SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0017.v1
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:44:27 CEST)
Raw materials used for producing concrete, such as sand and gravel, are in short supply worldwide. It has been reported that the production of cement, one of the main constituents of concrete, results in the emission of a large amount of CO2, accounting for 8% of total global CO2 emissions. In this study, we developed a method to produce a construction material using only sand as the solid raw material. By utilizing a technique to produce organic silicon material from sand, we placed sand, alcohol, and catalyst in a closed vessel and heated it to 240 °C. After 24 h, the sand particles were bonded to each other, and a hardened body was formed. A tradeoff in production conditions, such as temperature, time, and the amount of sand, was confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0280.v1
Online: 15 October 2018 (05:34:41 CEST)
This work describes and interprets the presence of heavy minerals in the western Portuguese continental margin using a set of 78 bottom samples collected from 3 distinct areas of this margin: Porto, Aveiro and Nazaré canyon head areas. The main transparent heavy mineral suite (minerals with frequencies >10%), is composed by amphiboles (hornblende), mica (biotite), andalusite, tourmaline and garnet. A secondary suite (minerals with frequencies between 1 and 10%), is composed by pyroxene (enstatite, diopside and augite), staurolite, zircon and apatite. With very low frequency representing less than 1% we found rutile, olivine, kyanite, monazite, epidote, sphene, anatase, sillimanite and brookite. The main primary sources (igneous and metamorphic rocks) explain the presence of these minerals. However, the application of the principal component analysis, with a previous application of the centered log ratio transformation of the heavy mineral data, also stresses for the importance of the grain sorting as a process in controlling the heavy mineral occurrence. The importance of this process is mostly sustained by the distribution pattern of mica and of the most flattened amphibole grains in a way that these particles tend to have a hydraulic affinity to finer grained sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial sand plant; stone crusher; screen unit and sand unit; beating phenomenon; vibration measurement and reduction
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:35:03 CEST)
Due to limitation of natural sand from rivers and seas, artificial sand production from large stones or rocks is being increased. However, this sand manufacturing process is dangerous and causes several social problems such as high level of unwanted vibrations or noises. This study investigates vibration characteristics of sand and screen units in artificial sand production plant whose actuating operation is multiple with several different exciting frequencies. As a first step, vibration levels are measured at the sand and screen unit positions using accelerometers in time and frequency domains. The measurement is carried out at two different conditions: activating sand unit only and operating entire facilities such as stone crusher. Vibration signals acquired from several locations of the sand and screen units of the plant are collected and analyzed from waveforms and spectrums of the signals. It is identified that the vibration acceleration level of the screen unit is higher than that of the sand unit. In addition, it is found from the acceleration signals measured at plant office and shipping control center those places are far away from the plant location that the beating phenomenon is occurred by close driving frequencies for several sand units. In this work, the vibration caused from the beating is significantly reduced by adjusting the driving frequencies for the sand units so that they are sufficiently scattered to avoid the beating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0019.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: photocatalyst; TiO2/SiO2 composite; solvothermal; silica sand
Online: 1 October 2020 (14:31:31 CEST)
Heavy metals are non-biodegradable and have a high toxicity effect to living things which makes their presence in the environment extremely dangerous. The method of handling heavy metals waste by photocatalysis techniques using TiO2/SiO2 composite showed a good performance in reducing harmful pollutants. In this study, SiO2 from Bengkulu beach sand was used as a support material for TiO2 photocatalyst to reduce Cr(VI) and Pb(II) concentrations. SiO2 was obtained through leaching techniques using NaOH as a solvent. The TiO2/SiO2 composite photocatalyst were synthesized using a solvothermal method at 130 °C and then characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM and PSA. Based on the XRD diffractogram, the synthesized TiO2 showed the anatase structure while the SiO2 showed the amorphous structure. Ti-O-Si bond is defined in the IR spectra, which indicates that the relationship between TiO2 and SiO2 is a chemical interaction. The results of SEM and PSA characterizations show agglomerated spherical (round) particles with a mean particle size of 616.9 nm. The TiO2/SiO2 composite of 7:1 ratio showed the highest photocatalytic activity after 180 minutes of UV irradiation, with a concentration-decrease percentage of 93.77% and 93.55% for for Cr(VI) and Pb(II), respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0225.v1
