ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0835.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: organic selenium; nano-selenium; drought stress; physiological response; transcriptome
Online: 13 November 2023 (15:26:42 CET)
Keywords: Organic selenium; Nano-selenium; Drought stress; Physiological response; Transcriptome
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1384.v1
Online: 20 June 2023 (04:26:18 CEST)
Cancer is the most feared disease, with more than 1.6 million cases each year. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, from the uncontrollable growth and multiplication of damaged cells. Cancerous tumors can spread into the human body (a process called metastasis) as a solid form usually, but the cancers of blood generally do not. Cancer treatment includes chemotherapy, surgery and radiations. In this article we will address inorganic compounds as a source of treatment, diagnosis, carriers of active substances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0253.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Selenium species; Maize plants; Se fractions; Rock-soil-plant interface; Selenium accumulation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:55:32 CET)
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important staple food and primary source of livestock feed in the world. As the consumption of maize grown on the selenium-enriched soils of Naore Valley is one of the apparent causes of selenosis in the area, this work collected and analyzed total Se, Se fractions, and Se species distributions in maize plant samples, including grains, leaves, stalks, roots, rhizosphere soils, and the most representative parent rock materials from Naore Valley, Ziyang County, China. The Se distribution in soils markedly correlated with the weathered Se-enriched bedrocks, but most of the Se in the analyzed soils is enclosed as recalcitrant residual Se and organic-sulfide bound Se. In contrast, Se in rocks had a comparatively higher bioavailability and is bounded mainly to organic matter and sulfides minerals, with very few of the Se enclosed in the residual fraction. Maize plants might take a large amount of Se from the organic-sulfide bound Se fraction in the Se-rich soils, the weathered products from bedrocks or plant litters. Total Se concentrations in the collected samples were observed in descending order soil>leaf>root>grain>stalk. The predominant Se species detected in maize plants was SeMet. Se inorganic forms, mainly Se(VI), decreased from root to grain and were possibly assimilated into organic forms. Se (IV) was barely present. The natural increases in Se concentration affected mainly leaf and root dry-weight biomass as they are the organs that coped with the highest Se accumulation. This paper offers an insight into the uptake, accumulation, and distribution of Se forms in natural Se-rich maize crops and an opportunity for shifting Se-rich soils from menaces to valuable resources for growing Se-rich agricultural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1307.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: low temperature; organic selenium; nano-selenium; transcriptome; weighted gene co-expression network analysis
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:05:38 CEST)
In recent years, frequent occurrences of low temperature disasters due to global climate change have significantly impacted the normal growth of crops. Research has indicated that inorganic selenium (which is more toxic) can not only enhance the effects of low temperature stress but also increase selenium content on plants; however, there is a scarcity of studies investigating the impacts of organic selenium and nano-selenium on crops. In order to investigate whether organic selenium and nano-selenium can enhance low-temperature tolerance and increase selenium content in pak choi (Brassica chinensis var. pekinensis. cv. ‘Suzhouqing’), different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 mg L-1) of exogenous selenium were applied in this experiment to assess their effects on plant growth, nutritional quality and antioxidant properties. RNA-Seq technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of the leaves. Based on the transcriptome data, a Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) was employed to construct a network that associates with physiological traits related to stress resistance. Two highly correlated gene co-expression modules were identified, and within them, nine hub genes associated with endocytosis, antioxidant stress, absorption, transport, and metabolism of selenium were discovered. The results indicated that the beneficial effects on yield and total selenium content under low temperature were attributed to (1) protection of photosynthetic pigments for enhancing photosynthetic capacity by the up-regulation of LHca2, LHcb1, LHca1, LHcb4 in KEGG pathway: photosynthesis-antenna proteins; (2) activation of antioxidant system for efficient ROS homeostasis such as SOD, POD and CAT by the genes such as Superoxide dismutase, Monodehydroascorbate and (3) selenium absorption by endocytosis, seleninum transportation by ABC transporter gene family and selenium metabolism related genes such as Cysteine synthase, Glutaredoxin. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of organic selenium and nano-selenium on cyanochloride production at low temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0497.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: manganese stress; selenium; wheat seedlings
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:30:34 CEST)
In recent years cultivated soils have been increasingly supplemented with nutrients that at low doses are necessary for proper plant functioning but become toxic at high doses. New methods are needed to prevent these destructive actions, and for this reason we studied the effects of two elements – Mn treated as a stressor and Se treated as a potential defense in two wheat cultivars. The intensity of stress was manifested in tissue browning and weight reduction and was determined by an increase in lipid peroxidation and quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide levels. It was found that the excess of Mn in the substrate caused more intense changes in these indicators in the root system than in the leaves, and that Se presence partly eliminated the stress evoked effects. Moreover, Mn-treatment was accompanied by a greater absorption of this element by the roots, and a reduced uptake of other elements (K, Fe, S, P), with the exception of Ca, an increase in which was observed especially in the additional presence of Se. It was suggested that the rise in Ca level can lead to modification of cell differentiations and may be one of the steps in defense mechanisms. The change in the direction of cell differentiation in the apical part of the root was observed microscopically under Mn stress and was accompanied by a quantitative increase in 5-met C. Based on DNA methylation profiles detected by MSAP we concluded that various types of methylation sites may be activated under Mn treatment in roots.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0666.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Heavy metal; Mineral Nutrition; Phytohormones; Selenium
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:34:38 CEST)
