ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Virtual environment; Avatar customization; Avatar self-similarity; Avatar identification; Public self-consciousness; Online self-expression; Emotional expression
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:25:32 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the behavior of user-defined avatars in different virtual environments, and compare the differences in public self-awareness, self-expression, and emotional expression among customized avatars in multiple virtual contexts. Methods: Using a between-subjects experimental design, two random groups of participants were asked to customize avatars for themselves in two contexts, a multiplayer online social game (MOSG) and a virtual meeting (VM). i.e. a relaxed and a serious social environment. Results: When subjects perceived a more relaxed environment, the customized avatars had less self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a stronger self-disclosure willingness and enhanced avatar wishful identification; nevertheless, public self-consciousness was not increased. When subjects perceived a more serious environment, the customized avatars exhibited a higher degree of self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a greater self-presentation willingness, along with enhanced identification of avatar similarity, and increased public self-consciousness. Conclusions: Participants expressed positive emotions, suggesting that avatars play a positive role in various virtual contexts. The virtual context affects the self-similarity of user-customized avatars, and avatar self-similarity affects self-presentation and self-disclosure willingness, and these factors will affect the behavior of the user-customized avatar. This study contributes suggestions to the Metaverse avatar customization platform design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0610.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: self-consciousness; online shopping behavior; technology acceptance model (TAM)
Online: 30 September 2018 (11:31:50 CEST)
Self-consciousness can be considered as the internal disposition to direct attention to oneself. This dispositional tendency can be focused on private aspects of the self, but also on public characteristics of the individual. We examine self-consciousness in online consumer behavior. This concept has been poorly investigated in consumer research. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of the dimensions of self-consciousness in consumer adoption of online shopping. This study is based on a sample of 725 Spanish undergraduates. Results indicated that public self-consciousness is a significant predictor of the adoption of online shopping.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: laying hen; social stress; injurious behavior; microbiota; probiotic; bacillus subtilis
Online: 17 January 2020 (12:37:53 CET)
Some management practices, such as maintaining birds under high group density, used in the poultry industry may cause birds stress, leading to injurious behaviors, such as injurious pecking, aggression, and cannibalism. In addition, some management practices used to prevent severe injuries in birds may cause pain. Beak trimming (BT), removal of 1/3 to 1/2 of a beak, is a routine husbandry procedure practiced in laying hens to prevent or reduce injurious behaviors. However, BT causes tissue damage, which may increase somatosensory sensitization of the damaged nerve tissues, resulting in pain (acute, chronic or both) in the treated birds because the beak is a complex, functional organ with an extensive nerve supply. BT has already been heavily regulated or prohibited in several European countries and, in time, this trend will impact the practice used in the United States poultry industry. With the growing public concern for poultry welfare there is a pressing need to identify and develop alternatives to BT. Probiotics defined “as a source of live (viable) naturally occurring microorganisms (direct-fed microbials)” have been used as dietary supplements or functional foods to target gut microbiota (microbiome) for prevention or therapeutic treatment of mental diseases including social stress-induced psychiatric disorders in humans and various experimental animals. In our studies, chickens were used as an animal model to assess if dietary supplementation of probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, reduces injurious behaviors following social challenge. Hens of Dekalb XL strain, an aggressive line, were used in the studies. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation of the Bacillus subtilis based probiotic reduces aggressive behaviors in chickens. These results suggest dietary probiotics could be a suitable strategy for increasing hosts’ health status and welfare conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0122.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: 3R communication model; Self-sampling; medically underserved women; cervical cancer screening
Online: 7 April 2023 (09:49:43 CEST)
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) and reduce the cervical cancer burden in Medically Underserved Women (MUW). However, interventions promoting self-sampling are limited. We examined the effectiveness of an intervention study in increasing CCS among MUW. We conducted a quasi-experimental intervention study. Face-to-face verbal approach was to recruit MUW (n=85, mean age 48.57±11.02) living in a small city in the US. Behavioral intervention based on reframing, reprioritizing, and reforming (3R model) was used to educate the women about CCS in a group format. The women completed pre-and post-intervention assessments and followed-up interviews. The primary outcome was CCS uptake. Mixed methods analyses were conducted using a t-test for the primary outcome, PROCESS for mediation analysis, and NVivo for interview data. Majority of women (75%) completed self-testing. High-risk HPV prevalent among the women was 11%, and of those, 57% followed-up with physicians for care. We found that the significant increase in the women’s post-intervention screening behaviors was mediated by the increase in knowledge (Indirect Effect [IE] = .1314; 95% CI, .0104, .4079) and attitude (IE = .2167; 95% CI, .0291, .6050) scores, (p<0.001). Interview analyses offered further explanations (see the explanations in parenthesis) why MUW found the intervention messages acceptable (encourages proactive behavior), feasible (simple and easy to understand), and appropriate (helpful and informative). Barriers including lack of trust and fear of results were identified. The findings suggest that an intervention that combines the 3R model and self-sampling may increase CCS among MUW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0283.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Autonomous vehicle; Self-driving; Real Driving Behavior; Deep Neural Network; LSV-DNN
Online: 30 November 2020 (11:16:54 CET)
Considering the significant advancements in autonomous vehicle technology, research in this field is of interest to researchers. To drive vehicles autonomously, controlling steer angle, gas hatch, and brakes need to be learned. The behavioral cloning method is used to imitate humans’ driving behavior. We created a dataset of driving in different routes and conditions and using the designed model, the output used for controlling the vehicle is obtained. In this paper, the Learning of Self-driving Vehicles Based on Real Driving Behavior Using Deep Neural Network Techniques (LSV-DNN) is proposed. We designed a convolutional network which uses the real driving data obtained through the vehicle’s camera and computer. The response of the driver is during driving is recorded in different situations and by converting the real driver’s driving video to images and transferring the data to an excel file, obstacle detection is carried out with the best accuracy and speed using the Yolo algorithm version 3. This way, the network learns the response of the driver to obstacles in different locations and the network is trained with the Yolo algorithm version 3 and the output of obstacle detection. Then, it outputs the steer angle and amount of brake, gas, and vehicle acceleration. The LSV-DNN is evaluated here via extensive simulations carried out in Python and TensorFlow environment. We evaluated the network error using the loss function. By comparing other methods which were conducted on the simulator’s data, we obtained good performance results for the designed network on the data from KITTI benchmark, the data collected using a private vehicle, and the data we collected.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1416.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: C70 fullerene; xylene/tetrahydrofuran; self-organization; refractive index; DLS; UV-Vis absorption; nanocluster
Online: 20 June 2023 (09:35:19 CEST)
The self-organization properties of C70 fullerene molecules in a xylene/tetrahydrofuran binary mixture were studied for the first time by optical absorption, refractometry, and dynamic light scattering. A correlation has been established between the change in the refractive index of the C70/xylene/tetrahydrofuran solution and the degree of self-organization of C70 molecules in the medium at various concentrations and storage periods of the solution. It is shown that the features of the optical absorption spectrum of C70/xylene/tetrahydrofuran at a fixed low concentration of the fullerene are sensitive to its storage time. It was determined that the beginning time of the formation of C70 nanoclusters and their final size depend on the concentration of fullerene and the time of keeping the solution. The observed nature of the C70 fullerene solution in a binary mixture may help to elucidate the mechanism of self-organization in the future.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: consciousness 1; subjective experience 2; will 3; agency 4; self 5; psychopathology 6; treatment 7; transcranial near infrared light 8; biophotomodulation 9
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:44:47 CEST)
In this paper I will address Dr. Sonne’s questions about will, agency, choice, consciousness, relevant brain regions, impacts of disorders and their therapeutics, and I will do this by referring to my theory, Dual-brain Psychology, which posits that within most of us there exist two mental agencies with different experiences, wills, choices, and behaviors. Each of these agencies is associated as a trait with one brain hemisphere (either left or right) and its composite regions. One of these agencies is more adversely affected by past traumas and is more immature and more symptomatic while the other is more mature and healthier. The theory has extensive experimental support through 17 peer-reviewed publications with clinical and non-clinical research. I will discuss how this theory relates to the questions that Dr. Sonne presented and will discuss also my published theory on the physical nature of subjective experience and its relation to the brain and how that theory interacts with DBP, and how the 2 theories relate to subjective experience, will, behavior, psychopathology and its treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0817.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: spontaneous self-affirmation; student stress; habitual positive self-thought; self-esteem; self-integrity; self-affirmation
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:05:30 CEST)
Background: Student-specific stress is pervasive and impairs health and attainment. Experimentally induced self-affirmation can reduce stress, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect, and the role of individual differences. The present study explores the relationship between spontaneous self-affirmation, student-specific stress, and overlapping constructs of positive self-regard during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study investigated inter-relationships between spontaneous self-affirmation, student-specific perceived stress and potential covariates including self-esteem, self-integrity and habitual positive self-thought. University students (N = 151) aged 18 to 50 responded to an online questionnaire including the Spontaneous Self-Affirmation Measure, College Student Stress Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Habitual Index of Positive Thinking and Self-Integrity Scale. Results: Unexpectedly, regression analysis revealed that spontaneous self-affirmation was a positive predictor of student-specific stress, seemingly driven by relational affirmations. Self-esteem and habitual self-thought were negative predictors of student-specific stress, whilst self-integrity was not a predictor. Conclusions: Habitual positive self-thought may offer a sustainable solution to student-specific stress, but spontaneous self-affirmation does not. A reduction in defensive responses, elicitation of negative emotions, or use of conditional relationships in relational affirmation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin-oleic conjugate; self-assembled biodegradable nanoparticles; biomimetic shear stress; cell dynamic environment; cellular drug delivery; paclitaxel
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:59:02 CEST)
Fluid flow in human body is generally known to influence a variety of cellular behaviors. Different nanoparticle properties as well as cell type, interaction with other cells and cellular environments also show significant effect on nanoparticle uptake and drug efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shear stress on cellular behaviors of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles to cancer cells (A549 cell lines) in a biomimetic microfluidic system. We prepared a gelatin-oleic conjugate (GOC) as an amphiphilic biomaterial to prepare self-assembled gelatin-oleic nanoparticles (GON). Coumarin-6 and paclitaxel were used as the fluorescence marker and model drug, respectively, and were loaded into GONs by incubation (C-GONs; PTX-GONs). Additionally, we evaluated the cellular uptake of fluorescence labeled C-GONs and the drug efficacy of PTX-GONs. The cellular uptake of C-GONs by A549 cells in the absence of shear stress revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity was slightly decreased compared to that in the presence of shear stress. The results also indicated that negatively charged PTX-GONs had a lower cancer killing effect under dynamic conditions than that under static conditions. It also suggested that fluidic shear stress did not significantly affect drug uptake and efficiency in case of PTX-GONs. The cellular interactions between nanoparticles and cells in drug delivery should be carefully examined according to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as the type of materials, size and mainly surface charge in a biomimetic microfluidic condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0023.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: well-being; innate health; positive psychology; mental health; three principles; self-control; pro-social behaviors; criminology; incarcerated men; prisoners; inmates
Online: 2 June 2022 (02:57:49 CEST)
Knowledge about one’s innate health is central to a variety of positive mental health markers. However, men living in prison rarely receive education about how to access these internal resources. As such, this study seeks to replicate and extend emerging data on an innate health intervention. Volunteers from HMP Nottingham, England (n=126) participated in normal prison programming and the intervention group (n=65) received an additional 3-day intensive. The primary question: Does innate health function as a mediator in the same way self-control does within an incarcerated population? We conducted a mediation analysis, tested social desirability bias, and examined the impact of the intervention on crucial variables. This study found higher levels of innate health, self-control, wellbeing, and prosocial behavior and lower levels of aggression in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Importantly, innate health did play a mediating role equivalent to and/or partnering with self-control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: self; course; self-reflection; self-rumination; self-knowledge; mindfulness; prospection; autobiography; self-regulation; self-recognition; self-esteem; culture; inner speech; traumatic brain injury; Theory-of-Mind
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:32:55 CEST)
In this paper I tentatively answer 50 questions sampled from a pool of over 10,000 weekly questions formulated by students in a course entitled “The Self”. The questions pertain to various key topics about self-processes, such as self-awareness, self-knowledge, self-regulation, self-talk, self-esteem, and self-regulation. The students’ weekly questions and their answers highlight what is currently know about the self. Answers to the student questions also allow for the identification of some recurrent lessons about the self. Some of these lessons include: all self-processes are interconnected (e.g., prospection depends on autobiography), self-terms must be properly defined (e.g., self-rumination and worry are not the same), inner speech plays an important role in self-processes, controversies are numerous (are animals self-aware?), measurement issues abound (e.g., self-reflection as an operationalization of self-awareness), deficits in some self-processes can have devastating effects (e.g., self-regulatory deficits may lead to financial problems), and there are lots of unknowns about the self (e.g., gender differences in Theory-of-Mind).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2132.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Product Design; Green Self-identity; Environment-friendly products; Materials Selection; Material Properties; Databases; Product Quality.