Subject: Keywords: pathogen, climate change, sand, water quality, modeling
Online: 22 January 2019 (17:28:22 CET)
Humans may be exposed to microbial pathogens at recreational beaches via environmental sources, such as water, sand, and aerosols. Although infectious disease risk from exposure to waterborne pathogens has been an active area of research for decades, sand is a relatively unexplored reservoir of pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Beach sand and water habitats provide unique advantages and challenges to pathogen introduction, growth, and persistence, as well as continuous exchange between habitats. Models of FIB and pathogen fate and transport in sandy beach habitats can help predict the risk of infectious disease from recreational water use, but filling knowledge gaps such as decay rates and potential for microbial growth in beach habitats is necessary for accurate modeling. Climatic variability, whether natural or anthropogenically-induced, adds complexity to predictive modeling, but may increase human exposure to waterborne pathogens via extreme weather events, warming of water bodies and sea level rise in many regions. The popularity of human recreational beach activities, combined with predicted climate change scenarios, could amplify the risk of human exposure to pathogens and related illnesses. Other global change trends such as increased population growth and urbanization are expected to exacerbate contamination events and the predicted impacts of increasing levels of waterborne pathogens on human health. Such changes will alter microbial population dynamics in beach habitats, and will consequently affect the assumptions and relationships used in population models and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Here, we discuss the literature on microbial population and transport dynamics in sand-water continuum habitats at beaches, how these dynamics can be modeled, and how climate change and other anthropogenic influences (e.g., land use, urbanization) should be considered when using and developing more holistic, beachshed-based models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0341.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Soil erosion; Winds; Sand collection efficiency; Dust horizontal flux
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:45:47 CEST)
The sand-dust horizontal flux is an important parameter for the study on aeolian sand transport, as well as an important foundation. In this study, a field experiment was developed to measure the data of aeolian transport and microclimate during different dust events with an auto sand sampler, a piezoelectric saltation sensor (H11-Sensit) and a 10 m high meteorological tower in Ta Zhong, the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert from July to August in 2010. Then, the sampling efficiency of auto sand sampler and horizontal dust flux of near surface were analyzed based on observed data. The results were as follows: sand collector skip turnover increased with the increase of the intensity of dust weather frequency increases, the power function relationship y=2.115 x0.9841, R2 = 0.9206, flip frequency per minute increased from 0.2794 times to 1.3041 times, change is obvious; With the strength of the weather, time to flip the average sediment is shrinking. Sandstorm weather, skip to flip a volume of 3.7160 g, grade I flying sand weather flip a volume of 4.0275 g, the amount of class II flying sand weather turns over a 5. 0035g.The horizontal dust flux of different dust events that calculated with the equation Q=256M; the maximum of one dust event was about 190.335 kg, and the minimum was 1.2 kg. Overall, the sand transportation rate increased with wind speed. However, the changes of sand transportation rate did not quite fit in with wind speed during some dust events, and in this case the corresponding surface temperature was significantly higher. The experimental data obtained can provide theoretical basis for regional sand control and enacting effective engineering measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0189.v1
Online: 17 December 2018 (10:41:28 CET)
Numerous protocols have been published for extracting DNA from phlebotomines. Nevertheless, their small size is generally an issue in terms of yield, efficiency, and purity, for large-scale individual sand fly DNA extractions when using traditional methods. Even though this can be circumvented with commercial kits, these are generally cost-prohibitive for developing countries. We encountered these limitations when analysing parasite infection in Lutzomyia spp. by PCR  and, for this reason, we evaluated various modifications on a previously published protocol ( and Acardi personal communication). The most significant variation was the use of a different lysis buffer  to which added Ca2+ (buffer TESCa), because this ion protects proteinase K against autolysis, increases its thermal stability, and could have a regulatory function for its substrate-binding site . Individual sand fly DNA extraction success was confirmed by amplification reactions using internal control primers that amplify a fragment of the cacophony gene [5,6]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a lysis buffer containing Ca2+ has been reported for the extraction of DNA from sand flies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0332.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: growth promotion; palm mat geotextile; physical property; sand fixation
