ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Science and policy - making; Environmental communication; Pan - Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:13:14 CEST)
The science‐policy interface in climate change adaptation became better managed over the past decades. However, the scientists and other knowledge producers, as well as policy makers still need to take bolder steps to more effectively engage with others to apply science and shape up policies. This paper aims to provide practical recommendations, intended to promote conversations between science and policy sectors to address climate change issues. Here, I used two different approaches to synthesize experiences and identify recommendations: a literature review and a case study. The paper stress main findings: (1) The linear communication model is still commonly involved in the science - policy dialogue and proved to be useful to increase the relevance of science and data products to decision makers. (2) When a gap between knowledge producer and knowledge user or decision maker exists, the need for a third party to specialize in bridging the gap become essential. (3) Indigenous people and knowledge must be involved in adaptation policy making based on legitimation local and traditional knowledge, designing the consultation process to broadly engage local and indigenous people, facilitating meaningful dialogues between traditional knowledge and science, and developing initiatives to strengthen skills and capacity of indigenous communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Geographic information science; gerrymandering; formal science; empirical science; spatial data science; DIKW paradigm; Metascience
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:04:08 CEST)
Sometimes there are clear and natural limits to the scope of action of a science, and in other cases they are simply convenient ones. Geographic Information Science (GISc) is a transversal science, with contacts with all geosciences but also with various formal sciences such as Mathematics, Logic and Computer Science. A first approach to specifying the limits of a science is through its definition. Definitions of GISc are often so expansive that they have been rightly criticized for practicing gerrymandering, in particular with the rest of the geosciences. To avoid this, an operational definition is proposed that places GISc among the sciences that handle Data and not Information. This solves the gerrymandering problem without really implying a significant cut of what is usually considered within GISc. As an unforeseen consequence, this delimitation will allow it to be characterized as Formal Science, leaving it as the only geoscience with this characteristic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0264.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: citizen science; citizen social science; sustainability; SDG
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:31:21 CEST)
Both the sustainability discourse and the debate on citizen science are strongly focused on the natural and technical sciences. Yet, numerous participatory research activities can be identified in the social sciences and humanities that address sustainability issues of various kinds. These have hardly been studied so far, and their contribution to addressing sustainability challenges is poorly known. The study investigates which sustainability topics are taken up by citizen science in the humanities and social sciences, which factors influence the choice of topics, and its implications. For this purpose, the concept of Citizen Social Science (CSS) is taken up and sustainability is operationalized via the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and its specific Targets. Based on a collection of CSS activities in Germany, the addressed sustainability topics are identified accordingly. It is then analyzed how these patterns depend on the main characteristics of CSS projects. The findings indicate a focus on three SDGs related to education, sustainable cities and partnerships for the Goals, while at the same time the project consortia are very heterogeneous. CSS shows particular strengths here through its multi-stakeholder approach. Going forward, the linkage of Citizen Science to the SDGs needs to be further formalized so that its transformative effects can be incorporated into SDG monitoring and the scientific institutions need additional incentives to participate in CSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: public engagement on science, science engagement, science communication, public understanding of science, deficit model, informal STEM learning, active learning
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:09:31 CEST)
Publicly-funded scientists have a responsibility to engage with the public on scientific information, but are lacking a standardized framework and assessment strategy to do it well. The PEPS (Public Engagement Practices for Scientists) Method is an outcomes-centered framework employing standardized pedagogical methods with quantifiable outcomes. This approach reveals that scientists often have unrealistic expectations for achieving affective learning outcomes (i.e. changing views from anti- to pro-vaccine) by solely cognitive learning strategies (i.e. supplying data). The PEPS Method can serve as a roadmap for standardized science communication assessments, complementing existing science communication training programs for the next generation of scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0578.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Participatory science; Biodiversity conservation; Landscape science; Michoacán; Mexico
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:02:26 CEST)
Participatory landscape conservation is an innovative approach that weaves theory and practice to bridge the gap between theoretical models and practical applications. Intertropical regions as the case of Mexico face challenges to conciliate regional governability, social justice, and nature conservation. The State of Michoacan is one of these regions where the challenges exacerbate since nature conservation is last due to its ongoing territorial disputes. We implemented the participatory landscape conservation approach by creating a complementary form of protected areas with ongoing conflicts, drought conditions, and extreme poverty. We conducted participatory mapping and land cover/use analyses as main methodological tools to reach consensus among stakeholders. We integrated, macro, micro and social scales to provide sound arguments to integrate local, scholar and policy makers perceptions. The outcomes of the participatory mapping analyses were assessed. The present papers provide evidence of the positive outcome of using a Participatory Landscape Conservation to establish a Biosphere Reserve, safeguarding one of the most biologically diverse and delicate ecosystems consisting of seasonally dry tropical forests within a rather disputed region. We discussed the relevance of our findings and compared them to ongoing regional and global trends in the light of other forms of establishing protected areas.
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: scientific publishing; scientific journals; scholarly publishing; scientific papers; open science; scientific articles
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:48:21 CEST)
In the digital era in which over 4 billion people regularly access the internet, the conventional process of publishing scientific articles in academic journals following peer review is undergoing profound changes. Following physics and mathematics scholars who started to publish their work on the freely accessible arXiv server in the early 1990s, researchers of all disciplines increasingly publish scientific articles in the form of freely accessible and fully citeable preprints before or in parallel to conventional submission to academic journals for peer review. The full transition to open science, I argue in this study, requires to expand the education of students and young researchers to include scholarly communication in the digital era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0296.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Chinese National science-sustainability paradox; Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional analysis; Environmental science mediating the energy science for sustainability; Chinese environmental science versus the American energy science
Online: 16 July 2018 (15:31:02 CEST)
The Science-Sustainability poses an interdisciplinary paradox. On the one hand, the science for sustainability has increased in OECD economies in and in China as well as in the US in particular; on the other hand; the sustainability situation has worsened (Co2 emission has risen). On the face value, the adverse correlation shows a paradox. However, without explicating the science-sustainability relationship, it leads to a premature conclusion. In this study, we have drawn on three concrete questions for concrete answers. First, whether and how interdisciplinary sciences—energy science and environmental science—contribute to the sustainability. Second, whether and how the Sino-US inter-institutional analysis varies in the science-sustainability paradox. The empirical analysis from a panel data in the interdisciplinary and inter-institutional context show mixed patterns in three ways. First, the increase in the environmental science shows an improvement in the sustainability; the energy science shows a decline in the sustainability. Second, the Chinese environmental science has a comparative advantage to American environment science for the sustainability development, and the Chinese energy science has a comparative disadvantage to the US in the sustainability development. Third, the environmental science mediates the energy science in the science-sustainability relationships. Standing alone, the increase in the energy science harms sustainability; mediated by environmental science, it benefits sustainability. The study explains the adverse role of energy science in Jevons Paradox. The study also offers some policy paths for further research how capitalisms differently innovate, form strategies, and implement the practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: science education; science literacy; scientific literacy; visual scientific literacy; machine learning: neurocognition; fNIRS; science assessment
Online: 19 October 2021 (15:38:19 CEST)
The primary barrier to understanding visual and abstract information in STEM fields is representational competence the ability to generate, transform, analyze and explain representations. The relationship is known between the foundational visual literacy and the domain specific science literacy, however how science literacy is a function of science learning is still not well understood despite investigation across many fields. To support the improvement of students’ representational competence and promote learning in science, identification of visualization skills is necessary. This project details the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) capable of measuring and modeling visual science literacy (VSL) via neurological measurements using functional near infrared spectrometry (fNIRS). The developed model has the capacity to classify levels of scientific visual literacy allowing educators and curriculum designers the ability to create more targeted and immersive classroom resources such as virtual reality, to enhance the fundamental visual tools in science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0299.v4
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; science; social science; bibliometric analysis
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:49:40 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei province of China at the end of 2019, has radically transformed the lives of people around the world. Due to its fast spreading, it is currently considered as a worldwide health, social and economic concern. The lack of knowledge on this area has encouraged academic sphere for extensive research, which is reflected in exponentially growing scientific literature in this area. However, current state of COVID-19 research reveals only early development of knowledge, while a comprehensive and in-depth overview remains neglected. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to fill the aforementioned gap in the literature and provide an extensive bibliometric analysis of COVID-19 research across science and social science research landscape, using innovative and sophisticated bibliometric approaches (e.g. Venn diagram, Biblioshiny descriptive statistics, VOSviewer co-occurrence network analysis, Jaccard distance cluster analysis, text mining based on logistic regression). The bibliometric analysis is based on the Scopus database including all relevant and latest information on COVID-19 related publications (n=16,866) in the first half of 2020. The empirical results indicate that there is still a lack of publications of COVID-19 and its implications in less-explored (non-health) sciences, especially in social sciences. Accordingly, the findings emphasize an importance of a comprehensive and in-depth approach considering different scientific disciplines in COVID-19 research. The understanding of the evolution of emerging scientific knowledge on COVID-19 is beneficial not only for scientific community but also for evidence-based policymaking in order to prevent and address the COVID-19 pandemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0289.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Aging; Network Science
Online: 5 October 2023 (13:02:46 CEST)
Dyslipidemia (Dys) is a disease characterised by abnormally high levels of lipids in the 1 blood. It causes the deposits of lipids on the arterial wall, leading to the insurgence of atherosclerosis, 2 i.e. the increased thickness of arterial walls, which finally increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. 3 Dyslipidemia is as comorbidity of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A set of genes has been associated 4 with dyslipidemia, but examining the regulation of such genes in age and sex is still an open research 5 field. In this study, starting from publicly available databases, we select genes associated with 6 dyslipidemia and we analyse their basal level changes by means of age and sex. Also studying the 7 networks associated to the genes, we identify the rewiring changes showing that there exists a set of 8 genes whose expression changes with age in: artery tibial, artery aorta and blood. Finally, we report 9 about changes associated to gender atributes in the extracted data
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0546.v1
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:16:00 CEST)
Dyslipidemia (Dys) is a disease characterised by abnormally high levels of lipids in the blood. It causes the deposits of lipids on the arterial wall leading to the insurgence of atherosclerosis, i.e. the increased thickness of arterial walls, which finally increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a comorbidity of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A set of genes has been associated with dyslipidemia, but examining the regulation of such genes in age and sex is still an open research field. In this study, we select from publicly available databases the genes associated with dyslipidemia and analyse changes in the basal level of such genes by age and sex. Moreover, we also distinct differential rewiring of the related gene association network in males and females. Our results show that there exist a set of genes whose expression changes with age in artery tibial, artery aorta and blood. Moreover, there exist significant differences between sex.