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:35:44 CEST)
Material selection for product design is a complex task. Thus, one of the objectives of this work is to analyze, understand and promote the importance of selection of materials to conceive quality products with help of designers' that promote green self-identity in the early stage of the conception of new products. A questionnaire was sent to professional designers and engineers. 38 responses were validated, this being the sample of our study. The aspects that influence the complex selection of materials and the final quality of the products through the design and production process is presented. As a result of the answers carried out with product designers who work in the market, with students who are graduating and with some engineers, a new approach for the selection of materials was developed. Based on a collection of main ideas from traditional and non-traditional methods of material selection, seeking to group the maximum requirements of both methods, inspired by the "Canvas" model on the basic modular methodology, a new model for a project of new product is presented. Our study focuses on the selection of materials, since this aspect is one of the most relevant steps in early stage of the prototyping phase of new products, with a view to reducing CO2 from the air in the atmosphere that we all breathe. The classification of materials is complex, due to the diversity of available options. The novelty of this model is that all properties of the newly designed product, such as technical, aesthetic, productive, environmental and other properties, are all grouped in a model, which serves as an innovative support. Thus, the designer has at his disposal a tool that can help him in the selection of the best material for the products he designs. This study intends to make a contribution in the field of material selection, quality and design of new products, promoting a green self-identity for designers in the initial phase of product design. Consequently, all consumers in search of a sustainable planet will profit from it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: self-adhesion; self-healing; polymers; vitrimers
Online: 7 February 2019 (09:16:44 CET)
Vitrimers are covalent network materials, comparable in structure to classical thermosets. Unlike normal thermosets, they possess a chemical bond swap mechanism that makes their structure dynamic and suitable for activated welding and even autonomous self-healing. The central question in designing such materials is the trade-off between autonomy and material stability: The swap mechanism facilitates the healing but it also facilitates creep, which makes the perfectly stable self-healing solid a hard goal to reach. Here, we address this question for the case of self-healing vitrimers made from star polymers. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we study the adhesion of two vitrimer samples and find that they bond together on timescales that are much shorter than the stress relaxation time. We show that the swap mechanism allows the star polymers to diffuse through the material through coordinated swap events, but the healing process is much faster and does not depend on this mobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: self-propulsion; self-organization; polymerization; prebiotic molecules
Online: 5 January 2020 (14:39:19 CET)
Self-assembly is a spontaneous process through which macroscopic structures are formed from basic microscopic constituents (e.g. molecules or colloids). By contrast, the formation of large biological molecules inside the cell (such as proteins or nucleic acids) is a process more akin to self-organization than to self-assembly, as it requires a constant supply of external energy. Recent studies have tried to merge self-assembly with self-organization by analyzing the assembly of self-propelled (or active) colloid-like particles whose motion is driven by a permanent source of energy. Here we present evidence that points to the fact that self-propulsion considerably enhances the assembly of polymers: self-propelled molecules are found to assemble into polymer-like structures, the average length of which increases towards a maximum as the self-propulsion force increases. Beyond this maximum, the average polymer length decreases due to the competition between bonding energy and disruptive forces that result from collisions. The assembly of active molecules might have promoted the formation of large pre-biotic polymers that could be the precursors of the informational polymers we observe nowadays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1029.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: self-care; self-management; hypertension; validation; scale development
Online: 17 July 2023 (12:11:43 CEST)
Background: The adoption of self-care behaviors among patients with arterial hypertension (AH) plays an important role in the management of their health condition. However, a lack of scales assessing self-care is observed. We aimed to develop and validate the Hippocratic hypertension self-care scale. Methods: From a pool of questions derived from a literature review, 18 items were included in the scale and reviewed by a committee of experts. Participants indicate the frequency at which they follow the self-behavior prescribed in each statement on a five-point Likert scale. Data were collected between April 2019 and December 2019. Re-sults: 202 consecutive adult patients with AH were enrolled in the study. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be 0.807, using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. An exploratory factor analysis identified two do-mains that accounted for 92.94% of the variance of the scale items; however, each sub-scale could not be used as an independent scale. Finally, the test- retest of the scale showed a significant strong correlation (r=0.0095, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the scale is a reliable and valid tool for assessing self-behaviors in patients with AH. Health professionals can use it in their clinical practice to improve the management of patients’ health condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: prevalence; smoking; medical students; self-esteem; self-efficacy
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:31:33 CEST)
: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among students is a growing concern, particular-ly among medical students. Being associated with stress, competitiveness, and various social in-fluences, smoking can have detrimental effects on self-esteem and self-efficacy and may create a vicious cycle that may contribute to students’ well-being and academic performance out-comes.METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 456 medical students was conducted via an online survey using structured questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 31.1% The scores of self-esteem and self-efficacy were positively correlated with smoking habits (W1=0.957, W2=0.975, P<0.05). Students presented rather low smoking addiction with male stu-dents having slightly higher scores than female students on self-esteem and self-efficacy, mili-tary students had higher self-esteem scores than civilians with physical activity having a posi-tive correlation with non-smoking behavior. CONCLUSION: According to our results, self-esteem and self-efficacy were slightly positively correlated with smoking habits. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant association between other social factors and smoking. Our results may develop a theoretical basis for medical students’ psychological variables studying for further implementation of university educational programs and preventive interventions em-powering students towards an overall better quality of life, addressing, among others, smoking behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Frontal Cortex; PFC; Self-enhancement; Self-deception; SE
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:55:56 CEST)
Self-enhancement (SE) is often overlooked as a fundamental cognitive ability mediated via the Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC). Here we present research that establishes the relationship between the PFC, SE, and the potential evolved beneficial mechanisms. Specifically, we believe there is now enough evidence to speculate that SE exists to provide significant benefits and should be considered a normal aspect of the self. Whatever the metabolic or social cost, the upside of SE is great enough that it is a core and fundamental psychological construct. Furthermore, though entirely theoretical, we suggest that a critical reason the PFC has evolved so significantly in Homo sapien is to, in part, sustain SE. We therefore elaborate as to its proximate and ultimate mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Symmetry; Self-Face Recognition; Right Hemisphere; Self-Awareness
Online: 2 April 2021 (18:19:34 CEST)
While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990’s bought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies, revealed a right hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the Dorsal Frontal Lobe, the Temporal Parietal Junction and Medial Temporal Cortex. Confirmation of these data (which are correlational) was provided by TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and patients in which direct inhibition or ablation of right hemisphere regions leads to a disruption or absence of self-face recognition. These data are consistent with a number of theories including a right hemisphere dominance for self-awareness and/or a right hemisphere specialization for identifying significant social relationships including to oneself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Extrinsic self-healing; Self-healing detection; Aggregation-induced emission; Dye-Loaded microcapsule; Self-healing monitoring
Online: 2 April 2019 (15:32:34 CEST)
We report the development of an extrinsic self-healing coating system that shows no fluorescence from the intact coating, yellowish fluorescence in cracked regions, and greenish fluorescence in healed regions, thus allowing the separate monitoring of cracking and healing of coatings. This fluorescence monitoring self-healing system consisted of a top coating, an epoxy matrix resin containing mixed dye-loaded in single microcapsule. The dye-loaded microcapsules consisted of a poly(urea-formaldehyde) shell encapsulating a healing agent containing MAT-PDMS and styrene, a photo-initiator and a mixture of two dyes, one that fluoresces only in the solid state (DCM) and a second that fluoresces dramatically increased in the solid than solution state (4-TPAE). A mixture of the healing agent, photo-initiator and the two dyes was yellow due to fluorescence from DCM. On UV curing of this mixture, however, the color changed from yellow to green and the fluorescence intensity increased due to fluorescence from 4-TPAE in the solid state. When a self-healing coating embedded with microcapsules containing the DCM/4-TPAE dye mixture was scratched, the damaged region exhibited a yellowish color that changed to green after healing. Thus, the self-healing system reported here allows the separate monitoring of cracking and healing based on changes in fluorescence color.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1953.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; student engagement; self-regulated learning; self-efficacy
Online: 29 August 2023 (11:15:22 CEST)
Online education allows learners to develop knowledge and skills flexibly and conveniently—such observation among students whose characteristics involve student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. However, studies to characterize Filipino online learners seem lacking. Thus, this study aimed to characterize science education tertiary students in the Philippines concerning their online student engagement (OSE), self-regulated learning (SRL), and online learning self-efficacy (OLSE). The unprecedented events brought by COVID-19 pandemic also urged the implementation of online modalities while there is no available information on students’ online learning profiles. Hence, researchers used a survey research employed through ex post facto approach to determine the effects of the demographic profile on OSE, SRL, and OLSE. The survey was participated by N=373 respondents who answered the questionnaire with informed consent administered via Google Forms. Results revealed that OSE indicators moderately characterized students, while SRL and OLSE indicators are true of them, substantiated by the overall mean M=3.85(SD=0.90), M=3.86(SD=0.92), and M=3.14(SD=0.73), respectively. Also, multivariate tests showed no significant effect among the independent groups (p>0.05), except for gender and OLSE interaction (p<0.05) so, only in OLSE was a significant difference found in gender. In conclusion, Filipino online learners are moderate across aspects of student engagement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0116.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Security; Attachment; Positive parenting; Resilience; Self-esteem; Self-concept
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:04:23 CEST)
Secure attachment, developed through consistent relationships with attachment figures in childhood, is a crucial factor in fostering healthy interpersonal relationships and a positive self-perception. This research aimed to assess how perceived security, as an indicator of secure attachment, predicts adult self-concept through the mediating effects of resilience and positive self-esteem. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and non-probabilistic study was conducted with 383 participants, of whom 76.2% were females, aged between 17 and 86 years (M = 28.52, SD = 12.23). Correlational analyses revealed significant positive associations between perceived security, self-concept, resilience, and positive self-esteem. Path analysis demonstrated that resilience and positive self-esteem sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived security during childhood and adult self-concept (Total Effect R2 = .34, F(1,381) = 193, p < .001; Indirect effect of sequential mediation b = .02, CI 95% [.01, .04]). Findings suggest that the ability to cope with ad-versity and personal acceptance underlie the impact of perceived security on self-concept. It is recommended to promote not only secure attachment in family interventions but also resilience and self-esteem in programs targeting adolescents, youth, and adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; self-concept; self-confidence; professional practice
Online: 5 November 2021 (14:12:02 CET)
Purpose: To identify the impact of dealing with COVID-19 patients in clinical areas on nurses' professional self-concept and self-confidence. Background: Professional self-concept is considered a critical factor in the recruitment/retention process in nursing, nursing shortage, career satisfaction, and academic achievements. Professional self-confidence is also a crucial determinant in staff satisfaction, reducing turnover, and increasing work engagement. Design: Descriptive, comparative study. Methods: The study was conducted between February to May 2021 by utilizing a convenience sampling technique. A total of 170 nurses from two facilities were recruited from two COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 designated facilities. The level of professional self-concept and self-confidence was assessed by utilizing the Nurses' Self-Concept Instrument and Self-Confidence Scale. Results: The professional self-concept level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was lower than the comparison group, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group to COVID-19 patients was similar to the comparison group. On the other hand, the satisfied staff and those who received professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients reported a higher level of professional self-concept. Conclusions: Dealing with COVID-19 patients has an impact on professional self-concept; the exposure group was lower than those who did not deal with COVID-19 patients, while the professional self-confidence level among the exposed group was similar to the comparison group. Getting professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients and being satisfied at work were significant factors in improving the professional self-concept. Policymakers should create strategies that target the improvement of professional training in dealing with COVID-19 patients.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflective learning, assessment, self-reflection, self-regulation, physics education
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:43:05 CEST)