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:17:54 CET)
As the traditional sand fixation measures have many limitations, new sand fixing technologies and methods are urgently needed to be developed. This study demonstrated a new sand fixation method using palm mat geotextile to fix the sand dunes and plant grass. We experimented the physical property of the palm mat geotextile in the laboratory, and observed the vegetation growth in the Hobq Desert. The results showed that (1) The palm mat geotextile is more lighter and tougher than the common straw mat geotextile, the average weight, thickness and tensile strength of palm mat geotextile were 2023 g/m2, 20.14 mm, and 842–860 N/m, after a year of field observation, the tensile strength decreased by only 2%. (2) The palm mat geotextile had excellent water retention capacity and scouring resistance, the maximum water content reached 227%, and the substrate lost 2.9% after the simulation of heavy rainfall for 3 hours with rainfall intensity of 30 mm/h in laboratory. (3) The palm mat geotextile significantly decreased the soil temperature and increase the humidity in summer, the observed results shown that the palm mat geotextile had the greatest influence on 5cm depth of the soil temperature and 10cm depth of soil humidity. (4) The field experiment results showed that the vegetation coverage and the biomass of the palm mat geotextile with 2 m × 2 m were 35% and 11.21 g (3.9 times and 4.1 times than that of control group, 1.7 times and 1.8 times than that of high-banded salix psammophila sand-barriers group which is widely used in the Hobq Desert).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0250.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: beach; coastal sand; fecal contamination; FIB; microbial source tracking (MST)
Online: 19 May 2022 (04:18:30 CEST)
Beach sand may act as a reservoir for numerous micro-organisms, including enteric pathogens. Several of these pathogens originate in human or animal feces, which may pose a public health risk. In August 2019, high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were detected in the sand of the Azorean beach Prainha, Terceira Island, Portugal. Remediation measures were promptly implemented, including sand removal and the spraying of chlorine to restore the beach sand quality. To determine the biological source of the contamination, during the first campaign, supratidal sand samples were collected from several sites along the beach, followed by microbial source tracking (MST) analyses of Bacteroides markers for five animal species, including humans. Some of the sampling sites revealed the presence of marker genes from dogs, seagulls, and ruminants. Making use of the information on biological sources originating partially from dogs, the municipality enforced restrictive measures for dog-walking at the beach. Subsequent sampling campaigns detected low FIB contamination due to the mitigation and remediation measures that were undertaken, thereby no longer requiring MST marker-gene analysis. This is the first case study where the MST approach was used to determine the contamination sources in the supratidal sand of a coastal beach. Our results show that MST can be an essential approach to determine sources of fecal contamination in the sand. This study shows the importance of holistic management of beaches that should go beyond water quality monitoring for FIB, putting forth evidence for the need for sands also to be monitored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0376.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Mast cells; Leishmania mexicana; sand fly salivary proteins; sexual hormones
Online: 22 November 2021 (10:51:24 CET)
Mast cells (MCs) play a crucial role during infections with Leishmania, that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sand fly that injects saliva together with the parasite. Sand fly saliva is a complex fluid that modulates the host immune response. In addition, hormonal factors modulate the host immune response, impacting the susceptibility to infections. Thus, to assess the impact of androgens and salivary proteins of sand fly vectors on the mast cell (MC) response to Leishmania infections, we infected orchiectomized male mice with the parasite in the presence or absence of sand fly salivary proteins and analyzed the inflammatory response of MCs. Our results showed a differential MC response to the parasite and to vector salivary proteins in mice deprived of gonadal hormones, as compared to sham-operated mice. Orchidectomy induced a different pattern of activation in MC of animals infected with Leishmania and vector-salivary proteins. Our results show that during Leishmania infection, androgens modulate the innate immunity response against the parasite and salivary proteins of the sand fly vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Songyuan earthquake; Songyuan site; sand liquefaction; hyperbolic model; discriminant formula
