ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: newborn screening; genome sequencing; ethical; legal; social implications (ELSI); NBSTRN; public health; databases; online tools; Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP)
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:28:14 CEST)
Rapid advances in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic disorders has increased the number of conditions that could be detected through universal newborn screening (NBS). However, addition of conditions to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) and implementation of nationwide screening has been a slow process taking several years to accomplish for individual conditions. Here we describe web-based tools and resources developed and implemented by the newborn screening translational research network (NBSTRN) to advance newborn screening research and support NBS stakeholders. NBSTRN’s tools include the Longitudinal Pediatric Data Resource (LPDR), the NBS Condition Resource (NBS-CR), the NBS Virtual Repository (NBS-VR), and the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Advantage. Research programs including the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System (IBEM-IS), BabySeq, EarlyCheck, and Family Narratives Use Cases have utilized NBSTRN’s tools, and in turn contributed research data to further expand and refine these this resource. Additionally, we discuss ongoing tool development to facilitate expansion of genetic disease screening in increasingly diverse populations. In conclusion, NBSTRN’s tools and resources provide a trusted platform to enable NBS stakeholders to advance NBS research and improve clinical care for patients and their families.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0382.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nutritional screening; nutritional risk; nutritional assessment; malnutrition; elderly; COVID-19; coronavirus
Online: 18 August 2020 (11:03:10 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high risk of malnutrition, primarily in elderly people; assessing nutritional risk using appropriate screening tools is critical. This systematic review identified applicable tools and assessed their measurement properties. Literature was searched in the MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS databases. Four studies conducted in China met the eligibility criteria. Sample sizes ranged from six to 182, and participants’ ages from 65 to 87 years. Seven nutritional screening and assessment tools were used: the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), MNA-short form (MNA-sf), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric NRI (GNRI), and modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNUTRIC) score. Nutritional risk was identified in 27.5% to 100% of participants. The NRS-2002, MNA, MNA-sf, NRI, and MUST demonstrated high sensitivity; the MUST had better specificity. The MNA and MUST demonstrated better criterion validity. The MNA-sf demonstrated better predictive validity for poor appetite and weight loss; the NRS-2002 demonstrated better predictive validity for prolonged hospitalization. mNUTRIC score demonstrated good predictive validity for hospital mortality. Most instruments demonstrate high sensitivity for identifying nutritional risk, but none are acknowledged as the best for nutritional screening in elderly COVID-19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0422.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Perinatal Mental Health; Anxiety Disorders; Perinatal Anxiety; Fear of Childbirth; Screening
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:21:05 CET)
Background: Perinatal anxiety and related disorders are common (20%), distressing and impairing. Fear of childbirth (FoB) is a common type of perinatal anxiety associated with negative mental health, obstetrical, childbirth and child outcomes. Screening can facilitate treatment access for those most in need. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the Childbirth Fear Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Wijma Delivery Expectations Questionnaire (W-DEQ) of FoB as screening tools for specific phobia, FoB. Methods: A total of 659 English-speaking pregnant women living in Canada and over the age of 18 were recruited to the study. Participants completed an online survey of demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive history information, as well as the CFQ and the W-DEQ, and a telephone interview to assess specific phobia FoB. Results: Symptoms meeting full and subclinical diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, FoB were reported by 3.3% and 7.1% of participants, respectively. The W-DEQ met or exceeded the criteria for a “good enough” screening tool across several analyses, whereas the CFQ only met these criteria in one analysis, and came close in three others. Conclusions: The W-DEQ demonstrated high performance as a screening tool for specific phobia, FoB, with accuracy superior to that of the CFQ. Additional research, to ensure the stability of these findings, is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Transcriptional meta-analysis; molecular docking; RT-qPCR; Bioinformatics; Structural-based virtual screening
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:47:28 CEST)
Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly heterogeneous, complex disease and the fifth most common cancer worldwide (about one million cases and 784 000 deaths worldwide in 2018). CG is lately diagnosed and guarantees a poor prognosis for GC (the 5-year survival rate is less than 20%, but in early detection can reach 90%). This study evaluated the transcriptional profile in tumor gastric samples to find genes highly expressed during tumor establishment and use the related proteins as targets to find new anticancer molecules. Data was collected at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) bank to obtain 3 dataset matrices that analyze gastric tumor tissue versus normal gastric tissue, performed microarray using GPL570 platform, and from different sources. The genes found in silico analysis were confirmed in several lines of GC cells by RT-qPCR. The protein data bank was used to find the correspondent proteins. Then a structural-based virtual screening was done to find molecules, and docking analysis was done using the DockThor server. Our results of transcriptomic analysis, together with RT-qPCR, confirm the high expression of the genes AJUBA, FBXL13, CCDC69, CD80 and NOLC1 in GC lines. Based on that, the correspondent proteins were used in SBVS analysis. Five molecules, one each target, MCULE-2386589557-0-6, MCULE-7343047040-0-1, MCULE-5230409338-0-3, MCULE-9178344200-0-1 and MCULE -5881513100-0-29. All molecules have favorable pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and toxicological properties. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the molecules interact with proteins in critical sites for their activity. Using a virtual screening approach, a molecular docking study was performed for proteins encoded by genes that play important roles in cellular functions for carcinogenesis. Combining a systematic collection of public microarray data with a comparative meta-profiling, RT-qPCR, SBVS, and molecular docking analysis provided a suitable approach to find genes involved in GC and work the correspondent protein to strive for new molecules with anticancer properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nutritional risk screening; severe mental illness; psychiatric treatment; BMI; nutritional status; malnutrition; depression; schizophrenia; nutrition; diet
Online: 30 November 2022 (02:44:53 CET)
People with severe mental illness (SMI) are often in poor physical health, resulting in higher mortality and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Although eating habits are one of the main predictors of physical health, few studies assess the nutritional status and eating behaviour of people with SMI. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status and risk of malnutrition in people with SMI and in need of intensive psychiatric treatment. The cross-sectional study included 65 inpatients and 67 outpatients with psychotic or depressive disorders from the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich. Patients’ assessments at admission included anthropometric measurements, such as weight and height, and interview data including severity of symptoms and functioning (SCL-K-9, PHQ-D, CGI, m-GAF), personal and medical data, nutrition risk screening tools (adapted NRS, MNA-SF) and laboratory values. The results showed that 32% of the inpatients (body mass index [BMI] = 25.3) and 34% of the outpatients (BMI = 27.9) were at risk of malnutrition, which was associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of functioning. These results indicate that a substantial proportion of psychiatric patients seem to be at risk of malnutrition, despite most being overweight, and hence they might benefit from nutritional support during their psychiatric treatment. Moreover, nutritional risk screening tools specifically developed for the mental healthcare setting are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: arylamine N-acetyltransferases; cancer; tuberculosis; drug discovery; traditional Chinese medicine; virtual screening; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-PBSA
Online: 30 June 2017 (11:36:22 CEST)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic enzymes, highly polymorphic, present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes play an important role in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics as well as in the synthesis of endogenous compounds. Specific NATs have been pointed out in the literature as possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the human NAT1, for the treatment of certain cancers, and the NAT from M. tuberculosis (TBNAT), for the treatment of tuberculosis. This paper describes an in silico approach to prospect and select potentially inhibitors of NAT1 and TBNAT from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using free available tools. A library with ligands from TCM was previously screened in order to select only compounds with optimal pharmacological properties. The affinity of the selected ligands with respect to NAT enzymes was then evaluated by virtual screening (VS). Subsequently, the complexes with the best ligands were submitted to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations aiming to obtain better quality information on affinity and selectivity. The results for one specific ligand, ZINC14690579, indicated its potential for affinity and selectivity. ZINC14690579 structure may represent the discovery of a new scaffold for future development of NAT inhibitors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: target based screening; phenotypic based screening; targets; transcriptional reprogramming, highthroughput screening, cancer therapeutics
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:31:24 CEST)
Drug discovery utilizes high-throughput screening (HTS) methods applying target and cell-based assays. This review discusses the challenges and benefits associated with these assays in HTS. Discussed the strategies that can be applied for the development of screening assays through primary and secondary screens for target identification. Further discussion on identify-ing the most efficacious drugs following these approaches in cancer. Even though various drugs have been identified to treat cancer, there is high demand of more relevant phenotypic assays to produce desired diseased phenotype to only highlighting the specific targets instead of off-targets. Hopefully, the new developing strategies could provide innovative drugs to treat cancer patients to reduce mortality rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: asian breast cancers; mammography screening; risk-based screening
Online: 4 August 2022 (06:20:25 CEST)
Close to half (45.4%) of 2.3 million breast cancers (BC) diagnosed in 2020 were from Asia. While the burden of breast cancer has been examined on the level of broad geographic regions, literature on more in-depth coverage of the individual countries and subregions of the Asian continent is lacking. This review examines the breast cancer burden in 47 Asian countries. Breast cancer screening guidelines and risk-based screening initiatives are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Neonatal hearing screening; Otoacoustic emissions; Deafness; Newborn screening.
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:57:57 CEST)
Congenital deafness is a major pediatric problem, affecting about 1.5-3 per 1000 newborns. The early treatment through cochlear implantation and auditory rehabilitation has been a historic milestone. Early diagnosis of congenital deafness is an essential requirement to obtain the best results, which is achieved through neonatal screening, a diagnostic practice that we began systematically at the Hospital Clínico in Valencia (Spain) 30 years ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: extended newborn screening; ethnic screening differences; Roma ethnicity
Online: 14 April 2017 (08:31:47 CEST)
Authors present The First Results of the National Extended Newborn Screening (ENS) in Slovakia in the majority (M) and the Roma (R ) ethnic populations. The follow-up of the ethnicity has been introduced in Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis (NSCF) and after to entire ENS program comprising of 23 Hereditary Metabolic Disorders (HMD). Results: In 2013-2015, a total of 165,648 newborns were investigated in ENS, 23,321 of them (15,3%) were the R ethnic group, a total of 313 positive cases were discovered (total ENS prevalence = 1:529, M=1:758, R=1:198). In the R ethnic group, there was slightly higher prevalence in cong. hypothyreosis (CH), only one case of CF, and no cases of CAH in the R ethnic group. The ENS prevalence of HMD detected by MS/MS was expressively higher in the R ethnic group than in M group (M=1:1670 vs. R=1:234, OR:7,13). Significant differences in the prevalence of individual types of HMD were found. Whereas the PKU and spectrum of aminoaciduria and organic acidurias dominate in the M group, the fatty acids oxidation disorders (MCAD, SCAD) and carnitine defects (CUD) were frequent in the R newborn group. Conclusion: Despite the presented results are preliminary, the ethnic approach to ENS is enabling the recording of the ethnic differences in the screening prevalence of individual disorders, which would be missing during unitary approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; breast cancer screening; BC; CRC; cancer prevention; cancer screen-ing; FOBT; mammography; Flanders
Online: 20 May 2022 (12:03:16 CEST)
Despite the recognized benefits of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and mammography screenings, participation in breast (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is still suboptimal. This study investigates municipal characteristics associated with their BC/CRC screening uptake profiles among women aged 55–69 years. Using data from 308 municipalities of Flanders from 2014 to 2017, a profile for each municipality based on its BC/CRC screening uptake compared with the median screening uptake was created. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess the associations between municipal characteristics and BC/CRC screening uptake profiles. The overall median uptake of cancer screening was higher for CRC (57.4%) than for BC (54.6%). The following municipal characteristics were associated with worse performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake, respectively: foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, diabetes, disabilities; (early) retirement rate; age group 65–69, foreign nationality, self-employment rate, (early) retirement rate, wage-earners, diabetes. The following municipal characteristics were associated with better performance in terms of only CRC, only BC, or both CRC and BC screening uptake respectively: residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, GP visits, preventive dental visits; having children, GP visits; age group 55–59, residential stability, having a partner, having children, jobseeker rate, higher education, GP visits, preventive dental visits. This study’s results regarding the interrelation between the BC and CRC screening could be used to tailor interventions to improve the participation of the target population in both programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: drug screening; monodrug or combinatorial drug screening; anti-cancer
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:46:49 CEST)
The up-and-coming microfluidic technology is the most promising platform for designing anti-cancer drugs and new point-of-care diagnostics. Compared to conventional drug screening methods based on Petri dishes and animal studies, drug delivery in microfluidic systems has many advantages. For instance, these platforms offer high throughput drug screening, require a small amount of samples, provide an in vivo-like microenvironment for cells, and eliminate ethical issues associated with animal studies. Multiple cell cultures in microfluidic chips could better mimic the 3D tumor environment using low reagents consumption. The clinical experiments have shown that combinatorial drug treatments have a better therapeutic effect than monodrug therapy. So many attempts were performed in this field in the last decade. This review highlights the applications of microfluidic chips in anti-cancer drug screening and systematically categorizes these systems as a function of sample size and combination of drug screening. Finally, it provides a perspective on the future of the clinical applications of microfluidic systems for anti-cancer drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0346.v1
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:47:20 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of cervical and breast cancer screening among women in the general population in Jordan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 14,689 women (34 years median age, range 15-49) that took part in the “2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey”. Information about cancer screening uptake included Pap smear, clinical breast examination, and mammography. Results indicate that the prevalence of ever Pap smear cancer screening was 15.3%, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months 13.9% and ever mammography 8.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, older age, higher wealth, greater media exposure and tobacco use were positively and being Syrian, and living in the southern region were negatively associated with ever Pap smear, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months, and ever mammography. In addition, high decision-making power was associated with the uptake of Pap smear and higher education was associated with ever mammography. The study showed a low cancer screening uptake, and several factors were identified that can assist in promoting cancer screening in Jordan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: drug development; high throughput screening; in vivo/in silico screening; zebrafish
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:33:33 CEST)