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201605.0001.v1
Online: 3 May 2016 (14:43:02 CEST)
Preprints is a multidisciplinary preprint platform that makes scientific manuscripts from all fields of research immediately available at www.preprints.org. Preprints is a free (not-for-profit) open access service supported by MDPI in Basel, Switzerland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Science Technology Society; STS; STEM, Curriculum Planning; Science; design; Education
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:03:40 CET)
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences suggested the definition of science literacy emphasize how crucial understanding the scientific process and the ability to evaluate conflicting scientific evidence is. The purpose of this article is to present an evidence-supported curriculum covering the fundamentals of logic, reasoning, and argumentation skills to address the emphasized basic knowledge, skills, and abilities required to be scientifically literate, which will prepare the public to understand and engage with science meaningfully. An analytic-synthetic approach toward understanding the notion of public is taken using a theoretical biomimetics framework that identifies naturally occurring objects or phenomena that descriptively captures the essence of a construct to facilitate creative problem-solving. In the present case, the problem being solved is how to reconcile what is meant by public, how it ought to be interpreted, the different levels of confidence in science that exist, and various understandings of science all with one another. The results demonstrate there is an inherent denotative-connotative inconsistency in the traditional notion of public that can be explicated through the concept of a fractal allowing for comprehension of the relationship between public confidence in, and understanding of, science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Process science; Data science; Concept drift detection and Branching frequency changes
Online: 10 September 2021 (15:44:14 CEST)
Business processes are continuously evolving in order to adapt to changes due to various factors. One important process drift perspective yet to be investigated is the detection of branching condition changes in the process model. None of the existing process drift detection methods focus on detecting changes of branching conditions in process models. Existing branching condition detection methods do not take changes within the process into account, hence results are inadequate to represent the changes of decision criteria of the process. In this paper, we present a method which can detect branching condition changes in process models. The method takes both process models and event logs as input, and translates event logs into decision sequences for change points detection. The proposed method is evaluated by simulated event logs.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: data science; reuse; sequencing data; genomics; bioinformatics; databases; computational biology; open science
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:39:43 CEST)
The 'big data revolution' has enabled novel types of analyses in the life sciences, facilitated by public sharing and reuse of datasets. Here, we review the prodigious potential of reusing publicly available datasets and the challenges, limitations and risks associated with it. Possible solutions to issues and research integrity considerations are also discussed. Due to the prominence, abundance and wide distribution of sequencing data, we focus on the reuse of publicly available sequence datasets. We define ‘successful reuse’ as the use of previously published data to enable novel scientific findings and use selected examples of such reuse from different disciplines to illustrate the enormous potential of the practice, while acknowledging their respective limitations and risks. A checklist to determine the reuse value and potential of a particular dataset is also provided. The open discussion of data reuse and the establishment of the practice as a norm has the potential to benefit all stakeholders in the life sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital object; data infrastructure; research infrastructure; data management; data science; FAIR data; open science; European Open Science Cloud; EOSC; persistent identifier
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:30:06 CET)
Data science is facing the following major challenges: (1) developing scalable cross-disciplinary capabilities, (2) dealing with the increasing data volumes and their inherent complexity, (3) building tools that help to build trust, (4) creating mechanisms to efficiently operate in the domain of scientific assertions, (5) turning data into actionable knowledge units and (6) promoting data interoperability. As a way to overcome these challenges, we further develop the proposals by early Internet pioneers for Digital Objects as encapsulations of data and metadata made accessible by persistent identifiers. In the past decade, this concept was revisited by various groups within the Research Data Alliance and put in the context of the FAIR Guiding Principles for findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data. The basic components of a FAIR Digital Object (FDO) as a self-contained, typed, machine-actionable data package are explained. A survey of use cases has indicated the growing interest of research communities in FDO solutions. We conclude that the FDO concept has the potential to act as the interoperable federative core of a hyperinfrastructure initiative such as the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0363.v4
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: AI; Artificial Intelligence; Kalam; Sufism; Philosophical Sufism; Philosophy of Science; Science and Religion
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:08:44 CEST)
The recent remarkable progress in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has renewed the discussion on the possibility of human-level AI. Despite the difficulty of the problem and the presence of many large gaps and challenges, most people working in the field think that human-level AI is achievable, but they disagree on the date. In this paper, I briefly discuss the possibility of human-level AI from the perspective of two traditions in the Islamic world, namely Kalam and Sufism, and despite their different mode of investigation, they converge to the same conclusion on this topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0046.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:47:36 CEST)
This article explores the lack of unanimity regarding the nomenclature used to refer to the field of research that explores the intersection between art and science. A series of examples of nomenclatures and the context in which they are applied are listed and referenced. The diverse terminology reflects the heterogeneity, transdisciplinarity, and complexity of a research field in full expansion.
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: bioeconomy; open science; open access
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:45:27 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to assess the degree of openness of scientific articles on bioeconomy. Based on a WoS corpus of 2,489 articles published between 2015 and 2019, we calculated bibliometric indicators, explored the openness of each paper and assessed the share of journals, countries and research areas of these articles. The results show a sharp increase and diversification of articles in the field of bioeconomy, with a beginning long tail distribution. 45.6% of the articles are freely available, and the share of OA papers is steadily increasing, from 31% in 2015 to 52% in 2019. Gold is the most important variant of OA. Open access is low in the applied research areas of chemical, agricultural and environmental engineering but higher in the domains of energy and fuels, forestry, and green and sustainable science and technology. The UK and the Netherlands have the highest rates of OA papers, followed by Spain and Germany. The funding rate of OA papers is higher than of non-OA papers. This is the first bibliometric study on open access to articles on bioeconomy. The results can be useful for the further development of OA editorial and funding criteria in the field of bioeconomy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: science communication; scale; education; toolkit
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:31:14 CET)
A naked human eye can perceive objects down to a millimeter length. While lenses and microscopes have overcome this limit, the human mind still lacks perspective when navigating conventional scales (1), especially in the range that are less palpable to naked human eye (2,3). This problem is particularly acute in the context of science communication, where the conventional scale bar units facilitate little comprehension regarding the perception for factorial size differences (3). Here we aim to bridge the gap of scale factors and perspectives using a universal toolkit of objects, which can help comprehend the relative change in length dimensions up to 13 orders of magnitude difference. We further have demonstrated the use of such a universal object toolkit as a length perceptive scale by illustrating and narrating biological phenomena. The meter to picometer ‘length perceptive scale’ proposed here has the potential to cover majority of length scales present in the biological realm, and is analogous to the time compression methods widely used in explaining cosmos timeline (4). Our toolkit can also be calibrated according to the users need in their scientific communication and illustrations, which will aid the readers’ benefit in understanding the length scale perception of illustrated phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0242.v1
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:14:41 CEST)
The understanding of the issues that affect the training of information professionals requires reflection on the impact of Digital Information and Communication Technologies in the current working world, characterized by the rupture of the notion of space / time and the crossing of jurisdictions and professional boundaries, where dilemmas pedagogies to qualify these professionals considering future perspectives. It was based on the assumption that "studies of graduates" are subsidies for the evaluation of the educational system in face of the demands of in the labor market, helping in the progression of the researches in information, education and work. The objective was to map the results obtained in the studies of graduates promoted in the postgraduate and undergraduate courses in Information Science and Librarianship to verify if the demands pointed out in the surveys with graduates are in line with the studies of Education and Training, the orientations of the National Curricular Guidelines (DCN) and the regulatory actions of the Federal Library Board (CFB). The sample consisted of 45 studies published in CI journals on their associated areas, in the Brazilian context, from 2000 to 2018, of which only 10 articles related to the Library Sciences were considered for the qualitative analysis of this initial phase. to enable a comparative analysis between the proposals of the DCN, the critical analysis of the academic area of CI in the studies on education and professional formation (pedagogical projects and curricula) and the orientations of the class councils. The results were categorized according to the reflection of the graduates about their education, the experience of education, vision about professional practice and the labor market; and followed the structure of the DCN axes: profile; skills and abilities; curricular contents, internships and complementary activities; course structure and institutional evaluation. Prevalence of studies on the identification of graduates (gender, age group, employment and work place) was predominant; few focused on salary aspects; and there were no questions about cultural habits or perceptions about changes in the world of work. Results on issues related to job placement and employability have indicated the need to expand the range of possibilities that go beyond traditional information units and the importance of internships for understanding new virtual work spaces. The dimension of the academic formation was evaluated questioning the compatibility of the disciplines with the demands of the labor market and the satisfaction of the graduates with the course and profession, being indicated as more important contents for the professional life the more technical disciplines and that characterize the course of Librarianship, complemented by those related to management; and with less relevance to the language subjects; marketing; statistic; information and information technology, as opposed to the flexibility proposed by the DCN, adopted after 2002. It is concluded that the process has been guided by isolated initiatives, and that the collective debate involving university and the professional world lacks actions for the construction of dialogue, which may result in the definition of pedagogical and curricular projects suited to the demands of graduates in their regions of origin and demands of the world of work.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: prepublishing; preprint; chemistry; open science
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:05:17 CEST)
Chemistry is the last natural science discipline to embrace prepublishing, namely the publication of non-peer reviewed scientific articles on the internet. After a brief insight into the origins and the purpose of prepublishing in science, we conduct a concrete analysis of the concrete situation, aiming at providing an answer to several questions. Why the chemistry community has been late in embracing prepublishing? Is this in relation with the slow acceptance of open access publishing by the same community? Will prepublishing become a common habit also for chemistry scholars?
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Public Health; Public Trust; Science Communication; Pedagogy; Citizen Science; Stakeholders; Informed Consent; Uncertainty Communication
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:39:30 CET)
Public trust in science was tested and relied on during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has shaped global events since the WHO declaration in March 11, 2020. Public trust has been impacted through the government recommendations and mandates informed by public health guidance, including non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical interventions. The free-flow of ideas and in-formation so essential to the functioning of science has faced unprecedented challenge from widespread censorship in both the media and in scientific journals. This has created a poisoned environment for the building of trust between science and society. Scientific norms and ac-countability must be restored in order to rebuild the vital relationship between scientists and the public they serve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0440.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: malware analysis; graphs; network science; security
Online: 26 September 2022 (04:24:48 CEST)
A modern binary executable is a composition of various networks. Control flow graphs are commonly used to represent an executable program in labeled datasets used for classification tasks. Control flow and term representations are widely adopted, but provide only a partial view of program semantics. This study is an empirical analysis of the networks composing malicious binaries in order to provide a complete representation of the structural properties of a program. This is accomplished by the measurement of structural properties of program networks in a malicious binary executable dataset. We demonstrate the presence of Scale-Free properties of network structure for program data dependency and control flow graphs, and show that data dependency graphs also have Small-World structural properties. We show that program data dependency graphs have a degree correlation that is structurally disassortative, and that control flow graphs have a neutral degree assortativity, indicating the use of random graphs to model the structural properties of program control flow graphs would show increased accuracy. By providing an increase in feature resolution within labeled datasets of executable programs we provide a quantitative basis to interpret the results of classifiers trained on CFG graph features. An increase in feature resolution allows for the structural properties of program classes to be analyzed for patterns as well as their component parts. By capturing a complete picture of program graphs we can enable theoretical solutions for the mapping a program's operational semantics to its structure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: horticulture, Central Asia, bibliometric analyses, science
Online: 25 February 2022 (07:50:59 CET)