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:12:47 CEST)
Based on the 5.7-magnitude earthquake that stroke Songyuan (China) and 172 groups of liquefaction data collected in mainland China, the hyperbolic liquefaction discriminant formula originally proposed by Sun Rui was revised, and a new formula for the liquefaction of sand was put forward. Groups of data derived from the Bachu earthquake in Xinjiang and an earthquake that occurred in New Zealand (47 and 195 groups, respectively) were used to carry out a back-judgment test, then, the results were compared with those of the existing standard method. Overall, the results showed that the new formula for hyperbolic liquefaction discrimination compensates for the conservative liquefaction discrimination of the older formula; moreover, it has a good applicability to different intensities, groundwater levels, and the deep sand layer of the Songyuan site, reflected by a more balanced success rate. Therefore, combining the existing liquefaction discrimination methods and the research results of discrimination, it is necessary to establish a suitable regional identification method through the continuous accumulation of liquefaction data and expanding database.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: equine; arenas; sand; base layers; portable tools; safety; equine welfare
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:07:06 CEST)
Quantitative measurements of performance parameters has the potential to increase consistency and enhance performance of the surfaces as well as to contribute to the safety of horses and riders. This study investigates how factors known to influence the performance of the surface, incorpo-ration of a drainage package, control of the moisture control, and introduction of a geotextile reinforcement, affect quantitative measurements of arena materials. The measurements are made by using affordable lightweight testing tools which are readily available or easily constructed. Sixteen boxes with arena materials at a consistent depth were tested with the Going Stick (GS), both penetration resistance and shear, the impact test device (ITD), and the rotational peak shear device (RPS). Volumetric moisture content (VMC %) was also tested with time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Results obtained using GS, RPS, ITD, and TDR indicate that the presence of the drainage package, moisture content, and geotextile addition were detected. Alterations due to combinations of treatments could also be detected by GS, ITD, and TDR. While the testing showed some limi-tations of these devices, the potential exists to utilize them for quality control of new installations as well as for the monitoring of maintenance of the surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0519.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: fly ash; Geopolymer; silicon dioxid; sodium silicate; sand dune; egg Shell
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:25:07 CEST)
In recent years, the dominant cementitious materials have been industrial by products such as fly ash. This present paper describes some of the cementitious products that are attracting attention in the global research community and the properties and characteristics of these materials that affect their performance such durability, mechanically properties and reduction of carbon dioxid (CO2). The present investigation deals with the chemical synthesis of cementitious material using fly ash of eggs shell rich in calcium(Ca) and sand dune(southern of Algeria) rich in silica(SiO2).The composition is the most compressive resistant with a maximum stress of 49.71 MPa, the most flexible (E = 2.63 GPa) and the most ductile (εr = 65.42 %).The characteristic properties of the chemically synthesized cementitious materials were analyzed by the chemical composition analysis XRF, XRD and SEM analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0359.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Drinking water; rapid sand filtration; Recreational areas; Exposure; Microcystis and Dolichospermum; Microcystins
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:16:59 CEST)