Introduction: The combination of Virtual Screening (VS) techniques with in vivo screening in the zebrafish model is currently being used in tandem for drug development in a faster and more efficient way. Areas covered: We review the different virtual screening techniques, the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for drug discovery and the synergy that exists between them. Expert opinion: We highlight the advantages of combining virtual and zebrafish larvae screening for drug discovery. On the one hand, VS is a faster and cheaper tool for searching active compounds and possible candidates for therapy than in vivo screening when processing large compound libraries. On the other hand, zebrafish larvae form a vertebrate model which allows in vivo screening of large amounts of the compounds. Importantly physiology and chemical response are mostly conserved between zebrafish and mammals. The availability of the transgenic and mutant zebrafish lines allows an analysis of a specific phenotype upon treatment along with toxicity, off-target effect, side effects, and dosage. Advantages of VS, in vivo whole animal approach screening, and the screening combinations are also reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Screening; COVID
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:53:19 CEST)
Background: The interruption of the activity of the population-based organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs due to the COVID pandemic may have affected their results in terms of detection of preneoplastic lesions and CRC. We evaluated the impact of the COVID pandemic on the delays, participation, adherence to colonoscopies, lesions detected, and CRC stage at di-agnosis in a CRC screening program. Methods: We analyzed all the invitations between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2021. We defined the pandemic period as the period after March 12, 2020. We calculated the delay intervals (successive and all rounds), the rates of participation, adherence to colonoscopy after a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT), and the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy, specifically CRC and colorectal neoplasia (CRC and/or adenoma), as well as CRC stage at diagnosis. Results: In the period analyzed, 976,187 invitations were sent (61.0% pandemic), 439,687 FIT were returned (62.4% pandemic) and 23,092 colonoscopies were performed (59.1% pandemic). Colon-oscopies were normal in 7,378 subjects (32.4%) and a CRC was detected in 916 subjects (4.0%). In successive rounds, the delay increased significantly seven months during the pandemic period (p<0.001). In all the invitations, the delay from the invitation to the colonoscopy increased sig-nificantly by 8 days (p<0.001). Once adjusted for the confounding variables, participation in the screening program increased significantly (OR=1.1; 95% CI=1.09-1.11), with no changes in the adherence to colonoscopy (OR=0.9; 95% CI=0.8-1.0). We found no differences in the diagnostic yield of colonoscopy in terms of CRC (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.78-1.02) or colorectal neoplasia (OR=0.98; 95% CI=0.92-1.03) detection. Finally, we found no differences in CRC stage at diagnosis (p=0.2). Conclusions: Although the interruption of the CRC screening program due to the COVID pan-demic increased the delays, it did not reduce participation, adherence to colonoscopy, or the di-agnostic yield of colonoscopy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0263.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Pregnancy; Diabetes; Screening, Lifestyle
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:24:01 CET)
Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (U.K), witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families; aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. Final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened ‘diagnosis to first consultation’ intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of £66,384 a year.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Dysphagia, Nursing, Screening, Stroke
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:23:23 CEST)
Background: Nearly two-thirds of acute stroke patients have dysphagia. Dysphagia is difficulty to swallow food or liquids. Early detection of dysphagia is crucial in stroke patients as a result of increased morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition and respiratory tract infections. Aim: Our purpose was to conduct a literature review of dysphagia screening for stroke patient. Methods: We used the bolean operator to search articles of “or” and “and” with the key words were "Dysphagia" or “Screening”, AND "Stroke" or Acute Stroke” AND "Nursing". Data based used were Scopus, Proquest and Science Direct with inclusion criteria using full text in English which published from 2019 to 2021. We obtained 240 articles and then we screened by reading the main focus of articles with paying attention to the topics and the suitability of article content.Result: Twenty five publications relating to dysphagia screening met the inclusion criteria. There are five methods of dysphagia screening performed by nurses or other health workers: 1) a simple Questionnaire Test (4QT) method; 2) Water Swallow Test (WST) method; 3) Bed Side Screening Tool for Dysphagia (BSTD) method; 4) Volume Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) method; 5) EAT-10 method.Conclusion: screening is the first step in the identification of swallowing impairment or dysphagia of stroke patient. Dysphagia is an independent predictor of poor patient outcome and prolonged recovery time. Nurse has an important role to conduct a screening and must ensure that the selected tools has high reliability and concurrent validity. Key Words: Dysphagia, Nursing, Screening, Stroke
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0197.v1
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:45:33 CEST)
ABSTRACT Background: Nearly two-thirds of acute stroke patients have dysphagia. Dysphagia defined as difficulty in swallowing of liquids or food, vary in severity with symptoms ranging from mild throat discomfort to inability to eat. It’s well known that dysphagia is associated with aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, prolonged length of stay, and increased mortality. Early screening reduces pneumonia rates in stroke and it is usually performed by nurses. Dysphagia screening is recommended but no protocol or tool is pointed.Aim: the aim of this study is to conduct a literature review of dysphagia screening for stroke patient Methods: Literature search three databases (Scopus, Proquest, and Science Direct), with the keywords "Dysphagia" AND "Stroke" AND "Nursing", published in English between 2019 and 2021. Result: Twenty five publications relating to dysphagia screening met the inclusion criteria. There are five methods of dysphagia screening performed by nurses or other health workers: 1) a simple Questionnaire Test (4QT) method, which is by asking the following four questions: does the patient cough or choke while eating or drinking; whether the patient takes longer than usual to eat; does the patient change the thickness of the food to be able to swallow, and whether the voice turns hoarse after eating or drinking; 2) Water Swallow Test (WST) method; 3) Bed Side Screening Tool for Dysphagia (BSTD) method; 4) Volume Viscosity Swallow Test (V-VST) method, namely modification of feeding with first pudding, nectar and finally water; 5) Simplified Cough Test Method. The five screening methods for dysphagia above have been tested for sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive valuesConclusion: screening is a first step in the identification of swallowing impairment or dysphagia of stroke patient. Dysphagia is an independent predictor of poor patient outcome and prolonged recovery time. Nurse has an important role to conduct a screening and must ensure that the selected tools has high reliability and concurrent validity. Key Words: Stroke, Dysphagia, Screening, Nursing
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn screening; SCID; TREC
Online: 3 May 2018 (13:24:15 CEST)
The incidence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in Manitoba, (1/15,000), is at least three to four times higher than the national average and that reported from other jurisdictions. It is overrepresented in two population groups: Mennonites (ZAP70 founder mutation) and First Nations of Northern Cree ancestry (IKBKB founder mutation). We have previously demonstrated that in these two populations the most widely utilized T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is an ineffective newborn screening test to detect SCID as these patients have normal numbers of mature T-cells. We have developed a semi-automated, closed tube, high resolution DNA melting procedure to simultaneously genotype both of these mutations from the same newborn blood spot DNA extract used for the TREC assay. Parallel analysis of all newborn screening specimens utilizing both TREC analysis and the high resolution DNA procedure should provide as complete ascertainment as possible of SCID in the Manitoba population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: tumor marker; screening; Angolan population
Online: 4 December 2023 (11:40:55 CET)
Tumor biomarkers have great potential in screening and their role could extend further from general population risk assessment to treatment response estimation and recurrence monitoring. Different molecular and cellular elements in blood, which give information about the status of an individual, make it a perfect compartment to develop noninvasive diagnostics approaches for cancer. The present study aimed to screen the most frequent tumor markers in the Angolan population according to age and gender. A whole blood sample was collected for each patient. Serum levels were measured using the electrochemiluminescence method, using the automated Cobas e411 equipment (Roche®) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of our study elucidated the relevance of tumor biomarkers in screening for different types of cancer. These results also highlight the robustness of the mean in suspected cases, which is 15 to 17 times higher in some markers than in non-suspected cases. More research is needed to elucidate the relevance of these biomarkers in the Angolan population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer screening; SF-12
Online: 9 December 2022 (01:08:54 CET)
Background: Participation is low (43%) in Australia’s National Bowel Cancer Screening Program which provides a biennial Fecal Immunochemical Test kit mailed to the home of Australians aged 50-74 years. While several factors for non-participation have been identified, the role of mental and physical health on screening behaviour has not been assessed. Methods: Participants of the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry Cohort were asked to complete a questionnaire on their colorectal cancer screening in the past five years and a validated measure of mental and physical health. The association between mental and physical health and screening was determined for Australian participants aged 45-75 years who had never been diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for measured potential confounders. Results: Of the 1130 eligible participants, 819 reported colorectal cancer screening in the past five years (72%). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence that overall mental or physical health was associated with colorectal cancer screening. However, one specific scale, general health, was positively associated with colorectal cancer screening (p=0.014) with those reporting higher levels of general health undergoing screening.Conclusion: We found limited evidence that mental and physical health, as measured by a short questionnaire, are associated with colorectal cancer screening. A potential limitation is reverse causation where previous screening may have impacted mental or physical health. A more detailed study of physical and mental health as barriers or enablers of screening is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: location; screening; interval estimation model
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:35:55 CEST)
With the focus of great concern of the sustainable development, its evaluation system has become an important operational strategy and practical values. For the purpose of obtaining the stronger indicators and the larger contribution ones, evaluation indicators screening is carried out using interval estimation model, which takes location of production and service facilities of company A as an example. And the weight value of each indicator is further explored, which can provide an direction of decision-making. The result shows that this screening method provides a more scientific evaluation method for enterprise location, decision-making basis for sustainable development of enterprises, and a solid foundation for the construction of the post-evaluation system. The present work implies that this screening method is affected, to different degrees, by the ability, knowledge reserve of the evaluators, which should be more systematic and standardized, and the concept of sustainable development should be strengthened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0213.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: bichalcones; sirtuin inhibitors; virtual screening
Online: 23 January 2018 (09:12:43 CET)
Sirtuins are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent class III histone deacetylases and have been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases such as HIV, metabolic disorders, neurodegeneration and cancer. Docking of the virtual pan-African natural products library (p-ANAPL), followed by in vitro testing, resulted in the identification of two inhibitors of sirtuin 1, 2 and 3 (sirt1-3). Two bichalcones; rhuschalcone IV (8) and rhuschalcone I (9), previously isolated from the medicinal plant Rhus pyroides, were shown to be active in the in vitro assay, with rhuschalcone I showing the best activity against sirt1, having an IC50 = 40.8 µM. Based on the docking experiments, suggestions for improving the biological activities of the newly identified hit compounds have been provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cell-free DNA analysis; genetic counseling; noninvasive prenatal screening; prenatal screening; results delivery; telehealth
Online: 19 June 2018 (03:45:49 CEST)
Background: As noninvasive prenatal screening usage grows in the general obstetrics setting, proper patient education on the screen’s benefits and limitations is needed. Objective: Describe the use of a technology platform designed for large-scale dissemination of noninvasive prenatal screening information and results. Study Design: The technology platform functioned as follows: Patients were emailed a link to an noninvasive prenatal screening general-education video upon laboratory receipt of a test requisition. Providers were then notified upon availability of patients’ results. If noninvasive prenatal screening results were negative, the patient was sent an automated email with instructions to access results through a secure portal where she could watch tailored informational videos, request “on-demand” or scheduled genetic counseling, or decline any further services. If genetic counseling was elected, a summary of the session was sent to the ordering provider and patient upon completion. If noninvasive prenatal screening results were positive, either the ordering provider or a board-certified genetic counselor contacted the patient directly to communicate test results and provide counseling. The number and type of results issued through the platform, the number and type of genetic counseling consultations completed, and factors associated with requesting laboratory-delivered genetic counseling were tracked and analyzed for a 39-month period. Results: Over the study period, 67,122 noninvasive prenatal screening results were issued through the platform, and 4,673 patients elected genetic counseling consultations; 95.2% (n=4,450) of consultations were for patients receiving negative results. Over 70% (n= 3,370) of consultations were on-demand rather than scheduled. Median consultation time was 14 minutes for positive results and six minutes for negative results. A positive screen, advanced maternal age, family history, previous history of a pregnancy with a chromosomal abnormality, and other high-risk pregnancy were associated with the greatest odds of electing laboratory-delivered genetic counseling. Conclusions: By combining web education, automated notifications, and genetic counseling, we implemented a service that effectively facilitates results disclosure for ordering providers. These data demonstrate the capability to deliver noninvasive prenatal screening results, education, and counseling—congruent with management guidelines—to a large population, which is imperative to quality care as uptake increases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: colorectal cancer; incidence; mortality; screening; survival
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:31:13 CEST)
Colorectal cancer is a frequent neoplasm in western countries, mainly due to dietary and behavioral factors. Its incidence is growing in developing countries for the westernization of foods and lifestyles. An increased incidence rate is observed in patients under 45 years of age. In last years the mortality for CRC is decreased, but this trend is slowing. The mortality rate is reducing in those countries where prevention and treatments have been implemented. The survival is increased to over 65%. This trend reflects earlier detection of CRC through routine clinical examinations and screening, more accurate staging through advances in imaging, improvements in surgical techniques and advances in chemotherapy and radiation. The most important predictor of survival is the stage at diagnosis. The screening programs are able to reduce incidence and mortality rates of CRC. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of incidence, mortality and survival rate for CRC.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1931.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Neural Networks; Data Screening; Human Perception
Online: 31 August 2023 (08:43:17 CEST)
The Necessity of Human resources beyond perception of human understanding towards the Evaluation of video quality or Data screening methodology is conducted based on human perception level since it is concerned with how visual content is perceived by a observer based on observations with his/ her perception on a particular video sequence. Therefore, we considered that the subject has to grade the encoded video sequences under certain test environment conditions based on ITU-Recommendations. Since Human perception is considered as the true judgment and precise measurement of visual content, data screening has became quite essential and quite comfortable to general public due to introduction of User Experience(UX) concept by User Experience community. The translations of A recurrent neural network is based on certain principles, for instance we considered natural language processing which is certainly adaptable towards understanding sequential data and use patterns to predict the consistency within observers. In our research, we adapted principles based on Recurrent Neural Networks while assuming consistency within observers for predicting video quality within data screening environment towards subjective experiments. Moreover,this research work explores the trade offs between Human perception on visual content and consistency of observations within individual observer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0540.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: VoiceScreen app; dysphonia screening; AVQI; smartphones