This paper addresses the development of knowledge and assessment-centered learning approaches within a reflective learning framework in a first year physics class in a university faculty. The quality of students’ reflections was scored using a Self-reporting Reflective Learning Appraisal Questionnaire at the end of each learning approach. The results showed the differences between the approaches based on reflections on the learning control through self-knowledge, by connecting experience and knowledge, as well as through self-reflection and self-regulation. Assessment-centered activities fundamentally help students identify aspects of their attitudes towards, as well as regulate, their sustainability learning education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Metakaolin; self-compacting concrete; self-compacting mortar; flowability; viscosity; Mortar
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:23:38 CEST)
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) production is a complex operation that requires finding a good combination and a suitable dosage of each of its constituents. Several formulation methods have been developed to meet the workability requirements of SCC. In this paper, the relationships between the fresh properties of SCC based on local metakaolin (MK) and the spreading of its mortar was investigated. The results showed the existence of good correlations between the spreading of the mortar and the fresh state properties of the related SCC and that the MK substitution rate did not affect these correlations. The choice of the mortar flow rate should target appropriate fresh properties of the SCC and a viscosity enhancing agent (VEA) could be used if the mix is too fluid and present an instability.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic crystal waveguide; Pulse acceleration; Self-steepening; Self-phase modulation
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:44:55 CEST)
Based on the sensitive sum frequency generation cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (SFG-XFROG) measurement setup, besides the pulse broadening, blue shift, red shift and obvious pulse acceleration, we observed the soliton evolution when the low energy soliton pulse with wavelength of 1555nm transmit through the Si photonic crystal waveguide. The measurements were nicely matched with the simulation results, which are achieved with an optimized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) modeling. The effects of various parameters of the silicon photonic crystal waveguides and the incident pulses on the pulse transmission were also analyzed, including the nonlinear effects and dispersion such as the self-phase modulation (SPM), self-steepening (SS) and intra-pulse Raman scattering(IRS). The results help us understand further the ultra-fast nonlinear dynamics of soliton in silicon-based waveguides, and even open a novel way for soliton-based functional elements in CMOS-compatible platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: sustainable happiness; ideal self; ideal social self; brand identification; positive
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:39:58 CEST)
Building on the Sustainable Happiness Model, this study examined how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image influence a sense of happiness. The findings show that when ideal self-image and ideal social self-image are congruent with brand image a sense of happiness can be enhanced through brand identification and positive emotions. This study contributes to literature as it reveals the mechanism of how congruency between ideal self-image and brand image positively affect happiness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0354.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health self-tracking; data donation; data sharing; quantified self; mobile tracking
Online: 27 June 2022 (08:46:26 CEST)
Health self-tracking is an ongoing trend as software and hardware evolve, making the collection of personal data not only fun for users but also increasingly interesting for public health research. In a quantitative approach we studied German health self-trackers (N=919) for differences in their data disclosure behavior by comparing data showing and sharing behavior among peers and their willingness to donate data to research. In addition, we examined user characteristics that may positively influence willingness to make the self-tracked data available to research and propose a framework for structuring research related to self-measurement. Results show that users' willingness to disclose data as a "donation" more than doubled compared to their "sharing" behavior (willingness to donate= 4.5/10; sharing frequency= 2.09/10). Younger men (up to 34 years), who record their vital signs daily, are less concerned about privacy, regularly donate money, and share their data with third parties because they want to receive feedback, are most likely to donate data to research and are thus a promising target audience for health data donation appeals. The paper adds to qualitative accounts of self-tracking but also engages with discussions around data sharing and privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0329.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: biomaterials; biofabrication; compartmentalization; materials research; microsystems; nanotechnology; self-assembly; self-organization
Online: 28 December 2018 (04:46:37 CET)
The recommendations of the panel of experts on the further development of the ‘High-Tech Strategy’ of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany designate the biologization of economic processes along with digitization as the central driver of societal change. Various fields such as the 'biologization of materials research' were then defined in the 'Bio-Agenda' in order to walk the path from biology to innovation. In view of this perspective, we describe how the use of biological materials and mechanisms can lead to resource conservation, the production of intelligent materials and new technological and medical applications. Our strategy, based on research on ‘Biointerfaces in Technology and Medicine’, aims at the development of modular biohybrid systems that could be used as 'biofactories of the future' for sustainable production processes. To achieve this goal, in a first phase already known technologies have to be further refined and integrated in order to obtain and apply compartmentalized reaction systems on different length and time scales. In a second phase, the resulting functional units will be employed to develop dissipative systems useful for biomedical applications and advanced production processes. From a technical point of view, future success in creating 'something entirely new' will depend crucially on robust and complementary research capabilities. Since the close connection of engineering and life sciences at KIT provides an excellent basis for this endeavor, we consider the above perspectives to be feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: autogenous intelligence; bootstrap fallacy; recursive self-improvement; self-modifying software; singularity
Online: 14 June 2018 (08:53:23 CEST)
Toby Walsh in “The Singularity May Never Be Near” gives six arguments to support his point of view that technological singularity may happen but that it is unlikely. In this paper, we provide analysis of each one of his arguments and arrive at similar conclusions, but with more weight given to the “likely to happen” probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1991.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Dementia; Memory; Cognition; Self
Online: 29 August 2023 (14:19:15 CEST)
Dementia is a public health priority, in which memory impairments are prevalent and affects an individual’s daily activities. Research has tried to find ways to support memory problems of individuals with dementia. Self reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit memory in healthy, non-dementia group. The study aimed to investigate if SRE will improve memory performance of individuals with dementia. We used ecologically valid Ownership Procedure and the Remember/Know Paradigm to examine the Self-Reference Effect (SRE) on memory. It was hypothesised that participants living with dementia will perform differently in the recall of items that were self-referentially encoded compared to items other-referentially encoded and that the memory will be different in control participants than in those that live with dementia. The research found that self-referential processes did not have effect on memory in individuals with dementia. We suggest that impaired self-awareness may have contributed to the lack of this effect. However, we had a small sample size and these findings should be treated with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: laser-induced plasma; atomic spectroscopy; self-reversal; self-absorption; nanoparticles; silver; hydrogen
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:43:23 CEST)
Q-switched laser radiation at wavelengths of 355 nm, 532 nm, and 1064 nm from a Nd: YAG laser was used to generate plasma in laboratory air at the target surface made of compressed nano-silver particles of size 95 ± 10 nm. The emitted resonance spectra from the neutral silver at wavelengths of 327.9 nm and 338.2 nm indicate existence of self-reversal in addition to plasma self-absorption. Both lines were identified in emission spectra at different laser irradiation wavelengths with characteristic dips at the un-shifted central wavelengths. These dips are usually associated with self-reversal. Under similar conditions, plasmas at the corresponding bulk silver target were generated. The recorded emission spectra were compared to those obtained from the nano-material target. The comparisons confirm existence of self-reversal of resonance lines that emerge from plasmas produced at nano-material targets. This work suggests a method for recovery of the spectral line shapes and discusses practical examples. In addition, subsidiary calibration efforts that utilize the Balmer series Hα-line reveal that other Ag I lines at 827.35 nm and 768.7 nm are optically thin under variety of experimental conditions and are well-suited as reference lines for measurement of the laser plasma electron density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0742.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: inner speech; spontaneous self-talk; goal-directed self-talk; big five personality traits; self-determination theory; autonomy; competence; relatedness; sport
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:31:01 CEST)
Good health and the promotion of well-being for all is the third of the 17 Global Goals included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Contributing to this goal, the current study aimed to examine the relationships between one kind of athletes’ well-being, namely state organic self-talk, with personality traits, and basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration within their sport. Athletes (N = 691; mean age 21.65) from a variety of individual (n = 270) and team sports (n = 421) completed a multisection questionnaire capturing the targeted variables. Three-step hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: In step 1, all personality traits were to some extent a significant predictor of athletes’ organic, spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions. In step 2, need satisfaction significantly contributed to all spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions (except for creating functional deactivated states) over and above personality. Finally, in step 3, need frustration significantly contributed to negative spontaneous self-talk dimensions, and to all goal-directed self-talk functions (except for instruction) over and above personality and need satisfaction. Overall, our results indicate the importance of personality traits as personal antecedents, and perceptions of basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration as social-environmental antecedents, in shaping athletes’ state organic self-talk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; real-time self-adaptation, self-management; self-healing
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:45:47 CET)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and rare survey has been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human error and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. And to achieve dependable self-management, systematic solution is necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decision, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focus on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means; then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaption, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaption, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Perspective Taking; Self-Awareness; Self-Representation; Metarepresentation; Theory of Mind; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:35:01 CEST)
Only by understanding the ability to take third-person perspective can we begin to elucidate the neural processes responsible for one’s inimitable conscious experience. The current study examined differences in hemispheric laterality during a first-person perspective (1PP) and third-person perspective (3PP) taking task, when using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Participants were asked to take either the 1PP or 3PP when identifying the number of spheres in a virtual scene. During this task, single-pulse TMS was delivered to the motor cortex of both the left and right hemispheres of 10 healthy volunteers. Measures of TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) were employed as an indicator of lateralized cortical activation. The data suggest that the right hemisphere is more important in discriminating between 1PP and 3PP. These data add a novel method for determining perspective taking and add to the literature supporting the role of the right hemisphere in meta representation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: MOOCs; distance education; self-directed learning; self-defined learning pathways; 21st century abilities
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:00:14 CEST)
This study is a synthesis of 159 articles that were selected for their relevance to comprehend key aspects of the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) phenomenon, from a discourse analysis perspective. Since 2011, MOOCs are expanding worldwide so that the number of subscribers outpointed 101 million at the end of 2018. This paper explores the question whether the MOOCs are the embodiment of the global one-world classroom or whether, instead, they represent a low-cost alternative tailored to a segment that doesn´t have enough time or resources to attend a brick-and-mortar college. In addition, the review tackles the link between motivation and low completion rates. Finally, we discuss the need to devise better methods to assess the pedagogical value of MOOCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1463.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: absenteeism; gallivanting; Psychology; self-denial
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:22:48 CEST)
This review article delves into the intricate psychology behind galivanting, absenteeism, and self-denial among college students. By conducting a meticulous analysis of relevant books, journals, and articles, key psychological factors come to light. The review examines the influence of exploration and identity formation, social motivation, coping mechanisms, lack of motivation or engagement, time management, and self-denial on these behaviors. By addressing gaps in the literature, it provides a deeper understanding of the phenomena at hand. The implications of this study extend to the development of interventions and strategies that address self-denial tendencies, promote effective time management, and foster a supportive learning environment. By shedding light on the intricate interplay of these factors, this paper opens doors for future research and targeted interventions, ultimately aiming to enhance academic engagement, reduce absenteeism, and support the overall well-being and success of college students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Telenursing; Self Care Model; Nerspreneur
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:52:37 CEST)
