ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cesarean scar; ectopic pregnancy
Online: 19 March 2021 (09:01:42 CET)
Background Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies are a rare form of extrauterine pregnancies, yet their incidence has increased along with the rise in the number of cesarean deliveries. As with other ectopic pregnancies, cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies pose a greater risk for maternal hemorrhage and ultimately maternal mortality. Case presentation We present a series of clinical cases of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Each patient received an individualized treatment: the rate of success depended on the particular maternal condition in each case. Due to the low frequency of this entity, there are no clear protocols for its treatment and thus there are numerous options for treatment and follow up: expectant management, medical therapy, surgical intervention, uterine artery embolization or a combined approach. Each method has different levels of success and is dependent on the surgeon’s skill and patient presentation. The transvaginal ultrasound is necessary to obtain the fine details of the gestation sac and its relation to the scar and must be followed by a meticulous abdominal scan with a full bladder. Conclusion Herein, we present a rare pathological phenomenon whose frequency is on the rise, and for which transvaginal ultrasound and flow doppler provide high diagnostic accuracy. Early diagnosis of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancies offers treatment options to that may help avoid uterine rupture and bleeding, thus preserving the uterus and future fertility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Auricular keloids, CO2 laser therapy, Dye laser therapy, Multispectral analysis; scar; Vancouver scar scale; Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale
Online: 16 June 2023 (13:46:19 CEST)
Auricular keloids pose significant aesthetic and functional challenges, and traditional treatments often fall short in ad-dressing these. Our study presents an innovative combined approach of ablative CO2 and dye laser therapy for improved keloid management. This treatment protocol was applied to 15 patients with auricular keloids after an initial multispec-tral analysis to assess keloid composition. The laser sequence was tailored per patient based on this analysis. Evalua-tions using the Vancouver Scar Scale and Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale were carried out at baseline and at 3-week intervals post-treatment. The results showed a significant reduction in these scores at the final follow-up (p<0.05), suggesting improvements in keloid color, texture, and pliability, with minimal adverse events. Additionally, no recur-rence of keloids was observed. Our findings indicate that this novel methodology of multispectral analysis followed by tailored laser therapy may offer a safe and effective solution for auricular keloids, promising enhanced keloid treatment and prevention of recurrence. However, further investigations, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to confirm and optimize this treatment protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Metformin; tendon injury; scar tissue
Online: 10 November 2023 (11:06:59 CET)
Tendon injuries, while prevalent, present a significant challenge in fully restoring their structural and functional integrity. Utilizing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-Ai9-scleraxis (Scx)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, which exhibit both Scx (a tendon cell marker) and α-SMA (a myofibroblast marker), we explored Met's effects on tendon healing and repair and its mechanisms of action. Our findings revealed that intraperitoneal (IP) injections of Met -administered before or after injury, as well as both - effectively prevent the release of HMGB1 into the tendon matrix and reduce circulating levels of HMGB1. Additionally, Met treatment increased and activated AMPK and suppressed TGF-β1 levels within the healing tendon. These interventions also improved tendon healing by blocking the migration of α-SMA+ myofibroblasts, reducing the prevalence of disorganized collagen fibers and collagen type III, and enhancing the presence of collagen type I. These outcomes highlight Met's anti-fibrotic properties on acutely injured tendons and suggest its potential for repurposing as a therapeutic agent to minimize scar tissue formation in tendon injuries, which could have profound implications in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1874.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Wound; Scar; Child; Graft; Fish skin
Online: 29 November 2023 (10:58:49 CET)
Wound healing in the pediatric population is known to be a challenge and poorly studied. Split-thickness skin grafts, full-thickness skin grafts and flaps overlap their applications with the growing field of cellular and tissue-based therapies. However, their role in pediatric reconstruction has yet to be defined. The Kerecis® Omega3 wound patch, derived from decellularized codfish skin, has garnered attention due to its preserved microscopic architecture resembling the human extracellular matrix. This acellular dermal matrix acts as a scaffold, fostering dermal cell and capillary adhesion while harnessing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for granulation acceleration and antimicrobial effects. This study presents a comprehensive review and surgical protocol for utilizing Kerecis® fish skin in pediatric wound care. The research embraces a case series involving five patients with diverse wound locations. The Kerecis® Omega3 wound patch underwent meticulous application and careful monitoring. The results highlight an average time of 48.6 days for complete epithelialization, yielding favorable outcomes with no hypertrophic scarring and mild retraction. Notably, this innovative approach may eliminate donor site morbidity and improve pain control, promising a novel avenue for pediatric wound management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1822.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Glial scar; Spinal cord injury; cell ablation