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:50:15 CEST)
The aim of the study was to develop the universal-platform-based (UPB) application suitable for different smartphones for estimation of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) and evaluate its reliability in AVQI measurements and normal and pathological voice differentiation. Our study group consisted of 135 adult individuals, including 49 with normal voices and 86 pa-tients with pathological voices. The developed UPB "VoiceSreen" application installed on five iOS and Android smartphones was used for AVQI estimation. The AVQI measures calculated from voice recordings obtained from a reference studio microphone were compared with AVQI results obtained using smartphones. The diagnostic accuracy of differentiating normal and pathological voice was evaluated by applying receiver-operating characteristics. The one-way ANOVA analysis did not detect statistically significant differences between mean AVQI scores revealed using a studio microphone and different smartphones (F= 0.759; p = 0.58). Almost perfect direct linear correlations (r= 0.991- 0.987) were observed between the AVQI results obtained with a studio microphone and different smartphones. An acceptable level of precision of AVQI in discriminating between normal and pathological voices was yielded, with areas under the curve (AUC) displaying 0.834 – 0.862. There were no statistically significant differences between the AUCs (p > 0.05) obtained from studio and smartphone’ microphones. The significant differ-ence revealed between the AUCs was only 0.028. The UPB "VoiceScreen" application represents an accurate and robust tool for voice quality measurement and normal vs. pathological voice screening purposes, demonstrating the potential to be used by patients and clinicians for voice assessment employing both iOS and Android smartphones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Osteoarthritis; screening; prevalence; ultrasound; imaging; osteophytes
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:44:35 CEST)
Osteoarthritis of the hand (HOA) is one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases affecting health. Osteophytes, documented by imaging procedures are often used as diagnostic criteria. The gold standard is the radiographic image, however, more sensitive and saver methods such as ultrasound are gaining in importance. We investigated the prevalence, grade and pattern of osteophytes by high resolution ultrasound investigation (US) in a population-based cross-sectional study. Factory workers were recruited at work. 26 finger joints of each participant were examined with US with grading the occurrence of osteophytes in a semiquantitative score ranging 0-3, increasing scores indicated larger osteophytes. 427 participants (mean age 53.5 years, range. 20-79 years) were investigated, resulting in 11,000 scored joints. At least one osteophyte was found in 4,546/11,000 (41.3%) joints or 426/427 (99.8%) participants but grade 2 or 3 osteophytes were seen in only 553 (5.0%) joints. The number of os-teophyte sum score increased with age (0.18/year of age increase, p<0.001). Distal interphalange-al joints (DIP) were predominantly affected with 61%, followed by proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) with 48%, carpometacarpal joint 1 (CMC1) with 39% and metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) with 16%. In conclusion, US is a feasible screening tool for osteophytes and HOA. Grade 1 osteophytes are a common finding in the working population when assessed by ultrasound and their prevalence is increasing with age. Prevalence of grade 2 or 3 osteophytes is less common and reflects clini-cal presence of HOA. Follow up investigations are necessary to recognize the predictive rele-vance of early osteophytes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition screening tools; malnutrition; nutritional assessment
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Malnutrition is a serious problem with negative impact on the quality of life and the evolution of our patients, contributing to an increase in morbidity, hospital stay, mortality and health spending. Early identification is fundamental to implement the necessary therapeutic actions involving adequate nutritional support to prevent or reverse malnutrition. This review presents two complementary methods of fighting malnutrition: nutritional screening and nutritional assessment. Nutritional risk screening is conducted using simple, quick-to-perform tools and is the first line of action in detecting at-risk patients. It should be implemented systematically and periodically on admission to hospital or residential care, as well as on an outpatient basis for patients with chronic conditions. Once patients with a nutritional risk have been detected they should undergo a more detailed nutritional assessment to identify and quantify the type and degree of malnutrition. This should include health history and clinical examination, dietary history, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the degree of aggression determined by the disease, functional assessment and, whenever possible, some method of measuring body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Population screening; eye disease; prevalence; awareness
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Vision impairments and related blindness are major public health problems. Prevalence of eye disease and barriers to optimal care markedly vary among different geographic areas. In the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), an epidemiological surveillance on the state of ocular health in the population aged over 50 years was performed in 2019. Materials and Methods: Participants were sampled to be representative of the region inhabitants. Data were collected through a telephone interview and an eye examination. Prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, maculopathy was assessed. The Cohen’s kappa (k) was used to measure the agreement between presence of eye disease and awareness of the disease by the participants. Results: Overall, 983 people with mean age of 66.0±9.5 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, maculopathy, and retinopathy was 52.6%, 5.3%, 5.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Among the total of affected people, those aware of their condition were 21.8% (k=0.12, slight agreement) for cataract, 65.4% (k=0.78, substantial agreement) for glaucoma, 7.1% (k=0.10, slight agreement) for maculopathy, and 0% for retinopathy (k=-0.004, agreement lower than that expected by chance). Refractive defects were corrected in the vast majority of participants. Conclusion: In the Abruzzo region, about two third of citizens aged 50 years or over suffer from cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy or maculopathy, which are recognized as leading causes of blindness. Many people with eye disease do not know they have it. These data can be used by clinicians and policymakers to undertake clinical, political, and social actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: PPTase; NRPS; indigoidine; PptT; antibiotic screening
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:22:33 CEST)
A recently-validated and underexplored drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is PptT, an essential phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) that plays a critical role in activating enzymes for both primary and secondary metabolism. PptT possesses a deep binding pocket that does not readily accept labelled coenzyme A analogues that have previously been used to screen for PPTase inhibitors. Here we report on the development of a high throughput, colorimetric screen that monitors the PptT-mediated activation of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase BpsA to a blue pigment (indigoidine) synthesising form in vitro. This screen uses unadulterated coenzyme A, avoiding analogues that may interfere with inhibitor binding, and requires only a single-endpoint measurement. We benchmark the screen using the well-characterised Library of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (LOPAC1280) collection, and show that it is both sensitive and able to distinguish weak from strong inhibitors. We further show that the BpsA assay can be applied to quantify the level of inhibition and generate consistent EC50 data.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; group testing; household; screening
Online: 2 August 2020 (12:48:19 CEST)
In the advent of COVID-19 pandemic, testing is highly essential to be able to isolate, treat infected persons, and finally curb transmission of this infectious respiratory disease. Group testing has been used previously for various infectious diseases and recently reported for large-scale population testing of COVID-19. However, possible sample dilution as a result of large pool sizes has been reported, limiting testing methods’ detection sensitivity. Moreover, the need to sample all individuals prior to pooling overburden the limited resources such as test kits. An alternative proposed strategy where test is performed on pooled samples from individuals representing different households is presented here. This strategy intends to improve group testing method through the reduction in the number of samples collected and pooled during large-scale population testing. Moreover, it introduces database system which enables continuous monitoring of the population’s virus exposure for better decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: drug screening； bone mineralization； osteoclast； zebrafish
Online: 21 September 2017 (06:34:11 CEST)
Currently, drug screening is primarily based on human cell culture for initial high-throughput screening, and subsequently, rodent model to confirm the biological effects. However, the mammalian system is known for time-consuming and highly-cost to be difficult to perform high-throughput drug screening, which exists a critical gap between in vitro cell-based models and the in vivo mammalian models. Therefore, the zebrafish could bridge this gap in preclinical toxicity screening along the drug development pipeline because of its efficiency. We aimed to develop an in vivo zebrafish platform for rapid drug screening. Zebrafish, due to its high genomic conservation with mammals and rapid development and differentiation, it has many advantages, such as short life span, large number of offspring and low cost, easy manipulation for generating transgenic species, to serve as animal model for disease-based research. In 96-well microplates, zebrafish embryos were incubated with small molecular compounds that affected bone mineralization. The level of osteogenic mineralization was evaluated by fluorescent dye staining and quantified by image analysis software. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the biological pathways involved in bone metabolism at the molecular level. The system was validated by demonstrating that response to alendronate and Dorsomorphin in zebrafish. In our study, we screened for 24 compounds within the CYCU-1120~1152 chemical library and identified 3 compounds, pentamidine (CYCU-1140), BML-267 (CYCU-1147), and alendronate (CYCU-1152), increased embryonic mineralization; while 6 compounds, RWJ-60475 (CYCU-1126), levamisole HCL (CYCU-1128), tetramisole HCL (CYCU-1129), fenvalerate (CYCU-1132), NSC-663284 (CYCU-1138), and BML-267ester (CYCU-1148), were inhibitory to bone mineralization. We also found that alendronate enhanced the level of bone mineralization by inhibiting osteoclast-related genes. To sum up, our research showed that zebrafish may have potential to be a drug-screening and mechanism-analysis platform for bone mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: hereditary deafness; carrier screening; reproductive decision making
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:30:09 CEST)
Preconception or prenatal carrier screening for hereditary deafness is an effective early intervention strategy to reduce the incidence of newborn deafness, but current research is limited. This study aimed to investigate the carrier frequencies of common deafness genes in the Chinese population and to follow up on pregnancy outcomes in high-risk couples. Carrier screening for common deafness genes in the Chinese population, including the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes, was performed using next-generation sequencing technology. Of the 9,993 subjects screened, the carrier rate was 2.86% for the GJB2 gene and 2.63% for the SLC26A4 gene. Of the six high-risk couples, four made alternative reproductive decisions (three with prenatal diagnosis and one with preimplantation genetic testing), with consequent successful termination of the birth of two affected fetuses. The frequencies of preconception or prenatal carrier screening for the deafness genes GJB2 and SLC26A4 in 9,993 subjects from China in this study were 2.86% and 2.63%, respectively. In addition, four out of six high-risk couples made alternative reproductive decisions, followed by the successful prevention of the birth of two affected fetuses. These findings confirmed the clinical utility of preconception or prenatal carrier screening for hereditary deafness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ovarian; Molecular; Genetics; Pathways; Diagnosis; Screening; Panel
Online: 29 September 2023 (12:00:47 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to highlight the new advancements in molecular and diagnostic genetic testing as well as properly classify all ovarian cancers. In this article we address statistics, histopathological classification, molecular pathways implicated in ovarian cancer, genetic screening panels and details about the genes, and also candidate genes. We hope to bring new information in the medical field as to better prevent and diagnose ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0993.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Roma women; screening; prevention; cervical cancer; HPV
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:56:54 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Romania ranks among the countries with a notably high rate of preventable deaths due to inadequacies in prevention, screening, early detection, and timely management processes. Cervical cancer (CC) is a significant contributor to these preventable deaths, particularly affecting patients from marginalized backgrounds, rural regions, and the Roma population. The purpose of this article was to identify correct and consistent information of the Roma population about the risk of CC, as well as the importance of understanding the causes of the disease and awareness of the available prevention methods. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire applied only to Roma women in Romania. Results: We enrolled 759 patients in the study. These were divided into 2 groups, Group 1 comprised 289 (38.1%) women who had been tested for HPV infection, while Group 2 included 470 (61.9%) women who had never been tested for HPV infection. Characterization of women in Group 1: mostly aged between 25-54 years, with high school education, married, who started sexual activity under the age of 18 years, with only one sexual partner and with over 5 pregnancies. Regarding contraceptive methods, 35.7% of women do not know/ use any contraceptive method, and 32.2% use hormonal contraceptives. Two thirds of the women tested had heard of HPV, and 19.7% were vaccinated against HPV with at least 2-3 doses. A percentage of 8.7 had a diagnosis of CC, compared to those who were not tested (p-0.0001), whereas 63% of the tested women do not know much about CC, as opposed to 85.7% of the group of untested women. Conclusion: Cervical cancer (CC) continues to be a public health issue in Romania, particularly in patients belonging to vulnerable groups. Promotion campaigns for HPV vaccination and CC screening are necessary to reduce the associated mortality and morbidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: lignans; cancer; single nucleotide polymorphisms; virtual screening
Online: 16 June 2023 (05:10:48 CEST)
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that continues to increase. Lignans are known to be important anticancer agents. However, due to the structural diversity of lignans, it is difficult to associate anticancer activity with a particular subclass. Therefore, the present study sought to evaluate the association of lignan subclasses with antitumor activity, considering the genetic profile of the variants of the selected targets. For this, predictive models were built against the targets tyrosine-protein kinase ABL (ABL), epider-mal growth factor receptor erbB1 (EGFR), histone deacetylase (HDAC), Serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR (mTOR) and Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP1). Then, mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms and designed target mutations, and performed molecular docking with the lignans with the best predicted biological activity. The results showed more anticancer activity in the dibenzocyclooctadiene, furofuran and aryltetralin subclasses. The lignans with the best predictive values of biological activity showed varying binding energy results in the presence of certain genetic variants.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1906.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Congenital cytomegalovirus; hypothermia; status epilepticus; universal screening
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:46:42 CEST)
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection resulting from non-primary maternal infection or reactivation during pregnancy can cause serious fetal-neonatal sequelae. We describe a male newborn born at term, with signs of perinatal asphyxia, and intractable acute provoked seizures, in the context of severe cCMV infection. The newborn was delivered in a referral hospital by emergency caesarean section due to fetal distress. Due to signs of asphyxia at birth and clinical moderate encephalopathy (Sarnat 2), he was transferred to our center for therapeutic hypothermia. Continuous full video-electroencephalography monitoring showed no seizures during the first 72 hours, however, soon after rewarming, he presented refractory status epilepticus. Cranial ultrasonography revealed bilateral ventricular and intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Routine infectious screen-ing on urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and nasopharyngeal secretions revealed positive CMV DNA Polymer-ase Chain Reaction (PCR) on all samples. The CMV DNA performed on the bloodspot (Guthrie) card taken at birth yielded a positive result, confirming the intrauterine transmission and congenital origin of the infection. Maternal non-primary CMV infection in pregnancy is transmitted to the fetus in 0.5-2% of cases. When transmitted, it may cause serious fetal abnormalities, complications in the immediate neonatal period, and se-vere sequelae later in childhood. During pregnancy, it is useful to monitor maternal serology for CMV, even in previously immunized mothers, to identify signs of new infection or viral reactivation and implement measures to prevent neonatal sequelae. The possible advantages of standardized CMV screening of all newborns are a pertinent discussion point, as this may enable us to identify affected neonates timeously and prevent long term disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0072.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: TLC-screening; HPLC-DAD; NMR; arctic root
