F-measure equal to 0.967, 0.917, and 0.881, respectively. We also verified that the most contributive spectral regions are situated in the near-infrared domain. We conclude that the proposed approach with machine learning methods is adequate to monitor herbivory-damage of S. frugiperda and stink bugs like Dichelops melacanthus in maize, differentiating the types of insect-attack early on. We also demonstrate that the framework proposed for the analysis of the most contributive wavelengths is suitable to highlight spectral regions of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0251.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: remote sensing; collaborative application; observation capability; evaluation
Online: 10 February 2021 (10:27:14 CET)
This paper proposed a new evaluation model based on analytic hierarchy process to quantitatively evaluate the capability of multi-satellite cooperative remote sensing observation. The analytic hierarchical process model is a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis of systematic decision analysis method. According to the objective of the remote sensing cooperative observation mission, we decompose the complex problem into several levels and a number of factors, compare and calculate various factors in pairs, and obtain the combination weights of different schemes. The model can be used to evaluate the observation capability of resource satellites. Taking the optical remote sensing satellites such as China’s resource satellite series and GF-4 as examples, this paper verifies and evaluates the model for three typical tasks: point target observation, regional target observation and moving target continuous observation. The results show that the model can provide quantitative reference and model support for comprehensive evaluation of the collaborative observation capability of remote sensing satellites.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Full Matrix Capture; Compressed Sensing; Sparse Array
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:11:06 CET)
Full Matrix Capture is a multi-channel data acquisition method which enables flexible, high resolution imaging using ultrasound arrays. However, the measurement time and data volume are increased considerably. Both of these costs can be circumvented via compressed sensing, which exploits prior knowledge of the underlying model and its sparsity to reduce the amount of data needed to produce a high resolution image. In order to design compression matrices that are physically realizable without sophisticated hardware constraints, structured subsampling patterns are designed and evaluated in this work. The design is based on the analysis of the Cramér-Rao Bound of a single scatterer in a homogeneous, isotropic medium. A numerical comparison of the point spread functions obtained with different compression matrices and the Fast Iterative Shrinkage/Thresholding Algorithm shows that the best performance is achieved when each transmit event can use a different subset of receiving elements and each receiving element uses a different section of the echo signal spectrum. Such a design has the advantage of outperforming other structured patterns to the extent that suboptimal selection matrices provide a good performance and can be efficiently computed with greedy approaches.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0529.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: snow; albedo; remote sensing; OLCI; Sentinel-3
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:45:37 CEST)
This document describes the theoretical basis of the algorithms used to determine properties of snow and ice from the measurements of the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 satellites within the Pre-operational Sentinel-3 snow and ice products (SICE) project: http://snow.geus.dk/. The code used for the SICE retrieval and its documentation can be found at https://github.com/GEUS-SICE/pySICE. The algorithms were developed after the work from Kokhanovsky et al. (2018, 2019, 2020).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: DMTU; Multispecies biofilms; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Quorum sensing
Online: 11 August 2020 (08:11:20 CEST)
Imbalance of homeostasis between the microbial communities and the host system leads to dysbiosis in oral micro flora. DMTU (1,3-di-m-tolyl-urea), is a biocompatible compound that was shown to inhibit Streptococcus mutansbiofilms by inhibiting its communication system (quorum sensing). Here, we hypothesized that DMTU is able to inhibit multispecies biofilms. We developed a multispecies oral biofilm model comprising an early colonizer Streptococcus gordonii, a bridge colonizer Fusobacterium nucleatum, and late colonizers Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We performed comprehensive investigations to demonstrate the effect of DMTU on planktonic cells and biofilms. Our findings showed that DMTU inhibits and disrupts multispecies biofilms without bactericidal effects. Mechanistic studies revealed significant down regulation of biofilm and virulence related genes in P. gingivalis. Taken together, our study highlights the potential of DMTU to inhibit polymicrobial biofilm communities and their virulence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: calcium carbonate, karst, precipitation, remote sensing, whiting
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:38:26 CEST)