Africa’s water needs are often supported by eutrophic waterbodies dominated by cyanobacteria posing health threats to riparian populations from cyanotoxins, and Lake Victoria is no exception. In two embayments of the lake (Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf), cyanobacterial surveys were conducted to characterize the dynamics of cyanotoxins in lake water and water treatment plants. Forty-six cyanobacterial taxa were recorded and out of these 14 were considered potentially toxigenic (i.e., from the genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Pseudanabaena and Raphidiopsis). A higher concentration (ranging from 5-10 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) of microcystins (MCs) was detected in Murchison Bay compared to Napoleon Gulf, with a declining gradient from the inshore (max. 15 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) to the open lake. In Murchison Bay, an increase either in Microcystis sp. biovolume and MC was observed over the last two decades. Despite high cell densities of toxigenic Microcystis and high MC concentrations, the water treatment plant in Murchison Bay efficiently removed the cyanobacterial biomass, intracellular and dissolved MC to below the lifetime guideline value for exposure via drinking water (< 1.0 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1). Thus, the potential health threats stem from the consumption of untreated water and recreational activities, along the shores of the lake embayments. MC concentrations were predicted from Microcystis cell numbers regulated by environmental factors such as solar radiation, wind speed in the N-S direction and turbidity. Thus, an early warning through microscopical counting of Microcystis cell numbers is proposed to better manage health risks from toxigenic cyanobacteria in Lake Victoria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0110.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate change; Land cover; Land use; Conversion; Sand dunes; Environment; Degradation; Poverty.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:26:22 CET)
In Nigeria, desertification has become one of the most pronounced ecological disasters, with the impacts mostly affecting eleven frontline States. This has been attributed to a range of both nat-ural and man-made factors. This study applied a remote sensing-based change detection and indicator analysis to explore land use/land cover changes and detect major conversions from ecologically active land covers to sand dunes. Results indicate that areas covered by sand dunes (a major indicator of desertification) have doubled over the 25 years under consideration (1990 to 2015). Although about 0.71 km2 of dunes have been converted to vegetation, indicative of the success of various international, national, local, and individual afforestation efforts, conversely about 10.1 km2 of vegetation were converted to sand dunes, implying around 14 times more de-forestation compared to afforestation. Juxtaposing the progression of sand dune with climate records of the study area and examining the relationship between indicators of climate change and desertification suggested a mismatch between both processes as increasing rainfall and lower temperatures observed in 1994, 2005, 2012, and 2014 did not translated into positive feedbacks for desertification in the study area. On average, our results reveal that sand dune is progressing at a mean annual rate of about 15.2 km2 in the study area. Based on this study’s land cover change, trend and conversion assessment, visual reconciliation of climate records with land cover data, statistical analysis, observations from ground-truthing, as well as previous literature, it can be inferred that desertification in Nigeria is less a function of climate change, but more a product of human activities driven by poverty, population growth and failed government policies. Further projections by this study also reveal a high probability of more farmlands being converted to sand dunes by the year 2030 and 2045 if current practices prevail.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: drain water treatment; Belbeis drain; compact units; reuse; sand filter; packing material
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:50:05 CET)
In an attempt to improve the quality of the agricultural drain in Egypt for its reuse again in the irrigation, low cost solution such as sand filter along with/ without other filtration media have been used in this research, As a result of that, pilot plant of sand filter mixed with other filtration media was tested for its ability to improve the sand performance in removing the suspended solids and organic matters from agricultural drain water of the Belbeis drain (in Sharkia governorate in Egypt). Only sand compared with sand with sponge and sand with Liyan Nanfang activated carbon (L.N.A.C) have been tested to find the optimum mixing sand/ medium ratio &optimum infiltration rate. The work has been done on four runs. It was found that sand mixed with sponge gave the best removal efficiency compared to that of the sand only and the sand mixed with L.N.A.C. The results presented that the concentration of CODt, CODsol and TSS was reduced from 125, 47 and 162 mg/l to 44, 34 and 28 mg/l respectively at optimum infiltration rate of 2 m3/m2/d for sand mixed with sponge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Anisotropic Triaxial test; Initial shear stress; Pore water pressure ratio; Static liquefaction; Ramsar sand
Online: 5 September 2020 (05:01:41 CEST)