Horticulture crops (fruit trees) had been grown and cultivated from ancient times in Central Asia. Few researchers have addressed the problem of this profitable sector in the former Great Silk Road, which was at the crossroads of trading avenues. Horticulture has received much attention in the last twenty years. To investigate the current state of research activity of horticulture in Central Asia, we downloaded 4205 English papers from the Scopus database between 2000-2020. We identified a total of 50 papers, and the last four years have witnessed significant growth in publication number, an average of 5 articles per year. Acta Horticulturea was one of the most productive journal. Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology (Almaty) and the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan have worked productively to study high issues. United States Department of Agriculture and Swiss National Science Foundation with Karl Popper Foundation have supported scientific activity in the region. Top 15 highly cited articles were published within the framework of funded projects with international researchers. Researchers of Central Asia focused on walnut, grape and apple, studied on molecular level and cryopreservation of wild relatives for future use. Cherry, apricot, almond and pomegranate crops were less studied by researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0120.v1
Online: 11 November 2019 (04:53:34 CET)
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we don’t even have a solid idea of how many women hold leadership positions in STEM. This study determined the proportion of women in leadership positions in several academic STEM areas via a sampling of institutions across the United States and other countries. In every area studied, women held fewer leadership positions than the proportion of female PhDs in those fields. The proportion of women in non-STEM specific top academic leadership roles was also examined to see what proportion of those individuals leading academic institutions might have background in a STEM discipline and how that compares to men in the same positions. This study opens the door to exploring the experiences of women who lead in STEM, which is likely to promote women’s participation in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: preprints; open science; data; academic publishing
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:19:00 CEST)
This paper explores whether preprints can better support open science by providing links to other early-stage research outputs. This potentially has benefits for transparency and discoverability of research projects. By looking at preprint submission systems, online preprints and surveying those who run preprint servers, I examined to what extent this is currently possible. No preprints server provided a complete service, however many allowed the linking of several open science elements from the abstract page. I looked at variation based on subject, age, and size of preprint server. In conclusion, authors posting preprints should consider the options provided by different preprint servers. It appears that open science is just one focus of preprint servers and further improvements will be dependent on preprint server policies and priorities rather than overcoming any technical difficulties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: social-environmental systems; agent-based complex systems; sustainability science; agent-based models; artificial intelligence; data science
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:39:57 CEST)
A significant number and range of challenges besetting sustainability can be traced to the actions and interactions of multiple autonomous agents (people mostly) and the entities they create (e.g., institutions, policies, social network) in the corresponding social-environmental systems (SES). To address these challenges, we need to understand decisions made and actions taken by agents, the outcomes of their actions, including the feedbacks on the corresponding agents and environment. The science of Agent-based Complex Systems—ACS science—has a significant potential to handle such challenges. The advantages of ACS science for sustainability are addressed by way of identifying the key elements and challenges in sustainability science, the generic features of ACS, and the key advances and challenges in modeling ACS. Artificial intelligence and data science promise to improve understanding of agents’ behaviors, detect SES structures, and formulate SES mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: science communication; informal learning; public engagement; science in the media; entertainment media; data visualization; scientific visualization
Online: 1 March 2023 (06:23:52 CET)
Abstract This essay presents a real-world demonstration of the evidence-based science communication process, showing how it can be used to create scientific data visualizations for public audiences. Visualizing research data can be an important science communication tool. Maximizing its effectiveness has the potential to benefit millions of viewers. As with many forms of science communication, creators of such data visualizations typically rely on their own judgments and the views of the scientists providing the data to inform their science communication decision-making. But that leaves out a critical stakeholder in the communications pipeline: the intended audience. Here, we show the practical steps that our team - the Advanced Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - has taken to shift towards more evidence-based practice to enhance our science communication impact. We do this using concrete examples from our work on two scientific documentary films, one on the theme of ‘solar superstorms’ and the other focusing on the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. We used audience research with each of these films to inform our strategies and designs. We describe how such research evidence informed our understanding of ‘what works and why’ with cinematic-style data visualizations for the public. We close the essay with our key ‘take home’ messages from this evidence-based science communication process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: promising areas of research; bibliometric analysis; Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering; Web of Science; clustering
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:56:28 CEST)
This article identifies promising research areas on the PETROLEUM SCIENCE topic via bibliometric analysis of the 2018-2021 publications in the highly cited Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, which is included in the Journal Citation Reports Section: ENERGY & FUELS — Q2 Quartile, ENGINEERING, PETROLEUM — Q1 Quartile. Bibliometric metadata from Web of Science were used for 866 articles in 2018, 1,142 — in 2019, 1,138 — in 2020, and 1,832 in 2021. The clustering of articles was performed using the texts of the Title, Abstract, Keywords, and Keywords Plus fields. The demo version of the Lingo3G algorithm was used. For the two major clusters, the most promising research topics were determined by comparing the titles of the 350 most cited and 350 least cited articles for each year. The hypothesis that low-cited papers often have the same subject matter as high-cited papers of previous years is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Data Science; Genomic Data Science; Machine Learning; Network Analysis; RNA-Seq; Precision Medicine; Subtyping; Parkinson’s Disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:36:51 CET)
Precision medicine emphasizes fine-grained diagnostics, taking individual variability into account to enhance treatment effectiveness. Parkinson's Disease (PD) heterogeneity among individuals is a proof that disease subtypes exist, and assigning individuals to subgroups is necessary for a better understanding of disease mechanisms and designing precise treatment approaches. The purpose of this study was to identify PD subtypes using RNA-Seq data in a combined pipeline including unsupervised machine learning, bioinformatics, and network analysis. 210 post mortem brain RNA-Seq samples from PD (n = 115) and Normal Controls (NC, n = 95) were obtained with a systematic data retrieval following PRISMA statements and a fully data-driven clustering pipeline was performed to identify PD subtypes. Bioinformatics and Network analyses were performed to characterize the disease mechanisms of the identified PD subtypes and to identify target genes for drug repurposing. Two PD clusters were identified and 42 DEGs were found (p.adjusted ≤ 0.01). PD clusters had significantly different gene network structures (p < 0.0001) and phenotype-specific disease mechanisms, highlighting the differential involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulating adult neurogenesis. NEUROD1 was identified as a key regulator of gene networks and ISX9 and PD98059 were identified as NEUROD1-interacting compounds with disease-modifying potential, reducing the effects of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This hybrid data analysis approach could enable precision medicine applications by providing insights for the identification and characterization of pathological subtypes. This workflow has proven useful on PD brain RNA-Seq, but its application to other neurodegenerative diseases is encouraged.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0442.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: data science; advanced analytics; machine learning; deep learning; smart computing; decision-making; predictive analytics; data science applications;
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:28:09 CEST)
The digital world has a wealth of data, such as Internet of Things (IoT) data, business data, health data, mobile data, urban data, security data, and many more, in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting knowledge or useful insights from these data can be used for smart decision-making in various applications domains. In the area of data science, advanced analytics methods including machine learning modeling can provide actionable insights or deeper knowledge about data, which makes the computing process automatic and smart. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "Data Science'' including various types of advanced analytics methods that can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application through smart decision-making in different scenarios. We also discuss and summarize ten potential real-world application domains including business, healthcare, cybersecurity, urban and rural data science, and so on by taking into account data-driven smart computing and decision making. Based on this, we finally highlight the challenges and potential research directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point on data science and advanced analytics to the researchers and decision-makers as well as application developers, particularly from the data-driven solution point of view for real-world problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Accident; Accident connotation; Accident science; New definition of safety; Conceptual model of accident science; Discipline basic construction
Online: 19 October 2020 (09:25:37 CEST)
In order to establish a new discipline specializing in accident science from the perspective of safety science. Under the guidance of the current research theories and methods of safety science, combined with the research paradigm of humanities and social medicine, this paper puts forward new viewpoints, new theories and new models about accident research. First of all, through literature retrieval, this paper analyzes the relevant research results of accidents at home and abroad, and expounds the existing problems and the basic trend of accident science research. Secondly, it puts forward eight kinds of attribute relations of the accident, and makes clear the characteristics and connotation of the accident. In the study of accident types, a hierarchical classification model based on accident cognition is created for the first time. It also points out the logical relevance of five levels of accident science research and the realistic relevance of three levels. At the same time, according to the thought of science of science, this paper puts forward a new definition of safety under the thinking of accident science and other basic concepts related to safety science, and explains the connotation. In addition, it creates and constructs the basic concept of accident science, establishes the conceptual model of accident science, and points out the “3-4-5” model of accident science research and its connotation. Thirdly, draw lessons from the interdisciplinary paradigm to study the relevant theoretical basis and discipline classification relationship of accident science, and construct the tree of accident science. Finally, the research contents of three main aspects of accident science are summarized. The results show that the research results in this paper not only play a fundamental role in the basic construction of accident science, but also further enrich and perfect the discipline system of safety science, which has a certain theoretical significance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1926.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotion Regulation; Attention; Behavioral Science; Clinical implementation
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:23:28 CET)
This review explores the complex interrelationships between emotion, attention, and behavior, drawing upon empirical evidence from psychological, neuroscientific, and clinical studies. It delves into the neural mechanisms that underlie these interactions, with a focus on key brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Clinical cases involving stroke and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are examined to illustrate the real-world implications of these cognitive interactions. The review also discusses the impact of effective emotion regulation strategies and the role of attention as a cognitive mechanism that influences both emotion and behavior. Neuroimaging studies, particularly functional MRI, are highlighted for their role in providing a deeper understanding of these intricate relationships. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance of this triadic relationship in adaptive functioning and its broader implications for mental health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; schools; ocean literacy; citizen science; SDGs
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:14:18 CEST)
Human activities continue to degrade oceanic, coastal and inland waters. The generational change in the role of society in actively looking after the health of water resources can be achieved through the expansion of ocean and water literacy in schools. The Network of European Blue Schools established under the EU4Ocean Coalition for Ocean Literacy has improved ocean and water literacy; however, this Network needs to grow and be supported. Here we present ProBleu; a recently funded EU project that will expand and support the Network, partly through the use of citizen science. The core of the proposed methodology is facilitating school activities related to ocean and water literacy through funding calls to sustain and enrich current school activities, and kick-start and support new activities. The outcomes of the project are anticipated to have wide and long-term impacts across society, oceanic, coastal and inland water environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0441.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital learning; CiteSpace; visualization; Web of Science
Online: 29 July 2022 (02:48:11 CEST)
The objective of this research is to establish a better understanding of the current landscape of digital learning research and sustainable development by using CiteSpace. First, we retrieved published publications from the Web of Science (2004–2022). Following that, we examined the primary research strengths and important subjects of digital learning from two perspectives: collaboration networks (including collaborative networks across countries, institutions, and authors) and co-citation networks. We examined the co-citation network from three perspectives: cluster analysis, the most active citers, top references. Furthermore, referenced journals, popular themes, and rising trends were examined. These findings indicate the primary study subjects in the field of digital learning, the most intriguing research literature, and each period's emerging research hotspots. Finally, we proposed further study ideas for future paths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Citizen science; Colour pattern; geographic diversity; phylogeography
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:55:52 CEST)