Abstract: Heavy metals (HMs) contamination is one of the main among abiotic factors affecting crop productivity and also threatens human health via consuming metal contaminated crops as a food source. Over the past few years, HMs have drawn a lot of attention due to their increased use for commercial purposes and their harmful effects on plants and other life forms, thus threatening human survival. However, in recent years, several methods have been adopted to combat the harsh effects of HMs. After phytohormones, use of mineral nutrients such as selenium (Se) in the prevention of HM stress has been explored by the researchers more recently. Selenium is an important micronutrient widely known for its antioxidant properties in both plants and animals. Exogenous Se inhibits metal uptake and its translocation and also improves the antioxidant system, thus imparts resistance to HM toxicity in plants. Moreover, Se also regulates the production of various osmolytes in cells that helps in developing cell osmolarity. Selenium also induces the production of different types of secondary metabolites (SMs) that are also involved in plant's secondary defense mechanisms to different stresses. Uptake of mineral nutrients is a vital process for plant growth and development, which is also positively correlated with Se under metalloid toxicity. However, in order to understand the exact mechanism of Se in HM tolerance, different metabolic processes stimulated by Se and their pathways need to be explored. Hence, this review focuses on the role of Se on nutritional status, antioxidants metabolism, interaction with phytohormones and its role in the regulation of various genes involved in Se induced HM tolerance. Thus, this study will help researchers in the future for the improvement of HM tolerance via Se application in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0086.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: spermine; cyclooctaoxygen; DNA; selenium; glyphosate; AMPA
Online: 29 January 2023 (03:10:50 CET)
Background: Oxygen exists in two gaseous (dioxygen and ozone) and six solid allotropic modifications. An additional allotropic modification of oxygen, the cyclooctaoxygen, was predicted to exist in 1990. The first synthesis and characterization of cyclooctaoxygen as its sodium crown complex, isolated in the form of three cytosine nucleoside hydrochloride complexes, was reported in 2016.Results: The sperminium hydrogen phosphate/cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex is calculated to cover the actively transcribed regions (2.6%) of bovine lymphocyte interphase genome. Cyclooctaoxygen seems to be naturally absent in hypoxia-induced highly condensed chromatin, taken as a model for eukaryotic metaphase/anaphase/early telophase mitotic chromatin. Hence, it is proposed that the cyclooctaoxygen sodium-bridged sperminium hydrogen phosphate and selenite coverage serves as an epigenetic shell of actively transcribed gene regions in eukaryotic ‘open’ euchromatin DNA. Cyclooctaoxygen sodium-bridged sperminium hydrogen selenite was calculated to serve as a marker shell component at ATG start codons in human euchromatin DNA mRNA genes, both at the translation initiation triplet and at 5'-untranslated region upstream ATGs. The total herbicide glyphosate (ROUNDUP®) and its metabolite (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA) are proved to represent ‘epigenetic poisons’, since they both selectively destroy the cyclooctaoxygen sodium complex. This definition is of reason, since the destruction of cyclooctaoxygen is certainly sufficient to bring the protection shield of human euchromatin into collateral epigenetic collapse.Conclusions: The total herbicide glyphosate and its environmental metabolite (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid (AMPA) can be associated in vitro with catalytic detoriation of eukaryotic euchromatin genetic information.General Significance: The epigenetic shell of eukaryotic euchromatin is susceptible to decay induced by catalytic epigenetic poisons threatening eukaryotic genomic heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cattle; Belgian Blue; beef; colostrum; selenium
Online: 11 October 2022 (07:23:19 CEST)
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for the health and immunity of cattle. Double-muscled Belgian Blue cows are well known to be prone to nutritional deficiencies. Colostrum Se level is also a key factor to promote immunoglobulin intake in young calves. The main objectives of this study were to assess (1) the plasma and colostrum Se statuses of properly-supplemented Belgian-Blue cows on commercial farms and (2) the relationship between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum. Secondary objectives were to assess relationships between plasma or colostrum Se concentrations and dietary Se supplementation as well as blood biomarkers. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 49 Belgian Blue cows on 5 commercial farms in Belgium. They received 5 different rations with Se supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 2 ppm including 20% to 83% of organic form. Results showed that average Se concentration was 90 +- 15 µg/L in plasma and 79 +- 26 µg/L in colostrum, consistent with previous studies on well-supplemented cows. No relationship was observed between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum, suggesting that colostrum Se testing would be a complementary indicator for improving calf Se supplementation. Relationships between plasma or colostrum Se and dietary Se or blood biomarkers emphasized the complexity of Se metabolism in observational studies under field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0748.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: selenium; carnosic acid; ovine spleen; fatty acids; tocopherols
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:52:53 CET)
The purpose of these studies was to investigate effect of selenate (Se6), selenized yeast (SeYe) and carnosic acid (CA) supplementation to the diet containing fish oil (F-O) and rapeseed oil (R-O) on contents of fatty acids (FA), malondialdehyde (MDA), tocopherols (Ts) and total cholesterol (TCh) in lambs’ spleens. 24 male lambs (4 groups per 6 animals) have been fed: the control diet - the basal diet (BD) enriched in F-O and R-O; the CA diet - BD enriched in F-O, R-O and CA; the SeYeCA diet - BD enriched in F-O, R-O, CA and SeYe; the Se6CA diet - BD enriched in F-O, R-O, CA and Se6. Dietary modifications affected profiles of FA in spleens. The SeYeCA and Se6CA diets increased the docosapentaenoic acid preference in Δ4-desaturase, hence the higher content of docosahexaenoic acid was found in spleens of SeYe- or Se6-treated lambs than in spleens of animals receiving the CA and control diets. Experimental diets reduced the level of atherogenic FA in the spleen in comparison with the control diet. The experimental diets supplemented with SeYe or Se6 increased levels of TCh and Ts in spleens in comparison with the CA and control CA diets. The present studies documented that Se6, SeYe and CA influenced the metabolism of FA, Ts and cholesterol in spleens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0551.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: pesticides; mining; chemical mixtures; selenium; hormesis; genetic damage; Colombia.