Online: 3 November 2022 (07:47:15 CET)
Artic root is a well-known plant adaptogen with multipotential pharmacological properties. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) – screening followed by diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy proved to be a reliable and convenient method for simultaneous determination of quality of various herbal raw materials and supplements. This combination allowed for comparing and differentiating arctic root samples as well as defining their authenticity. The study provided information on the chemical and biological properties of the seven chosen samples as well as qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the quality markers: rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol. The absence of rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol in three samples was detected using TLC-screening and confirmed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. The paper highlighted the importance of quality control and strict regulation for herbal medicine supplements and preparations.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0118.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: myxobacteria; secondary metabolites; multifactorial OSMAC; screening method
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:51:31 CET)
The scarcely investigated myxobacterium Corallococcus coralloides holds a large genome containing many uncharacterized biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that potentially encode the synthesis of entirely new natural products. Despite its promising genomic potential, suitable cultivation conditions have not yet been found to activate the synthesis of new secondary metabolites (SMs). Finding the right cultivation conditions to activate BGCs in the genome remained a major bottleneck and its full biosynthetic potential was so far not retrieved. Here, we therefore applied a bivariate OSMAC approach, using a combination of two elicitor changes at once for activation of BGCs and concomitant SM production by C. coralloides. The bivariate OSMAC screening was carried out in 24-well System Duetz-plates, applying univariate and bivariate OSMAC conditions. We combined biotic additives and organic solvents with minimal media and complex growth medium. The success of the method was evaluated by the number of new mass features detected in the respective extracts. We found synergistic effects in bivariate OSMAC designs. The number of new mass features detected in bivariate OSMAC exceeded the sum of new mass features found in the respective univariate OSMAC with only one elicitor. Overall, the bivariate OSMAC screening led to 26 new mass features, which were not detected in the univariate OSMAC design. Hence, the presence of multiple elicitors in the bivariate OSMAC designs successfully activated the biosynthetic potential in C. coralloides. We propose the bivariate OSMAC designs with a complex combination of elicitors as a straightforward strategy to robustly expand the SM space of microorganisms with large genomes.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: screening; dementia; intellectual disability; early-onset; neuropsychology
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:01:34 CEST)
Background and Aims: Screening and assessment of cognitive changes in adults with Intellectual Disabilities, mainly Down Syndrome (DS), is crucial to offer appropriate services to their needs. We present a systematic review of the existing instruments assessing dementia, aiming to support researchers and clinicians’ best practice. Methods: Searches were carried out in the databases Web of Science; PubMed; PsycINFO in March 2019 and updated in May 2020. Studies were selected and examined if they: (1) focused on assessing age-related cognitive changes in person with ID; (2) included adults and/or older adults; (3) included scales and batteries for cognitive assessment. Results: Forty-eight cross-sectional studies and twenty-six longitudinal studies were selected representing a total sample of 5,851 participants (4,089 DS and 1,801 with other ID). In those studies, we found 38 scales, questionnaires, and inventories, and 14 batteries for assessing cognitive and behavioural changes in adults with DS and other ID. Conclusion: The most used instrument completed by an informant or carer was the Dementia Questionnaire for Learning Disabilities (DLD), and its previous versions. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the instruments and outline recommendations for future use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0719.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, screening, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:12:26 CEST)
Background: Diabetes is a common non-communicable disease that is responsible for about 9% of all deaths and 25% reduction in life expectancy and nearly half of the diabetic patients are not aware of their disease. In this regard, diabetes screening to identify un-known diabetic patients is of great importance. Aims: The aims of this study were first to evaluate the performance of two commonly used diabetes screening tests that are currently recommended by the Iranian national screening program for diabetes (NSPD). Methods: The validities of the two diabetes screening tests were measured among 1057 participants older than 30 years. The studied screening tests included Capillary fasting blood glucose (CBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The golden standard for measuring the validity of the tests was venous fasting plasma glucose (VPG). Results: According to the results, the sensitivity of CBG and HbA1c tests were 69.01% and 84.5% and the specificity of the tests were 95.7% and 79.3% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 53.84% and 97.72% for CBG and 22.72% and 98.61% for HbA1c respectively. The recommended cut-points for CBG and HbA1c were 116.5 mg/dl and 7.15% respectively. Using these values as the new cut-points, sensitivity and specificity of CBG and HbA1c changed to 80.30% and 89.10%, and 77.50% and 94.20% respectively. Conclusions: Compared to several other countries, the performance of NSPD is relatively higher in Iran. ROC analysis suggested new cut-points for significantly better performance of NSPD.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0184.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; diagnosis; antibody; serology; screening
Online: 6 April 2020 (14:09:34 CEST)
To date, viral RNA detection is almost the only way to confirm SARS-CoV-2infectionin practice.However, variousreasons can cause low sensitivity for RNA detection, and thisposes aserious challenge to disease control. We tested the performance of detecting total antibody(Ab) and IgM levels in serum by the methods of chemiluminescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and colloidal golddetection. The datashowed that the sensitivity and specificity for detecting total Ab and IgM levels were high by all three methods, and the sensitivity was higher for detecting total Ab than for detecting IgM. Evidence from studieshas shown thatviral RNA testingcombinedwith serological testing could increase the diagnostic sensitivity while maintaining a high specificity. Specific serology testsfor SARS-CoV-2 havegreat value for clinical practice and public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0015.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: virtual screening; COVID-19; Protease 3CL pro
Online: 3 April 2020 (15:08:50 CEST)
Ligand and structure based virtual screening approaches were applied to clinical stage drugs as well as those approved for human use in an attempt to repurpose drugs for potential use against COVID-19. This approach involved ligand-based shape similarity searches, structure-based docking and pharmacophore searches with the help of pharmacophore queries derived from available ligands and receptor structures. Several compounds appeared as hits in pharmacophore and shape similarity searches and those docking to the SARS-CoV-2 viral 3CL protease were then ranked on the basis of docking scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: obesity; breast screening; mammograms; health service utilization;
Online: 15 January 2019 (09:10:11 CET)
Obesity in Australia is rapidly rising, and is a major public health concern. Obesity increases risk of breast cancer and worse associated outcomes, yet breast screening participation rates in Australia are suboptimal and can be lower in higher risk, obese women. This study qualitatively explored barriers to breast screening participation in obese women in Australia. In-depth interviews (n=29), were conducted with obese women (BMI 30) and key health stakeholders. A disconnect between stakeholders’ and women’s perceptions was found. For women, low knowledge around a heightened need to screen existed, they reported limited desire to prioritize personal health needs, reluctance to screen due to poor body image and prior negative mammographic experiences due to issues with weight. Stakeholders perceived few issues in screening obese women beyond equipment limitations, and health and safety issues. Overall, weight was a taboo topic among our interviewees, indicating that a lack of discourse around this issue may be putting obese women at increased risk of breast cancer morbidity and mortality. Consideration of breast screening policy in obese women is warranted. Targeted health promotion on increased breast cancer risk in obese women is required as is a need to address body image issues and encourage screening participation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: HLA; type 1 diabetes; ethnicity; screening; haplotype
Online: 7 September 2016 (12:49:02 CEST)
Aims/Hypothesis): Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease with destruction of the pancreatic β-cells, a process that is conditioned by multiple genes and other factors. HLA counts as the major susceptibility gene. Significant variations in HLA genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes between Caucasians, African and Asian and other ethnic groups may have led to the variation in incidence of type 1 diabetes globally. Type 1 diabetes is characterized upon HLA identification. In this chapter we discuss global variations in genetic susceptibility of HLA with regard to type 1 diabetes globally with a particular attention to Arab population. Methods): Haplotype configuration of HLA class I A, B, C and Class II –DR/DQ/DP were studied in Caucasians, African and Asian and in Arab population to see if that is responsible for the exponential rise in the rate of type 1 diabetes. Results): Although Arabs have one of the highest global incidence and prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes, unfortunately, there is a dearth amount of information regarding HLA genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in the Arab world. HLA haplotype configurations contribute to its risk value. However, out of an insufficient present study there are examples of misjudgment of HLA risk according to HLA alleles rather than haplotypes. Conclusion): To date HLA outlooks for the characterization of type 1 diabetes. There is an ethnicity difference in HLA characteristics which is responsible for variation in type 1 diabetes. Although Arab population have contributed heavily in the rise of burden of type 1 diabetes, however, there is significantly a dearth amount of studies on HLA in Arab population. Obviously, any future prediction, prevention or cure of the disease will be based on the HLA genetics. There is a dire need for a systematic screening of HLA for Arab population with type 1 diabetes, identification of Arab HLA-risk values and identify those who are prone to get the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: machine learning; preeclampsia; intrauterine growth restriction; prediction; screening
Online: 23 November 2023 (08:45:26 CET)
1) Background: The screening of preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) represents a constant challenge for obstetricians. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the predictive performance of 4 machine learning-based algorithms for the prediction of PE, IUGR, and their association in a cohort of singleton pregnancies; (2) Methods This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary maternity hospital in Romania, and included 210 pregnancies that underwent first trimester screening. We included clinical and paraclinical data into 4 machine learning-based algorithms decision tree (DT), naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), and calculated their predictive performance; (3) Results: RF performed the best when used to predict PE, IUGR, and its subtypes, as well as the association between PE and IUGR. The overall predictive performance of DT for all these disorders was inferior to RF, NB, and SVM. Both SVM and NB had similar accuracy for the prediction of PE, while NB performed better than SVM for the prediction of IUGR; (4) Conclusions: Machine-learning-based algorithms could be useful for the prediction of ischemic placental disease and need to be validated on large cohorts of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1064.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: newborn screening; bioethics; genomic sequencing; qualitative; public views
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:29:57 CET)
Recent dramatic reductions in the timeframe in which genomic sequencing can deliver results means its application in time-sensitive screening programs such as newborn screening (NBS) is becoming a reality. As genomic NBS (gNBS) programs are developed around the world, there is an increasing need to address the ethical and social issues that such initiatives raise. This study therefore aimed to explore the Australian public’s perspectives and values regarding key gNBS characteristics and preferences for service delivery. We recruited English-speaking members of the Australian public over 18 years of age via social media; 75 people aged 23-72 participated in one of 15 focus groups. Participants were generally supportive of introducing genomic sequencing into newborn screening, with several stating that adoption of such revolutionary and beneficial technology was a moral obligation. Participants consistently highlighted receiving an early diagnosis as the leading benefit, which was frequently linked to the potential for early treatment and intervention, or access to other forms of assistance, such as peer support. Informing parents about the test during pregnancy was considered important. This study provides insights into the Australian public’s views and preferences to inform the delivery of a gNBS program in the Australian context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1823.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: newborn blood screening; Guthrie; knowledge; consent; mother; parent
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:24:05 CEST)
To learn what mothers know on newborn bloodspot screening (NBS), the procedure, and sources used, a pilot study was performed. An online questionnaire was developed, with a first part fo-cused on characteristics and the NBS procedure, a second on knowledge, information sources, and health care providers (HCP). This questionnaire was accessible until 200 answers were received. Characteristics of respondents were representative for the population. Mothers recalled verbal consent in 69.5%, 12.5% did not, 18% stated that no consent was requested. The ‘knowledge’ part contained 12 closed questions, 5 multiple-choice questions on sources, and assessment (5-point Likert) of the information transfer. The mean knowledge level was 7.2/12. Screening concepts (consequences, likelihood, sensitivity, carrier) and absence of notification of normal findings were well known. The fact that NBS is not compulsory and post-analysis sample handling were poorly known. Key HCPs were midwifes (80.5%) and nurses (38.5%). When the leaflet (44%) was pro-vided, the majority read it. Mean Likert scores were 3.36, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.35 (clarity, timing ap-propriateness, sufficiency, usefulness). The knowledge level and consent practices were reasonable well. Key HCP were midwives and nurses, leaflets were supporting. This should enable a quality improvement program to a sustainable NBS program in Flanders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1921.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ACL; screening; injury-risk; prevention; LESS; asymmetry; soccer
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:42:12 CEST)
The study aimed to identify football players at high risk (HR) for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury via a four-test battery and assess possible factors affecting classification. Ninety-one professional and semi-professional athletes participated in a field-based preseason screening. Aknowledged inter-limb asymmetry limits for quadriceps and hamstrings isometric strength, and Single Leg Triple Hop for distance, in addition to the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) comprised the test-battery. Additional assessment of hip adductors and core stability completed the global functional profile of the players. Sixty-one players were identified as HR and 30 as low-risk (LR) for ACL injury. Test-battery classified adequately 78,0% of them (Chi-square= 27,485 p=,000), identifying only 4 misclassified cases in the LR group, this low number being important for avoiding improper treatment of injury-prone athletes. All partcipants were considered healthy, and history of a previously rehabilitated injury did not interfere with the results. LESS seems to be the optimal criterion for classification and also the best predictor of both the initial grouping and the secondary one with the wrong vs correct classification cases. The proposed test-battery provides a promising option for field-based preseason ACL-risk assessment of football players and needs to be studied prospectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: primitive reflexes; craniosacral dysfunction; neurodevelopment; early diagnosis; screening
Online: 17 April 2023 (05:32:57 CEST)