Liquefaction risk assessment is critical for the safety and economics of structures. As the soil strata of Ramsar area in north Iran is mostly composed of poorly graded clean sand and the ground water table is found at shallow depths, it is highly susceptible to liquefaction. In this study, a series of isotropic and anisotropic consolidated undrained triaxial tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Ramsar sand to identify the liquefaction potential of the area. The specimens are consolidated isotropically to simulate the level ground condition, and anisotropically to simulate the soil condition on a slope and/ or under a structure. The various states of soil behavior are studied by preparing specimens at different initial relative densities and applying different levels of effective stress. The critical state soil mechanics approach for identifying the liquefaction susceptibility is adopted and the observed phenomena are further explained in relation to the micro-mechanical behavior. As only four among the 27 conducted tests did not exhibit liquefactive behavior, Ramsar sand can be qualified as strongly susceptible to liquefaction. Furthermore, it is observed that the pore pressure ratio is a good indication of the liquefaction susceptibility
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0066.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: salinity; drinking water sodium (DWS), high blood pressure; maternal health; pond sand filter (PSF)
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:26:40 CET)
Increasing salt intake has substantial negative impacts on health and well-being. This review article focusses on the effect of salinity intrusion (SI) on the water quality and community health of coastal Bangladesh and to find out the effectiveness of interventions for reducing the negative effects of salinity. Saline water is a noteworthy reason for hypertension or high blood pressure in the coastal areas. Health status of women especially the pregnant women are vulnerable because of drinking water sodium (DWS) prompting to pre-eclampsia, high blood pressure and hypertension as well as infant mortality. Several interventions such as rainwater harvesting and Pond sand filter (PSF) system as well as managed aquifer recharge (MAR) usage and the integration of mixed sources were reviewed on the content of drinking water sodium (DWS). Although rainwater has the positive impact of low or no sodium intake on human health, it still possesses negative impacts from not having vital minerals. Despite what might be expected, in MAR a steady increment in sodium concentration through the span of the dry season was observed. It is, subsequently, important to increase awareness about drinking water sodium (DWS) intake by providing and adopting correct technological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: asian sand dust; in utero exposure; secondary sex ratio; male reproduction; daily sperm production
Online: 20 September 2016 (11:39:47 CEST)
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproductive function in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproductive function have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproductive function in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproductive function of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproductive function of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0352.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Calcareous sand; Microbially induced calcite precipitation; Dynamic shear modulus; Resonant column test; Reference shear strain
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:56:36 CEST)
Calcareous sand deposits are widely distributed along the shoreline in ropical and subtropical regions. Microbially induced calcite precipitation treatment (MICP) is a relatively new method to improve the stiffness and strength of the soil. Little is known about the small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of MICP-treated calcareous sand, which are two crucial parameters for the prediction of the dynamic behavior of soil. A series of resonant column tests are performed to investigate the dynamic performance of MICP-treated calcareous sand, with special attention paid to the influence of treatment duration and confining stress on the stiffness and damping characteristics. The relationship between the initial dynamic shear modulus and unconfined compressive strength is analyzed. Additionally, the empirical equations of the reference shear strain between treatment duration and confining stress are given. The G/G0 of MICP-cemented calcareous sand presents a higher strain sensitivity than that of untreated sand, and its attenuation pattern can be described by Hardin-Drnevich model. The σc has an apparent effect on the degradation characteristics of the dynamic shear modulus of MICP-treated calcareous sand with a low cementation level, however, its effect decreases with the increasing treatment duration. The relationship between the reference shear strain and the treatment duration and confining stress can be described by a power and a linear formula, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0264.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy; non-linear machine learning; potassium; clay; thorium; sand; soil texture; paleo-hydrography
Online: 15 August 2022 (12:01:44 CEST)