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:40:46 CEST)
The contexts where there is mining and agriculture activities are potential sources of risk to human health due to contamination by chemical mixtures. This study explored the association between the frequency of micronuclei and pesticides in regions with ferronickel (Montelibano, Córdoba) and gold (Nechí, Antioquia) mining, and a closed native mercury mine (Aranzazu, Caldas). A cross-sectional study was carried out with 247 residents in the mining regions. Sociodemographic, occupational, and toxicological variables were ascertained. Blood and urine samples were taken for pesticide analysis (12 organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates), 68 chemical elements were quantified in hair, and micronuclei (MN) were quantified in lymphocytes. The mixtures of chemical elements were grouped through exploratory factor analysis. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated with robust variance Poisson regressions to explore associations. The highest concentrations of chemical elements were in the active mines. The potentially most toxic chemical mixture was observed in the ferronickel mine. Pesticides were detected in a low proportion of participants. The frequency of MN was similar in the three mining contexts. There was great heterogeneity in the exposure to pesticides and chemical elements. The “hormetic effect” of selenium is described, in which at low doses it acts as a chelator and at high doses it can enhance the toxic effects of other elements. It is proposed that future studies in mining contexts include the measurement of chemical mixtures to better assess exposure and potential adverse health effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: selenium; selenocysteine; selenoproteins; selenocysteine insertion sequence; nonsense-mediated decay
Online: 4 August 2018 (11:47:34 CEST)
Selenium is a trace metal essential to human health, and its deficiency has been related to, for instance, cardiovascular and myodegenerative diseases, infertility and osteochondropathy Kashin-Beck disease. It is incorporated as selenocysteine to selenoproteins, which protect against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. They also participate in the activation of thyroid hormone, and play a role in immune system functioning. The synthesis and incorporation of selenocysteine occurs via a special mechanism, which differs from the one used for standard amino acids. The codon for selenocysteine is the regular in-frame stop codon, which can be passed by specific complex machinery participating in translation elongation and termination. This includes the presence of selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) in the 3’-untranslated part of the selenoprotein mRNAs. Selenium deficiency is known to control both selenoprotein and non-selenoprotein transcriptomes. Nonsense-mediated decay is involved in the regulation of selenoprotein mRNA levels, both other mechanisms are also possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0060.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Moringa oleifera; Cadnium Selenium nanocrystals; quenching; luminescence,; Stern-Volmer equation
Online: 1 November 2023 (11:18:50 CET)
Even with significant developments in nanoscience, fairly little is known about the interactions of nanocrystal semiconducting materials with bio-macromolecules. These interactions can influence the properties of both nanocrystals and bio-macromolecules. Understanding this interface is a condition to apply both nanoparticles and biomolecules for bioengineering. To investigate the interfacial phenomena of cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) nanocrystals with proteins extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds, different concentrations of cadmium selenide quantum dots-Moringa oleifera seed protein (CdSe—MSP) complexes were prepared. Respective CdSe QDs with hexagonal phase and crystalline size in the range of 4—7 nm were synthesized and labelled with the purified mesoporous MSP having a surface area of 8.4 m2/g. The interaction mechanism between CdSe QDs and MSP was studied using the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum showed an absorption band of CdSe-MSP complexes at 546.5 nm. The lowest absorbance intensity was observed for the complex with the highest concentration of M. oleifera seed proteins. The fluorescence (FL) spectroscopy of the complex was excited at 280 nm wavelength and emission was monitored at 598 nm. FL intensity of CdSe QDs was found to decrease with an increasing concentration of MSP. Using Stern-Volmer analysis, the binding constants (Kb), quenching constants (Kq) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined. The thermodynamic potentials ∆Hθ(—321.3 kJmol—1);\ ∆Sθ( 156.0 JK—1mol—1) and ∆Gθ(—46.6 kJmol—1) were also calculated. The complexes could be classified as the dynamic quenching mechanism. In the previous studies, the standard quenchers, viz. acrylamide, iodide and nitrate were used to quench the fluorescence of the MSP whereas in this study the protein has acted as a quencher of QDs fluorescence. The stability of the complex is strongly influenced by the CdSe QDs adsorbed into MSP through electrostatics interaction and surface-bound complexation equilibrium attraction. This information can help to elucidate the surface characteristics of MSP and its potential interactions with other molecules or nanoparticles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: RNA virus; DNA synthesis; selenium; thioredoxin reductase; SARS-coronavirus-2
Online: 7 June 2020 (09:04:57 CEST)