Background: In healthy children, the frequency of anomalous persistence of primitive reflexes (PRs) and craniosacral blocks (CBs) are unknown, as well as their impact on neurodevelopment, behaviour disorders and related consequences. We aim to know the prevalence of anomalous PRs and CBs in apparently healthy children and its relationships with behavior and neurodevelopment anomalies. Methods: Participants (n=120) were evaluated through physical examination to detect PRs and CBs, an ad hoc parent survey to collect perinatal events, and children behavior assessment by teachers using Battelle score. Results: PRs were present in 89.5%. Moro (70.8%), cervical asymmetric (78.3%) and cervical symmetric PRs (67.5%) were the most frequent observed PRs. CBs were found in 83.2%, and the most frequent CBs were dura mater (77.5%) and sphenoid bone (70%) blocks. Moro, cervical asymmetric and cervical symmetric active primitive reflexes are significantly associated to cranial blocks of dura mater, parietal zones, and sphenoid bone sway. Gestational disorders or perinatal complications were associated to a higher frequency of PRs and CBs. The presence of PRs and CBs were associated with abnormal Battelle scores and neurobehavioral problems. Conclusion: Presence of PRs and CBs in children without diagnosed diseases are frequent and related with disturbances in childhood neurodevelopment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Dietary fiber; food frequency questionnaire; questionnaire screening; validation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:22:50 CET)
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits, therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the development of public policies and/or programs aimed at improving the health of the population. In this study, a fiber intake short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was translated into Spanish and its content validity was determined by a group of experts, to subsequently conduct a pilot test including 198 subjects aged 36+12.5 years, residing in Chile (46 men and 150 women), with the purpose of quantifying dietary fiber intake. The global assessment of the FFQ revealed a validity coefficient of 0.98+0.02; after the application of the pilot, mean dietary fiber intake in adult Chilean residents was of 13 g per day, with similar results to those found in the National Food Consumption Survey 2010 (12.5 g per day in men, and 11.5 g in women). The FFQ is a quick and valid tool to classify people on the basis of their habitual dietary fiber intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aromatic rice; salt screening; RAPD marker; genetic diversity
Online: 14 November 2022 (07:43:36 CET)
Salinity is abiotic stress, which causes adverse environmental conditions for rice cultivation. In particular, local aromatic rice cultivation is heavily influenced by soil salinity stress, which has an impact on global food security. This study aimed to screen local aromatic rice genotypes in a hydroponics experiment using Yoshida solutions to evaluate the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on the early growth stages of rice seedlings. Genetic diversity along with phylogenetic relationship was assessed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Out of 20 RAPD markers, 17 markers produced reproducible polymorphic bands. Individuals of all genotypes shared 88 (89.80%) of the 98 total RAPD elements amplified. The genetic distance-focused similarity index ranged from 0.05 to 0.94. The highest genetic distance (0.94) was discovered between genotypes Nayanmoni and Kalijira Barisal, and the lowest was between Badshabhog and Kataribhog (0.05). In addition, the OPS 3(510bp) and OPA 14(1100bp) markers could be used to identify salt-tolerant genotypes. According to genetic distance, the salt stress tolerant check genotype, Pokkali was genetically related to Chinigura as well as Kalijira Barisal. This study established a simple and consistent method for evaluating variability across various aromatic rice genotypes, which will benefit in genotype selection for breeding salinity stress tolerant aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0318.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: HIV; routine screening; financial benefits; Opt-out approach
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:45:01 CEST)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone between 13-64 years be tested for HIV at least once as a routine procedure. HIV routine screening is reimbursable by Medicare, Medicaid, expanded Medicaid, and most commercial insurance plans. Yet, scaling-up HIV routine screening remains a challenge. We conducted a scoping review for studies on financial benefits and barriers associated with HIV screening in clinical settings in the U.S. to inform an evidence-based strategy to scale-up HIV routine screening. We searched Ovid MEDLINE®, Cochrane, and Scopus for studies published between 2006 - 2020 in English. The search identified 383 Citations; we screened 220 and excluded 163 (outside the time limit, irrelevant, or outside the U.S.). Of the 220 screened articles, we included 35 and disqualified 155 (did not meet the eligibility criteria). We organized eligible articles under two themes: financial benefits/barriers in healthcare settings (9 articles); and Cost-effectiveness in healthcare settings (26 articles). The review concluded recommendations in three areas: (1) Finance: Incentivize healthcare providers/systems for implementing HIV routine screening and/or separate its reimbursement from bundle payments; (2) Personnel: Encourage nurse-initiated HIV screening programs in primary care settings and educate providers on CDC recommendations; and (3) Approach: Use opt-out approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SFTSV; minigenome assay; antivirals; antiviral screening; favipiravir; ribavirin
Online: 15 April 2021 (07:47:23 CEST)
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus that causes severe disease in humans with case fatality rates of approximately 30%. There are few treatment options for SFTSV infection. SFTSV RNA synthesis is conducted using a virus-encoded complex with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that is required for viral propagation. This complex and its activities are, therefore, potential antiviral targets. A library of small molecule compounds was screened using a high-throughput screening (HTS) based on an SFTSV minigenome assay (MGA) in a 96-well microplate format to identify potential lead inhibitors of SFTSV RNA synthesis. The assay confirmed inhibitory activities of previously reported SFTSV inhibitors, favipiravir, and ribavirin. A small-scale screening using MGA identified four candidate inhibitors that inhibited SFTSV minigenome activity by more than 80% while exhibiting less than 20% cell cytotoxicity with selectivity index (SI) values of more than 100. These included mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, clofarabine, and bleomycin. Overall, these data demonstrate that the SFTSV MGA is useful for anti-SFTSV drug development research.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; 3CLpro; approved drugs; virtual screening
Online: 8 March 2020 (17:14:57 CET)
3CLpro is the main protease of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for their intracellular duplication. Based on virtual screening technology, we found 23 approved clinical drugs such as Carfilzomib, Saquinavir, Thymopentin and etc., which showed high affinity with the 3CLpro active sites. These findings suggest that 3CLpro inhibitors might be potential candidates for further activity detection and molecular modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0438.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: COVID-19; Simeprevir; Protease inhibitor; Virtual screening; Docking
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:14:38 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been first appeared in Wuhan, China but its fast transmission, led to its widespread prevalence in various countries and make it a global concern. In addition, lack of a definitive treatment is another concern that needs to be attention. Researchers have come up with several options, which are not certain, but protease inhibitor and some antiviral agent are in the forefront. In this study a virtual screening procedure employing docking of different databases including 1615 FDA approved drugs was used to identify new potential small molecule inhibitors for protease protein of COVID-19. The docking result indicates that among all, simeprevir (Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor) could fit well to the binding pocket of protease and because of some other positive features including ADME profile, might be a helpful treatment option for COVID-19.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: c-src-tyrosine kinase; QSAR; molecular descriptors; virtual screening; drug discovery; cancer; molecular docking
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:21:43 CEST)
Prototype of a family of at least nine members, c-src tyrosine kinase is a therapeutically interesting target, because its inhibition might be of interest not only in a number of malignancies, but also in a diverse array of conditions, from neurodegenerative pathologies to certain viral infections. Computational methods in drug discovery are considerably cheaper than conventional methods and offer opportunities of screening very large numbers of compounds in conditions that would be simply impossible within the wet lab experimental settings. We have explored the use of global QSAR models and molecular ligand docking in the discovery of new c-src tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Using a data set of 1038 compounds from ChEMBL and 19 blocks of molecular descriptors, we have developed over 200 QSAR classification models, based on six machine learning algorithms and 17 feature selection methods. We have selected 49 with reasonably good performance (positive predictive value and balanced accuracy higher than 70% in nested cross validation) and the models were assembled by stacking with a simple majority vote and used for the virtual screening of over the “named” ZINC data set (over 100,000 compounds). 744 compounds were predicted by at least 50% of the QSAR models as active, 147 compounds were within the applicability domain and predicted by at least 75% of the models to be active. The latter 147 compounds were submitted to molecular ligand docking using Vina and Ledock, and a number of 90 were predicted to be active based on the binding energy. External data from CHEMBL and PUBCHEM confirmed that at least 7.83% (in the case of QSAR) or 6.67% (in the case of integrated QSAR and molecular docking) of the compounds are active on the c-src target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: spheroids; concentration gradient generator; drug screening; high-throughput
Online: 28 November 2018 (10:08:05 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is considered more clinically relevant in mimicking the structural and physiological conditions of tumors in vivo compared to two-dimensional cell cultures. In recent years, high-throughput screening (HTS) in 3D cell arrays has been extensively used for drug discovery because of its usability and applicability. Herein, we developed a microfluidic spheroid culture device (μFSCD) with a concentration gradient generator (CGG) that enabled cells to form spheroids and grow in the presence of cancer drug gradients. The device is composed of concave microwells with several serpentine micro-channels which generate a concentration gradient. Once the colon cancer cells (HCT116) formed a single spheroid (approximately 120 μm in diameter) in each microwell, spheroids were perfused in the presence of the cancer drug gradient irinotecan for 3 days. The number of spheroids, roundness, and cell viability, were inversely proportional to the drug concentration. These results suggest that the μFSCD with a CGG has the potential to become an HTS platform for screening the efficacy of cancer drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1768.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: social and global inequities; access to health programs; cervical cancer screening program; HPV vaccination programs; knowledge, believes, acceptance of vaccines/ screening; participation in screening programs; incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer; pelvectomies
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:19:17 CEST)
(1) Introduction: Every two hours, a Romanian woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer  as the country ranks second in Europe in terms of mortality and incidence rate . This paper aims to identify the main reasons that have led to this situation, focusing on the measures taken by the Romanian Ministry of Health for the prevention of this type of cancer national - programs for cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination. (2) Materials and methods: We performed a study based on available secondary data from the National Statistics Institute, World Health Organization and Bucharest Institute of Oncology in order to assess the burden associated with cervical cancer and placing it in the context of known global and European incidence and mortality rates, thus evaluating the importance of this health issue in Romania. The second component of our study was a cross-sectional study, using a 14 questions questionnaire, applied to the women participating in the National Screening Program for Cervical Cancer, aimed to evaluate the women’s level of knowledge about screening and HPV vaccination and their access cervical cancer specific health-care services. (3) Results: The results of the research shows that a high percentage of women postpone the routine checks due to lack of time and financial resources and indicate that low level of knowledge about the disease and the specific preventive methods determines low participation screening and HPV vaccination programs implemented in Romania contributing to the country’s situation of cervical cancer. (4) Conclusions: The national programs have complicated procedures, are underfunded, and do not motivate enough health care workers. This combined with the lack of information adds up to an extremely low number of women screened and vaccinated. Our conclusion is that the Romanian Ministry of Health must take immediate action by conducting major awareness campaigns, implementing measures to make the programs functional and ensuring coherent funding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0906.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HER2; cancer-specific monoclonal antibody; screening; epitope; flow cytometry
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:35:30 CET)
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast and gastric cancers is an important target for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy. All therapeutic mAbs, including anti-HER2 mAbs, exhibit adverse effects probably due to the recognition of antigens expressed in normal cells. Therefore, tumor-selective or specific mAbs can be beneficial in reducing the adverse effects. In this study, we established a novel cancer-specific anti-HER2 antibody, named H2Mab-250/H2CasMab-2 (IgG1, kappa). H2Mab-250 reacted with HER2-positive breast cancer BT-474 and SK-BR-3 cells. Importantly, H2Mab-250 did not react with non-transformed normal epithelial cells (HaCaT and MCF 10A) and immortalized normal epithelial cells in flow cytometry. In contrast, most anti-HER2 mAbs including H2Mab-119 (IgG1, kappa) reacted with both cancer and normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, a core-fucose deleted IgG2a-type H2Mab-250 (H2Mab-250-mG2a-f) could trigger the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity to BT-474, but not to HaCaT cells. Furthermore, H2Mab-250-mG2a-f exhibited an in vivo antitumor effect against BT-474 xenograft. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that H2Mab-250 possesses much higher reactivity to the HER2-positive breast cancer tissues compared to H2Mab-119, and did not react with normal tissues, including heart, breast, stomach, lung, colon, kidney, and esophagus. The epitope mapping demonstrated that the Trp614 of HER2 domain IV mainly contributes to the recognition by H2Mab-250. H2Mab-250 could contribute to the development of chimeric antigen receptor-T or antibody-drug conjugates without adverse effects for breast cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Colias; DNA barcoding; Lepidoptera; molecular taxonomy; PCR screening; Wolbachia
Online: 6 November 2023 (14:54:07 CET)
The genus Colias Fabricius, 1807 includes numerous taxa and forms with uncertain status and taxonomic position. Among such taxa are Colias mongola Alphéraky, 1897 and Colias tamerlana Staudinger, 1897, interpreted in the literature either as conspecific forms, as subspecies of different but morphologically somewhat similar Colias species, or as distinct species-level taxa. Based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, we reconstruct a phylogeographic pattern of the taxa in question. We recover and include in our analysis DNA barcodes of the century-old type specimens, the lectotype of C. tamerlana deposited in the Natural History Museum (Museum für Naturkunde), Berlin, Germany (ZMHU), the paralectotype of C. tamerlana and the lectoptype of C. mongola deposited in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia (ZISP). Our analysis grouped all specimens within four (HP_I-HP-IV) deeply divergent but geographically poorly structured clades which did not support nonconspecifity of C. mongola–C. tamerlana. We also show that all studied females of the widely distributed haplogroup HP_II were infected with a single Wolbachia strain belonging to the supergroup B, while the males of this haplogroup, as well as all other investigated specimens, were not infected. Our data underline the relevance of large-scale sampling dataset analysis and the need of testing for Wolbachia infection to avoid erroneous phylogenetic reconstructions and species misidentification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep apnea; professional drivers; snoring; screening; sleep disordered breathing
Online: 1 October 2023 (07:15:13 CEST)
Sleep apnea is common in professional truck drivers. As undiagnosed and/or untreated sleep apnea is a risk factor for sleepiness-related traffic accidents, it should be recognized. We develop a new, simple tool to screen sleep apnea in this population. Altogether, 2066 professional truck drivers received a structured questionnaire. 175 drivers had a clinical examination and were invited to sleep laboratory studies, including cardiorespiratory polygraphy. We studied associations of different risk factors with the presence of sleep apnea. We established a new simple screening tool for sleep apnea that was compared to other existing screening tools. 1095 drivers filled in the questionnaire. 172 drivers had successful cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Full data was available for 160 male drivers, who were included in the analyses. The following five risk factors for sleep apnea formed the BAMSA-score (0 to 5): BMI>30 kgm-2, Age>50 years, Male gender, Snoring at least on one night per week and presence of Apneas at least sometimes. BAMSA showed a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 78.8% in detecting AHI≥15, when using a cut point of 4 and the ROC area was 0.823. BAMSA is a sensitive and easy-to-use tool in predicting sleep apnea in male professional drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1854.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: multi-cancer early detection test; primary care; cancer screening