The geographic variability of the dorsal pattern (DP) of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, across its native range was studied with the aim to understand whether the distributions of this phenotypic trait were more shaped by allopatric differentiation rather than adaptive processes. A total of 1298 georeferenced observations scattered across the Italian peninsula and the main islands (Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia) were obtained from citizen science databases and five DPs were characterized by different shapes of the dark pattern (“reticulated”, “campestris”, “reticulated/campestris” and “striped”) or by absence of it (“concolor”). Frequencies of different DP phenotypes differ between the two main mtDNA lineages settled in central-northern and in southern Italy respectively. This pattern may be indicative of a role of long-term allopatric historical processes in determining the observed pattern. The analysis also identified a putative wide area of secondary contact, in central southern Italy, characterized by high diversity of the DP. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), used to estimate a possible association between bioclimatic variables and the observed phenotypic variation, showed that each of the five DPs is correlated to different environmental factors and show different distribution of areas with high probability of occurrence. However, for all but one of the DPs, the area with the greatest probability does not correspond exactly to the real distribution of the DP. Conversely, the “concolor” phenotype does not seem related to any particular mtDNA lineage and it shows a preference for areas with high temperature and low rainfall. This is in agreement with the expectation of low amount of melanin of the dorsal pattern that, in the study areas, is characterized by a light uniform coloration which could confer a better thermoregulation ability in high temperatures environments avoiding overheating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chatbot technology; Artificial intelligence; Computer Science Education
Online: 18 August 2021 (13:57:15 CEST)
The number of AI applications in education is growing every day. One recent AI application in the educational sector is Chatbot technology, which is used to support teaching and administrative tasks. This document presents the design and implementation of a Chatbot called Tashi-Bot that helps applicants and university students to obtain information from an educational institution about certain academic and administrative processes. Among these are processes related to well-being, tuition, costs, admission, and other services. In order to design the Chatbot, an analysis of the state of the art, methodologies, and suitable tools was carried out, and a survey was conducted to discover the needs of users and their preferences in the use of a Chatbot for this specific purpose. Tashi-Bot was implemented on the SnatchBot platform and later deployed on a Telegram channel. In its evaluation, a final survey was carried out to check on the satisfaction of the users. The results suggest that Tashi-Bot could help applicants and university students to find information on academic and administrative processes with great certainty and without the need for human interaction. Tashi-Bot can be found at: https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=@TashiE_Bot..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: PUI; careers in science; primarily undergraduate institution
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:15:53 CET)
Scientists who hope to obtain a faculty position at a primarily undergraduate institution (PUI) need a distinct skill set and outlook on their future teaching and research career. To obtain a position at a PUI, candidates should 1) design a strategy for obtaining a faculty position that suits each individual’s career goals and aspirations, 2) prepare for the application process, on-campus interview, and contract negotiations, and 3) plan a strategy for the probationary period leading up to tenure and promotion. Given the different types of PUIs, candidates need to consider whether they seek a position that consists of all or mostly all teaching, or both teaching and research. Candidates should educate themselves on the expectations at PUI’s, including current thought, practice, and aspirations for science pedagogy, and gain teaching experience prior to seeking a suitable position. If the candidate’s goal is a position with both teaching and research, it is important to discuss with the current research mentor what projects the candidate can take with them to their new position. The candidate should also consider what types of projects will be successful with undergraduate student researchers in a PUI research environment Importantly, candidates should clearly demonstrate a commitment to diversity and inclusion in their teaching, research, and outreach, and application materials should demonstrate this. On interviews, candidates should be knowledgeable about the mission, values, and resources of the institution and how the candidate will contribute to that mission. Once hired, new faculty should discuss a formal or informal mentoring plan during the probationary period that includes peer evaluations on a regular basis, and maintain communication with the department chair or designated mentor regarding teaching, research, and service activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0443.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; open science; data; bibliometric; pandemic
Online: 22 April 2020 (06:15:34 CEST)
Introduction: The Pandemic of COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 motivated the scientific community to work together in order to gather, organize, process and distribute data on the novel biomedical hazard. Here, we analyzed how the scientific community responded to this challenge by quantifying distribution and availability patterns of the academic information related to COVID-19. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of the information flow and scientific collaboration, two factors we believe to be critical for finding new solutions for the ongoing pandemic. Materials and methods: The RISmed R package, and a custom Python script were used to fetch metadata on articles indexed in PubMed and published on Rxiv preprint server. Scopus was manually searched and the metadata was exported in BibTex file. Publication rate and publication status, affiliation and author count per article, and submission-to-publication time were analysed in R. Biblioshiny application was used to create a world collaboration map. Results: Our preliminary data suggest that COVID-19 pandemic resulted in generation of a large amount of scientific data, and demonstrates potential problems regarding the information velocity, availability, and scientific collaboration in the early stages of the pandemic. More specifically, our results indicate precarious overload of the standard publication systems, significant problems with data availability and apparent deficient collaboration. Conclusion: In conclusion, we believe the scientific community could have used the data more efficiently in order to create proper foundations for finding new solutions for the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, we believe we can learn from this on the go and adopt open science principles and a more mindful approach to COVID-19-related data to accelerate the discovery of more efficient solutions. We take this opportunity to invite our colleagues to contribute to this global scientific collaboration by publishing their findings with maximal transparency.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: theory; simulation; computational power; epochs, science history
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:25:26 CET)
History is often thought to be dull and boring – where large numbers of facts are memorized for passing exams. But the past informs the present and future, especially in delineating the context surrounding specific events that, in turn, help provide a deeper understanding of their causes and implications. Scientific progress (whether incremental or breakthroughs) is built upon prior work. Chronological examination of computational chemistry’s evolution reveals the existence of major “epochs” (e.g., transition from semi-empirical methods to first principles calculations), and the centrality of key ideas (e.g., Schrodinger equation and Born Oppenheimer approximation) in potentiating progress in the field. The longstanding question of whether computing power (both capacity and speed) or theoretical insights play a more important role in advancing computational chemistry was examined by taking into account the field’s development holistically. Specifically, availability of large amount of computing power at declining cost, and advent of graphics processing unit (GPU) powered parallel computing are enabling tools for solving hitherto intractable problems. On the other hand, this essay argues (using Born Oppenheimer approximation as an example) that theoretical insights’ role in unlocking problems through simple (but insightful) assumptions is often overlooked. Collectively, the essay should be useful as a primer for appreciating major development periods in computational chemistry, from which counterfactual questions illuminate the relative importance of theoretical insights and advances in computer science in moving the field forward.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: night; night science; night research; interdisciplinary research
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:25:27 CET)
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers, and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, research into social issues such as inequality, demographic changes, and the transition to a sustainable economy will be compromised if night is not considered. Recent years, however, have seen a surge in research into the night. We argue that “night studies” is on the cusp of coming into its own as an interdisciplinary field, and when it does, the field will consider questions that disciplinary researchers haven’t yet thought to ask.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosecurity; Dual-use; Plasmids; Sequencing; Science Policy
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:07:24 CET)
Recombinant laboratory plasmids (RLPs) are common in biological research and freely shared among academic research laboratories (ARLs), a practice required by many research funding agencies. However, the generation of accurate, reproducible results in experiments utilizing RLPs can be hampered by a lack of accompanying sequence information and metadata. This culture of RLP sharing without knowledge of sequence or etiology is accepted by publishers, not regulated by governments, and outside the realm of bio-industry. In addition, no centralized infrastructure currently exists to collate such data, which at the moment is fragmented across companies, non-profits, and governments and thus is not easily accessed or enacted toward threat assessment. The ubiquity, free exchange, and dual-use risk of RLPs exemplifies a biosecurity threat and elevates the need to characterize their composition to facilitate improved biorisk management by the academic community. A number of common sense solutions are available to create a culture that addresses the biosecurity gap posed by RLP sharing. Culture shift in RLP management will require new norms, effective data management for collation of RLP sequences and metadata, and an incentive structure that encourages sequencing by stakeholders. The next generation of researchers must initiate and champion this shift with support from funding agencies and endorsement from governments and international organizations. Coordination of efforts and stakeholders will require international public/private collaboration, a structure that will be critical to ensure widespread utility as well as the ability of lower-resourced partners to participate, contribute, and benefit.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: regeneration; bioelectricity; planaria; bistability; memory; cognitive science
Online: 28 November 2019 (03:12:53 CET)
Nervous systems and brains’ computational abilities are an evolutionary innovation, specializing and speed-optimizing ancient biophysical dynamics. Bioelectric signaling originated in cells’ communication with the outside world and with each other, in order to cooperate toward adaptive construction and repair of multicellular bodies. Here we review the emerging field of developmental bioelectricity, which links the field of basal cognition to state-of-the-art questions in regenerative medicine, synthetic bioengineering, cognitive science, and even machine learning and artificial intelligence. One of the predictions of this view is that regeneration and regulative development are able to restore correct large-scale anatomies from diverse starting states because, like the brain, they exploit bioelectric encoding of distributed goal states - in this case, pattern memories. Based on this idea, we propose a new interpretation of recent stochastic regenerative phenotypes in planaria, by appealing to computational models of memory representation and processing in the brain. Moreover, we discuss novel findings showing that bioelectric changes induced in planaria can be stored in tissue for over a week, thus revealing that somatic bioelectric circuits in vivo can implement a long-term, re-writable memory medium. A consideration of the mechanisms, evolution, and functionality of basal cognition makes novel predictions and provides an integrative perspective on the evolution, physiology, and biomedicine of information processing in vivo.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: orthodox soil science, alternative practices, corrective strategies
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:43:00 CET)
In Australia, orthodox soil scientists and alternative practitioners who promote ‘regenerative agriculture’ have not been communicating and engaging effectively with each other. Over many years scientists in CSIRO, state departments and universities have made significant achievements in mapping soil distribution, describing soil behaviour and identifying key soil properties and processes that are fundamental to healthy soil function. However, many alternative practitioners are dismissive of these achievements and highly critical of orthodox soil science. Yet many of the tools of soil science are essential to conduct evidence-based research towards elucidating how and why the exceptional results claimed by some alternative practitioners are achieved. We stress the importance of effective engagement and communication among all parties to resolve this ‘clash of cultures’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0153.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Cosmic-rays; Citizien Science; Extensive air showers
Online: 8 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
The Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is a project dedicated to global studies of extremely extended cosmic-ray phenomena, the cosmic-ray ensembles (CRE), beyond the capabilities of existing detectors and observatories. Up to date cosmic-ray research has been focused on detecting single air showers, while the search for ensembles of cosmic-rays, which may overspread a significant fraction of the Earth, is a scientific terra incognita. Instead of developing and commissioning a completely new global detector infrastructure, CREDO proposes approaching the global cosmic-ray analysis objectives with all types of available detectors, from professional to pocket size, merged into a worldwide network. With such a network it is possible to search for evidences of correlated cosmic-ray ensembles. One of the observables that can be investigated in CREDO is a number of spatially isolated events collected in a small time window which could shed light on fundamental physics issues. The CREDO mission and strategy requires active engagement of a large number of participants, also non-experts, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g. smartphones). In this note the status and perspectives of the project is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: spirit of science; definition; attribute; model; characteristics
Online: 18 August 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
Spirit of science is one of the important components of science education theory. It not only directly affects the level of science education, but also indirectly affects the selection, education and evaluation of scientific researchers, and the development of science and technology in a country or region. Although more than a century ago, the researchers began to discuss the topic of spirit of science. However, to date, the research of the definition, attribute, structural model and its characteristics of the spirit of science has not yet made a breakthrough. Based on the detailed literature review, the related theoretical analysis and the research of the structural model of the spirit of science, this paper puts forward the new definition, the attribute and the establishment of the structural model of the spirit of science, and analyzes the match the situation from new structural model of the spirit of science and the scientific nature published by the American Society for the Advancement of Science. The results of this study are of great significance for raising the level of scientific education and cultivating future scientific researchers, enhancing their motivation and skills in innovation in scientific research and promoting the development of future scientific undertakings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Lead, children's health, zinc, soil, citizen-science
Online: 18 June 2018 (15:14:55 CEST)