The biosynthesis of DNA inherently competes with RNA synthesis because it depends on the reduction of ribonucleotides (RNA precursors) to 2’-deoxyribonucleotides by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Hence, RNA viruses can increase viral RNA production in cells by partially blocking the synthesis of DNA, e.g. by downregulating the mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TR), which normally acts to sustain DNA synthesis by regenerating reduced thioredoxin, a hydrogen donor for RNR. Computational and preliminary experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that a number of pathogenic RNA viruses, including HIV-1, Ebola, Zika, some flu viruses, and SARS-CoV-2, target TR isoforms by antisense. TR knockdown would create a host antioxidant defect that could be partially rectified by increased selenium intake, or be exacerbated by selenium deficiency, contributing to viral pathogenesis. There are several non-selenium-dependent means that viruses might also exploit to slow DNA synthesis, such as targeting RNR itself, or components of the glutaredoxin system, which serves as a backup redox system for RNR. HIV-1 substantially downregulates glutathione synthesis, so it interferes with both the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. Computational results suggest that, like Ebola, SARS-CoV-2 targets TR3 by antisense. TR3 is the only TR isoform that includes an N-terminal glutaredoxin domain, so antisense knockdown of TR3 may also affect both redox systems, favoring RNA synthesis. In contrast, some DNA viruses encode their own glutaredoxins, thioredoxin-like proteins and even RNR homologues – so they are doing just the opposite, favoring DNA synthesis. This is clear evidence that viruses can benefit from shifting the RNA:DNA balance to their advantage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0432.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: antisense; HIV-1 nef; stop codon readthrough; selenium; thioredoxin reductase
Online: 26 May 2020 (13:16:09 CEST)
The HIV-1 nef gene terminates in a 3’-UGA stop codon, which is highly conserved in the main group of HIV-1 subtypes, along with a downstream potential coding region that could extend the nef protein by 33 amino acids, if readthrough of the stop codon occurs. Antisense tethering interactions (ATIs) between a viral mRNA and a host selenoprotein mRNA are a potential viral strategy for the capture of a host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element (Taylor et al, 2016) . This mRNA hijacking mechanism could enable the expression of virally encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine (SeC). Here we show that readthrough of the 3’-terminal UGA codon of nef occurs during translation of HIV-1 nef expression constructs in transfected cells. This was accomplished via fluorescence microscopy image analysis and flow cytometry of HEK 293 cells, transfected with engineered GFP reporter gene plasmid constructs, in which GFP can only be expressed by translational recoding of the UGA codon. SiRNA knockdown of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) mRNA resulted in a 67% decrease in GFP expression, presumably due to reduced availability of the components involved in selenocysteine incorporation for the stop codon readthrough, thus supporting the proposed ATI. Addition of 20 nM sodium selenite to the media significantly enhanced stop codon readthrough in the pNefATI1 plasmid construct, by >100%, supporting the hypothesis that selenium is involved in the UGA readthrough mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: alcohol; liver cirrhosis; selenium; interleukin-6; growth differentiation factor-15
Online: 27 March 2017 (16:12:33 CEST)
According to some authors, the serum selenium level is strongly associated with the severity of liver diseases including liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of selenium and pro-inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines – interleukin-6 (IL-6) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The parameters studied were determined in serum of 99 alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients divided based on the severity of disease according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh criteria. In patients with liver cirrhosis, the serum selenium concentration was statistically lower whereas serum IL-6 and GDF-15 concentrations were higher than those in the control group. Moreover, the concentration of selenium negatively correlated with the levels of GDF-15 and IL-6. The above results may indicate a role of selenium deficiency in the pathogenesis and progression of alcoholic liver disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: selenium; selenocysteine; selenoproteins; cancer; type 2 diabetes; neurodegeneration; cardiovascular disease; inflammation
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:37:41 CEST)
Selenoproteins are a group of proteins containing selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec, U) as the 21st amino acid coded in the genetic code. Their synthesis is dependent on dietary selenium uptake and a common set of cofactors. Selenoproteins accomplish diverse roles in the body and cell processes by acting, for example, as antioxidants, modulators of the immune function, detoxification agents for heavy metals, and other xenobiotics, key compounds in thyroid hormone metabolism. Although the functions of all this protein family are still unknown, several disorders in their structure, activity or expression have been described by researchers. They concluded that selenium or cofactors deficiency, on one hand, or the polymorphism in selenoproteins genes and synthesis, on the other hand, are involved in a large variety of pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular, muscular, oncological, hepatic, endocrine, immuno-inflammatory, neurodegenerative diseases. This review is focused on specific roles in medicine only of selenoproteins that are each named after an alphabet letter, less known than the rest of them, regarding their implications in patho-logical processes of several prevalent diseases and also in disease prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: feed efficiency; Nile tilapia; paring coconut and candlenut; plant oils; selenium
Online: 19 May 2021 (17:04:02 CEST)