Background: Nursing services provided by nurses are based on knowledge and competence in the field of nursing science developed in accordance with Client needs, scientific developments, and the demands of globalization. These health services include nursing services that are carried out responsibly, accountably, with quality, and safely by nurses who have obtained registration and permission to practice. Nursepreneur is innovation and courage to take risks and is ready to work hard to achieve goals with optimism. Which has important components namely: 1) quality, 2) role, 3) option and success. The post-pandemic new world, especially in the health care system, continues to grapple with the demands of costs to provide patient care and safety. By using the application of the nursing theory model. Purpose :. Assessing scientific studies on the application of evidence-based intervention in wound care using nursing theory, identifying the important role of telenursing in improving nursing services in Nerspreneurship, Method: literature study Conclusion: Telenursing in nursing focuses on providing nursing care through information technology, such as telephone, computers, and the Internet that can be used to improve treatment outcomes among older people, especially those with low literacy skills and low financial status (Esmaeilpour-BandBoni et al., 2020). The statement from the results of the study refutes that Telenursing is intended for patients who have higher education and middle and upper economic states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0095.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hypertension; Elderly; Intervention; Self-management
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:58:22 CEST)
Background: Indonesia is an archipelago with various cultured, will bee affects all aspects of people's lives, including beliefs related to health behavior and health care. One problem that needs serious attention is the elderly group because the elderly are a vulnerable group who have a high risk of experiencing health problems, such as anemia with hypertension, so they need good care management. The research objective was to determine self-management intervention for hypertensive elderly. Methods: This research is a literature review with five databases (Scopus, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Proquest), the study design used is an experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional, and review systematic, in March 2021. Guidelines for using JBI to measure quality and listing check out Prisma in this review guide. A feasibility study based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. The data analysis used narrative analysis based on the research findings. Results: Twelve articles met the predefined review inclusion criteria. The study found eight interventions for self-management in elderly hypertension, namely: 1) Knowledge of hypertension, 2) Regulation of physical activity, 3) Limitation of alcohol and cigarette consumption, 4) Sleep rest and stress management, 5) Diet and body weight management, 6) Blood pressure control, 7) Family and social support, 8) Adherence to therapy regimens. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study results obtained eight elderly self-management interventions, this done properly will affect compliance in optimizing the health of the elderly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: eating; exercise; self-esteem; nursing
Online: 22 January 2019 (10:56:07 CET)
Background: Since the beginning of the 20th century, the importance of creating healthy work environments and promoting the health of workers in the healthcare sector to create Healthy and Resilient Organizations has been emphasized. In this context, self-esteem is an essential construct which influences health and healthy life styles, and therefore, the general wellbeing of nurses. The objective of this study was to analyze the mediating role of reasons for exercising in the effect that self-esteem has on uncontrolled eating by nursing professionals. Methods: The sample was made up of 1094 nurses who were administered the Rosenberg General Self-esteem Scale, the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. Results: Bivariate correlation analysis and multiple mediation analysis showed that self-esteem has direct and indirect effects on uncontrolled eating. More so, self-esteem predicts doing physical exercise to improve one’s image, recognition and social affiliation, although the effects on uncontrolled eating were only significant through image. Conclusions: The results have important practical implications in the framework of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) as it emphasizes self-esteem, physical exercise and eating as essential aspects of the health and wellbeing of employees in the healthcare sector, highlighting the importance of creating organizations committed to promoting the psychosocial health of their workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: organic photovoltaics; self-assembly; thermodynamics
Online: 5 November 2018 (12:06:31 CET)
We develop an optimized force-field for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and demonstrate its utility for predicting thermodynamic self-assembly. In particular, we consider short oligomer chains, model electrostatics and solvent implicitly, and coarsely model solvent evaporation. We quantify the performance of our model to determine what the optimal system sizes are for exploring self-assembly at combinations of state variables. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to predict the self-assembly of P3HT at ~350 combinations of temperature and solvent quality. Our structural calculations predict that the highest degrees of order are obtained with good solvents just below the melting temperature. We find our model produces the most accurate structural predictions to date, as measured by agreement with grazing incident X-ray scattering experiments.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0031.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: scaling; self-similarity; stochastic processes
Online: 10 February 2017 (10:02:13 CET)
Partial differential representation of self-similarity feature has been derived from notion of the homogenous function in general sense. This representation allows consideration of stochastic self-similar systems. As well as the partial differential representation allows consideration of Stochastic Partial Differential Equation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; hardware and software co-design; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; self-management; self-adapting; self-healing
Online: 17 July 2017 (10:27:33 CEST)
Though Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) become very popular in last the decade, dependability of CPS is still a critical issue and related survey is rare. We try to spell out the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the technical trends of dependable self-managing CPS. This survey first recalls the motivation and the similar concepts. By analyzing four generic architectures, we summarize the common characteristics and related assurance technologies, and propose a more generic environment-in-loop processing flow of CPS and a formal interaction flow between physical space and cyber space. Further, the similarity between correctness and dependability is formally analyzed and the new five research questions of dependable self-managing CPS are presented. Then we review the critical technologies and related correctness verification & validation (V&V) methods, the architectures for dependable self-managing CPS. Further, the detail dependability management and V&V technologies are surveyed, which covers the areas of running-time fault management methods and whole life cycle V&V technologies, maintenance and available tool sets. For holistic CPS development, Modeling techniques and MDE (model driven engineering) based V&V methods are analyzed in detail. Then we complete the jigsaw of technologies and figure out the missing part. Further, we propose the technical challenges and the further direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable self-managing CPS development and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0021.v1
Subject: Psychology, Social Sciences Keywords: perceived well-being in friendship relationships; basic psychological needs; self-regulation; self-determination theory (SDT)
Online: 1 October 2023 (09:50:25 CEST)
Background and Objective: Intimate relationships hold significant importance during emerging adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the critical determinants of perceived well-being in friendship relationships during emerging adulthood.Method: Using a quantitative approach, a sample of 726 undergraduate students from the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were selected through convenience sampling. They completed the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ), the Compassionate and self-image goals scale (CSIGS), the Basic Need Satisfaction in Relationships Scale (BNS-RS), the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ-10), Friendship Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-F), Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire-Self (IBQ-self), State Level Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS-SL), the Perceived Relationship Quality Component (PRQC), and the Basic Empathy Scale (BES). Data analysis was conducted using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).Results: The results indicated that the critical determinants in predicting perceived well-being in friendship relationships were, in order, goals in friendship relationships, friendship self-regulation, perceived support of basic psychological needs by friends, satisfied basic psychological needs, frustrated psychological needs, and supporting the basic psychological needs of friends.Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that self-determination theory (SDT) provides a coherent framework for explaining perceived well-being in friendships.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: self-care; self-care monitoring; quality of life; stoma care; health promotion; nurse – patient interaction
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:32:17 CET)
The current article examined stoma self-care and health-related quality of life in patients with drainage enterostomy, describe clinical and sociodemographic variables and analyze the relations between all of them. Trained interviewers collected data using a standardized form that queried sociodemographic and clinical variables, collected from the electronic medical record, in addition to the Specific Self-Care for Ostomized Patients Questionnaire (CAESPO) and Stoma Quality of life (S-QoL) from January 2016 to January 2017. This was a multicenter, cross sectional study conducted in four hospitals of the province of Castellon (Spain) where 120 participants were studied. Significant differences were found in Self Care according to sex (p = .043); married participants show higher score (p < .01); also, significant differences according to work activity were observed (p < .01). Regarding the clinical variables, differences were observed according to the autonomy of care, the presence of complications in the stoma, the use of irrigation and the type of effluent (p < .01). We can highlight the importance of the skills related to self-care by ostomized patients has for a good level of quality of life related to health. In this learning process, the figure of the stoma therapist plays a very important role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1815.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: self-selection; small group; affect; enjoyment
Online: 27 September 2023 (04:33:59 CEST)
Self-selecting the intensity of aerobic training is a perspective that allows practitioners to develop autonomy (choice of pace), improve physical fitness and achieve weight loss. To compare the effect of four aerobic training protocols on cardiometabolic and psycho-affective responses in physically inactive adult men and women. The sample consisted of 11 individuals aged 56 ± 10 years and BMI 29.2 ± 2.4 kg/m2 performed four different treadmill aerobic training protocols, including: 1-individual with self-selected intensity (ISS), 2-individual with prescribed intensity (IPI) (64-76% of HR max), 3-small group with self-select. selected intensity (SGS) and 4-small group prescribed intensity (SGP) (64-76% of HR max). Heart rate (HR), lactate (LACT), perceived exertion (RPE), affective response (FS), activation scale (FAS), enjoyment (PACES) and intention to repeat the session (INT) were analyzed. Statistical analysis used ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05). HR, LACT and RPE analyzes did not show significant differences between protocols. The FS showed a smaller decline in the SI protocol (p<0.05), and the intention to repeat the training session was greater in the SI protocol (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data allow us to conclude that the SI training protocol produced superior results in affective response, pleasure and intention to repeat the session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0909.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: psychological changes; self esteem; resilliance; Nurses
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:56:08 CEST)
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) almost ceased to spread across the globe, but post Covid psychological experiences are rarely documented. It is essential to understand the individual psychological needs and challenges regarding working during the covid-19 pandemic and resilience and psychological health to continuing work in the aftermath of this crisis. Objective To explore the psychological transformation of staff nurses after COVID-19 Methods A phenomenological and purposive sampling approach was employed. Registered nurses working at the largest health organization in Qatar includes 14 health facilities were invited to participate in this study. 17 nurses who were working in the facilities and were deployed during the first, second and third wave of Covid 19 participated in the interview. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews using quarantine measures. The interview data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The psychological transformation of participants was summarized into three themes fear zone, Learning zone and growth zone. These themes were classified into 10 sub-themes Fear and anxiety, Influence of media and news, Frequent change in policies and guidelines were the fear zone factors .Secondly Coping mechanism, teamwork, establishing compassionate care, social acceptance, personal and professional benefits helps them learn psychologically. Thirdly growth factors such as confident & resilient, Sense of purpose and Change life perception and meaning Conclusion Working during COVID-19 imposed many challenges on nurses such as workload and stress. However, the different waves of the pandemic may increase the resilience, confidence and life meaning in nurses. Their previous experiences in handling difficult situations during the pandemic may make the nurses become more confident in dealing with stressful situations and working under pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1136.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Self-interaction; Anomalous magnetic moment; Electrodynamics
Online: 16 August 2023 (08:18:02 CEST)
The present paper reports an exact approach quantifying the electromagnetic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment occurring in isolated system comprised of non-composite particle carrying elementary electric charge. Essential averaging procedure and regularization of the electromagnetic field potentials necessary when quantifying the electromagnetic self-interactions and when deriving equations of motion without singularities and obeying the conservation laws are thoroughly discussed. The study shows that the dynamics of the considered system is associated to a unique classical transcendental equations of motion satisfied by the particle’s velocity and the electromagnetic contribution to the anomalous g-factor known from the quantum electrodynamics. The equations of motion predict a value of the anomalous g-factor that agrees with the experimentally measured one reported in the literature and that calculated with the aid of quantum electrodynamics. In the present study the computational accuracy is restricted to match one part in a billion, obtaining ae=0.001159652(23), thus reveling the potential of non-perturbative methods in predicting the electron’s anomalous g-factor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0316.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: geopolymers; bioadditives; self cured binders; molasse
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:58:57 CEST)
The production associated with geopolymers is more environmentally friendly because it does not emit as much carbon dioxide as when OPCs are used. In addition, research has been initiated to produce a geopolymer with very good mechanical properties without the need to cure it at high temperatures. Bio-additives such as honey, cotton or molasses were found to have a good effect on the properties of the geopolymer. The purpose of this study was to develop a composition of geopolymer modified with bioaddi-tives (introduction of plant-derived materials containing sugars) in order to improve the strength para-meters of geopolymers cured at ambient temperature or to accelerate their setting process, and to identify whether it is possible to produce geopolymers with good strength parameters without the need for annealing. In this study, fly ash (FA)-based materials were made and addi-tionally modified with cane molasses and beet molasses in varying amounts. The made samples were subjected to surface morphology analysis (SEM), mechanical properties analysis - compres-sive and flexural strengths, phase composition analysis (XRD) and absorption analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1712.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Plogging; Exercise Participation; Self-Determination Theory