An ambitious citizen-science effort in the city of Indianapolis (Indiana, USA) led to the collection and analysis of a large number of samples at the property scale, facilitating the analysis of differences in soil metal concentrations as a function of property location (i.e., dripline, yard, and street) and location within the city. This effort indicated that dripline soils had substantially higher values of lead and zinc than other soil locations on a given property, and this pattern was heightened in properties nearer the urban core. Soil lead values typically exceeded the levels deemed safe for children’s play areas in the US (<400 ppm), and almost always exceeded safe gardening guidelines (<200 ppm). As a whole, this study identified locations within properties, and cities, that exhibited the highest exposure risk to children, and also exhibited the power of citizen science to produce data at a spatial scale (i.e., within a property boundary) that is usually impossible to feasibly collect in a typical research study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: infrastructure-as-code; reproducibility; virtualization; containerization; open science
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:39:04 CEST)
Verifying published findings in bioinformatics through independent validation is challenging, mainly when accounting for differences in software and hardware to recreate computational environments. Reproducing a computational environment that closely mimics the original proves intricate and demands a significant investment of time. In this paper, we present a case study on how a recently proposed reproducibility framework named Environment Code-First (ECF) based on the Infrastructure-as-Code approach can improve the implementation and reproduction of computing environments by reducing complexity and manual intervention. We detail the steps needed to implement the computational environment of a bioinformatics pipeline named MetaWorks from the perspective of the scientist who owns the research work. Also, we present the steps taken to recreate the environment from the point of view of one who wants to reproduce the published results of a research work. This exercise compares the manual way of implementing the pipeline and the automated method proposed by the ECF framework, showing real metrics regarding time consumption, efforts, manual intervention, and platform agnosticism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: data science; artificial intelligence; machine-learning; digital medicine
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:11:45 CEST)
Recent advances in mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence have challenged the use of traditional regression analysis in biomedical research. This study examined artificial and cancer research data using binomial and multinomial logistic regression and compared its performance with other machine learning models such as random forests, support vector machines, Bayesian classifiers, k-nearest neighbours and repeated incremental clipping (RIPPER). The alternative models often outperformed regression in accurately classifying new cases. Logistic regression had a structural problem similar to early single-layer neural networks, which limited its ability to identify variables with high statistical significance for reliable class assignment. Therefore, regression is not always the best model for class prediction in biomedical datasets. The study emphasises the importance of validating selected models and suggests that a mixture of experts approach may be a more advanced and effective strategy for analysing biomedical datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Daisyworld; homeostasis; Earth Systems Science; synthetic biology; terraformation
Online: 31 July 2023 (09:50:42 CEST)
The idea that the Earth system self-regulates in a habitable state was proposed in the 1970s by James Lovelock, who conjectured that life plays a self-regulatory role on a planetary-level scale. A formal approach to such hypothesis was presented afterwards under a toy model known as the Daisyworld. The model showed how such life-geosphere homeostasis was an emergent property of the system, where two species with different properties adjusted their populations to the changing external environment. So far, this ideal world exists only as a mathematical or computational construct, but it would be desirable to have a real, biological implementation of Lovelock's picture beyond our one Biosphere. Inspired in the exploration of synthetic ecosystems using genetic engineering and recent cell factory designs, here we propose such a living, microbial Daisyworld. This is based on a synthetic microbial ecosystem using pH as the external, abiotic control parameter. Several case studies are considering, including two, three and multiple species assemblies. Despite that oscillatory dynamics and chaos emerge in the latter case, it is shown that global regulation is also achieved in most cases as species diversity increases. The alternative implementations and their implications of this model in other synthetic biology scenarios, including ecosystem engineering, are outlined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: metastability; computational neuroscience; neuroimaging; dynamical systems; complexity science
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:09:46 CEST)
Healthy brain functioning depends on balancing stable integration between brain areas for effective coordinated functioning, with bursts of desynchronisation to allow subsystems to reconfigure and express functional specialisation. Metastability, a concept originated in statistical physics and dynamical systems theory, has been proposed as a key signature that characterises this balance. Building on this principle, the neuroscience literature has employed markers of metastability to investigate various aspects of brain function including cognitive performance, healthy ageing, meditation, sleep, responses to pharmacological challenges, and to characterise psychiatric conditions or disorders of consciousness. However, this body of work often uses the notion of metastability heuristically, and sometimes inaccurately, making it hard for the uninitiated to navigate the vast literature, interpret findings, and foster further development of theoretical and experimental methodologies. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of metastability and its applications in neuroscience, covering its scientific and historical foundations and the practical estimators used to estimate it in empirical data. We also provide a critical analysis of recent theoretical developments, clarifying common misconceptions and paving the road for future developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1231.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Boycott; institutional sustainability; institutional trust; legal system; science
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:41:36 CEST)
Institutional sustainability is a dynamic and multifaceted concept that relies on the contributions of various institutions, including the legal and the scientific system. On the other side, consumers boycotts are an expression of political consumerism by which consumers can use their market power to attain sustainability objectives. This article explores institutional trust on the legal system and trust on scientists as potential drivers for consumers’ boycotts. Using data retrieved from the European Social Survey covering twenty-five countries, the study employs binary logistic regression to assess the importance of institutional trust and other potential drivers of product boycotts in Europe. Results confirm that boycotting behaviour is affected by institutional trust, as well as other individual variables including gender, age and life-cycle effects, education, interest in politics and level of satisfaction with the political system, generalized trust, personal well-being, and consumers’ use and perceptions of information and communication technologies. The results of this study enrich the literature on consumer boycotts and have implications for policymakers involved in sustainability initiatives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: digital health; sports science; global research; bibliometrics; Citespace
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:21:27 CEST)
Digital health has gained widespread adoption across various disciplines. Within the field of sport science, there is growing interest in digital health, leading to a surge in research activities. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric and visualization analysis, tracing the evolutionary trajectory, identifying research hotspots, and uncovering emerging trends in digital health within the domain of sport science. By doing so, this research aims to offer scholars a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic landscape in this field. To achieve this, the Web of Science core collection was chosen as the primary database. A thorough literature search was performed, focusing on digital health and sport science, resulting in the screening of 1870 English-language documents. The findings revealed a consistent upward growth trend in the annual publication count from 2010 to 2023. Notably, the United States, specifically the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, and John B. Cronin, emerged as the most prolific contributors in terms of publications. Collaborative efforts among countries, institutions, and authors were also observed. The research hotspots identified encompassed several areas, including the evaluation of digital health technologies' effectiveness, exploration of the relationship between digital health technologies and physical activity/exercise performance, and the use of digital health technologies in assessing and rehabilitating sports injuries. Among the prominent digital health technologies employed in these studies were virtual reality, social media, and wearable devices. The predominant types of studies utilized meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and cross-sectional studies. Looking towards the future, the study identified several key research trends. These include the exploration of telemedicine, artificial intelligence-based machine learning, therapeutic interventions, and physical therapy within the realm of digital health. These emerging areas signify promising directions for future investigation and development in the field of digital health within sport science.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Womens Health; Data Science; Data Methods; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:48:58 CEST)
Abstract ObjectivesThe aim of this perspective is to report the use of synthetic data as a viable method in women’s health given the current challenges linked to obtaining life-course data within a short period of time and accessing electronic healthcare data. Methods We used a 3-point perspective method to report an overview of data science, common applications, and ethical implications. Results There are several ethical challenges linked to using real-world data, consequently, generating synthetic data provides an alternative method to conduct comprehensive research when used effectively. The use of clinical characteristics to develop synthetic data is a useful method to consider. Aligning this data as closely as possible to the clinical phenotype would enable researchers to provide data that is very similar to that of the real-world. Discussion Population diversity and disease characterisation is important to optimally use data science. There are several artificial intelligence techniques that can be used to develop synthetic data. ConclusionSynthetic data demonstrates promise and versatility when used efficiently aligned to clinical problems. Therefore, exploring this option as a viable method in women’s health, in particular for epidemiology may be useful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0757.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; Vaccine; Medical Science Students; Mandatory Policy
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:01:57 CEST)
Introduction. Covid-19 faced the world with serious health and socioeconomic issues. At the very beginning of the pandemics, the vaccine was considered by health authorities and the medical community the only way to curb the spread of the virus. One of the measures that have been proposed to increase vaccinations was the mandatory policy. The purpose of this study was to compare determinants of voluntary and mandatory vaccination among students of Albanian University. Methodology: This cross-sectional study by means of an online survey, was conducted among students enrolled in the private University “Albanian University”, Tirana, Albania during the last week of winter semester 7-14 Feb 2022. Results: 878 students participated in this study, among them 612 (69.7%) were females, 266 (30%) were males. 506 (57%) of the participants were enrolled in Medical Sciences (MS), 372(42.3%) were Non-Medical Science (Non-MS) group. 773 (88%) was vaccinated against Covid-19, 105 (11.8%) were not vaccinated. 466 (53%) reported voluntary vaccination, 412 (46.9%) reported mandatory vaccination. Among students that vaccinated voluntary 266 (57%) were from MS group, 200(42.9%) from Non-MS group. 237(57.5%) of students in mandatory vaccination group were from MS group, 175 (42.4%) from Non-MS. Conlusion. Vaccine safety and efficacy were hindering factors of vaccination. Also, based on the results of this study, the students felt encouraged to vaccinate by the academic staff. This clearly demonstrates that the staff does not lack the skills to enhance stu-dents' knowledge about the risk of infectious diseases and the importance of vaccination. Therefore, to influence as much as possible students’ attitude toward vaccination, comprehensive educational programs including modification of existing curricula should be considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: ventilation; airflow; healthcare facilities; web of science; bibliometric
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:07:50 CET)
Over the years, researchers have been developing different ventilation strategies as a potential solution for controlling infectious airborne transmissions in healthcare facilities. The effects of ventilation systems on airflow characteristics have been extensively discussed among researchers since SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in 2019. Based on a bibliometric study of 154 publications from 1970 to 2021 retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database, this paper examines the research landscape on the effects of ventilation strategies on airflow analysis in healthcare facilities. Results show that China is the most productive country due to its significant contributions to the top prolific authors and funding agencies, which have promoted the research development of the topic. Several research hotspots were identified through keyword co-occurrence analysis. Cluster 1 highlights the ventilation studies involving ventilation layouts and ventilation rates in healthcare facilities. Cluster 2 underlines the computational analysis of ventilation performance for reducing the exposure risk of occupants, which promotes the development of infection control measures. Cluster 3 strengthens the knowledge of the emission and dispersion characteristics of respiratory droplets in healthcare facilities. Overall, this paper highlights the future direction of the current research field other than identifying strategic collaborators and suitable publication outlets for interested researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0503.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: political legitimacy; science policy; technology policy, technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:44:44 CET)
The underlying assumption of the discourse about technology transfer is that government intervention is legitimate. Little scholarship has examined whether this assumption is valid or not and on what basis. Legitimacy is an important construct in the context of public policy. Government intervention can only be sustained if the public views such action as legitimate. The creation and transfer of technologies to the private sector is an area where there is significant government intervention. This paper reconceptualizes political legitimacy in the context of technology transfer policy. The analysis illuminates several concerns and challenges regarding the traditional approach to understanding whether specific government interventions in technology transfer are legitimate. It subsequently applies social constructionism and the notion of morality tales to describe an alternative conceptualization of political legitimacy that integrates aspects of other frameworks. In doing so, it reimagines political legitimacy as less of an unattainable normative principle of limited practical value to policymakers and more of a descriptively understood social phenomenon that policymakers can apply while formulating not only technology transfer policy, but other kinds of public policy as well. The paper demonstrates that there is a broader basis for claims of political legitimacy for government intervention in technology transfer, there is likely a more expansive range of technology transfer problems with which the government can rightly concern itself as well as possible solutions that policymakers can justifiably consider for addressing those problems, and that the political consequences of potential overreach in technology transfer policy are likely minimal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0107.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital transformation; Covid-19; Bibliometrics; Web of Science