This study aims to get growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with plant oils supplement from paring coconut (P.C.) and candlenut (C.N.) enrichment of Se in rations formula. The oil of P.C. was dominated by saturated fatty acid (SFA) lauric (42.67%), while the extract of C.N. was unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), linoleic (34.4%), and oleic (48.99%). The extract of P.C. and C.N. or mix oils added 4% in basal ration formula (28% crude protein (C.P.) with energy-protein ratio 8 kcal/kg). Completely Randomized Design (6 × 3) consists R1: basal ration; R2: basal formula with blend of paring coconut and candlenut oils (2% PC + 2% CN); R3: blend oils (R2) with trace additive Se; R4: 4% PC + Se; R5: 4% CN + Se; R6: control ration (32% CP). The result of production parameters showed that blend oils supplement enrichment Se 0.15 ppm in feed formula with ratio SFA: UFA = 1: 1 was the best growth rate equal with high protein feed. Feed efficiency ranged from 50.14-57.93% and protein efficiency ratio 1.72-2.06 both for CN oil (SFA: UFA = 1 : 2), paring coconut (SFA : UFA = 2 : 1) or blend oils (SFA : UFA = 1 : 1). Incorporation of blend oils with Se can be used for Nile tilapia fingerlings (≥ 10 g). Paring coconut oil was trend increasing on feed efficiency for tilapia bigger stadium (≥ 30 g).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1355.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: selenium; cadmium stress; cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata); photosynthesis; physiological characteristics
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:39:51 CEST)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) plays a very important role in the annual national vegetable supply and export trade. In recent years, the cadmium content of agricultural soils has increased. As a result, cabbage yields and quality have declined significantly. Studies have shown that selenium can counteract the harmful effects of cadmium on plants and can alleviate the stress caused by cadmium during the growth of plants. However, the mechanism of exogenous selenium application in the alleviation of cadmium stress in cabbage seedlings has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, exogenous selenium (10μMol/L) was applied under cadmium (25μMol/L) stress and the physiological mechanisms such as biomass, photosynthetic pigment, leaf stomata parameters, selenium and cadmium content, chloroplast ultrastructure, active oxygen accumulation, leaf membrane esterification and antioxidant enzyme activity were determined. The protective mechanism of exogenous selenium on cabbage seedlings under cadmium stress was investigated. The re-sults showed that exogenous application of selenium could effectively alleviate the decrease in growth, photosynthetic pigment and gas exchange characteristics of cabbage seedlings under cadmium stress, im-prove cabbage root vitality, reduce root leaf cadmium content and alleviate cadmium stress-induced damage. Ultrastructural observation showed that cadmium stress caused the disruption of the internal structure of chloroplasts of cabbage leaves, while exogenous selenium treatment alleviated the chloroplast damage to some extent, improved the stability of the inner capsule membrane and alleviated the cadmium stress-induced damage to photosynthetic organs. Cadmium stress also caused oxidative damage and ex-cessive accumulation of ROS in the leaves of cabbage seedlings as evidenced by significant accumulation of O2-, H2O2, MDA and electrolyte leakage. On the other hand, after exogenous selenium treatment, cadmium stress- induced oxidative damage could be reduced by up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, POD and APX. At the same time, cadmium stress significantly increased GSH levels, and exogenous selenium treatment further increased GSH levels, thereby increasing the tolerance of cabbage to cadmium stress. In conclusion, by protecting the photosynthetic system, eliminating excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species in cadmium-stressed cabbage seedlings, alleviating oxidative stress and reducing cadmium levels in the plant, exogenous selenium can further improve cadmium tolerance in cabbage seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0328.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: polyamide 6; selenium; cadmium; silver; selenides; nanofilms; optical properties; light-absorbing materials
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:48:04 CEST)
Increasing photon absorption by capturing light is an important way to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this regard, the small optical band gap (Eg) and high absorption coefficient of Se-containing thin nanofilms make them ideal for next generation photovoltaic devices based on selenides. This study reports on chemical synthesis processes in a bath for the insertion of amorphous selenium into polyamide-6 (PA 6) matrix and the effect of incorporation of Cd2+ and Ag+ on the structural, morphological and optical properties. The resulting films had a pyramidal structure of single crystals, nanosized particles of nonspecific shape, agglomerated and indistinct grains. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy revealed the interaction between PA 6 and inorganic components, which causes obvious conformational changes in PA 6 chains. The data of X-ray diffraction analysis, depending on the stage of synthesis, showed a mixture of various compounds: Se8, CdSe, Ag2Se and Ag. This may explain the observed optical properties. The optical properties of the composites indicate a shift in the band gap from 4.46 eV for PA 6 to 2.23-1.64 eV upon stepwise insertion of amorphous Se, Cd2+ and Ag+ ions. Eg is conveniently located in the visible region of solar energy, making the obtained nanofilms ideal for solar energy harvesting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Minerals, Trace elements, Fish, Copper, Iron, Selenium, Manganese, Zinc, Calcium, Phosphous, Magnesium
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:57:19 CEST)
Aquatic animals have unique physiological mechanisms to absorb and retain minerals from their diets and water. Research and development in the area of mineral nutrition of farmed fish and crustaceans have been relatively slow and major gaps exist in the knowledge of trace element requirements, physiological functions and bioavailability from feed ingredients. Quantitative dietary requirements have been reported for three macroelements (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and six trace minerals (zinc, iron, copper, manganese, iodine and selenium) for selected fish species. Mineral deficiency signs in fish include reduced bone mineralization, anorexia, lens cataracts (zinc), skeletal deformities (phosphorus, magnesium, zinc), fin erosion (copper, zinc), nephrocalcinosis (magnesium deficiency, selenium toxicity), thyroid hyperplasia (iodine), muscular dystrophy (selenium) and hypochromic microcytic anaemia (iron). An excessive intake of minerals from either diet or gill uptake causes toxicity and therefore a fine balance between mineral deficiency and toxicity is vital for aquatic organisms to maintain their homeostasis either through increased absorption or excretion. Release of minerals from uneaten or undigested feed and from urinary excretion can cause eutrophication of natural waters, which requires additional consideration in feed formulation. The current knowledge in mineral nutrition of fish is briefly reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0142.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: reactive selenium species; arylmethyl selenocyanate; cellular thiolstat; antimicrobial; anticancer; ESKAPE; multidrug resistance