In the present study, a five-year follow-up was performed by remote sensing of the calcium carbonate precipitation in La Gitana karstic lake (located on the province of Cuenca, Spain). The important role that calcium carbonate precipitation plays in the ecology of the lake is well known for its influence on the vertical migrations of phytoplankton, the concentration of bioavailable phosphorus and, therefore, the eutrophication and quality of the waters. Whiting take place between the months of July and August, and it can be studied at this time through its optical properties, with the main objective of offering updated data on a phenomenon traditionally studied and establishing possible relationships between abiotic factors such as temperature and/or rainfall. The atmospheric temperature data collected by the meteorological station suggest a possible relationship between the appearance of the white phenomenon and a pulse of previous maximum temperatures. On the other hand, no apparent relationship was found between rainfall and water bleaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0188.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: ozone; OMI; seasonal variations; satellite remote sensing
Online: 12 April 2020 (09:14:12 CEST)
India is one of the large sources of the anthropogenic pollutants and their increasing emission due to the recent economic growth in India. In this study we analyzed the annual and seasonal behaviors of ozone (O3) gas using satellite remote sensing dataset from the sources Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over India region from 2006-2015. The study focuses on the seasonal behaviors of O3 gas i.e., monthly, seasonal, annual mean variations of trace gas and also trend analysis of O3 gas and comparison of the seasonal behavior of the ozone gas by trend analysis were assessed. In this study we also taken eleven cities to show the increment and decrement in four seasons of O3 gas by taking 2006 as a base year and investigate the behaviors of gases during (2007-2015) years. Higher concentrations of O3 south-to-north gradient, indicating the variations due to the impact of emissions and local meteorology. Ozone concentrations were higher during the warmer months. However, in winter season lowest concentration of O3 seen due to the less amount of heat and due to cold days and ozone holes in the stratosphere. Instead, total O3 concentrations rises over Delhi, Lucknow and Kolkata due to large population density, high traffic emission, highly polluted air and larger industrial activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Cladosporium sp.; altertoxins; quorum sensing inhibitory activity
Online: 31 December 2019 (02:31:16 CET)
Five new perylenequinone derivatives, altertoxins VIII-XII (1-5), as well as one known compound cladosporol I (6), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Cladosporium sp. KFD33 from a blood cockle from Haikou Bay, China. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. Compounds 1-6 exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory activities against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 with MIC values of 30, 30, 20, 30, 20 and 30 μg/well, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0071.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land surface reanalysis, remote sensing, data assimilation,
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:31:26 CET)
This study focuses on the ability of the global land data assimilation system LDAS-Monde to improve the representation of land surface variables (LSVs) over Burkina Faso through the joint assimilation of satellite derived Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from January 2001 to June 2018. The LDAS-Monde offline system is forced by the latest European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis ERA5, leading to a 0.25° x 0.25° spatial resolution reanalysis of the LSVs. Within LDAS-Monde, SSM and LAI observations from the Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS) are assimilated using the CO2-responsive version of the ISBA (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM). First, it is shown that ERA5 better represents precipitation and incoming solar radiation than ERA-Interim former reanalysis from ECMWF. Results of two experiments are compared: open-loop simulation (i.e. no assimilation) and analysis (i.e. joint assimilation of SSM and LAI). After jointly assimilating SSM and LAI, it is noticed that the assimilation is able to impact soil moisture in the first top soil layers (the first 20 cm), and also in deeper soil layers (from 20 cm to 60 cm and below). The assimilation is able to improve the simulation of both SSM and LAI. For LAI in particular, the southern region of the domain (dominated by a Sudan-Guinean climate) highlights a strong impact of the assimilation compared to the other two sub-regions of Burkina Faso (dominated by Sahelian and Sudan-Sahelian climates). In the southern part of the domain, differences between the model and the observations are the largest, prior to any assimilation. These differences are linked to the model failing to represent the behavior of some specific vegetation species, which are known to put on leaves before the first rains of the season. The LDAS-Monde analysis is very efficient at compensating for this model weakness. Evapotranspiration estimates from the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) project as well as upscaled carbon uptake from the FLUXCOM project are used in the evaluation process, again demonstrating improvements in the representation of evapotranspiration and gross primary production after assimilation.