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:01:55 CEST)
In response to escalating environmental concerns and the surge in eco-friendly sports activities, this study investigates the determinants of sustained intention to participate in plogging, a prac-tice that combines jogging and litter collection. The study seeks to discern the effects of autonomy, competence, and relatedness experiences, as suggested by Self-Determination Theory, on the intent to persist in plogging. Additionally, the study probes the moderating role of eco-friendly attitudes, thereby propelling the confluence of sports and environmental research. The research methodology encompassed surveying plogging participants and analyzing their responses. The validation of these relationships was executed using multi-group structural equation modeling. The results revealed that autonomy and competence did not significantly sway extrinsic motivation, but relatedness surfaced as the most influential factor. This suggests that plogging, primarily viewed as a volunteering activity, serves more as a prosocial behavior that bolsters relationships rather than a means to enhance physical competence. The study also found that the value participants derived from plogging and their intention to continue varied based on their eco-friendly attitudes. The study concludes that voluntary participation and socializing are the core values of plogging, and understanding these values can foster healthier and more sustainable behaviors. The findings offer valuable insights for academic, practical, and policy perspectives in promoting eco-friendly sports activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mathematics; Self-efficacy; Learning disability; Dyscalculia
Online: 31 May 2023 (09:50:56 CEST)
In the study, it was aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale in order to determine the self-efficacy perceptions of classroom teachers in the field of mathematics learning difficulties. In the development process of the scale, the basic resources and the scale development studies in the literature were examined. First, a pool of substances was created. Content validity was ensured by taking the opinions of 21 expert participants in the 24 question areas determined in the item pool. Content validity index was used in content validity. In this analysis, two questions were removed from the scale. Preliminary application was made with 44 participating teachers who are experts in their fields and exploratory factor analysis was started. For exploratory factor analysis, 359 people consisting of classroom teachers in Sakarya province were studied. In the explanatory factor analysis, 5 items were removed from the scale by looking at the factor load. The factor loadings for the 17 items in the scale vary between 0.508 and 0.976. Among the comparative fit indices obtained as a result of confirmatory factor analysis, RMSEA=0.067 and Cmin/DF=1.568 were calculated. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the measurements is 0.970. The data obtained were analyzed with statistical methods using SPSS 25, AMOS 24 and Microsoft Excel programs. The validity and reliability criteria of the scale developed within the scope of the study were met.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0123.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Adjuvants; emulsions; self-emulsification; alpha-tocopherol
Online: 7 November 2022 (12:18:18 CET)
Research for novel vaccine adjuvants remains a critical need to improve the immune responses to a recombinant vaccine antigen. Emulsion adjuvants such as AS03 and MF59, particularly in the area of Influenza vaccines, have shown antigen dose sparing and allowed reduced immunizations. It was previously demonstrated that these emulsion adjuvants can be formulated using a simpler, low shear process of self-emulsification. The role of alpha tocopherol as an immunomodulator in emulsion adjuvants is evident from the success of AS03 in the on-going covid-19 pandemic. Although, it was a challenge to formulate alpha tocopherol with a low shear process to get closer to the AS03 composition, the self-emulsified version referred as self-emulsifying adjuvant systems (SE-AS) showed comparable immune responses to AS03 when co-administered with a Quadrivalent influenza virus (QIV) vaccine. In this paper, we first optimized the SE-AS with alpha tocopherol referred to as SE-AS44 to allow sterile filtration. We compared the in vitro cytokine profile with self-emulsifying adjuvant 160 (SEA160), a squalene-only self-emulsified adjuvant with composition similar to MF59. We compared SE-AS44 and SEA160 co-administered with a recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV) pentamer antigen, which is a less immunogenic antigen, in vivo to compare the antibody and T-cell responses, in different adjuvanted groups, in C57BL/6 mice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0386.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: self-healing; polymers; batteries; silicon anodes
Online: 25 January 2022 (15:37:52 CET)
Self-healing is the capability of materials to repair themselves after damage has occurred, usually by interaction between molecules or chains. Physical and chemical processes are applied for the preparation of self-healing systems. There are different approaches for these systems such as heterogeneous systems, shape memory effects, hydrogen bonding or covalent-bond interaction, diffusion and flow dynamics. Self-healing mechanisms can occur in particular by heat and light exposure or by reconnection without direct effect. The applications of these systems display an increasing trend in both R&D and industry sectors. Moreover, self-healing systems and their energy storage applications are currently getting great importance. This review aims to provide general information on recent developments in self-healing materials and their energy applications in view of the critical importance of self-healing systems for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In the first part of the review, an introduction about self-healing mechanisms and design strategies of self-healing materials is given. Then, selected important healing materials in the literature for the anodes of LIBs are mentioned in the second part. The results and future perspectives are stated in the conclusion section.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Men; Urban; HIV self-testing; Delivery
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:14:21 CEST)
Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is one of the recommended approaches for HIV testing services, particularly for helping reach populations who would not normally access facility-based HIV testing. HIVST must be tailored to different populations to ensure uptake. Objective: The main objective of this study was to develop an acceptable HIVST delivery strategy to help improve urban men’s engagement with HIV services. Methods: We invited key stakeholders for urban men’s HIV services to participate in a co-creation workshop aimed at developing HIVST delivery approaches for urban men, using eThekwini municipality as a study setting. We conducted purposive sampling to include health care users and health care providers, representing a range of views across the public sector and voluntary sector. We employed the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) method for data collection. The NGT workshop was conducted in two consecutive phases: phase one was focused on determining barriers for men’s engagement with the current/facility-based HIV testing services; phase two was aimed at determining HIVST delivery strategies. We used the results of the NGT to design a tailored HIVST strategy for urban men in eThekwini District. Results: Participants identified the following psychological factors as the most important barriers to uptake of HIV testing services by urban men: stigma, ignorance about the importance of testing and testing process as well as fear of positive test results. Key stakeholders suggested internal motivation strategies as a potentially effective approach to support HIVST delivery strategy. Guided by the NGT results, we designed a HIVST delivery strategy that is supported by a risk communication approach Conclusion: We designed an evidence-based risk communication mobile health (mHealth) strategy coupled with SARS COV-2 self-testing tailored to improve men’s uptake of HIVST. A follow-up study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing these approaches is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0196.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: self-organization; synaptic plasticity; information transfer
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:06:22 CEST)
Our brains process information using a layered hierarchical network architecture, with abundant connections within each layer and sparse long-range connections between layers. As these long-range connections are mostly unchanged after development, each layer has to locally self-organize in response to new inputs to enable information routing between the sparse in- and output connections. Here we demonstrate that this can be achieved by a well-established model of cortical self-organization based on a well-orchestrated interplay between several plasticity processes. After this self-organization, stimuli conveyed by sparse inputs can be rapidly read out from a layer using only very few long-range connections. To achieve this information routing, the neurons that are stimulated form feed-forward projections into the unstimulated parts of the same layer and get more neurons to represent the stimulus. Hereby, the plasticity processes ensure that each neuron only receives projections from and responds to only one stimulus such that the network is partitioned into parts with different preferred stimuli. Along this line, we show that the relation between the network activity and connectivity self-organizes to a biologically plausible regime. Finally, we argue how the emerging connectivity may minimize the metabolic cost for maintaining a network structure under the above described constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open access; api; self archiving,; automation
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:34:30 CET)
This proposal describes the design and development of an interoperable application that supports green open access with long-term sustainability and improved user experience of article deposit. Introduction: The lack of library resources and unfriendly repository user interface are two significant barriers that hinder green open access. Tasked to implement the open access mandate, librarians at an American research university developed a comprehensive system called Easy Deposit 2 to automate the support workflow of green open access. Implementation: Easy Deposit 2 is a web application that is able to harvest newly publications, outreach for manuscript on behalf of the library, and facilitate self-archiving to IR. It is developed and maintained by the library and integrated with the IR. Results and Discussion: The article deposit rate is about 25% with Easy Deposit 2, which increases significantly comparing to the previous period. It also serves as a local database for faculty publications with open access status. The lesson learned is that library cannot rely on a single commercial provider for publication data due to mismatched priorities. Conclusion: Recent IT developments provides new opportunities of innovation like Easy Deposit 2 in supporting open access. Academic librarians are vital in promoting "openness" in scholarly communication such as transparency and diversity in the sharing of publication data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: self-reflection; adolescent; Smoking Cessation Program
Online: 24 December 2019 (09:41:29 CET)
The study aimed to understand the experiences of adolescent smokers who participated in a smoking cessation program based on self-reflection, and to develop the theoretical basis for constructing similar programs. The participants, ten students from middle and high schools located in cities G and S, were interviewed after the program ended. Data were collected from August to November 2019 and analyzed using a phenomenological approach to understand participant experiences in depth. The analysis revealed five major themes: ‘Uniqueness of the Program,’ ‘Perception of Smoking Cessation,’ ‘Positive Reflection on Life,’ ‘Understanding Others,’ and ‘A Search for Hope and Vision in Life.’ The findings revealed that the smoking cessation program facilitated the development of self-identity and vision, which may indirectly strengthen the motivation for adolescent smokers to quit smoking. These findings suggest the need for a life-changing smoking cessation program that enhances self-concept and self-esteem. Moreover, it highlights the importance of follow-up research to ensure effectiveness, and the need to develop programs with creative content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0441.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: self-gravitation, black holes, neutrino stars
Online: 21 September 2018 (16:41:04 CEST)
Due to limitation of the binding energy of a self-gravitating matter, the radius of a body is at least twice larger than the Schwarzschild radius. The total energy is adsorbed at the body surface, giving rise of a size-dependent surface tension. Since the Hawking temperature appears to be the critical one, the black holes possess zero surface tension. Microscopic neutrino stars are also introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0056.v1
Online: 10 October 2017 (02:55:22 CEST)
This study aimed to know the conditioning factors of the transition process to the self-care of women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study was carried out from June to September 2015 with seven seropositive women, users of a specialized service in sexually transmitted diseases in the municipality of Imperatriz, Maranhão State, Brazil. For the data collection, an individual interview was used, and data analysis was performed by content analysis delineated by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The resources that influence the self-care in the transition process of women with HIV/AIDS are represented by personal conditioning factors, such as the meaning they attribute to the living with the disease, personal attitudes and cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation and knowledge about the disease, and by conditioning factors found in the community and society. The transition theory can provide important insights about the resources present in the adaptation process of women diagnosed with HIV so that they can perform their self-care satisfactorily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: shape memory; liquid crystalline; self-healing
Online: 15 September 2016 (11:07:50 CEST)
To better understand the shape memory materials and self-healing materials, a new series of liquid-crystalline shape memory polyurethane (LC-SMPU) composites, named SMPU-OOBAm, were successfully prepared by incorporating 4-octyldecyloxybenzoic acid (OOBA) into the PEG-based SMPU. The effect of OOBA on the structure, morphology and properties has been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that SMPU-OOBAm have liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties. The incorporated OOBA promotes the crystallizability of both soft and hard segments of SMPU, and the crystallization rate of the hard segment of SMPU decreases when the OOBA-content increases. Additionally, the SMPU-OOBAm forms a two-phase separated structure (SMPU phase and OOBA phase), and it shows two-step modulus changes upon heating. Therefore, the SMPU-OOBAm shows triple-shape memory behavior, and the shape recovery ratio decreases with an increase in the OOBA content. Finally, SMPU-OOBAm shows self-healing properties. The new mechanism can be ascribed to the heating-induced “bleeding” of OOBA in the liquid crystalline state and the subsequent re-crystallization upon cooling. This successful combination of liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties make the SMPU-OOBAm composites with many promise applications in smart optical devices, smart electronic devices and smart sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0505.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: adhesion; self-assembly; drug delivery; curved surface; template-assisted self-assembly; nanotechnology; single-molecule system; polymer nanocomposite.