Online: 27 September 2023 (08:38:12 CEST)
Multi-cancer early detection (MCED) tests are being developed, but little is known about patient receptivity to their use for cancer screening. The current study assessed patient interest in such testing. Our team conducted a prospective, observational study among primary care patients in a large, urban health system. They were asked to complete a telephone survey that briefly described a new blood test in development to identify multiple types of cancer, but was not currently recommended or covered by insurance. The survey included items to assess respondent background characteristics, perceptions about MCED testing, and interest in having such an MCED test. We also used multivariable analyses to identify factors associated with patient interest in test use. In 2023, we surveyed 159 (32%) of 500 identified patients. Among respondents, 125 (79%) reported a high level of interest in having an MCED test. Interest was not associated with personal background characteristics, but was positively associated with the following expectations: testing would be recommended for cancer screening, be convenient, and be effective in finding early-stage disease (OR=11.70, 95% CI: 4.02, 34.04, p < 0.001). Research is needed to assess patient interest and actual uptake when detailed information on testing is presented in routine care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Pakistan; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Elimination; Prevalence; Screening; Refugees
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:31:50 CEST)
Hepatitis B and C are major health issues in developing countries such as Pakistan and Afghan-istan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and effectiveness of a screening program for hepatitis B and C in a region with no existing programs, and to estimate their prev-alence in the general population in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, as well as in Afghan refugees or migrants. A retrospective cohort study was done in the general population of Peshawar and its adjacent districts, as well as migrants from neighboring provinces of Afghani-stan, who presented to our tertiary-care health facility. A Microsoft Excel registry was created for data collection, which were analyzed using IBM SPSS via descriptive analysis, normal distribution curve histograms, and chi-squared tests. A total of 9563 individuals were screened for hepatitis (5894 males and 3669 females), including Afghan migrants in Peshawar and surrounding districts. 876 individuals tested positive for hepatitis, with 538 positive for hepatitis B (383 males and 155 females) and 330 positive for hepatitis C (198 males and 134 females). Eight individuals had a hepatitis B and C co-infection. Among the study population, the prevalence rates were 2.2% for hepatitis B and 2.3% for hepatitis C, of which the Afghan migrants accounted for 2.7% and 0.5%, respectively. According to the gender-based distribution, hepatitis B was more prevalent in males, whereas there was no significant gender-based difference for hepatitis C. Our results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to control hepatitis B and C in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Increased awareness, improved healthcare, and preventive measures such as screening and elimination programs to prevent severe liver diseases and eradicate hepatitis are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0818.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: qSOFA; Emergency Medical Services; Screening; Scoring; Surviving Sepsis Campaign
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:28:15 CEST)
Early treatment is the mainstay of sepsis therapy. We suspected that early recognition of sepsis by prehospital healthcare providers may shorten time to antibiotic administration in the Emergency Department. We retrospectively evaluated all patients above 18 years of age that were diagnosed with sepsis or severe infection in our Emergency Department between 2018 and 2020. We recorded the suspected diagnosis at time of presentation, type of referring healthcare provider and time until initiation of antibiotic treatment. Differences between groups were calculated using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Of the 277 patients that were diagnosed with severe infection or sepsis in the emergency department, an infection was suspected in 124 (44.8%) patients and sepsis was suspected in 31 (11.2%) patients by referring healthcare providers. Time to initiation of antibiotic treatment was shorter in patients where sepsis or infection had been suspected prior to arrival for both patients with severe infections (p = 0.022) and sepsis (p = 0.004). Given the well described outcome benefits to early sepsis therapy, recognition of sepsis needs to be improved. Appropriate scores should be used as part of routine patient assessment to reduce time to antibiotic administration and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1933.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Alpha-1 Antitrypsin; Protein electrophoresis; SERPINA1; screening; genetic counseling
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:24:36 CEST)
Background: Deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT1) is a rare disorder that represents a significant health threat and early diagnostic a priority issue. We investigate the usefulness of the serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) as an opportunistic screening tool for AAT1 deficiency. Methods: For 6 months, all SPE carried out for any reasons were evaluated in our center. In those with less than 3% of Alpha-1 globulins, AAT1 concentrations were studied. The SERPINA1 gene was subsequently sequenced in those subjects displaying concentrations below 100 mg/dL. Results: Out of the total, 14 patients (0.3%) were identified with low AAT1 concentrations, 11 of them agreeing to enter the study. Of those, mutations in the SERPINA1 gene were discovered in 10 subjects (91%). Heterozygous mutations were detected in 7 patients; 3 had the c.1096G>A mutation (p.Glu366Lys; Pi*Z), 2 the c.863A>T mutation (p.Glu288Val; Pi*S), one the c.221_223delTCT mutation (p.Phe76del; Pi*Malton) having the last one the c.1066G>A (p.Ala356Thr) mutation not previously described. Finally one patient had the c.863A>T mutation in homozygosis whereas two double heterozygous patients c.863A> T/ c.1096G>A were detected. Conclusions: an altered result in the concentration of AAT1 anticipates a mutation in the SERPINA1 gene in a manner close to 91%. The relationship between a decrease in the Alpha-1 globulin band of the SPE and an alteration in the AAT1 concentration is direct in basal states of health. The SPE is presented as a highly sensitive test for opportunistic screening of AAT1 deficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1288.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: EphB4; monoclonal antibody; Cell-Based Immunization and Screening; immunohistochemistry
Online: 19 July 2023 (04:40:06 CEST)
The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptors are the largest receptor tyrosine kinases family. EphB4 is essential for cell adhesion and motility during embryogenesis. Pathologically, EphB4 is overexpressed and contributes to poor prognosis in various tumors. Therefore, sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) should be developed to predict the prognosis for multiple tumors with high EphB4 expression, including breast and gastric cancers. This study aimed to develop highly sensitive and specific anti-EphB4 mAbs for several applications using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. EphB4-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 (CHO/EphB4) cells were immunized into mice, and we established an anti-EphB4 mAb (clone B4Mab-7), which is applicable for flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. B4Mab-7 reacted with endogenous EphB4-positive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468, but did not react with EphB4-knockout MCF-7 (BINDS-52) in flow cytometry. Dissociation constant (KD) values were determined to be 2.9 × 10‑9 M, 1.3 × 10‑9 M, and 3.3 × 10‑9 M by flow cytometric analysis for CHO/EphB4, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-468 cells, respectively. B4Mab-7 detected the EphB4 protein bands from breast cancer cells in western blotting, and stained breast cancer tissues immunohistochemistry. Altogether, B4Mab-7 demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity against EphB4 in various applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cervical cancer, HPV screening, mRNA, genotype distribution, vaccine efficacy.
Online: 29 June 2023 (13:16:58 CEST)
Background: Understanding the distribution of HPV types in cervical cancer cases is crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of HPV screening and vaccination in reducing cervical cancer burden. This study aimed to assess genotype prevalence among 178 cervical cancer cases detected during a 20-year screening period in Northern Norway and compare the potential efficacy of HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 181 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from women diagnosed with cervical cancer between 1995 and 2015 in Troms and Finnmark, Norway, were analyzed using a 45-type HPV DNA test. The results were compared to a 7-type HPV mRNA test targeting oncogenic types included in the nonavalent HPV vaccine. Results: Invalid HPV test results were observed in 1.7% (3/181) of the samples and were subsequently excluded from further analysis. Among the remaining cases, 92.7% (165/178) tested positive for HPV using any test combination. HPV DNA was detected in 159 cases (89.3%), while HPV mRNA was detected in 149 cases (83.7%). The most prevalent HPV types were 16 and 18, responsible for 70.8% of the cases, with the nonavalent vaccine types accounting for 86.6% of cases. HPV 35 was identified in eight cases (4.5%). Conclusion: The bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccines have the potential to prevent 76.4% (126/165) of HPV-positive cervical cancer cases, while the nonavalent vaccine could prevent 93.3% (154/165) of cases. Tailoring screening strategies to target HPV types with the highest oncogenic potential may improve cervical cancer detection and enable targeted interventions for high-risk individuals. The use of a 7-type HPV mRNA test holds promises as an advantageous approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0098.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antibacterial activity; Psidium guajava; phytochemical screening; liquid-liquid fractionation
Online: 14 March 2023 (04:07:51 CET)
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a common fruit tree that grows in several tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The aim of this study was to employ the use of liquid-liquid fractionation to investigative the comparative antibacterial potential of crude extracts of Guava leaves and bark against selected food isolates; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemical analysis of the extract showed presence of tannin, phenol, flavonoid and terpenoid in all extract, while steroid and saponin were absent in some. The agar diffusion method was employed for the assessment of the sensitivity of the extracts. The ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions from the stem bark acetone extract generally showed better antimicrobial activity compared with other extracts from leaves. The extract was active both against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pneumonia) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, , Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) at varying zone of inhibition. The results of the study showed the potential of identifying novel antibacterial agent from P. guajava bark and leaves while optimising the potential application for treatment in traditional medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: QSPR model; antibacterials; Acinetobacter baumannii; natural products; virtual screening
Online: 11 January 2023 (11:51:38 CET)
As the rate of discovery of new antibacterial compounds towards multidrug resistant bacteria is declining, there is an urge for the search of molecules that could revert this tendency. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterium that has acquired multiple mechanisms against antibiotics and is considered of critical priority. In this work we developed a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model with 592 compounds for the identification of structural parameters related to their property as antibacterial agents against A. baumannii. QSPR mathematical validation (R2 = 70.27, RN = -0.008, aR2 = 0.014 and δK = 0.021) and its prediction ability (Q2LMO= 67.89, Q2EXT = 67.75, a(Q2)= -0.068, δQ = 0.0, rm2 = 0.229, and ∆rm2 = 0.522) were obtained with different statistical parameters; additional validation jobs were done using three sets of external molecules (R2 = 72.89, 71.64 and 71.56). We used the QSPR model to perform a virtual screening on the BIOFACQUIM natural product database. From this screening our model showed that molecules 32 to 35 and 54 to 68, isolated from different extracts of plants of the Ipomoea sp., are potential antibacterial against A. baumannii. Furthermore, biological assays showed that molecules 56 and 60 to 64 have a wide antibacterial activity against clinical isolated strains of A. baumannii, as well as other multidrug resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Finally, we propose 60 as a potential lead compound due to its broad-spectrum activity and its structural simplicity. Therefore, our QSPR model can be used as a tool for the investigation and search of new antibacterial compounds against A. baumannii.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: snow remote sensing; cloud screening; atmospheric correction; radiative transfer
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:38:42 CET)
We present the update of the Snow and Ice (SICE) property retrieval algorithm proposed initially by Kokhanovsky et al. (2019). The algorithm is based on the spectral measurements of Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 satellites combined with the asymptotic radiative transfer theory valid for weakly absorbing turbid media. The main improvements include the introduction of a new atmospheric correction, retrieval of snow impurity load and properties, retrievals for partially snow-covered ground and also accounting for various thresholds to be used to assess the retrieval quality. The algorithm is available as python and Fortran packages at https://github.com/GEUS-SICE/pySICE. The technique can be applied to various optical sensors (satellite and ground-based) operated in the visible and near infrared regions of electromagnetic spectra.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: child anxiety disorders; screening; SCARED-C; psychometrics; dental practice
Online: 24 November 2021 (12:48:07 CET)
SCARED-C instrument (the child version, 41 items) is used for screening anxiety in children between 8 to 18 years old and has been first introduced by Birmaher & collab. in 1995, with good psychometric data - internal consistency from α =.74 to .93 - and good discriminative validity indices in the original versions (1997, 1999). Since then, many countries have adopted the scale, for its utility in identifying five subsets of anxiety disorders (subscales): somatic/panic disorder, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social phobia, and school avoidance. The present study contains the first Romanian translated and adapted version of the SCARED-C instrument on a community sample of 477 children (8-18 years old) from Mureș county schools. The instrument showed moderate to good internal consistency (α Cronbach from to .63 to .91 for the total scale) and good test-retest reliability (.70) on a subset of 85 children sample. A confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the factor structure of the Romanian version of SCARED-C; results showed that SCARED-C has good psychometric properties to be used for screening anxiety in Romanian children and adolescents. The implications for using SCARED-C in dental practice are discussed. Future studies need to be conducted for exploring convergent and discriminative validity of the instrument and the sensitivity to current DSM-V criteria. Application on a dental pediatric sample is also required.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Epidemiology; Risk Factors; Screening; Diagnosis, Mortality; Incidence
Online: 28 October 2021 (11:41:05 CEST)
Abstract – Objective: Ovarian cancer, although not possessing a high incidence, is still the most common cancer-related deaths among women diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy. The present study aims to highlight the epidemiology, risk factors of this disease and the significance of development of improved early detection strategies. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using current published English studies by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. The search strategy included the keywords “ovarian cancer”, “diagnosis”, “risk factors”, “screening”, “epidemiology”. Studies on incidence and mortality were also considered. Case reports were excluded.Results: The highest incidence and mortality rates are observed in Central and Eastern Europe, while rates are relatively low in Asia and Africa. These rates are highest among the white population (14.3 per 100,000) and lowest among blacks (10 per 100,000) and Asians (9.7 per 100,000). The risk factors for this disease includes a family history, hormonal factors, nutrition and diet and physical activity, with some of them playing protective roles in reducing risk of ovarian cancers. There are no reliable screening methods for ovarian cancers. The most common diagnosis methods include a transvaginal ultrasound and a blood test to detect CA125 markers.Conclusions: The mortality rate of ovarian cancer is gradually increasing; thus, preventative measures are required to reduce lifetime risk of ovarian cancers and improve mortality rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Ephedra alata; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; phytochemical screening
Online: 13 August 2021 (09:23:00 CEST)