Online: 22 February 2018 (11:34:22 CET)
Selenocyanates form an interesting class of organic selenium compounds as they serve as multifunctional agents (being the precursors of seleninic acids and diselenides in synthetic chemistry and as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agent in biology) and, due to their similarity with better known thiocyanates promise high biological activity. Yet whilst selenocyanates are common in synthetic chemistry, they are rarely considered in pharmaceutical design. Arylmethyl selenocyanates (1-13) have been synthesized and an insight into their structural properties using X-ray crystallography has been obtained. The compounds subsequently have been evaluated for their potential antimicrobial, nematicidal and cytotoxic activity. ADMET properties in vitro, using mutagenicity (AMES) and permeability (PAMPA) tests, have been determined. The compounds exhibit pronounced activity against various strains of bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and yeasts. Among them, benzylselenocyanate (1) represents the most active anti-ESKAPE agent, with potent antibacterial activity, especially against multidrug resistant MRSA strains (HEMSA 5). Our results demonstrate that the arylmethyl selenocyantes are not only non-mutagenic but also possess moderate cytotoxic activity against cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: selenium; zinc; micronutrient dietary intake; cancer; rehabilitation; health-related quality of life (HRQOL)
Online: 17 August 2023 (11:46:52 CEST)
Background: Micronutrient deficiencies are common at the time of cancer diagnosis and are associated with worse prognosis. Little is known about them in cancer rehabilitation. Methods: Data from routine health related quality of life (HRQOL) were analyzed at an inpatient cancer rehabilitation center. Rehabilitation patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire before and after multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment, and three month after discharge. Selenium and zinc status was measured in whole blood at these three time points. In case of selenium deficiency up to 600 µg selenium per day as sodium selenite was supplemented. Results: A total of 271 patients (breast, colon, and pancreatic cancer) were included in the analysis. There was clinically meaningful improvement in many domains of the EORTC QLQ-C30 during rehabilitation. However, effect often waned in the three months after. Prevalence for selenium deficiency varied between 34 to 90 percent depending on cancer type (breast < colon < pancreas). In contrast, zinc deficiency was rare. Daily selenium supplementation of 600 µg was more efficient to correct selenium deficiency compared to 300 µg selenium per day. Rehabilitation and increasing selenium status after rehabilitation were associated with improved global quality of life, physical and emotional functioning, and fatigue. In cancer patients with decreasing selenium status, values of global quality of life, physical and emotional functioning, and fatigue were back to the values at the beginning of rehabilitation. Conclusions: Selenium deficiency is common in cancer patients admitted to a cancer rehabilitation clinic. Selenium supplementation during rehabilitation effectively corrected selenium deficiency in most cases. The positive effects of rehabilitation persisted longer, when selenium status did not decrease after rehabilitation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: selenium; oxidative stress; serotonin; glutamate; anxiety disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 3 October 2022 (15:17:24 CEST)
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders worldwide, and often respond incompletely to existing treatments. Selenium, a micronutrient that is a component of several biologically active selenoproteins, is also involved in several aspects of brain functioning, and may exert antidepressant and anxiolytic effects through multiple pathways. The current paper is a scoping review of translational, observational and interventional evidence on the potential role of selenium and its compounds in the management of anxiety and related disorders. Evidence from animal models suggests that this approach may be promising. Though evidence from observational studies in humans is inconsistent and affected by several confounding factors, the available evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that selenium supplementation may be beneficial in the management of certain anxiety-related conditions, such as anxiety in medically ill patients, prevention of anxiety following exposure to traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the existing evidence base, including unanswered questions that could serve as the focus of further research, and outlines the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of selenium in anxiety disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0382.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; beta-glucans; selenium; zinc; gut barrier; modulation; COVID-19; nutritional supplementation; allergy; inflammatory process
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:43:01 CET)