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:13:57 CEST)
The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has brought with it an increase in the use of digital platforms and an exponential increase in the number of scientific papers worldwide. The purpose of this study is to show a global overview of the digital transformation from 1975 to the present (2021). The main collection of the Web of Science database was used to retrieve global scientific production on digital transformation. Bibliometric indicators of production, visibility, impact, and collaboration were analyzed to assess research progress on the topic. The results show that digital transformation is a construct of recent development, increasingly relevant and transdisciplinary, with a clear growth after the declaration of the global COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: lung ultrasound; implementation science; point of care ultrasound
Online: 1 July 2021 (07:43:46 CEST)
Despite the many advantages of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis and management of patients with dyspnea, adoption among hospitalists has been slow. We performed semi-structured interviews of hospitalists from 4 diverse health systems in the US to understand determinants of adoption within a range of clinical settings. We used the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to guide a framework analysis of the data. Of 27 hospitalists invited, we performed in-terviews of 22 from 4 hospitals of diverse types. Median years post-residency of interviewees was 10.5 [IQR:5-15]. Four main themes emerged: 1) There are important clinical advantages to LUS despite operator dependence, 2) LUS enhances patient and clinician experience, 3) Investment of clinician time to learn and perform LUS is a barrier to adoption but yields improved efficiency for the health system and 4) Mandated training and use may be necessary to achieve broad adoption as monetary incentives are less effective. Despite perceived benefits of LUS for patients, clinicians and health systems, an important barrier to broad LUS adoption is the experience of time scarcity by hospitalists. Future implementation strategies should focus on changes to the clinical environment that address clinician barriers to learning and adoption of new skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0554.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: philosophy of science; information; artificial life; scales; causality
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:59:04 CEST)
When we attempt to define life, we tend to refer to individuals, those that are alive. But these individuals might be cells, organisms, colonies... ecosystems? We can describe living systems at different scales. Which ones might be the best ones to describe different selves? I explore this question using concepts from information theory, ALife, and Buddhist philosophy. After brief introductions, I review the implications of changing the scale of observation, and how this affects our understanding of selves at different structural, temporal, and informational scales. The conclusion is that there is no single ``best'' scale for a self, as this will depend on the scale at which decisions must be made. Different decisions, different scales.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy; transparency; quality; reproducibility; open science; best practice
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:10:38 CEST)
Energy use is of crucial importance for the global challenge of climate change but also an essential part of daily life. Hence, research on energy needs to be robust and valid. Other scientific disciplines have experienced a reproducibility crisis, that is, existing findings could not be reproduced in new studies, and energy research might be impacted as well. In this paper, we suggest the ‘TReQ’ approach to improve the research practices in the energy field and arrive at greater Transparency, Reproducibility, and Quality. We acknowledge the specific challenges of energy research and suggest a highly adaptable suite of tools that can be applied to research approaches across this multi-disciplinary and fast-changing field. In particular, we introduce preregistration of studies, making data and code publicly available, using preprints, and employing reporting guidelines to heighten the standard of research practices within the energy field. We argue that through wider adoption of these tools, we will be able to have greater trust in the findings of research used to inform evidence-based policy and practice in the energy field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0302.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: open science; open access; open data; economic impacts
Online: 27 May 2019 (11:19:59 CEST)
A common motivation for increasing open access to research findings and data is the potential to create economic benefits – but evidence is patchy and diverse. This study systematically reviewed the evidence on what kinds of economic impacts (positive and negative) open science can have, how these comes about, and how benefits could be maximized. Use of open science outputs often leaves no obvious trace, so most evidence of impacts is based on interviews, surveys, inference based on existing costs, and modelling approaches. There is indicative evidence that open access to findings/data can lead to savings in access costs, labour costs and transaction costs. There are examples of open science enabling new products, services, companies, research and collaborations. Modelling studies suggest higher returns to R&D if open access permits greater accessibility and efficiency of use of findings. Barriers include lack of skills capacity in search, interpretation and text mining, and lack of clarity around where benefits accrue. There are also contextual considerations around who benefits most from open science (e.g. sectors, small vs larger companies, types of dataset). Recommendations captured in the review include more research, monitoring and evaluation (including developing metrics), promoting benefits, capacity building and making outputs more audience-friendly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: cognitive science; signal processing; control theory; cultural processes
Online: 11 January 2019 (05:02:32 CET)
Simple patterns often arise from complex systems. For example, human perception of similarity decays exponentially with perceptual distance. The ranking of word usage versus the frequency at which the words are used has a log-log slope of minus one. Recent advances in big data provide an opportunity to characterize the commonly observed patterns of nature. Those observed regularities set the challenge of understanding the mechanistic processes that generate common patterns. This article illustrates the problem with the recent big data analysis of collective memory. Collective memory follows a simple biexponential pattern of decay over time. An initial rapid decay is followed by a slower, longer lasting decay. Candia et al. successfully fit a two stage model of mechanistic process to that pattern. Although that fit is useful, this article emphasizes the need, in big data analyses, to consider a broad set of alternative causal explanations. In this case, the method of signal frequency analysis yields several simple alternative models that generate exactly the same observed pattern of collective memory decay. This article concludes that the full potential of big data will require better methods for developing alternative, empirically testable causal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0002.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: universe expansion law; redshifts; distances; history of science
Online: 2 December 2018 (10:18:30 CET)
Based on historical facts, revisited from a present-day perspective, and on the documented opinions of the scientists involved in the discovery themselves, strong arguments are given in favor of a proposal to include prominent astronomer Vesto Slipher to the suggested addition of Georges Lemaître's name to Hubble's law on the expansion of the Universe, and thus eventually call it Hubble-Lemaître-Slipher's (HLS) law.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Open Science, Data Sharing, Neuroimaging, Reproducibility, Transparency, Reform
Online: 27 September 2018 (11:50:12 CEST)
Ongoing debates regarding the virtues and challenges of implementing open science for brain imaging research mirror those of the larger scientific community. The present commentary acknowledges the merits of arguments on both sides, as well as the underlying realities that have forced so many to feel the need to resist the implementation of an ideal. Potential sources of top-down reform are discussed, along with the factors that threaten to slow their progress. The potential roles of generational change and the individual are discussed, and a starter list of actionable steps that any researcher can take, big or small, is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0003.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-1A; TanDEM-X science phase; wetlands mapping
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
This research is related to the eco-hydrological problems of herbaceous wetland drying and biodiversity loss in the floodplain lakes of the Middle Basin of the Biebrza river (Poland). An experiment was set up, whose main goals were: (i) mapping the vegetation types and the temporarily or permanently flooded areas, and (ii) comparing the usefulness of C-band Sentinel-1A (S1A) and X-band TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (TSX/TDX) for mapping purposes. The S1A imagery was acquired on a regular basis using the dual polarization VV/VH and the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode. The TSX/TDX data were acquired in quad-pol, a fully polarimetric mode, during the Science Phase. The paper addresses the following aspects: i) wetland mapping with S1A multi-temporal series; ii) wetland mapping with fully polarimetric TSX/TDX data; iii) comparing the wetland mapping using dual polarization TSX/TDX subsets, i.e. HH-HV, HH-VV and VV-VH; iv) comparing wetland mapping using S1A and TSX/TDX data based on the same polarization (VV-VH); v) studying the suitability of the Shannon Entropy for wetland mapping; and vi) assessing the contribution of interferometric coherence for wetland classification. The experimental results show main limitations of the S1A dataset, while they highlight the good accuracy that can be achieved using the TSX/TDX data, especially those taken in fully polarimetric mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0004.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: design process; installations; science centres; museums; visitor engagement
Online: 1 September 2017 (18:01:32 CEST)
Museums and Science Centres are informal education environments that intend to engage the visitors with their exhibits. We present an efficient design process that allows an improved working relationship between museum practitioners, exhibition designers, and visitors. We present the principles and a graphical representation based on the Engagement Profile from previous work. Elements of the design process are evaluated using a learning game at the science centre Engineerium. The evaluation is based on a study with over five hundred visitors to the science centre.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0061.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: scientific materialism; genetics; reincarnation; soul; religions; science; Buddhism
Online: 21 July 2017 (05:18:59 CEST)
Scientific materialism is the largely unquestioned basis for modern science's understanding of life. It also holds enormous sway beyond science and thus has increasingly marginalized religious perspectives. Yet it is easy to find behavioral phenomena from the accepted literature that seriously challenge materialism. A number of these phenomena are very suggestive of reincarnation. The larger test for science's paradigm, though, as well as for any potential general import from reincarnation - is the DNA (or genetics)-based model of heredity. If that conception-beget, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-carried model can be confirmed at the individual level then in a very substantial way we would be confirmed as material-only creatures. In particular, can behavioral genetics and personal genomics confirm their DNA-based presumptions? During the last decade enormous efforts have been made to find the DNA origins for a number of health and behavioral tendencies. These efforts have been an "absolutely beyond belief" failure and it is here that the scientific vision faces its biggest challenge. The common premodern reincarnation understanding, on the other hand, fits well on a number of specific conundrums and offers a broad coherence across this unfolding missing heritability mystery. For people trying to make sense of a religious perspective or simply questioning materialism, you should be looking at the missing heritability problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Sensors; Sensor research; Research fields; Technological trajectories; Biosensors; Wearable sensors; Wireless sensor network; Evolution of science; Dynamics of science; Scientific development
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:19:44 CEST)
The fundamental question in the field of sensor research is new directions of scientific fields, which play a vital role in the progress of science and technology. This study confronts this question here by developing a bibliometric analysis, which endeavors to explain the evolution of sensor research and new technologies that are critical to science and society. The database of Scopus concerning scientific documents and patents is used for statistical and computational analyses in these topics. Results suggest that emerging technological trajectories in sensors are wireless sensor networks, wearable sensors and biosensors. Main characteristics of these growing research fields and technologies in sensors are described for fruitful implications of research and innovation policy directed to science advances and technological change in society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0612.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Academic journals; Growth of knowledge; Non-peer review; Paradigm change; Peer review; Scholarly communication; Science communication; Simplicity
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
This article challenges the assumption that journals and peer review are essential for developing, evaluating and disseminating scientific and other academic knowledge. It suggests a more flexible ecosystem, and examines some of the possibilities this might facilitate. The market for academic outputs should be opened up by encouraging the separation of the dissemination service from the evaluation service. Publishing research in subject-specific journals encourages compartmentalising research into rigid categories. The dissemination of knowledge would be better served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines. There would then be a role for organisations to assess the items in this repository to help users find relevant, high-quality work. There could be a variety of such organisations which could enable reviews from peers to be supplemented with evaluation by non-peers from a variety of different perspectives: user reviews, statistical reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. This should reduce the inevitably conservative influence of relying on two or three peers, and make the evaluation system more critical, multi-dimensional and responsive to the requirements of different audience groups, changing circumstances, and new ideas. Non-peer review might make it easier to challenge dominant paradigms, and expanding the potential audience beyond a narrow group of peers might encourage the criterion of simplicity to be taken more seriously - which is essential if human knowledge is to continue to progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1055.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wetland; ecosystem services; land cover; biodiversity; sustainability; citizen science
Online: 16 November 2023 (07:47:05 CET)