Ephedra alata Decne. (Ephedraceae) is a medicinal species commonly used to treat cancers, respiratory diseases, fever, and hypertension. The present study aimed to establish a phytochemical profile, evaluate the antioxidant potential and estimate the anti-inflammatory activities of .. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of E. alata aerial parts were phytochemically investigated using standard methods. DPPH, phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was determined using total antioxidant capacity, the scavenging activity of the stable DPPH free radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using egg albumin membrane denaturation and human red blood cells membrane stabilizing assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of E. alata extracts was evaluated using human red blood cells membrane stabilization, egg albumin and BSA albumin denaturation assays. Quinones, anthraquinones, steroids, phytosteroids, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, Cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars and anthocyanins were present in the E. alata’s aqueous extract, in addition to coumarins and proteins in the methanolic extract. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content was recorded in the aqueous extract with 8.66 ±0.09 mg GA/g and 248.04 ±1.47 mg Q/g, respectively. On the other hand, E. alata methanolic extract had the highest tannin content of 62.12 ±0.10 mg C/g. The best radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 4.63±0.00 mg/ml) and total antioxidant capacity were exhibited by the E. alata aqueous (7.35±0.12 mg/ml AAE), whereas the methanolic extract possessed the highest reducing power activity (1.81±0.00 mg AAE/ml). Regarding the anti-inflammatory activities, E. alata methanolic extract exerted the highest HRBC stabilization of 34.72 ±0.08% whereas the aqueous extract exhibited the highest bovine serum and Egg albumin denaturation inhibition of 99.22 ±0.02% and 73.31 ±0.90, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that E. alata aerial parts aqueous and methanolic extracts can be utilized as future antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ethnomedicines owing to their rich bioactive molecules content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer screening; test; alternative; non-invasive; CRC; review
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:01:58 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death in the world. Since the 70s, many countries have adopted different CRC screening programs which has resulted in a decrease in mortality. However, current screening test options still present downsides. The commercialized stool-based tests present high false-positive rates and low sensitivity, which negatively affects the detection of early stage carcinogenesis. The gold standard colonoscopy has low uptake due to its invasiveness and the perception of discomfort and embarrassment that the procedure may bring.In this review, we collected and described the latest data about alternative CRC screening techniques that can overcome these disadvantages. Web of Science and PubMed were employed as search engines for studies reporting on CRC screening tests and future perspectives. The searches generated 555 articles, of which 93 titles were selected. Finally, a total of 50 studies, describing 14 different CRC alternative tests, were included. Among the investigated techniques the main feature that could have an impact on CRC screening perception and uptake was the ease of sample collection. Urine, exhaled breath and blood-based tests promise to achieve good diagnostic performance (sensitivity of 63-100%, 90-95%, 47-97%, respectively) while minimizing stress and discomfort for the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vietnam; Epidemiology; control; screening
Online: 11 May 2020 (13:02:32 CEST)
IntroductionThe aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of all COVID-19 patients in Vietnam and to describe the measures of disease control and prevention implemented. MethodsData were recovered from Wikipedia regarding the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Vietnam. The period covered was from 23 January to 20 April 2020. Descriptive analysis was stratified by gender, age, country of origin, travel history, clinical symptoms and outcome. A survey of disease control and prevention measures was conducted at the Centre for Disease Control in the Thai Binh province, which is responsible for screening and isolating individuals at high risk of COVID-19. ResultsAs of 20 April 2020, Vietnam had recorded 268 confirmed COVID-19 patients. 55.2% were female. 67.9% were aged 20-49 years and 82.5% were Vietnamese. 60.4% of cases were imported from outside Vietnam. Other cases were acquired in Vietnam by individuals in close contact with imported cases. Only one patient who had not travelled had had no known contact with a confirmed case. 63.1% of patients were asymptomatic. 75.7% of patients were discharged. No deaths were recorded. The Thai Binh CDC surveyed a total of 2,203 persons at risk of COVID-19. 336 persons (15.2%) were isolated at hospitals and 1,411 (64.0%) in dedicated isolation facilities. 16.4% reported at least one respiratory symptom. No positive cases confirmed by RT-PCR have been reported in the Thai Binh province to date. ConclusionThe effect of the systematic screening and isolation strategy made it possible to limit local transmission in Vietnam. Vietnam needs to reinforce diagnostic capacities, prevention measures and provide the necessary epidemiological data on which to base interventions. The wider use of rapid serological tests is also advisable in order to be able to conduct extensive screening in the community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Coronavirus; Deep learning; Drug screening; homology modeling; main protease
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:59:09 CET)
A novel coronavirus called 2019-nCoV was recently found in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, and now is spreading across China and other parts of the world. 2019-nCoV spreads more rapidly than SARS-CoV. Unfortunately, there is no drug to combat the virus. It is of high significance to develop a drug that can combat the virus effectively before the situation gets worse. It usually takes a much longer time to develop a drug using traditional methods. For 2019-nCoV, it is now better to rely on some alternative methods to develop drugs that can combat such a disease effectively since 2019-nCoV is highly homologous to SARS-CoV. In this paper, we first collected virus RNA sequences from the GISAID database, translated the RNA sequences into protein sequences, and built a protein 3D model using homology modeling. Coronavirus main protease is considered to be a major therapeutic target, thus this paper focused on drug screening based on the modeled 2019-nCov_main_protease structure. The deep learning based method DFCNN, developed by our group, can identify/rank the protein-ligand interactions with relatively high accuracy. DFCNN is capable of performing virtual screening quickly since no docking or molecular dynamic simulation is needed. DFCNN identifies potential drugs for 2019-nCoV protease by performing drug screening against 4 chemical compound databases. Also, we performed drug screening for all tripeptides against the binding site of 2019-nCov_main_protease since peptides often show better stability, more bio-availability and negligible immune responses. In the end, we provided the list of possible chemical ligands and peptide drugs for experimental validation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dysphagia; FEES; Parkinson’s disease; swallowing speed; screening; water test
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:32:41 CEST)
There is still a lack of a clinical test to reliably identify patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) being at risk for aspiration. In this prospective, controlled, cross-sectional study we assessed if swallowing speed for water is a useful clinical test to predict aspiration proven by flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Due to this we measured the swallowing speed for 90 ml water in 115 consecutive and unselected PD outpatients of all clinical stages and 32 healthy controls. Average swallowing speed was lower in patients compared with controls (6.5 ± 3.9 ml/s vs. 8.5 ± 3.2 ml/s; p < 0.01). The disease-independent widely used threshold of < 10 ml/s showed insufficient sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 19% with unacceptable false-positive rates of 63% for patients and 69% for controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to define a suitable cut-off value for detection of aspiration of water (area under the curve 0.72, p < 0.001) in PD patients. The optimized cut-off value was 5.5 ml/s with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 64%. Overall, measuring swallowing speed is prone to methodological errors and not suitable as a screening instrument to predict aspiration in PD patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0159.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Key wordsbrest cancer screening, mammography, breast ultrasound, breast MRI
Online: 29 September 2017 (15:00:08 CEST)
Abstract On the background of new research results in screening of breast cancer, together with the expectation of the participants in a screening for breast cancer, the conventional mammography requires supplementation by means of tomosynthesis or additive ultrasound. Alternatively, ultrasound now seems to be an independent method of early detection of breast cancer because of its superior sensitivity, especially in the case of aggressive mammary carcinoma types. The MRI remains at present still a preferred method in high-risk cases and as an additive examination in case of insufficient presentation of the glandular tissue by conventional methods. MRI is also preoperatively valuable for more accurately measuring the extent of multifocal carcinomas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0548.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: brain cancers; gangliosides; mass spectrometry; biomarker discovery; screening; structural analysis
Online: 7 December 2023 (19:55:09 CET)
Gangliosides are highly abundant in the human brain where they are involved in major biological events. In brain cancers, alterations of ganglioside pattern occur, some of which being correlated with the neoplastic transformation, while others with the tumor proliferation. Of all the techniques, mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be one of the most effective in gangliosidomics, due to its ability to characterize heterogeneous mixtures and discover species with biomarker value. This review highlights the most significant achievements of MS in the analysis of gangliosides in human brain cancers. The first part presents the state-of-the-art in the MS development for discovery of ganglioside markers in primary brain tumors, with a particular emphasis on the ion mobility separation (IMS) MS and its contribution to the elucidation of the gangliosidome associated with aggressive tumors. The second part is focused on the MS of gangliosides in brain metastases, highlighting the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS, microfluidics-MS and tandem MS to decipher and structurally characterize species involved in the metastatic process. In the end, several conclusions and perspectives are presented, among which the need for development of a reliable software and a user-friendly structural database as a search platform in brain tumor diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BRCA; breast cancer ovarian cancer; screening prevention; health policy genetics
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:15:09 CEST)
BRCA1 and 2 pathogenic variants increase lifetime risks of breast (50-75%) and ovarian cancer (15-20%). Guidelines recommend breast screening (MRI and mammogram) or risk-reducing mastectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy for ovarian cancer prevention. We sought to 1) characterize the population of BRCA1/2 carriers in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) 2) evaluate risk-reducing interventions 3) identify factors influencing screening and prevention adherence. Methods: This is a retrospective study from a population-based provincial cohort of BRCA1/2 carriers. Eligibility criteria for risk-reducing interventions were defined for each case and patients were categorized based on their level of adherence with recommended screening or prevention. Chi-squared and regression analyses were used to determine which factors influenced uptake and level of adherence. Results: 276 BRCA1/2 carriers were identified; 156 living NL females composed the study population. Unaffected females were younger at testing than those with a cancer diagnosis (44.4 y versus 51.7 y; p=0.002). Categorized by eligibility, 61.0%, 61.6%, 39.0% and 75.7% of patients underwent MRI, mammogram, risk-reducing mastectomy, and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, respectively. Individuals with breast cancer were more likely to have risk-reducing mastectomy (64.7% versus 35.3%; p<0.001), and those who attended specialty hereditary cancer clinic were more likely to be adherent with breast/ovarian cancer recommendations (73.2% versus 13.4%; p<0.001) and to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy(84.1% versus 15.9%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Nearly 40% of female BRCA1/2 carriers were not receiving breast surveillance according to evidence-based recommendations. Cancer risk reduction and uptake of breast imaging and prophylactic breast and pelvic surgeries are significantly higher in patients who receive dedicated specialty care. Organized hereditary cancer prevention programs will be a valuable component of Canadian health care systems and have the potential to reduce the burden of disease country-wide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Mucopolysaccharidosis; lysosomal storage disorder; newborn screening; enzymatic testing; genetic testing
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:45:16 CEST)
Introduction: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPSI) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient or absent α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) enzyme activity due to pathogenic variants in IDUA gene. Early treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or enzyme replacement therapy is associated with improved outcomes in this progressive multisystem disease. The diagnosis is usually delayed due to late presentation and nonspecific symptoms resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of MPSI in US is estimated to be 0.26:100,000, however, it is unknown in Kuwait. This pilot study was undertaken to screen MPSI in all Kuwaiti neonates born at Farwaniya Hospital over a period of 12-months. This study examined the incidence of MPSI in a major center in Kuwait for inclusion in the national newborn screening program to enable its early detection and adequate treatment. Methods: All Kuwaiti neonates born at Farwaniya Hospital, Kuwait from December 2021 to December 2022, were screened for MPSI. The screening consisted of determining IDUA enzyme activity in dried blood spots (DBS)-derived samples by Tandem Mass Spectrometry. A follow-up genetic analysis of IDUA gene is planned to screen the cases with diminished IDUA enzyme activity as second-tier testing. Results: A total of 618 newborns, including 331 (54%) males and 287 (46%) females, were screened. Twenty of them had deficient IDUA enzyme activity but showed negative genetic testing for IDUA. However, we have diagnosed one additional female baby with MPSI, who belonged to Farwaniya Hospital, but the parents chose to deliver in a private hospital. She presented at age three months with recurrent upper airway infections, snoring and extensive Mongolian spots. The molecular study revealed previously reported pathogenic nonsense variant in IDUA c.1882C>T; p.(Arg628Ter), associated with severe phenotype. That being included, MPSI is estimated to be about 0.3% among tested females and 0.2% of all screened cases in Kuwait. Conclusion: Our study is the first to evaluate the incidence of MPSI in Kuwait. Given the single center, small number of screened babies and the short study duration thus far, it is premature to calculate the incidence of MPSI. It is anticipated that as the study continues and more infants are examined, we would be able to estimate the incidence of this disease in our population correctly. Further studies including screening newborns in all maternity hospitals in Kuwait are needed to calculate the actual incidence of MPSI. Our data supports including MPSI in national newborn screening program to allow early initiation of treatment and thus improve disease outcome.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0721.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mouse HER2; monoclonal antibody; cell-based Immunization and screening; CBIS
Online: 12 July 2023 (03:20:12 CEST)
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer is an important target of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy such as trastuzumab. Due to the development of trastuzumab-deruxtecan, an antibody-drug conjugate, the targetable HER2-positive breast cancer patients have been expanded. To evaluate developing modalities using anti-HER2 mAbs, reliable preclinical mouse models are required. Therefore, sensitive mAbs against mouse HER2 (mHER2) should be established. This study developed mHER2 mAbs using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The established anti-mHER2 mAbs, H2Mab-300 (rat IgG2b, kappa) and H2Mab-304 (rat IgG1, kappa), reacted with mHER2-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mHER2) and endogenously mHER2-expressed cell line, NMuMG (a mouse mammary gland epithelial cell) by flow cytometry. Furthermore, these mAbs never recognized mHER2-knockout NMuMG cells. The kinetic analysis using flow cytometry indicated that the dissociation constant (KD) of H2Mab-300 and H2Mab-304 for CHO/mHER2 was 1.2 × 10−9 M and 1.7 × 10−9 M, respectively. The KD of H2Mab-300 and H2Mab-304 for NMuMG was 4.9 × 10−10 M and 9.0 × 10−10 M, respectively. These results indicated that H2Mab-300 and H2Mab-304 could apply to the detection of mHER2 using flow cytometry and may be useful to obtain the proof of concept in preclinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: PCNA; p15; FRET; inhibitor screening; ATLD2; disease; variant; stability; aggregation
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:53:02 CEST)
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the key regulator of human DNA metabolism. One important interaction partner is p15, involved in DNA replication and repair. Targeting the PCNA-p15 interaction is a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer. Here, a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay for the analysis of PCNA-p15 interaction was developed. Next to the application as screening tool for the identification and characterization of PCNA-p15 interaction inhibitors, the assay is also suitable for the investigation of mutation-induced changes in their affinity. This is particularly useful for analysing disease associated PCNA or p15 variants at the molecular level. Recently, the PCNA variant C148S has been associated with Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder type 2 (ATLD2). ATLD2 is a neurodegenerative disease based on defects in DNA repair due to an impaired PCNA. Incubation time dependent FRET measurements indicated no effect on PCNAC148S-p15 affinity, but on PCNA stability. The impaired stability and increased aggregation behaviour of PCNAC148S was confirmed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, DSF and AF4 measurements. The analysis of the disease associated PCNA variant demonstrated the versatility of the interaction assay as developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0368.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Hearing loss; neonatal hearing screening; rescreening; otoacoustic emissions; auditory potentials.