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects, protection of gut barrier integrity, and stimulation of phagocytosis in peripheral cells of a nutritional supplement based on a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique 1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of postbiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc. The anti-inflammatory effect in Caco-2 cells in the presence and absence of a pro-inflammatory challenge (tumour necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]/interferon gamma [IFN-ɣ]) showed statistically significant reductions of IFN-ɣ induced protein-10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels vs. controls (p < 0.001). Disruption of the gut integrity in the presence or absence of Escherichia coli (ETEC H10407) showed transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values higher in the ABB C1® group after 6 hours of testing. Spontaneous build-up of the gut epithelium monolayer over 22 days was also greater in the ABB C1® condition vs. a negative control. ABB C1® showed a significantly higher capacity to stimulate phagocytosis as compared with controls of algae β-1,3-glucan and yeast β-1,3/1,6 glucan (p < 0.001). This study supports the mechanism of action by which ABB C1® may improve the immune response and be useful to prevent infection and allergy in clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: clear cell renal cell carcinoma; hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs); selenium; PD-L1; miRNA; VEGF; mTOR inhibitors
Online: 19 September 2018 (05:10:22 CEST)
In the last two decades, the discovery of various pathways involved in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have led to the development of biologically-driven targeted therapies. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), angiogenic growth factors, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations and oncogenic miRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis and drug resistance of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. These insights have led to the development of VEGF inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors and immunotherapeutic agents which have significantly improved outcomes of patients with advanced RCC. HIF inhibitors will be a valuable asset in the growing therapeutic armamentarium of RCC. Various histone deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitors, including selenium and agents such as PT2385 and PT2977, are being explored in various clinical trials as potential HIF inhibitors to ameliorate the outcomes of RCC patients. In this article, we will review the current treatment options and highlight the potential role of selenium in the modulation of drug resistance biomarkers expressed in ccRCC tumors.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cordyceps militaris; crude polysaccharides; selenium-rich crude polysaccharides; high-fat diet (HFD); obesity; dyslipidemia; hypertriglyceridemia; gut microbiota
Online: 3 December 2020 (10:26:45 CET)
Administration of crude polysaccharides extract from natural product is a promising gut microbiota-targeted approach to preventing obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Dietary restrictions can change the type and number of gut bacteria, which is an important factor in delaying the onset and burden of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high-yield crude polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris (CMP) on high-fat diet (HFD) mice model and the gut microbiota community assembly, and to identify whether selenium (Se) addition would improve CMP action mode during cultivation. We found that the CMP treatment ameliorated adipose and liver pathologic morphology and fat accumulation in obese mice, while, SeCMP intervention was not superior than CMP in body mass gain, but notably decreasing serum triglyceride level increased by HFD. The upregulated expression of gene Cyp7a1 in liver and protein UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) preliminary indicated that the effect might relate to bile acids (BAs) metabolism pathway and thermogenesis. In addition, CMP showed a drastic decrease in the gut microbes which positively correlated with dyslipidemia parameters. Our result reveals the potential of CMP to be used as functional food in the prevention of diet-induced adipose and liver steatosis, so does SeCMP has outstanding capacity of improving dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; α-lipoic acid; citicoline; extract of leaves green tea; extract of leaves olive tree; vitamin D3; selenium; scopolamine
Online: 3 November 2023 (05:04:23 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease manifests itself as a complex pathological condition with neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction being a few of the many pathological changes. Due to the complexity of the disease current therapeutic strategies aim at a multitargeted approach often relying on a combination of sub-stances with versatile and complementary effects. In the present study, unique combination of α-lipoic acid, citicoline, extracts of leaves from olive tree and green tea, Vitamin D3, selenium and an immune supporting complex was tested in a scopolamine-induced dementia in rats. Using behavioral and biochemical methods we assessed the effects of this combination on learning and memory, and elucidated the mechanisms under-lying its effects. Our results showed that as compared to the components, experimental combination was most efficient in improving short- and long-term memory assessed by the step-through method as well as spatial memory, assessed by T-maze and Barnes maze underlying decrease in AChE activity and LPO, in-creases in SOD activity in cortex; activities of catalase and GPx, levels of BDNF and pCREB in the hippocam-pus. No significant histopathological changes or blood parameter changes were detected, making the experi-mental combination an effective and safe candidate in a multitargeted treatment of AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0470.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Au-Ag low-sulphidation epithermal mineralization; Kremnica; gold; selenium; clausthalite; naumannite; miargyrite; pyrargyrite-proustite; polybasite-pearceite; diaphorite; Pb-Sb sulphosalts
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:35:42 CEST)