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:11:31 CEST)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition that affects between 8.8 and 246 people in a million and, unlike many other neurological disorders, it affects mostly young people, causing deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Promoting regrowth of axons is one of the most important goals for the neurological recovery of patients after SCI, but it is also one of the most challenging goals. A key event after SCI is the formation of a glial scar around the lesion core, which is mainly comprised of astrocytes, NG2+-glia, and microglia. Traditionally, the glial scar has been regarded as detrimental for recovery because it may act as a physical barrier for axon regrowth and release various inhibitory factors. However, more and more evidence now suggest that the glial scar is beneficial for the surrounding spared tissue after SCI. Here, we review experimental studies that used genetic and pharmacological approaches to ablate specific populations of glial cells in rodent models of SCI, in order to understand their functional role. The studies showed that ablation of either astrocytes, NG2+-glia or microglia may result in disorganization of glial scar, increased inflammation, extended tissue degeneration and impaired recovery after SCI. Hence, glial cells and glial scar appear as important beneficial players after SCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; mastectomy; autologous breast reconstruction; PAP flap; DIEP flap; donor-site morbidity; quality of life; aesthetic outcome; scar quality; Breast Q
Online: 2 December 2022 (09:57:20 CET)
(1) Background: This work aimed to conduct the first comparative study providing long-term data about patient reported outcome measures as well as donor-site scar assessment and aesthetic evaluation of the reconstructed breasts in patients with DIEP versus PAP flap breast reconstruction. (2) Methods: This prospective, single-center, matched cohort study included a total of 36 patients after DIEP and PAP flap breast reconstruction. Evaluation was done using the Breast-Q and POSAS questionnaire as well as the Breast Aesthetic Scale for cosmetic analysis by four plastic surgeons. (3) Results: Post-operative Breast-Q evaluation revealed no significant differences between both patient groups for the categories physical well-being donor-site, physical well-being breast and satisfaction with the breast. Scar evaluation of the donor-site region showed equivalent results for the thigh and the abdomen concerning the overall opinion of patients and observers. There was no significant difference between both methods of reconstruction for all aspects of breast aesthetics. (4) Conclusions: Similar results of donor-site morbidity, scar quality and aesthetic outcome of the breast in both the DIEP and PAP patient group have been demonstrated. Hence, in cases suitable for both types of reconstruction, the decision can be based on factors such as patients’ lifestyle, leisure activities and preferences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: scar removal; nanotechnology; nanofibers; skin repair; tissue regeneration
Online: 3 November 2023 (06:25:31 CET)
Nanotechnology has become an increasingly promising medical field, particularly scar removal. Scar removal is a complex process involving regenerating damaged skin tissue, and nanotechnology presents unique solutions to this issue. One potential application of nanotechnology is using nanofibers as scaffolds to support the growth of new skin tissue. These fibres can also be loaded with drugs or growth factors to promote tissue regeneration and reduce scarring. Another potential application is nanocarriers for drug delivery to specific body areas, which can promote tissue regeneration and reduce scarring.Additionally, nanotechnology has been utilized to create new materials for skin regeneration, such as "nano skin" that mimics the structure of natural skin. Nanoprobes have also been developed for the detection of scar tissue and the monitoring of its progression. These potential nanotechnology applications offer exciting possibilities for the future of scar removal and skin repair. With further research and development, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize scar removal and provide more effective solutions for tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Melatonin; glial scar; insertion trauma; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:08:28 CEST)