Online: 6 July 2023 (04:06:24 CEST)
Second-level hospitals face peculiarities that hinder the implementation of the hearing rescreening protocol, which are not uncommon in other settings. This study analyzes the hearing rescreening process in this kind of hospital. A total of 1130 individuals were included. In this cohort, 61.07% were newborns in the hospital who failed their first otoemission test after birth (n=679) or were unable to have the test performed (n=11), then being referred to outpatient clinic. The remaining 38.93% were individuals who were born in another hospital with their first test conducted in the outpatient clinic (n=440). A high amount of rescreenings were made outside the recommended time frame, mainly in children referred from another hospital. There was a high rate of lost to follow-up especially with otolaryngologist referrals. Neonatal Hearing screening in second level hospitals is difficult because of the staffing and time constraints. This results in longer than recommended turnaround times and interferes with the timely detection of hearing loss. This is particularly serious in outpatients. Referral of children with impaired screening to out-of-town centers leads to unacceptable loss of follow-up. A legislative support for all these rescreening issues is necessary. We discuss these findings and propose some solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0574.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: assessment; awareness; diagnosis; dysphagia; intensive care; management; screening; treatment; practices
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:39:36 CEST)
Post-extubation dysphagia (PED) can lead to serious health problems in critical ill patients, yet routine bedside screening may be lacking in many Intensive Care Units (ICUs), possibly due to limited awareness for this condition. This study aimed to establish baseline data on the current approaches, the status of perceived best practices to PED screening and treatment, as well as to assess awareness of PED. A nationwide cross-sectional, online survey was conducted of all adult ICUs in the Republic of Cyprus in June 2018. More than 85% of ICUs reported that there was no standard protocol indicating which patients should be screened for PED. Cough reflex testing and water swallow test were the most reported assessment methods used to confirm the presence of PED. Muscle strengthening exercises without swallowing and swallowing exercises were mostly used to treat dysphagia. Overall, 28.6% of the ICUs agreed that PED was common in their unit. We identified gaps in Greek Cypriot ICUs awareness and knowledge regarding PED screening and treatment. Comprehensive unit-based dysphagia education programs must be urgently im-plemented and interdisciplinary and collaborative work between nurses, intensivists and speech and language therapists is needed to address the situation and improve the quality of care pro-vided.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0641.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mouse EGFR; monoclonal antibody; Cell-Based Immunization and Screening; CBIS
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:42:31 CEST)
The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) overexpression or its mutation mediates the sustaining proliferative signaling in cancers. Human EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy such as cetuximab has been approved for clinical use in patients with colorectal cancers and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. A reliable preclinical mouse model is essential to further develop the mAb therapy against EGFR. However, a mAb against mouse EGFR (mEGFR) for flow cytometry has not been established. In this study, we developed a specific and sensitive mAb for mEGFR using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. The established anti-mEGFR mAb, EMab-300 (rat IgG1, kappa) reacted with mEGFR-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/mEGFR) and endogenously mEGFR-expressed cell lines, including NMuMG (a mouse mammary gland epithelial cell) and Lewis lung carcinoma cells by flow cytometry. The kinetic analysis using flow cytometry indicated that the dissociation constant (KD) of EMab-300 for CHO/mEGFR and NMuMG was 4.3 × 10−8 M and 1.9 × 10−8 M, respectively. These results indicated that EMab-300 applies to the detection of mEGFR by flow cytometry, and is expected in the use of preclinical study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cost analysis; early stage; health economics; lung cancer; screening programme
Online: 5 January 2023 (11:30:30 CET)
BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial (ILST) and the NELSON study showed that lung cancer-specific mortality can be reduced by 20-24% using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening in high-risk populations, due to an increase in early-stage diagnoses. RESEARCH QUESTION: How much lung cancer-related direct costs may be reduced using a LDCT screening programme based on the ILST protocol in a public healthcare system?STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cost analysis of lung cancer screening (LCS) vs. usual care in the framework of the retail price of the Catalan public healthcare system. The LCS group included costs of screening (ILST protocol), treatment cost according to weighted average distribution of TNM staging in the NLST and NELSON trials, lung cancer detection rate (CDR) and smoking cessation intervention. The usual care group included treatment costs based on distribution of TNM staging registered in the Spanish index hospital. RESULTS: In the usual care group, treatment costs were €91,959. In the 5-year duration of the LCS programme, the average expected costs per subject were €1,342 (range €1,054-1,832 depending on malignancy in detected nodules) for screening and €32,431 for treatment, with an expected reduction of €952 based on an average CDR of 1.6%. The decrease in cost resulting from stage shift offsets 70.6% of the costs of the screening programme. INTERPRETATION: Baseline 5-year LCS costs are low according to the ILST protocol. In the Catalan public healthcare system, the expense reduction from the stage shift due to the LCS programme compensates a substantial part of its costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Drug screening; Borrelia afzelii; Borrelia garinii; Persister; Hypocrellin A; biofilm
Online: 8 December 2022 (02:24:04 CET)
Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-transmitted infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species which includes B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii. The majority of patients with early LD can be cured by standard treatment, yet some still suffer from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The presence of Borrelia persisters has been proposed as a contributing factor, which cannnot be completely killed by the currently used antibiotics for Lyme disease. Finding new pharmaceuticals targeting Borrelia persisters is crucial in developing more effective treatment. Here, we first confirmed the existence of persisters in cultures of B. garinii and B. afzelii and then conducted high-throughput screening of a custom drug library against persister-rich stationary-phase cultures of B. garinii and B. afzelii. Among 2427 compounds screened, hypocrellin A (HA), anthracycline class of drugs, and topical antibiotics along with some other natural compounds were identified to have strong potential in killing persisters of B. garinii and B. afzelii. HA was the most active anti-Borrelia compound, capable of eradicating stationary-phase Borrelia persisters, in particular when combined with doxycycline and/or ceftriaxone. Liposoluble antioxidant vitamin E was found to antagonize the activity of HA, indicating HA’s target is the cell membrane where HA-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation took place in the presence of light. HA was found to have distinct bactericidal activity against Borrelia species but had poor or no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Identification of the above-mentioned drug candidates may help to develop more effective therapies for LD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Covid-19; health literacy; cancer screening; cancer care; cancer prevention
Online: 25 October 2022 (02:02:04 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to numerous delays in cancer-related care and cancer-specific screening, but the extent is not fully understood. For those that experience a delay or disruption in care, health related self-management is required to re-engage in care pathways and the role of health literacy in this pathway has not been explored. The purpose of this analysis is to (1) report the frequency of self-reported delays in cancer treatment and preventative screening services at an academic, NCI-designated center during the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) investigate cancer-related care and screening delays among those with adequate and limited health literacy. A cross-sectional survey was administered from an NCI-designated Cancer Center with a rural catchment area during November 2020 through March 2021. Nearly 19 percent of participants were categorized as having limited health literacy. Twenty percent of those with a cancer diagnosis reported a delay in cancer-related care; and 23-30% of the sample reported a delay in cancer screening. In general, the proportions of delays among those with adequate and limited health literacy were similar with the exception of colorectal cacner screening. There was also a notable difference in the ability to re-engage in cervical cancer screening among those with adequate and limited health literacy. Thus, there is a role for those engaged in cancer-related education and outreach to offer additional navigation resources for those at risk to cancer-related care and screening disruptions. Future study is warranted to investigate the role of health literacy on cancer care engagement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cervical cancer screening; barriers; recommendations; slum; low-resource settings; qualitative
Online: 22 September 2022 (07:31:38 CEST)
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women globally despite being a largely treatable and preventable malignancy. Developing countries account for over 80% of all new cases of cervical cancer. Women residing in low-resource settings such as those residing in slums have a higher risk of cervical cancer, and lower uptake of cervical cancer screening. Diverse barriers influence the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low-resource settings. Objectives: This qualitative study was carried out prior to a cervical cancer screening program and explored women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, and their perceived barriers and recommendations for the program.Method: Four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among 35 women between the ages of 21 – 65 years residing in two urban slums in Lagos, Nigeria. Each FGD was limited to 8-10 participants of women of similar ages. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysis was done using thematic analysis.Results: Most of the women were not aware of cervical cancer and none knew the symptoms or risk factors of cervical cancer. The participants felt that the cervical cancer screening program would be well accepted in the community, however, they expressed concerns about the cost of the screening test and the sex of the person performing the test. The recommendations proffered for a successful cervical cancer screening program include; reducing the cost of the test or providing the test free of charge, having people that speak the local language as part of the team, using female health care providers, using a private location within the community or nearby PHC, and publicizing the program with the use of SMS, phone calls, town crier, and health talks. It was recommended that organizing health education sessions would help improve women’s poorly perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer.Conclusion: Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low resource settings need to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer and address the barriers to cervical cancer screening such as cost, distance, and as much as possible, sex of the healthcare provider should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: civil science; antibiotic producers screening; actinomycetes; reporter systems; chartreusin; pikromycin
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Since streptomycin discovery, actinomycetes were the main source for new antibiotics, but after the Golden age (1950-1960th) the discovery rate significantly decreased. The high probability to rediscover well-known antibiotics led to a reduction in interest in soil bacteria as a source for new antibiotics. At the same time, actinomycetes remain a very promising reservoir for searching for new active molecules. In this work, we present several reporters containing eye-visible fluorescent protein genes, which can be used to increase the efficiency of determining the mechanism of antibiotics at the very initial stage of screening. Presented reporters and the following pipeline were optimized given the involvement of citizen scientists without specialized skills and equipment in order to utilize the reservoir of soil bacteria in the search for new antibiotic producers. The combination of mechanism-based approaches and civil science has proved its effectiveness in practice revealing a significant increase in the screening rate. Two new strains Streptomyces sp. KB-1 and BV113 were found to produce antibiotics pikromycin and chartreusin, respectively, demonstrating the efficiency of the pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: otolith; vestibular; oVEMP; utricular; clinical audiovestibular testing; vestibular screening test
Online: 8 July 2022 (05:55:49 CEST)
We have previously reported that a single test measuring oVEMP n10 to 4000Hz stimuli (either bone-conducted vibration (BCV) or air-conducted sound (ACS)) provides a definitive diagnosis of semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) in 22 CT-verified patients with a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 1.0. Such a single short screening test has great advantages of speed, minimizing testing time and the exposure of patients to stimulation. However some studies of the 4000Hz test for SCD have reported sensitivity and sensitivity values somewhat less that what we reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: screening model; breast cancer; explainable model; machine learning; Asian women
Online: 13 June 2022 (11:06:10 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the development of an over-the-counter (OTC) screening model using machine learning for breast cancer screening in the Asian women population. Data were retrospectively collected from women who came to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Five screening models were developed based on machine learning methods; random forest, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), elastic-net logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Features used for the development of the screening models were limited to information from the patients’ registration form. The model performance was assessed across the dense and non-dense groups. SVM had the best sensitivity while elastic-net logistic regression had the best specificity. In terms of precision, both random forest elastic-net logistic regression had the best performance, while, in terms of PR-AUC, XGBoost had the best performance. Additionally, SVM had a more balanced performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity across the mammographic density groups. The three most important features were age at examination, weight and number of children. In conclusion, OTC models developed from machine learning methods can improve the prognostic process of breast cancer in Asian women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Malaria; Resistance; Mutation; Virtual screening; Phytochemicals; Dihydrofolate Reductase –Tymidylate Synthase
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:06:36 CET)
Resistance to Pyrimethamine, an antimalarial medicine has been reported to be due to mutations in Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS). Phytochemicals, particularly from plants that been used in ethnomedicine, have been reported to have privileged structures that might bind strongly to the mutants of DHFR-TS. The aim of this study is to identify phytochemicals of Acalypha wilkesiana, Cymbopogon citratus, Azadirachta indica, and Morinda lucida with high binding affinities for the Plasmodium falciparum DHFR-TS. The three-dimensional structures of the phytochemicals, wide type and mutant forms of DHTR-TS were obtained from PubChem and Protein Databank (PDB) respectively. They were appropriately prepared and molecular docking simulations was implemented to predict binding affinities of the phytochemicals to the wildtype and mutant forms of DHTR-TS. Druglikeness assessment was implemented to triage the top binding phytochemicals and molecular dynamics simulations was done to establish the stability of the interaction of the top-ranked phytochemical with one of the mutants of DHFR-TS. Nineteen phytochemicals showed higher binding affinities to both the wild type and mutant forms DHFR-TS than Pyrimethamine. Molecular dynamics revealed that the receptor-ligand binding of luteolin, the top-ranked, drug like phytochemicals, to the quadruple mutant was stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Phenotypic Screening; High Content Imaging; Chemogenomics; Machine Learning; Cell cycle
Online: 11 January 2022 (23:53:13 CET)
Phenotypical screening is a widely used approach in drug discovery for the identification of small molecules with cellular activities. However, functional annotation of identified hits often poses a challenge. The development of small molecules with narrow or exclusive target selectivity such as chemical probes and chemogenomic (CG) libraries, greatly diminishes this challenge, but non-specific effects caused by compound toxicity or interference with basic cellular functions still poses a problem to associate phenotypic readouts with molecular targets. Hence, each compound should ideally be comprehensively characterized regarding its effects on general cell functions. Here, we report an optimized live-cell multiplexed assay that classifies cells based on nuclear morphology, presenting an excellent indicator for cellular responses such as early apoptosis and necrosis. This basic readout in combination with the detection of other general cell damaging activities of small molecules such as changes in cytoskeletal morphology, cell cycle and mitochondrial health provides a comprehensive time-dependent characterization of the effect of small molecules on cellular health in a single experiment. The developed high-content assay offers multi-dimensional comprehensive characterization that can be used to delineate generic effects regarding cell functions and cell viability, allowing an assessment of compound suitability for subsequent detailed phenotypic and mechanistic studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0329.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Molecular Modeling; Virtual Screening; Drug Discovery
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:59:09 CET)
Virtual screening - predicting which compounds within a specified compound library bind to a target molecule, typically a protein - is a fundamental task in the field of drug discovery. Doing virtual screening well provides tangible practical benefits, including reduced drug development costs, faster time to therapeutic viability, and fewer unforeseen side effects. As with most applied computational tasks, the algorithms currently used to perform virtual screening feature inherent tradeoffs between speed and accuracy. Furthermore, even theoretically rigorous, computationally intensive methods may fail to account for important effects relevant to whether a given compound will ultimately be usable as a drug. Here we investigate the virtual screening performance of the recently released Gnina molecular docking software, which uses deep convolutional networks to score protein-ligand structures. We find, on average, that Gnina outperforms conventional empirical scoring. The default scoring in Gnina outperforms the empirical AutoDock Vina scoring function on 89 of the 117 targets of the DUD-E and LIT-PCBA virtual screening benchmarks with a median 1% early enrichment factor that is more than twice that of Vina. However, we also find that issues of bias linger in these sets, even when not used directly to train models, and this bias obfuscates to what extent machine learning models are achieving their performance through a sophisticated interpretation of molecular interactions versus fitting to non-informative simplistic property distributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cervical cancer screening; HPV self-sampling; sub-Saharan Africa; preference
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:55:02 CET)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) is a promising strategy to improve cervical cancer screening coverage in low-income countries. However, issues associated with women who prefer conventional HPV clinical-sampling over HPV self-sampling may affect screening participation. To address this issue, our study assessed factors associated with women’s preferences related to Self-HPV. This study was embedded in a large clinical trial recruiting women aged 30–49 years in a primary HPV-based study termed “3T-Approach” (for Test-Triage-Treatment), launched in 2018 at Dschang District Hospital, West Cameroon. Participants were invited to perform a Self-HPV. After the sampling and before receiving the results, participants completed a questionnaire about cervical cancer screening and their preferences and perceptions around Self-HPV. The median age of the 2201 participants was 40.6 (IQR 35–45) years. Most (1693 (76.9%)) preferred HPV self-sampling or had no preference for either method and 508 (23.1%) preferred clinician-sampling. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a clinician-sampling preference were tertiary educational level (14.4% CI: 12.8–16.1 vs 29.5% CI: 25.6–33.6) and being an employee with higher grade professional or managerial occupations (5.5% CI: 3.8–7.9 vs 2.6% CI: 2.3–2.8). The main reported reason for women preferring clinician-sampling was a lack of “self-expertise”. Most women (>99%) would agree to repeat HPV self-sampling and would recommend it to their relatives. HPV self-sampling in the cultural context of central Africa was well accepted by participants, but some participants would prefer to undergo clinician sampling. Health systems should support well-educated women to increase self-confidence in using HPV self-sampling.