Selenium-rich Au-Ag mineralization has been discovered in the Kremnica ore district, central Slovakia. The mineralization is hosted by a single quartz-dolomite vein hosted by Neogene propyllitized andesites of the Kremnica stratovolcano. Ore mineralogy and crystal chemistry of individual ore minerals have been studied here. The early base-metal ore mineralization composed of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite lacks selenium, whereas the superimposed Au-Ag paragenesis is Se-enriched. The Au-Ag alloys, uytenbogaardtite, minerals of the galena-clausthalite series, acanthite-naumannite series, diaphorite, miargyrite, pyrargyrite-proustite, polybasite group, minerals of the tetrahedrite group and andorite branch (andorite IV, andorite VI, Ag-excess fizélyite), freislebenite, and rare Pb-Sb sulphosalts (scaiinite, robinsonite, plagionite) have been identified here. Besides selenides, the most Se-enriched phases are miargyrite, proustite-pyrargyrite, and polybasite-pearceite, whose Se contents are among the highest reported worldwide. In addition, one new phase has been found, corresponding to a Se-analogue of pearceite containing 2.08 - 3.54 apfu Se. The style of mineralization, paragenetic situation, and chemical trends observed in individual minerals are comparable to those of Au-Ag low-sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag mineralizations of the Kremnica and neighboring Štiavnica and Hodruša-Hámre Ore Districts, however, the pronounced enrichment in selenium is a specific feature of the studied vein only.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Diabetes; mental health; anxiety; depression; supplementation; nutrients; blood glucose; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin D; vitamin E; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; folate; selenium; chromium; iron; magnesium
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:10:50 CEST)
Nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders are interconnected and significantly impact an individual's overall health and well-being. This comprehensive review aims to explore the complex interplay between nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders, highlighting the latest research findings in this field. While the influence of nutrition on the development and management of both diabetes and mental disorders is widely recognized, there remains a gap in understanding the intricate interplay between nutrition, mental health, and diabetes. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and cognitive decline. Mental disorders can also contribute to the development of diabetes through various mechanisms including increased stress, poor self-care behaviors, and adverse effects on glucose metabolism. Thus, the mechanisms linking nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders are complex and multi-factorial. Inflammation, oxidative stress, gut microbiota alterations, and neuroendocrine dysregulation have emerged as potential pathways that may mediate the relationship between nutrition, diabetes, and mental disorders. Additionally, deficiencies in essential nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, B vitamins, zinc, chromium, magnesium, and selenium have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and mental disorders. Our findings indicate that the use of personalized dietary interventions and targeted nutrient supplementation can improve metabolic and mental health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Oxidative stress and cell death; Reactive oxygen species; ROS; ROS cell death; autophagy; role of antioxidants; eye disease; cornea; lens; epithelium; retinal ganglion cells; retinal pigment epithelium; macular degeneration; antioxidants in the macula; oxidative stress prevention with antioxidants; lifestyle changes; digital eye strain; glaucoma; cataracts; dry eye disease; computer vision syndrome; digital eye strain; diabetic retinopathy; Vitamin A; Vitamin C; copper; glutathione; zinc; selenium; magnesium; blue light damage; UV light damage; blue light reactive oxygen species; autophagy; ferroptosis; ROS cell death; superoxide dismutase; optic nerve gliomas; food deserts; myopia; free radicals
Online: 29 March 2023 (03:33:55 CEST)
Increased screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic and the accelerated incorporation of technology into daily practices have directly contributed to the increased prevalence of eye disease. The human eye is not built for continual technological use and must adjust to exposure to digital screens. Overexposure to technology can result in eye strain and an increased risk of eye diseases such as myopia with complications later in life, including retinal tears, cataracts, and macular degeneration. As vision and ocular diseases become more prevalent, the study of eye diseases, including their causes and treatments, is especially relevant. There is a need to prevent ocular diseases before they become a burden to individuals, their families, and their communities by better understanding the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. Several ocular diseases are thought to be caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy. ROS refers to a class of highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules that can undergo damaging reactions with other molecules in the cell. Autophagy is a cellular process of self-eating whereby damaged, harmful, or dead material in cells is broken down to maintain cellular homeostasis. This paper discusses the role of ROS and autophagy in the pathogenesis of computer vision syndrome (CVS), digital eye strain (DES), myopia, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), optic nerve crush injury (OCN), optic nerve gliomas, and retinoblastoma. Lifestyle changes such as limiting screen time, ensuring adequate exposure to evening sunlight, and using blue light protection measures or protective eyewear are important in the prevention of eye disease. Nutrition also contributes significantly to eye health. A balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants may help to prevent ROS and autophagy imbalance-induced eye disease. Medical and surgical treatments become necessary when preventative measures fail. This paper also addresses how government measures to decrease the onset of eye disease, including targeted programs to increase access to fresh vegetables and fruits in food deserts, are a critical macro-level avenue to reduce eye disease prevalence in the US, which according to the National Eye Institute, costs $139 billion yearly.