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:35:14 CET)
Nanometer-curved surfaces are abundant in biological systems as well as in nano-sized technologies. Properly functionalized polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) adhere to surfaces with different geometries and curvatures. This work explores some of the energetic and mechanical characteristics of the adhesion of PGNs to surfaces with positive, negative and zero curvatures using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics (CGMD) simulations. Our calculated free energies of binding of the PGN to the curved and flat surfaces as a function of separation distance show that curvature of the surfaces critically impacts the adhesion strength. We find that the flat surface is the most adhesive, and the concave surface is the least adhesive surface. This somewhat counterintuitive finding suggests that while a bare nanoparticle is more likely to adhere to a positively curved surface than a flat surface, grafting polymer chains to the nanoparticle surface inverts this behavior. Moreover, we studied the rheological behavior of PGN upon separation from the flat and curved surfaces under external pulling force. The results presented herein can be exploited in drug delivery and self-assembly applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0012.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Self-similarity; fractal geometry; generalized homogeneous functions; general covariance; Self -organized criticality; Lie groups; effective field theory
Online: 1 December 2020 (10:29:47 CET)
The goal of this work is to show that the underlying symmetries of effective field theory can be traced to the onset of self-similarity. In particular, we argue that the scale-free structure of fractal geometry lies at the heart of invariance principles in classical and Quantum Field Theory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1707.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cGAS; self-DNA; mitosis; autoimmune diseases; DNases
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:12:24 CEST)
cGAS is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immune responses through production of the second messenger 2’3’-cGAMP, which activates the adaptor STING. cGAS senses dsDNA in a length-dependent but sequence-independent manner, and it cannot discriminate self-DNA from foreign DNA. In normal physiological conditions, cellular DNA is sequestered in the nucleus by nuclear envelope and in mitochondria by mitochondrial membrane. When self-DNA leaks into the cytosol during cellular stress, or during mitosis, the cGAS can be exposed to self-DNA and be activated. Recently, many studies have investigated how cGAS keeps inactive and avoids to be aberrantly activated by self-DNA. Thus, the aim of this narrative review is to summarize the mechanisms by which cGAS avoids to sense self-DNA under normal physiological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0910.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: FTY720; self-assembled nanoparticles; intracerebral hemorrhage; neuroprotection
Online: 13 July 2023 (10:19:24 CEST)
Keywords: FTY720, self-assembled nanoparticles, intracerebral hemorrhage, neuroprotection
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0831.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: durability; self-cleaning; superhydrophobicity; superoleophobicity; wear-resistant
Online: 12 June 2023 (11:51:38 CEST)
Inspired by nature's examples such as lotus leaves and insect wings, superhydrophobic surfaces have been extensively studied and engineered. However, achieving superoleophobic surfaces, which repel oils, has proven to be more challenging due to the oils' lower surface tension than water. This article presents a novel, cost-effective technique for fabricating superoleophobic surfaces with enhanced durability. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique by using Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES) and silicon dioxide nanoparticles on stainless steel mesh substrate. The resulting surfaces exhibit remarkable superoleophobic properties by incorporating re-entrant structures, low surface energy, and high surface roughness, making them ideal for oil-repellency applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Self-regulation; Peer collaboration; online learning; communication
Online: 6 March 2023 (16:08:35 CET)
In this unprecedented era of computer-supported and distance learning, it is critical to rethink the way students are supported through vital skills like self-regulation and peer collaboration. A variety of digital media has emerged, allowing learners autonomy while requiring the ability to effectively regulate different components of the educational process for long-term academic success. We reviewed collaboration, communication, and self-regulation in digital learning environments as part of online learning. We discussed how these abilities are reflected in highly cited content. High-impact factor studies were identified using advanced software Herzing Publish or Perish to retrieve highly cited research publications metrics. The search resulted in 272 records from 2010 to 2022, 192 duplicates were identified to remove and 48 JCR articles were shortlisted for review. We examined and reflected on sufficient connections to make firm judgments about correlations of concepts. The review identified prominent themes surfaced in the high impact factor academic publication e.g., digital learning environment, interaction, engagement, feedback, self-efﬁcacy, motivation, meta-cognition, achievement, technology, blended learning, and orientation of ICT. Many studies support different features of SRL & PCL through different tools, access to educators or feedback, encouragement, and through peers. However, all of them discuss the processes that students use to self-regulate learning in these situations. It is suggested to examine whether the effectiveness of certain SRL processes varies by online learning mode.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mentalization; Secure Attachment; Nonsuicidal Self-Injury; Adolescents
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:50:08 CET)
This paper, which is one of the few in the world dealing with this topic, presented the psychologist's work based on the concepts of mentalization and internal working models (IWMs) of attachment, with an adolescent girl who was prone to nonsuicidal self-injury. Gaga, a student in the first grade of high school, had visible scars from cutting her hands on the inner sides of both forearms. Gaga told the psychologist that her mother believes that this is an attempt to draw attention to her problems, and even a suicide attempt. Together with Gaga, the psychologist made a formulation of her mental difficulties. The main aim of the psychologist's work with Gaga was to control unpleasant impulses and emotions, so as to eliminate self-injury. This aim has been achieved through three global tasks: 1) that Gaga, in the relationship with the psychologist, builds her IWMs as positive, so that she can see herself as a person who is worthy of the love and support of close people; 2) to develop a stable capacity for mentalization; 3) to apply this acquired skills in the interpretation of her affective experiences. The mentalizing approach in working with Gaga was based on an attitude of emotional warmth, acceptance and authentic interest in her inner world. The psychologist's work with Gaga led to her better self-control, which resulted in the cessation of her self-injury. In her work with a psychologist, Gaga acquired positive IWMs, which she transferred into other significant interpersonal relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0330.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; awareness; attention; free will; self-awareness
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:59:13 CET)
Consciousness is usually perceived as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self. Despite its omnipresence in our life, understanding this concept is challenging. This has given rise to several theories attempting to explain the nature of consciousness, as well as hard and soft problems of consciousness. In fact, the boundaries of consciousness defined by these theories are a topic of continued discussion, particularly in light of the recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI). Some of these theories consider consciousness as a simple integration of information while others purport the need for an agency in the process of integration for an entity to be considered conscious. Some theories consider consciousness as a graded entity and some equate consciousness with content of awareness. In this work, major theories of consciousness are reviewed and compared, focusing on awareness, attention, and sense of self. These findings are interpreted in relation to AI in order to ascertain what makes AI distinct from natural intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0073.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; free will; attention; self-awareness
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:01:24 CEST)
Consciousness is usually interpreted as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self, while awareness is understood as knowledge of something. Despite their semantic differences, in philosophy, these terms are often used interchangeably, as is the case of the hard problem of consciousness proposed by Chalmers, which in fact is the hard problem of awareness. Trilogy paradigm of consciousness (or simply “trilogy”) offers a new paradigm where consciousness is the result of a unique interaction between awareness and the decision-making process. By conferring the input of awareness to the decision-making process, a new mental function of awareness-based choice selection (ABCS) or true free will emerges. Likewise, application of the power of decision-making to the process of awareness gives rise to discretionary selection of information for awareness (DSIA) or intentional attention. The intertwined actions of ABCS and DSIA comprise “I” which is the faculty of our consciousness and is what sets natural intelligence (NI) apart from artificial intelligence (AI). Based on trilogy, mind is an unconscious compilation of all mental function excluding ABCS and DSIA that are the essence of consciousness. As humans, we are a union of “I,” our minds, and our bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: informality; working conditions; self-reported health; survey
Online: 2 March 2022 (02:41:32 CET)
Peru has one of the highest informal employment rates in Latin America (73%). Previous studies have shown higher prevalence of poor self-perceived health (P-SPH) in informal workers compared to formal. The study’s aim is to analyse the role of working conditions in the association between informality and SPH in urban working population in Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 3098 workers from the working conditions survey of Peru 2017. Prevalence of P-SPH and exposure to poor working conditions were calculated separated by formal and informal employment and stratified by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between P-SPH and informal employment, with its prevalence ratios (PR) crude and adjusted for working conditions. Informal employment was 76% in women and 66% in men. Informal workers were more exposed to poor working conditions than formals and reported worse SPH. Workers in informal employment showed higher risk of P-SPH than formals: PR 1.38 [95% CI: 1.16 – 1.64] in women and PR 1.27 [95% CI: 1.08 – 1.49] in men. Adjustment by working conditions weakened the association in both sexes. In women, this association was only partially explained by worse working conditions 1.23 [95% CI: 1.04 – 1.46]. The negative effect on informal workers’ health is partially explained by poor working conditions. However, there is a part of the effect explained by informality per se.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Self-Regulation Therapy; coping strategies; emotionality; drugs
Online: 7 September 2021 (17:01:06 CEST)
Background: This study consists of a brief psychological intervention, which uses the Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT, procedure based on suggestion and classical conditioning), to improve coping with stress and emotionality by reproducing the positive effects of illegal drugs: cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy. Method: 15 volunteers (8 males, 7 females), with a mean age of 24.67 (SD = 4.43), underwent intervention to improve their coping with stress and emotionality using SRT. They carried out pre- and post-intervention scores for 10 days and during a 4-week fol-low-up. The employed instruments were: COPE (Coping Skills Inventory) and PNAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results: SRT was superior to non-intervention for the 4 coping strategies (2= .829, .453, .411 and .606) and for positive (2= .371) and negative emotionality (2= .419). An improvement in scores was evidenced in the follow-up scores compared to the pre-intervention measures. Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that it is possible to use illegal drugs, considered harmful to public health, to improve young people’s coping capacity and emotionality by reproducing their positive effects with SRT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0579.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: intrahepatic, biliary duct; micropatterning, cholangiocyte,; self-organogenesis
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:05:08 CEST)
Background & Aims: Globally, liver diseases account for 2 million deaths per year. For those with advanced liver disease the only curative approach is liver transplantation. However, less than 10% of those in need get a liver transplant due to limited organ availability. To circumvent this challenge, there has been a great focus in generating a bioengineered liver. Despite its essential role in liver functions, a functional biliary system has not yet been developed. In this framework, exploration of epithelial cell self-organogenesis and microengineering-driven geometrical cell confinement allow to envision the bioengineering of a functional biomimetic intrahepatic biliary tract. Approach: Three-dimensional (3D) bile ducts were built in vitro by restricting cell adhesion to two-dimensional (2D) patterns to guide cell self-organization. Tree shapes mimicking the configuration of the human biliary system were micropatterned on glass slides, restricting cell attachment to these areas. Different tree geometries and culture conditions were explored to stimulate self-organogenesis of normal rat cholangiocytes (NRCs) used as a biliary cell model, either alone or in coculture with human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results: Pre-seeding the micropatterns with HUVECs promoted luminogenesis with higher efficiency to yield functional branched biliary tubes. Lumen formation, apico-basal polarity, and preservation of the cholangiocyte phenotype were confirmed. Moreover, intact and functional biliary structures were detached from the micropatterns for further manipulation. Conclusion: This study presents physiologically relevant 3D biliary duct networks built in vitro from 2D micropatterns. This opens opportunities for investigating bile duct organogenesis, physiopathology, and drug testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: multimedia; self-care; quality of life; enterostomy
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:08:14 CEST)
(1)Background: This report was an effective evaluation of using multimedia educational program for self-care and quality of life in patients with a stoma at postoperative and established a simple threshold for enterostomy self-care skills.(2)Methods:108 patients with enterostomy were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention multimedia education program (including information about preparation for enterostomy care, cleaning method, manual bag replacement steps and precautions). The primary outcome was self-care ability and quality of life (defined as overall enterostomy self-care ability and overall quality of life), which was assessed at 2 weeks after intervention via an interview.(3)Results: Compared with those who in the conventional stoma education program, patients received the multimedia education program significantly improved their overall self-care ability and quality of life in statistically. The threshold of the enterostomy self-care skill scale was 20 points, and its corresponding sensitivity was 77.8%, and the specificity was 75.7%.(4)Conclusions: According to our study, the multimedia education program could enhance self-care ability of home care and quality of life in patients with enterostomy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bioconcrete; microbes; biomineralization; self-healing; calcite precipitation
Online: 1 April 2021 (12:56:36 CEST)
The advancement of bioconcrete over cementitious composites has brought us to the application of microbes in the field of construction materials. Certain microbes like bacteria, algae, and fungi have been discussed in the review. The purpose of applying these microbes in the matrix is mainly to enhance the concrete’s strength and other properties such as durability, resistance, and self-healing ability. As these microbes are able to induce calcite biomineralizations, the process is also known as Microbiologically Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP). Some known microorganisms with their mentioned ability are Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cohnii (bacteria), Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis (algae), and Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Neurospora crassa (fungi). The paper provides a “state-of-the-art” review of research into the effects of bioconcrete and discusses the overall methodologies of every medium with their physiological, physicochemical and bioengineering properties in the light of recent researches done so far in the same field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0315.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: schizophrenia; schizoaffective disorder; self-efficacy; coping; stress.