Wetland ecosystems provide valuable services to human beings, but they are also among the most threatened ecosystems in the world (1). Sixteen ecosystem services are identified through the South African Water Research Commission's Wet-Health Tool (2). This study sought to establish which of these ecosystem services are highly ranked/rated by the community members living in the Soutpansberg area in South Africa. This area is a strategic water source/watershed. The area is rich in biodiversity and is also experiencing competing administrative jurisdictions: the local traditional leadership and the municipal council. This study also sought to determine the influence of age, education status, employment status, and family income, among other demographic factors, on how people view the importance of services derived from wetlands. It also sought to establish whether people in urban settings view the ecosys-tem services obtained from wetlands similarly to people in rural settings. A literature review was conducted to understand the wetland ecosystem services and how communities benefit from these services. A close-ended questionnaire was used to collect data for the current study, which was circulated among the villagers around the wetlands, particularly those living close to the wetlands. One hundred and sixteen responses from the study were recorded. Food for livestock was ranked the greatest benefit or service derived from the wetlands rated by 82% of the participants, followed by the provision of cultivated foods at 60%, provision of water for human use at 58%, provision of harvestable resources at 42% and erosion control at 38% completes the top 5 ranked ecosystem services in the area. The study concluded that the participants living in rural areas had greater awareness of wetlands' ecosystem services than their urban counterparts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0741.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Proteins, Protein Science; Structure validation; Ramachandran Plot; Complementarity Plot
Online: 14 November 2023 (17:02:04 CET)
A picture is worth a thousand words. Many branches of Science have been historically benefited with plots and visual analyses (lately, image processing and deep learning) alongside with traditional number crunching. In Molecular Biophysics, one such problem is the structure validation problem in proteins which stands with a history of plot-tools being effectively serving the complex problem to its complete resolution. Spanning across six decades, validation of protein structures (from experimental to modeled) dates back to the legendary Ramachandran Plot (with its never ending growth and modern-day applications) to the relatively recent innovation of the Complementarity Plot (CP), establishing the dual nature of complementarity as the physical basis of both binding and folding of proteins. Lately, CP has been extended to serve as a trustworthy free energy predictor utilizing supervised learning in the form of a comprehensive web-server (EnCPdock: https://www.scinetmol.in/EnCPdock/) that can be directly used in the design of protein interfaces. The commentary recapitulate the history of structure validation with a special emphasis on plot tools, highlighting key features and important discoveries worth re-visiting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0314.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: smart textiles; bibliometric analysis; science mapping; research trends; hotspots
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:49:08 CEST)
According to ISO/TR 23383, smart textiles reversibly interact with their environment and respond or adapt to changes in the environment. The present review and bibliometric analysis was performed on 5,810 documents (1989–2022) from the Scopus database, using VOSviewer and Bibliometrix/Biblioshiny for science mapping. The results show that the field of smart textiles is highly interdisciplinary and dynamic, with an average growth rate of 22% and exponential growth in the last 10 years. Beeby, S.P., and Torah, R.N. have published the highest number of papers, while Wang, Z.L. has the highest number of citations. The leading journals are Sensors, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, and Textile Research Journal, while Advanced Materials has the highest number of citations. China is the country with the most publications and the most extensive cooperative relationships with other countries. Research on smart textiles is largely concerned with new materials and technologies, particularly in relation to electronic textiles. Recent research focuses on energy generation (triboelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectrics, Joule heating), conductive materials (MXenes, liquid metal, silver nanoparticles), sensors (strain sensors, self-powered sensors, gait analysis), specialty products (artificial muscles, soft robotics, EMI shielding), and advanced properties of smart textiles (self-powered, self-cleaning, washable, sustainable smart textiles).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data mining; data extraction; data science; cost infrastructure projects
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:25:22 CEST)
Context: Despite the effort put into developing standards for structuring construction cost, and the strong interest into the field. Most construction companies still perform the process of data gathering and processing manually. That provokes inconsistencies, different criteria when classifying, misclassifications, and the process becomes very time-consuming, particularly on big projects. Additionally, the lack of standardization makes very difficult the cost estimation and comparison tasks. Objective: To create a method to extract and organize construction cost and quantity data into a consistent format and structure, to enable rapid and reliable digital comparison of the content. Method: The approach consists of a two-step method: Firstly, the system implements data mining to review the input document and determine how it is structured based on the position, format, sequence, and content of descriptive and quantitative data. Secondly, the extracted data is processed and classified with a combination of data science and experts’ knowledge to fit a common format. Results: A big variety of information coming from real historical projects has been successfully extracted and processed into a common format with 97.5% of accuracy, using a subset of 5770 assets located on 18 different files, building a solid base for analysis and comparison. Conclusion: A robust and accurate method was developed for extracting hierarchical project cost data to a common machine-readable format to enable rapid and reliable comparison and benchmarking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: soccer; psychology; research trends; data science; topic modeling; bibliometric
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:20:09 CEST)
This study aims to identify the knowledge structure and research trends of soccer psychology research during the last 33 years (1990–2022). Data were obtained from 1,863 papers from the Web of Science database. The data were collected through keyword text mining and data preprocessing to determine the keywords needed for analysis. Based on the keywords, latent Dirichlet allocation-based topic modeling analysis was performed to analyze the topic distribution of papers and explore research trends by topic area. The topic modeling process included four topic area and fifty topics. The “Coaching Essentials in Football” topic area had the highest frequency, but it was not statistically identified as a trend. However, coaching, including training, is expected to continue to be an important research topic, as it is a key requirement for success in the highly competitive elite football world. Interest in the research field of “Psychological Skills for Performance Development” has waned in recent years. This may be due to the predominance of other subject areas rather than a lack of interest. Various high-tech interventions and problem-solving attempts are being made in this field, providing opportunities for qualitative and quantitative expansion. “Motivation, cognition, and emotion” is a largely underrated subject area in soccer psychology. This could be because survey-based psychological evaluation attempts have decreased as the importance of rapid field application has been emphasized in recent soccer-related studies. However, measuring psychological factors contributes to the study of football psychology through a new methodology and theoretical background. Recognizing the important role of psychological factors in player performance and mental management, as well as presenting new research directions and approaches that can be directly applied to the field, will advance soccer psychology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0596.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Bayesian analysis; calibration; citizen science; spatiotemporal methods; spectral analysis
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:11:18 CEST)
The escalating frequency and severity of global wildfires necessitate an in-depth understanding and monitoring of wildfire smoke impacts, specifically its contribution to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We propose a data-fusion method to study wildfire contribution to PM2.5 using satellite-derived smoke plume indicators and PM2.5 monitoring data. Our study incorporates two types of monitoring data, the high-quality but sparse Air Quality System (AQS) stations and the abundant but less accurate PurpleAir (PA) sensors that are gaining popularity among citizen scientists. We propose a multi-resolution spatiotemporal model specified in the spectral domain to calibrate the PA sensors against accurate AQS measurements, and leverage the two networks to estimate wildfire contribution to PM2.5 in California in 2020 and 2021. A Bayesian approach is taken to incorporate all uncertainties and our prior intuition that the dependence between networks, as well as the accuracy of PA network, vary by frequency. We find that 1% to 3% increase in PM2.5 concentration due to wildfire smoke, and that leveraging PA sensors improves accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1513.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adaptive Gamification; Science Education; Adapted game Elements; Students' Motivation
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, gamification has captured the attention of researchers and educators, particularly in science education, where students often express negative emotions. Gamification methods aim to motivate learners to participate in learning by incorporating intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. However, the effectiveness of gamification has yielded varying outcomes, prompting researchers to explore adaptive gamification as an alternative approach. Nevertheless, there needs to be more research on adaptive gamification approaches, particularly concerning motivation, which is the primary objective of gamification. In this study, we developed and tested an adaptive gamification environment based on specific motivational and psychological frameworks. This environment incorporated adaptive criteria, learning strategies, gaming elements, and all crucial aspects of science education for six classes of 3rd-grade students in primary school. We employed a quantitative approach to gain insights into the motivational impact on students and their perception of the adaptive gamification application. We aimed to understand how each game element experienced by students influenced their motivation. The findings of our study revealed encouraging results in terms of increased motivation and engagement among students, as well as the influence of different game elements when connected with an individual's profile based on a multidimensional adaptive framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change, antimicrobial resistance, earth science, risk mapping, transdisciplinarity
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:27:23 CET)
Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global and planetary health challenge. Links between climate change, antibiotic use and the emergence of antibiotic resistance have been well documented, but less attention has been given to the impact(s) of earth systems on specific bacterial livestock diseases at a more granular level. Understanding the precise impacts of climate change on livestock health – and in turn the use of antibiotics to address that ill-health – is important in providing an evidence base to tackle such impacts and to develop practical, implementable and locally acceptable solutions within and beyond current antibiotic stewardship programmes. In this paper, we set out the case for better integration of earth scientists and their specific disciplinary skill set (specifically, problem-solving with incomplete/fragmentary data; the ability to work across four dimensions and at the interface between the present and deep/geological time) into planetary health research. We then discuss a methodology that makes use of risk mapping, a common methodology in earth science but less frequently used in health science, to map disease risk against changing climatic conditions at a granular level. This will enable predictions of future disease risk and risk impacts based on predicted future climate conditions, and thus provide an evidence base for planetary health activists to influence policy and develop mitigations. Our case study – of climate conditions’ impact on livestock health in Karnataka, India – clearly evidences the benefit of integrating earth scientists into planetary health research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0232.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: artificial intelligence; data science; Kernel trick; machine learning; pedagogy
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:19:52 CET)
The aim of this tutorial is to help students grasp the theory and applicability of support vector machines (SVMs). The contribution is an intuitive style tutorial that helped students gain insights into SVM from a unique perspective. An internet search will reveal many videos and articles on SVM, but many of them give simplified explanations that leave gaps in the derivations that beginning students cannot fill. Most free tutorials lack guidance on practical applications and considerations. The software wrappers in popular programming libraries such as Python and R hide many of the operational complexities. Free software tools often use default parameters that ignore domain knowledge or leave knowledge gaps about the important effects of SVM hyperparameters, resulting in misuse and subpar outcomes. The author uses this tutorial as a course reference for students studying artificial intelligence and machine learning. The tutorial derives the classic SVM classifier from first principles and then derives the practical form that a computer uses to train a classification model. An intuitive explanation about confusion matrices, F1 score, and the AUC metric extend insights into the inherent tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about cross-validation provides a basic understanding of hyperparameter tuning to maximize generalization by balancing underfitting and overfitting. Even seasoned self-learners with advanced statistical backgrounds have gained insights from this tutorial style of intuitive explanations, with all related considerations for tuning and performance evaluations in one place.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0410.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Soil erosion; Defective sewer; soil science; soil engineering; soil
Online: 23 September 2021 (13:07:12 CEST)
Cases of road cave-ins have been reportedly increasing globally and reports have associated this phenomenon to underground soil erosion due to defective sewer pipes. As the sewer pipes age, they may develop some defects which may lead to cracks and crevices that will lead to infiltration of the soils surrounding the pipe into the pipe, leading to the formation of cavities around the pipe. Therefore, this study investigated the factors behind the causes of underground soil erosion due to defective sewer pipes and proffered solutions for combating underground soil erosion due to defective sewer pipes. The study objective included; (a) establishing how the soil particle sizes affect the internal soil erosion due to defective sewer pipes, (b) determination of the effect of defect sizes on the internal soil erosion due to defective sewer pipes, (c) establishing the effect of the embedment material used on the internal soil erosion due to defective sewer pipes, (d) investigation of the type of soil erosion mechanism in the presence of a buried sewer pipe defect caused by the groundwater infiltration process. The methodology of the study involved reviewing and analyzing secondary qualitative and quantitative data. The findings established that the defect size of the pipe, the type and characteristics of the soil and the type of embedment materials used affected erosion of soil around a defective sewer pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: online laboratories; virtual laboratories; Covid-19; simulations; science; school
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:16:17 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the closure of schools at every level, globally, forcing education to move online. Meeting the needs of students online for Science Lab classes, in particular, is a challenge since the physical labs are not available to the teachers or students. OLabs is a virtual Science Lab providing a complete learning environment of theory, experimental procedures, videos, animations, simulations, and assessments that capture real lab experiences with the relevant pedagogy. This study looks at the acquisition and behaviors of users, on the OLabs platform, during pre and Covid-19 times. Using Google Analytics, we observe that, during the pandemic time, users increasingly adopted OLabs as a new learning pedagogy for performing experiments as indicated by parameters like the number of users; the number of unique pages viewed per session; time spent on viewing content; bounce rate; and preference for content types such as theory, simulations, videos, and animations.