Neural electrode insertion trauma impedes the recording and stimulation capabilities of numerous diagnostic and treatment avenues. Implantation leads to the activation of inflammatory markers and cell types, which is detrimental to neural tissue health and recording capabilities. Oxidative stress and inflammation at the implant site have been shown to decrease with chronic administration of antioxidant melatonin at week 16, but its effects on the acute landscape have not been studied. To assess the effect of melatonin administration in the acute phase, specifically the first week post-implantation, we utilized histological and q-PCR methods to quantify cellular and molecular indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as two-photon microscopy to track the microglial responses in real-time. Histological results indicate that melatonin effectively maintained neuron density surrounding the electrode, inhibited accumulation and activation of microglia, astrocytes, and reduced oxidative tissue damage. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, were significantly reduced in melatonin-treated animals. Additionally, microglia encapsulation of the implant surface was inhibited by melatonin as compared to control animals following implantation. Our results combined with previous research suggest that melatonin is a particularly suitable drug for modulating inflammatory activity around neural electrode implants both acutely and chronically, translating to more stable and reliable interfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0107.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Hippophae rhamnoides L.; dioecious; sex determination; RAPD; SCAR
Online: 9 April 2018 (10:48:47 CEST)
The dioecious property of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) prevents sex recognition via traditional observation at the juvenile stage, thus impeding breeding and economic cropping; RAPD and SCAR markers were used to identify the sexes. A total of 45 random decamer primers were used to screen genomic DNA pools of staminate and pistillate genotypes for genetic polymorphisms. One female sex-linked marker was identified. D15 (5′-CATCCGTGCT-3′) amplified a particular band of 885 bp, which showed polymorphism among staminate and pistillate genotype plants. The SCAR marker Hrcx-15 was obtained by sequencing the fragment. The alleles of 140 pistillate genotypes were examined but not of the 140 staminate genotypes discerned via taxonomy. Staminate and pistillate genotypes of sea buckthorn plants can be distinguished, using Hrcx-15 as a genetic marker for sex identification and for expediting cultivation for commercial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0209.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rpi-genes; parental lines; hybrid progeny; dRenSeq; SCAR markers.
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:38:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Although resistance to pathogens and pests has been researched in many potato cultivars and breeding lines with DNA markers, there is scarce evidence as to the efficiency of the marker-assisted selection (MAS) for these traits when applied at the early stages of breeding. A goal of this study was to estimate the potential of affordable DNA markers to track Rpi disease resistance genes, that are effective against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, as a practical breeding tool on a progeny of 68 clones derived from a cross between the cultivar Sudarynya and 13/11-09. (2) Methods: this population was studied for four years to elucidate the distribution of LB resistance and other agronomical desirable or simple to phenotype traits such as tuber and flower pigmentation, capacity and structure of yield. LB resistance was phenotypically determined through natural and artificial infection and the presence/absence of nine Rpi genes was assessed via 11 sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. To aid this analysis, the profile of Rpi genes in the 13/11-09 parent was established using diagnostic resistance gene enrichment sequencing (dRenSeq) as a gold standard. (3) Results: at the early stages of a breeding program, MAS can halve the workload when screening the segregation of F1 offspring and selected SCAR markers for Rpi-genes provide useful tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Aquaporin-4; AQP4ex; Stroke; Ischemia; Astrocyte; Astrogliosis; Glial scar; Neuroinflammation
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:16:02 CET)
There is an urgent need to better understand the mechanisms involved in scar formation in brain. It is well known that astrocytes are critically engaged in this process. Here we analyze in-cipient scar formation one week after a discrete ischemic insult to the cerebral cortex. We show that the infarct border zone is characterized by pronounced changes in the organization and subcellular localization of the major astrocytic protein AQP4. Specifically there is a loss of AQP4 from astrocytic endfoot membranes that anchor astrocytes to pericapillary basal laminae and a disassembly of the supramolecular AQP4 complexes that normally abound in these membranes. This disassembly may be mechanistically coupled to a downregulation of the newly discovered AQP4 isoform AQP4ex. AQP4 has adhesive properties and is assumed to facilitate astrocyte mo-bility by permitting rapid volume changes at the leading edges of migrating astrocytes. Thus, the present findings provide new insight in the molecular basis of incipient scar formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy; risk factors; clinical presentation; complication; management; outcome of CSEP
Online: 19 February 2021 (14:35:47 CET)
Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP) is an uncommon form of ectopic pregnancy. This review defines types of CSEP, discusses pathophysiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis and compares common treatment options and outcomes. The pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. One third of patient are asymptomatic. In symptomatic patients vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain which is usually misdiagnosed as threatened or missed abortion. The main principles of treatment for CSEP are early diagnose, quick management, and maintain reproductive function as much as possible. Up to date; no consensus or guidelines for the treatment and management of CSEP. Management of CSEP depends on the clinical presentation and gestational age. Significant controversy exists regarding management, for this reason, several factors should be considered including age of the patient, myometrial thickness, clinical symptoms, hemodynamic status, fertility preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0838.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: basal cell carcinoma; scar assessment; perceptual similarity; texture similarity; color similarity; convolutional neural network
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:19:22 CEST)
Efficient management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) requires reliable assessments of both tumors and post-treatment scars. We aimed to estimate image similarity metrics that account for BCC's perceptual color and texture deviation from perilesional skin. 176 clinical photographs of BCC were assessed by six physicians using a visual deviation scale. Internal consistency and inter-rater agreement were estimated using Cronbach's α, weighted Gwet's AC2, and quadratic Cohen's Kappa. The mean visual scores were used to validate a range of similarity metrics employing different color spaces, distances, and image embeddings from pre-trained VGG16 neural network. The calculated similarities were transformed into discrete values using ordinal logistic regression models. The Bray-Curtis distance in the YIQ color model and rectified embeddings from the 'fc6' layer minimized the mean squared error and demonstrated strong performance in representing perceptual similarities. Box plot analysis and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to visualize and compare the levels of agreement, conducted on a random validation round between the two groups: ‘Human-System’ and ‘Human-Human’. The proposed metrics were comparable in terms of internal consistency and agreement with human raters. The findings suggest that the proposed metrics offer a robust, and cost-effective approach to monitoring BCC treatment outcomes in clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0532.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: adipose derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cells; stromal vascular fraction; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration
Online: 28 June 2021 (15:47:12 CEST)
Current clinical treatment options for symptomatic, partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (sPTRCT) offer only limited potential for true tissue healing and improvement of clinical results. In animal models, injections of adult stem cells isolated from adipose tissue into tendon injuries evidenced histological regeneration of tendon tissue. However, it is unclear whether such beneficial effects could also be observed in a human tendon treated with fresh, uncultured, autologous, adipose derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). A specific challenge in this regard is that UA-ADRCs cannot be labeled and, thus, not unequivocally identified in the host tissue. Therefore, histological regeneration of injured human tendons after injection of UA-ADRCs must be assessed using comprehensive, immunohistochemical and microscopic analysis of biopsies taken from the treated tendon a few weeks after injection of UA-ADRCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0090.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; adipose-derived stem cells; ADSCs; bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cell; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration; vaPS cells
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:44:31 CET)
Background: Recently, the management of musculoskeletal disorders with the patients' own stem cells, isolated from the walls of small blood vessels, which can be found in great numbers in the adipose tissue, has received considerable attention. On the other hand, there are still misconceptions about these adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) that contain vascular-associated pluripotent stem cells (vaPS cells) in regenerative medicine. Methods: Based on our previous publications on this topic, we have developed a concept to describe the significance of the ADRCs/vaPS cells in the field of orthobiologics as briefly as possible and at the same time as precisely as possible. Results: The ADRCs/vaPS cells belong to the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells. Because the latter can both stimulate a patient’s body's localized self-healing power and provide new cells that can integrate into the host tissue during the healing response when the localized self-healing power is exhausted, this group of orthobiologics appears more advantageous than cell-free orthobiologics and orthobiologics that are based on allogeneic cells. Within the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells, enzymatically isolated, uncultured ADRCs/vaPS cells have several advantages over non-enzymatically isolated cells/microfragmented fat as well as over uncultured bone marrow aspirate concentrate and cultured cells (adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Conclusions: The use of ADRCs/vaPS cells can be seamlessly integrated into modern orthopedic treatment concepts, which can be understood as the optimization of a process which - albeit less efficiently - also takes place physiologically. Accordingly, this new safe and effective type of treatment is attractive in terms of holistic thinking and personalized medicine.