Online: 11 March 2021 (11:19:02 CET)
There is growing evidence on the relevance of self-efficacy for well-being and functioning among individuals with psychotic disorders, but specific self-efficacy for coping with stress has rarely been investigated. This study explored the outcomes of an intervention for the improvement of coping resources based on a training in coping skills and coping with stress self-efficacy (CSSE). Fourteen adult volunteers who were diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=12) or schizoaffective disorder (n=2) were matched in clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and randomly assigned to the study groups. The intervention group received the training along with their pharmacological therapy; the control group received their prescribed drug therapy. Participants completed self-reports on CSSE, perceived successful daily functioning based on coping skills, and clinical status (BPRS-E). Trained patients showed a significant increase in CSSE and reported greater successful functioning status, and significant improvements in their clinical status were also observed. All these enhancements remained at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. Control participants showed no significant changes. Moreover, the intervention condition interacted with CSSE and perceived coping functioning in explaining improvements in clinical status: in the treatment group, greater CSSE translated into enhanced daily functioning, and this improvement predicted better clinical status. These findings stress the relevance of promoting coping resources in psychotic disorders and provide preliminary evidence for the potential benefits of CSSE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; Protein Nanotechnology; Self-assembly; Bionanomaterials
Online: 5 March 2021 (09:13:43 CET)
Proteins and DNA exhibit key physical chemical properties that make them advantageous for building nanostructures with outstanding features. Both DNA and protein nanotechnology have growth notably and proved to be fertile disciplines. The combination of both types of nanotechnologies is helpful to overcome the individual weaknesses and limitations of each one, paving the way for the continuing diversification of the structural nanotechnologies. Recent studies have implemented a synergistic combination of both biomolecules to assemble unique and sophisticate protein-DNA nanostructures. These hybrid nanostructures are highly programmable and display remarkable features that create new opportunities to build in the nanoscale. This review focuses on the strategies deployed to create hybrid protein-DNA nanostructures. Here, we will discuss strategies such as polymerization, spatial directing and organizing, coating, rigidizing or folding DNA into particular shapes or moving parts. The enrichment of structural DNA nanotechnology by incorporating protein nanotechnology has been clearly demonstrated and still shows a large potential to create useful and advanced materials with cell-like properties or dynamic systems. It can be expected that structural protein-DNA nanotechnology will open new avenues in the fabrication of nano-assemblies with unique functional applications and enrich the toolbox of bionanotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0636.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: motivation; self-regulated learning; transition; secondary school
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:40:55 CEST)
Transition from primary to secondary school is more successful when students’ learning is consistent. Students are also more likely to enjoy the school, engage with learning, and have a high academic achievement in the secondary school when they feel motivated. This is a critical aspect especially in cases when global pandemics situations allow only the online schooling opportunity. Students that are away from school lack the traditional sources of motivation and self-regulated learning skills, thus research is needed to identify other important factors that can be developed in remote settings. The aim of this study was to find out how students perceive their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and how such a transition influences students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation. Self-reported data were collected during the COVID-19 breakout from a total of N=80, 6th and 7th grade students aged 12-14 years old. Results showed that students had a successful transition, especially when they are supported by their parents and teachers. Next, Bivariate Pearson Correlation analysis indicated that students’ perceptions about their experience with the transition from primary to secondary school and their self-regulated learning and motivation are significantly correlated. No gender differences were found among all main study variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Self-medication; dispensing; drug; prescription; misuse; Libya
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:03:59 CEST)
Background and Objectives: In Libya, prescription medicines can easily be dispensed without a prescription, as self-medication with the subsequent of potential misuse and unnecessary risk for patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis explored the prevalence of self-medication among citizens in Libya. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, google scholar and ResearchGate databases for studies published in Libya reporting the prevalence of non-prescription use of medicines in community pharmacies, targeting studies published from Jan 2008 until Dec 2019. A random meta-analysis was performed to analyze pooled estimates of non-prescription usage of medicines. Results: Out of 63 articles identified, a total of 13 papers from 7 cities were met the inclusion criteria and involved a total of 4741 subjects. The overall pooled proportion of self-medication of drugs was 53.6% (95% CI: 0.93% - 1.08%), with low heterogeneity and the P-value of the whole population tasted was found to be = 1.000 (df = 12). Seven out of the 13 studies reported data on self-medication for antibiotics without prescription. The records ranged from 15.3% (95% CI 0.61–1.65) in Misurata to 76.6% (95% CI 0.80–1.25) in Tripoli. Conclusion: Self-medication use of medicines among Libyan population is a common phenomenon involving a high proportion use of antibiotics. This misuse of medications could enhance the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar panel; laminatel vibrations; self-cleaning; cymatics
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:51:32 CEST)
The Photovoltaic modules are usually installed on the ground which exposes it to surface deposition of foreign particles. In the Middle East and North Africa region, the primary culprit is dust and sand. They form an insulating and opaque layer on the surface of the glass, which obstructs its heat transfer and optical properties, thereby reducing the overall yield efficiency of the solar panel. Cleaning of this layer is critical to the operation of the solar panel and often requires great effort and energy on a large-scale solar array. In this paper, we propose a novel self-cleaning mechanism for solar panels, with an understanding of the structural integrity of the Photovoltaic laminate and application of external mechanical vibration. By applying an external source of vibration, the solar panels vibrate, excites its fundamental frequencies and cleans by its own. The method is analyzed using finite element analysis method and tested using experiments. Our simulation results based on IEC 61215 show that the maximum principal stress and deformation in the critical layers is within limits. Our experimental results prove the proposed theory is feasible and can be extended to large scale solar arrays. Our proposed method is retrofittable and could save money, energy and effort in cleaning the solar arrays, which can replace current techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0061.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Aminated polystyrene; Nanoparticles; Interfacial tension; Self-assembly
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:36:44 CET)
Nanoparticle (NP)–surfactants formed by the self-assembly of NPs and end-functionalized polymers at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface have a wide range of applications in many fields. In this study, the influence of density of amino groups, NPs dimension and pH on the interaction between end-functionalized polymers and NPs were extensively investigated. Single amino-terminated polystyrene (PS-NH2, Mw ≈ 0.6k, 2.5k, 3.5k, 3.9k) and diamino-terminated polystyrene (H2N-PS-NH2, Mw ≈ 1.1k, 2.8k) were prepared using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. NPs with different dimensions (zero-dimensional carbon dots with sulfonate groups, one-dimensional cellulose nanocrystals with sulfate groups and two-dimensional graphene with sulfonate groups) in the aqueous phase were added into the toluene phase containing the aminated PS. The influence of pH and the molecular weight of amino-terminated PS on the interfacial tension between two phases were investigated. The results indicate that aminated PS exhibited the strongest interfacial activity after compounding with sulfonated NPs at a pH of 3. Terminating PS with amino groups on both ends leads to better performance in in reducing the water/toluene interfacial tension than modifying the molecular structure of PS on a single end. The dimension of sulfonated NPs also contributed significantly to the reduction of the water/toluene interfacial tension. The minimal interfacial tension was 4.49 mN/m after compounding PS-NH2 with sulfonated zero-dimensional carbon dots. Molecular dynamics simulation on the evolution of the water/toluene interface in the presence of sulfonated carbon dots and H2N-PS-NH2 revealed that these opposite charged substances moved towards the interface in an extreme short time and orderly assembled in a thermodynamic equilibrium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Self-Written Waveguide; photo-polymer; fiber optics
Online: 5 September 2019 (15:44:49 CEST)
In this paper, first the Self-Written Waveguide (SWW) process in wet photopolymer media (liquid solutions), are examined for three examples: single-, counter-, and co-fibers exposure. Then the SWWs formed inside solid material are examined including the effects of manipulating the alignment of the fibers. In all cases high precision measurements are used to position the fiber optic cables (FOCs) before exposure using a microscope. The self-writing process is indirectly monitored by observing (imaging) the light emerging from the side of the material sample during SWW formation. In this way the optical waveguide trajectories formed in an Acrylamide/Polyvinyl Alcohol (AA/PVA) a photopolymer material (sensitized at 532 nm) are examined. First the transmission of light by this material is characterized. Then the bending and merging of the waveguides which occur are investigated. The predictions of our model are shown to qualitatively agree with the observed trajectories. The largest index changes taking place at any time during the exposure, i.e. during SWW formation, are shown to take place at the positions where the largest exposure light intensity is present. Typically, such maxima exist close to the input face and the first maximum is referred to as the location of the Primary Eye. Other local maxima also appear further along the SWW and are referred to as Secondary Eyes, i.e. deeper within the material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: motivation; well-being; self-steem; psychology; sport
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:29:23 CEST)
The work shows a single case intervention based on the motivational coaching model the “Cantón’s Giraffe”, theoretically and experimentally proven in a 20-years-old dancesport practitioner, who considered improving her execution with her dance partner. Methodological triangulation was used , combining a test-retest quantitative measure (Using Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scales; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and an ad-hoc instrument for the motivational force assessment) and subjective analysis of the responses from the interviews conducted. A three-phase intervention protocol was used : identification, intervention, and follow-up. The results show an improvement in reevaluation scores, an increase in the subjective evaluation, and participant satisfaction and perceived resources raised at the end of the intervention. These results are in line with previous similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: hydrogel; hydrophobicity; self-assembly; degree of swelling
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:58:09 CEST)
Hydrogels incorporated with hydrophobic motifs have received considerable attention to recapitulate the cellular microenvironments, specifically for the bio-mineralization of a 3D matrix. Introduction of hydrophobic motifs into a hydrogel often results in irregular arrangement of the motifs, and further phase separation of hydrophobic domains, but limited efforts have been made to resolve this challenge in the hydrophobically-modified hydrogel. Therefore, this study presents an advanced integrative strategy to incorporate hydrophobic domains regularly in a hydrogel by self-assembling of polymer cross-linkers, building blocks of a hydrogel. Self-assemblies between polymer cross-linkers were examined as micro-domains to incorporate hydrophobic motifs in a hydrogel. The self-assembled structures in a pre-gelled solution were confirmed with the fluorescence analysis and the hydrophobicity of a hydrogel could be tuned by incorporating the motifs in a controlled manner. Overall, the results of this study would greatly serve to tuning performance of a wide array of hydrophobically-modified hydrogels in drug delivery, cell therapies and tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: self-esteem; quality of sleep; eating; nursing
Online: 18 December 2018 (12:12:23 CET)
In recent decades, organizational research has given special attention to the mechanisms promoting the health and wellbeing of nursing professionals. In this context, self-esteem is a personal resource which influences wellbeing at work and psychological wellbeing of nurses. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of eating in the effect of sleep quality on self-esteem in nursing professionals. The sample of 1073 nurses were administered the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The results show that poor sleep quality and type of eating directly and indirectly affect self-esteem. More so, poor sleep quality deteriorated self-esteem through emotional eating, and even though emotional eating facilitated disinhibited eating, this relationship had no significant effects on self-esteem. The findings of this study suggest that hospital management should implement employee health awareness programs on the importance of healthy sleep and design educational interventions for improving the quality of their diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0005.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: stress perceived; self-efficacy; engagement; work; nursing
Online: 3 December 2018 (04:10:41 CET)
Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP) examines the mechanisms that promote workers’ health and wellbeing, in addition to risk factors arising from work activity. The aim of this study was to analyze the mediating role of perceived stress in the effect that self-efficacy has on engagement in nurses. The sample comprised 1777 currently working nurses. We administered the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Following bivariate correlational analysis, multiple linear regression analysis, and simple and multiple mediation analysis the results showed Self-efficacy to be a powerful personal resource that positively predicts employees’ engagement, although the effect diminishes when there are mediating variables of stress. We found differences in the way the different aspects of stress mediated the relationship between Self-efficacy and the engagement dimensions. “Energy–joy” was the strongest mediating variable for all of the engagement dimensions, and this, together with “harassment–social acceptance” dampened the effect of Self-efficacy on vigor and dedication, whereas “Overload” was only a mediator for dedication. Because nurses work in a stressful environment, risk factor arising from work activity, hospital management should design interventions to enhance their workers’ personal resources and improve personal and organizational wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: family violence; self-control; meta-analysis; adolescence