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; Twitter; Geo-Tagged; Metropolitan; Computational Social Science
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:24:58 CEST)
One of the unfortunate findings from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis is the disproportionate impact the crisis has had on people and communities who were already socioeconomically disadvantaged. It has, however, been difficult to study this issue at scale and in greater detail using social media platforms like Twitter. Several COVID-19 Twitter datasets have been released, but they have very broad scope, both topically and geographically. In this paper, we present a more controlled and compact dataset that can be used to answer a range of potential research questions (especially pertaining to computational social science) without requiring extensive preprocessing or tweet-hydration from the earlier datasets. The proposed dataset comprises tens of thousands of geotagged (and in many cases, reverse-geocoded) tweets originally collected over a 255-day period in 2020 over 10 metropolitan areas in North America. Since there are socioeconomic disparities within these cities (sometimes to an extreme extent, as witnessed in `inner city neighborhoods’ in some of these cities), the dataset can be used to assess such socioeconomic disparities from a social media lens, in addition to comparing and contrasting behavior across cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0723.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Biomedical Laboratory Science; Simulator; EEG; simulation pedagogy; content analyses
Online: 27 April 2021 (13:10:04 CEST)
Methods based on simulation pedagogy are widely used to practice hands on skills in safety environment. The usability of an EEG-simulator on clinical neurophysiology course was evaluated. Second year biomedical laboratory science students (N=35) on this course was included in the study. They were divided into three groups. Two groups used the EEG simulator with different feedback modes and one group without use of the simulator. Results was expected to reveal a correlation between user experience and learning outcomes. This study made used of a mixed method study design. During the study students were asked to keep a learning diary throughout the course on their experience. Diaries were analyzed qualitatively based on content analyses. Quantitative analyses based on an UX questionnaire that measures classical usability aspects (efficiency, perspicuity, dependability) and user experience aspects (novelty, stimulation) and the students’ feelings to use simulator. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSSTM software. The quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that the use of EEG-simulator which was evaluating teaching-learning process have an extra benefit in clinical neurophysiology education and students felt that simulator is useful in learning. The simulation debriefing session should be followed by a full theoretical and practical session. Students compare their learning from the simulator with that of the actual placement which fosters the reflective practice of learning again deepening the understanding of the EEG electrode placement and different wave patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: endangered languages, low-resourced languages, NLP, criticism of science
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:15:25 CEST)
The term low-resourced has been tossed around in the field of natural language processing to a degree that almost any language that is not English can be called "low-resourced"; sometimes even just for the sake of making a mundane or mediocre paper appear more interesting and insightful. In a field where English is a synonym for language and low-resourced is a synonym for anything not English, calling endangered languages low-resourced is a bit of an overstatement. In this paper, I inspect the relation of the endangered with the low-resourced from my own experiences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: serious games; science education; games in education; augmented reality
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:29:49 CET)
Keeping in mind the increasing trend and need for serious games in science education, we have done a systematic literature review. These papers show the trends and patterns of research carried out in this field from the year 2011 to 2020. Specifically, we investigated country-wise concentration and the most common evaluation methods. Literature is reviewed from IEEEexplore, Springer, and Scopus. Moreover, we discussed the role of Augmented Reality(AR) games in teaching physics. Lastly, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of serious games in science education in particular, and the trend of using serious games in the past decade in education in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0153.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Open-science; big data; fMRI; data sharing; data management
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:53:33 CEST)
Large datasets that enable researchers to perform investigations with unprecedented rigor are growing increasingly common in neuroimaging. Due to the simultaneous increasing popularity of open science, these state-of-the-art datasets are more accessible than ever to researchers around the world. While analysis of these samples has pushed the field forward, they pose a new set of challenges that might cause difficulties for novice users. Here, we offer practical tips for working with large datasets from the end-user’s perspective. We cover all aspects of the data life cycle: from what to consider when downloading and storing the data, to tips on how to become acquainted with a dataset one did not collect, to what to share when communicating results. This manuscript serves as a practical guide one can use when working with large neuroimaging datasets, thus dissolving barriers to scientific discovery.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0023.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Invasive Alien Species; Guadeloupe; Geoplanidae; Platydemus manokwari; Citizen Science
Online: 2 May 2020 (16:44:46 CEST)
The land flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) is recorded for the first time from the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies) in the Caribbean arc. Photographs and records were obtained from citizen science and ranged from the end of 2018 to 2020; specimens were deposited in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France. This is the first record in Guadeloupe and the second for an island in the Caribbean, after Porto Rico.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: data sharing; data management; data science; big data; healthcare
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:46:20 CET)
In recent years, more and more health data are being generated. These data come not only from professional health systems, but also from wearable devices. All these data combined form ‘big data’ that can be utilized to optimize treatments for each unique patient (‘precision medicine’). To achieve this precision medicine, it is necessary that hospitals, academia and industry work together to bridge the ‘valley of death’ of translational medicine. However, hospitals and academia often have problems with sharing their data, even though the patient is actually the owner of his/her own health data, and the sharing of data is associated with increased citation rate. Academic hospitals usually invest a lot of time in setting up clinical trials and collecting data, and want to be the first ones to publish papers on this data. The idea that society benefits the most if the patient’s data are shared as soon as possible so that other researchers can work with it, has not taken root yet. There are some publicly available datasets, but these are usually only shared after studies are finished and/or publications have been written based on the data, which means a severe delay of months or even years before others can use the data for analysis. One solution is to incentivize the hospitals to share their data with (other) academic institutes and the industry. Here we discuss several aspects of data sharing in the medical domain: publisher requirements, data ownership, support for data sharing, data sharing initiatives and how the use of federated data might be a solution. We also discuss some potential future developments around data sharing.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: microlearning; culturally-responsive teaching; inclusion; equity; life science education
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:27:11 CET)
Some of the key features of inclusive and equitable teaching approaches encourage prompt feedback, student cooperation in communities of learning, active learning, and promotes diverse ways of knowing in the classroom. In my article, I present step-bystep tips to help instructors create guided microlearning inquiry questions within an inclusive and equitable general biology classroom setting. Microlearning is a special approach that helps students complete a specific task linked to a specific learning objective that would be completed in a short time window around five minutes. The step-by-step tips presented in my article helps instructors to develop questions aligned to specific learning objective to help clarify unclear or confusing topics in general biology using the Kahoot e-Learning platform. This guided microlearning inquiry toolkit provides a blueprint for helping instructors to infuse student-centered approaches to help clarify difficult concepts in general biology and further develop avenues refine students’ critical thinking and experimental design in biology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: learning trail; science centres; visitor engagement; generic learning outcomes
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:51:21 CEST)
The Norwegian Museum of Science and Technology have developed a learning concept for school classes in science centres named ‘learning trails’. In this concept, groups of students perform a series of thematically related experiments with installations in the science centre. The learning trails are designed to support the generic learning outcomes for science centre visits. We argue for using the previously developed Engagement Profile in an indicator to determine both media forms and generic learning outcomes for such learning concepts. Further, we implemented the learning trails in two modes: one mode used paper-based content to guide the students, while the other mode supported the use of tablet PCs where engaging content is triggered when the students approach the location of an experiment in the learning trail. We studied the engagement factors of the learning trails and observed how school classes use these. In a study with 113 students from lower secondary school, they answered short questionnaires that were integrated into the implementation of the learning trails. While the concept of the learning trails was evaluated positively, we could not find significant differences in how engaging the two implemented modes were.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: biology education; sustaiable development goals; new biology; biology science
Online: 23 April 2019 (10:59:39 CEST)
Today in times of increasing inequality, climate change, and major social challenges, education is the best way to equip citizens, scholars and leaders to implement meaningful change and prevent future crises. Biologi education and science will solve these problems to supporting sustainable development goals especially in soil remediation, clean water, education quality and clean and affordable energy. This paper will describe how biological education could solve these problems. New biology can solve the problem about hunger use biotech, use synthetic biological material to find new advance material. New biology could driving intersectorial, interdisciplinary and international connectivity, and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology, materials science, allied science and technology areas, are the major challenges in delivering the Materials from Biology vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Reproducibility, quality, research integrity, universities, methods, science policy, rigor
Online: 16 October 2018 (11:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, biomedical research has faced increased scrutiny over issues related to reproducibility and quality in scientific findings(1-3). In response to this scrutiny, funding institutions and journals have implemented top-down policies for grant and manuscript review. While a positive step forward, the long-term merit of these policies is questionable given their emphasis on completing a check-list of items instead of a fundamental re-assessment of how scientific investigation is conducted. Moreover, the top-down style of management used to institute these policies can be argued as being ineffective in engaging the scientific workforce to act upon these issues. To meet current and future biomedical needs, new investigative methods that emphasize collective-thinking, teamwork, shared knowledge and cultivate change from the bottom-up are warranted. Here, a perspective on a new approach to biomedical investigation within the individual laboratory that emphasizes collaboration and quality is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer science; tertiary education; course selection; performance; gender gap
Online: 26 December 2017 (02:30:21 CET)
The aim of the present study is to investigate both the performance and preferences of males and females Computer Science (CS) graduates. In order to attain the above goal, a quantitative case study was conducted regarding 89 degrees, acquired from 2006 to 2012, from the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Greece. The analysis of the data revealed that in terms of performance, no significant differences between the mean grades of males and females exist, in almost most of the courses included in the curriculum of the aforementioned CS department. Any statistically significant differences in performances were present in almost equal number of courses in favor of males and females. It seems also, that females performed better in the courses they selected more than males. Regarding preferences, in CS courses, it seems that gender differences are existent. Males preferred more than females did core programming courses and advanced topics of Software Systems, computer networks, computer engineering, robotics and mathematics, whereas females preferred more the study of algorithms and security issues, computer fractals, data management, computer architecture, and mobile communication. In addition, females preferred courses in reference with humanities and social sciences, CS terminology, and career opportunities. Yet, females did not select any of programming lab-based courses, computer engineering, computer network issues and robotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0658.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Transformation; Banking; financial services; scientometrics; web of science; vosviewer
Online: 10 November 2023 (01:48:26 CET)
The purpose of this study is to bring out a scientometric analysis of the advances of digital transformation in the global banking sector. For this, a background search of the term "Digital Transformation Banking " has been brought out from the Web of Science (Wos) Database, covering records published between 2002 and 2023. A set of 312 publications was identified, which mainly includes a set of 264 academic articles, 29 articles published without cataloging a specific volume of a journal, 9 articles under review, 5 editorial material documents, 4 conference articles, and 1 document is a book chapter. Nowadays the scientific production is low but showing growing development presenting 123 publications and 7,754 citations for the year 2022. Among the scientific production, 43 publications from the Republic of China (8.8%) and 35 publications from Ukraine (7.8%) stand out. ,2%). It is also worth mentioning that the most relevant authors on this topic are Ricardo Palomo, professor and dean of San Pablo University, and Robert J Kauffman, professor at Singapore Management University in terms of influence. Main institutions in terms of scientific production, mainly: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) of the United States and the Russian Academy of Sciences of Russia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Lagerstroemia; bibliometric analysis; VOSviewer; CiteSpace; Web of Science; research progress
Online: 31 August 2023 (12:09:15 CEST)
Lagerstroemia is a genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs and trees belonging to the family Lythraceae. Due to the attention paid to environmental and health issues, Lagerstroemia has become increasingly important in ecological environment protection, drug development, genetic resource protection, and application research. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of the current status and cutting-edge trends of Lagerstroemia research in the world, and objectively reflect the scientific capabilities and influence of relevant research countries, institutions, authors, and journals in this field. Using the visual analysis software VOSviewer and CiteSpace, a statistical analysis of the literature on Lagerstroemia in the Web of Science database was performed from 2002 to 2022. The results showed that the number of articles published on Lagerstromia in the world was increasing. Four of the five articles with the highest citation frequency were from the United States, and the number of articles published in Hortscience was the highest. In terms of subject distribution, the most frequently published subjects were plant sciences, pharmacology and pharmacy. These two disciplines focused on the cultivation of Lagerstroemia species and medicinal research on Lagerstroemia extracts. In terms of categories, science accounted for 41% of the top 10 subjects. Technical science accounted for a relatively large proportion. However, the amount of relevant literature in engineering science needs to be improved. India, the United States, and China were the main research forces in this field. In terms of international cooperation, China had close collaborations with many countries such as the United States, Japan, India, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Beijing Forestry University ranked first in terms of total number of publications, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences had the highest total citations and average citations. Meanwhile, most of the authors at the top of the list were Chinese scholars. Cluster analysis showed that the research of keywords such as “oxidative stress”, “protein” and “corosolic acid” were the research hotspots in recent years. Research on the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Lagerstroemia will be the focus of the research on Lagerstroemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: phase duration assessment; partial nephrectomy; video analysis; surgical data science
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:10:57 CEST)
(1) Background: Surgical phases form the basic building blocks for surgical skill assessment, feedback and teaching. Phase duration itself and its correlation to clinical parameters has not yet been investigated. Novel commercial platforms provide phase indications but have not been assessed for accuracy yet. (2) Methods: We assess 100 robot-assisted partial nephrectomy videos for phase duration based on previously defined proficiency metrics. We develop an annotation framework and subsequently compare our annotations to an existing commercial solution (Touch Surgery, Medtronic™). We subsequently explore clinical correlations between phase durations and peri-operative parameters. (3) Results: Objective and uniform phase assessment requires precise definitions derived from an iterative revision process. Comparison to a commercial solution shows large differences in definitions across phases. BMI and duration of renal tumor identification correlate positively, as well as tumor complexity and both tumor excision and renorraphy duration. (4) Conclusions: Surgical phase duration can be correlated with certain clinical outcomes. Further research should investigate if retrieved correlations are also clinically meaningful. This requires increasing dataset sizes and facilitation through intelligent computer vision algorithms. Commercial platforms can facilitate this dataset expansion and help unlock the full potential, provided the disclosure of phase annotation details.