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:39:34 CEST)
Theoretical studies propose an association between family violence and low self-control in adolescence, yet empirical findings of this association are inconclusive. The aim of the present research was to systematically summarize available findings on the relation between family violence and self-control across adolescence. We included 27 studies with 143 effect sizes, representing more than 25,000 participants of eight countries from early to late adolescence. Applying a multi-level meta-analyses, taking dependency between effect sizes into account while retaining statistical power, we examined the magnitude and direction of the overall effect size. Additionally, we investigated whether theoretical moderators (e.g., age, gender, country), and methodological moderators (cross-sectional/longitudinal, informant) influenced the magnitude of the association between family violence and self-control. Our results revealed that family violence and self-control have a small to moderate significant negative association (r = -.191). This association did not vary across gender, country, and informants. The strength of the association, however, decreased with age and in longitudinal studies. This finding provides evidence that researchers and clinicians may expect low self-control in the wake of family violence, especially in early adolescence. Recommendations for future research in the area are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0428.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: thermo-responsive; ultrafiltration; enzymes; self-cleaning; nanofibers
Online: 24 August 2018 (07:52:04 CEST)
Controlling surface-protein interaction during wastewater treatment is the key motivation for developing functionally modified membranes. A new biocatalytic thermo-responsive poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF)/nylon-6,6/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated to achieve dual functionality of protein-digestion and thermo-responsive self-cleaning. The PVDF/nylon-6,6/PNIPAAm composite membranes were constructed by integrating a hydrophobic PVDF cast layer and hydrophilic nylon-6,6/PNIPAAm nanofiber layer where trypsin enzymes were covalently immobilized. The immobilization density of enzymes on the membrane surface decreased with increasing PNIPAAm concentration, due to the decreased number of amine functional sites. Through a ultrafiltration study using a model solution containing BSA/NaCl/CaCl2, the PNIPAAm containing biocatalytic membranes demonstrated a combined effect of enzymatic and thermo-switchable self-cleaning. The membrane without PNIPAAm revealed superior fouling resistance and self-cleaning with an RPD of 22%, compared to membranes with 2 and 4 wt% PNIPAAm with 26% and 33% RPD, respectively, after an intermediate temperature cleaning at 50°C, indicating that higher enzyme density offers more efficient self-cleaning than the combined effect of enzyme and PNIPAAm at low concentration. The conformational volume phase transition of PNIPAAm did not affect the stability of immobilized trypsin on membrane surface. Such novel surface engineering design offer a promising route to severe surface-protein contamination remediation in food and wastewater applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0392.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: underwater acoustic communication; parametric technique; self-demodulation
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:42:15 CEST)
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to underwater acoustic communications. In all the signals, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the transducer under study and different modulations are presented and compared. In this sense, we study modulations with parametric sine sweeps (4 to 40 kHz) that represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic communications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of bit rate, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Peptide; self-assembly; nanomaterial; hydrogel; aspergillosis; candidiasis.
Online: 4 May 2018 (12:58:24 CEST)
The threat of antimicrobial resistance to society is compounded by a relative lack of new clinically effective licensed therapies reaching patients over the past three decades. This has been particularly problematic within antifungal drug development leading to a rise in fungal infection rates and associated mortality. This paper highlights the potential of an ultrashort peptide, (naphthalene-2-ly)-acetyl-diphenylalanine-dilysine-OH (NapFFKK-OH), encompassing hydrogel-forming and antifungal properties within a single peptide motif, thus overcoming formulation (e.g. solubility, drug loading) issues associated with many current employed highly hydrophobic antifungals. A range of fungal susceptibility (colony counts) and cell cytotoxicity (MTS cell viability, LIVE/DEAD staining® with fluorescent microscopy, haemolysis) assays were employed. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the nanofibrous architecture of our self-assembling peptide, existing as a hydrogel at concentrations of 1% w/v and above. Broad-spectrum activity was demonstrated against a range of fungi clinically relevant to infection (Aspergillus niger, Candida glabrata, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida dubliniensis) with greater than 4 log10 CFU/mL reduction at concentrations of 0.5% w/v and above. We hypothesise antifungal activity is due to targeting of anionic components present within fungal cell membranes resulting in membrane disruption and cell lysis. NapFFKK-OH demonstrated reduced toxicity against mammalian cells (NCTC 929, ARPE-19) suggesting increased selectivity for fungal cells. However, further studies relating to safety for systemic administration is required, given the challenges toxicity has presented in the wider context of antimicrobial peptide drug development. Overall this study highlights the promise of NapFFKK-OH hydrogels, particularly as a topical formulation for the treatment of fungal infections relating to the skin and eyes, or as a hydrogel coating for the prevention of biomaterial related infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0153.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: provenance; quantified self; personal informatics; visualization; comics
Online: 21 December 2017 (05:40:26 CET)
Personal health data is acquired, processed, stored, and accessed using a variety of different devices, applications, and services. These are often complex and highly connected. Therefore, use or misuse of the data is hard to detect for people, if they are not capable to understand the trace (i.e., the provenance) of that data. We present a visualization technique for personal health data provenance using comics strips. Each strip of the comic represents a certain activity, such as entering data using a smartphone application, storing or retrieving data on a cloud service, or generating a diagram from the data. The comic strips are generated automatically using recorded provenance graphs. The easy-to-understand comics enable all people to notice crucial points regarding their data such as, for example, privacy violations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0020.v1
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:27:41 CET)
This article will examine the ambivalence in the views of Jewish authorities towards suicide. There are Jewish rulings which forbid the taking of one's own life, including requested euthanasia. There are seemingly contrary rulings which tolerate and sometimes admire suicide, particularly under conditions of religious persecution. The article will attempt an overview of suicide rates in Jewish communities, indicating variations in different circumstances. The question of whether religiosity affects suicide will be raised and examined. These variations—and of course other factors—may offer some clues to the precursors of suicide, and the processes which may be involved. The causal and risk factors in self-harm among Jews will also be examined. The article then turns to post-suicide events, behaviours and attitudes in Jewish communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; self-management; blood glucose self-monitoring; mobile applications; medically underserved area; health literacy; telemedicine; disease management
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:19:05 CET)
Medically underserved communities have limited access to effective disease management resources in the U.S. Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) offer patients a cost-effective way to monitor and self-manage their condition and to communicate with providers; however, current diabetes self-management apps have rarely included end-users from underserved communities in the design process. This research documents key stakeholder-driven design requirements for a diabetes self-management app for medically underserved patients. Semi-structured survey-interviews were carried out with 97 patients with diabetes and 11 healthcare providers from medically underserved counties in South Texas to elicit perspectives and preferences regarding a diabetes self-management app, and their beliefs regarding such an app’s usage and utility. Patients emphasized the need for accessible educational content and for quick access to guidance on regulating blood sugar, diet, and exercise and physical activity using multimedia rather than textual form. Healthcare providers indicated that glucose monitoring, educational content, and graphical visualization of diabetes data were among the top-rated app features. These findings suggest that specific design requirements for the underserved may improve the adoption, usability, and sustainability of such interventions. Designers should consider health literacy and numeracy, linguistic barriers, data visualization, data entry complexity, and information exchange capabilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: dissipative structure; energy conversion; mechanical work; self-oscillation; collective dynamics; autonomous motion; self-replication; autocatalysis; molecular motor; molecular robot
Online: 9 September 2020 (05:24:42 CEST)
The construction of molecular robotic-like objects that imitate living things is an important challenge for current chemists. Such molecular devices are expected to perform their duties robustly to carry out mechanical motion, process information, and make independent decisions. Dissipative self-organization plays an essential role in meeting these purposes. To produce a micro-robot that can perform the above tasks autonomously as a single entity, a function generator is required. Although many elegant review articles featuring chemical devices that mimic biological mechanical functions have been published recently, the dissipative structure, which is the minimum requirement, has not been sufficiently discussed. This article aims to show clearly that dissipative self-organization is a phenomenon involving autonomy, robustness, mechanical functions, and energy transformation. Moreover, the author details the recent experimental results of an autonomous light-driven molecular device that achieves all of these features. In addition, a chemical model of cell-amplification is also discussed to focus on the generation of hierarchical movement by dissipative self-organization. By reviewing this research, it may be perceived that mainstream approaches to synthetic chemistry have not always been appropriate. In summary, the author proposes that the integration of catalytic functions is a key issue for the creation of autonomous microarchitecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0910.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; undergraduates; self-time management; behavior; values
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:33:13 CEST)
This study is a two-phase hybrid study on the behavioral activities of undergraduate students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A questionnaire survey of students during the whole school period and a semistructured interviews with 13 undergraduates of different majors were conducted. First, we found that compared with primary and secondary school students, undergraduates showed many problems with self-time management. Second, the behavior of undergraduates at home may result from multiple factors, such as past experience, professional identity and behavioral habits. When secondary school provided a relatively relaxed learning environment or secondary school teachers placed more emphasis on continuous effort, and when students had a strong sense of the social value of their undergraduate major, students worked harder and achieved more during the pandemic. Otherwise, it was easier for students to slack off and be passive during the pandemic. Altogether, this study deepens our understanding of undergraduates' self-management of free time, and the differences in the values underlying different behaviors and the formation process of various behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0470.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biomass; Carbon; Flexible; Self-standing electrodes; Energy storage
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:45:31 CEST)
With the swift advancement of wearable electronic devices and the electronic textile industry, the energy storage components of these devices must possess the capability to maintain stable mechanical and chemical properties even after undergoing multiple bending or tensile deformations. This circumstance has expedited research efforts toward novel materials, processing techniques, and designs for flexible energy storage devices. Among the myriad of materials investigated thus far, biomass-derived architectures have garnered significant attention due to renewability, cost-effectiveness, and abundance in earthly resources. Notably, flexible carbon membrane/ monolithic derived from biomass serve as a particularly promising option for self-supporting electrodes, align seamlessly with the requirements of next-generation electronic devices, and obviate the need for additional costs, unnecessary weight, and the high contact resistance that additive insulating adhesives may entail. This review delves into the comprehensive analysis of biomass feedstocks and methodologies employed in the synthesis of flexible self-supporting carbon electrodes. Subsequently, the advancements in their application in energy storage devices are elucidated. Finally, an outlook on the potential of biomass self-supported carbon architectures and the challenges they face is provided.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: self-confidence; music; musically talented; high musical abilities
Online: 20 July 2023 (04:57:16 CEST)
The purpose of the current study was the level of the self-confidence among with high musical abilities Student? The randomly selected sample consisted of students (n= 130, M= 65, F= 65) . The analytical descriptive approach was applied in the study and self-confidence Scale developed by the author was administered to participants. Results indicated that: - The self-confidence among the high musical abilities Student students was rated high. There were no statistically significant differences at (α=≤0.05) attributed to effect of sex on the self-confidence overall degree. There were statistically no significant differences at (α≤0.05) attributed to effect of achievement on the self-confidence overall degree,