Soil texture is key information in agriculture for improving soil knowledge and crop performance, so the accurate mapping of this crucial feature is imperative for rationally planning cultivations and for targeting interventions. We studied the relationship between radioelements and soil texture in the Mezzano Lowland (Italy), a 189 km2 agricultural plain investigated through a dedicated airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy survey. The K and Th abundances were used to retrieve the clay and sand content by means of a multi-approach method. Linear (simple and multiple) and non-linear (machine learning algorithms with deep neural networks) predictive models were trained and tested adopting a 1:50,000 scale soil texture map. The comparison of these approaches highlighted that the non-linear model introduces significant improvements in the prediction of soil texture fractions. The predicted maps of the clay and of the sand content were compared with the regional soil maps. Although the macro-structures were equally present, the airborne gamma-ray data permits us shedding light on finer features. Map areas with higher clay content were coincident with paleo-channels crossing the Mezzano Lowland in Etruscan and Roman periods, confirmed by the hydrographic setting of historical maps and by the geo-morphological features of the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0220.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: sequential chemical extraction; 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR); phosphorus; coastal sand dune; Casuarina forests
Online: 12 September 2018 (12:35:31 CEST)
Continuous research into the availability of phosphorus (P) in forest soil is critical for sustainable management of forest ecosystems. In this study, we used sequential chemical extraction and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR) to evaluate the form and distribution of inorganic P (Pi) and organic P (Po) in Casuarina forest soils of a subtropical coastal sand dune at Houlong in Taiwan. The soil samples were collected from humic (+2-0 cm) and mineral layers (mineral-I: 0-10, mineral-II: 10-20 cm) at two topographic locations (upland and lowland) by elevation. Sequential chemical extraction revealed that the NaOH-Po fraction, as moderately recalcitrant P, was the dominant form in humic and mineral-I layers in both upland and lowland soils, whereas the cHCl-Pi fraction was the dominant form in the mineral-II layer. Resistant P content, including NaOH-Pi, HCl-Pi, cHCl-Pi, and cHCl-Po fractions, was higher in the upland than lowland in the corresponding layers; however, labile P content, NaHCO3-Po, showed the opposite pattern. Content of resistant Pi (NaOH-Pi, HCl-Pi, and cHCl-Pi) increased significantly with depth, but that of labile Pi (resin-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi) and recalcitrant Po (NaHCO3-Po, NaOH-Po, and cHCl-Po) decreased significantly with depth at both locations. 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed inorganic orthophosphate and monoesters-P as the major forms in this area. The proportions of Pi and Po evaluated by sequential chemical extraction and 31P-NMR spectroscopy were basically consistent. The results indicated that the soils were in weathered conditions. Furthermore, the P distribution and forms significantly differed between the upland and lowland by variation in elevation and eolian aggradation effects in this coastal sand dune landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: bacterial calcium-carbonate precipitation (BCP); calcifying bacteria selection; calcifying mixed cultures; imagej software; biolog ecoplates; sand biocementation
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:06:06 CET)
Bacterial Calcium-carbonate Precipitation (BCP) has been studied for multiple applications such as remediation, consolidation and cementation. Isolation and screening of strong calcifying bacteria is the main task of BCP-technique. In this paper we studied CaCO3 precipitation by different bacteria isolated from a rhizospheric soil in both solid and liquid media. It has been found, through culture-depending studies, that bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria are the dominant bacteria involved in CaCO3 precipitation in this environment. Pure and mixed cultures of selected strains were applied for sand biocementation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the biotreated samples revealed the biological nature of the cementation and the effectiveness of the biodeposition treatment by mixed cultures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that all the calcifying strains selected for sand biocementation precipitated CaCO3, mostly in the form of calcite. In this study Biolog® Eco-plate is evaluated as a useful method for a more targeted choice of the sampling site with the purpose of obtaining interesting candidates for BCP applications. Furthermore, ImageJ software was investigated, for the first time to our knowledge, as a potential method to screen high CaCO3 producer strains.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bed load transport; shear Reynolds number; bed-armoring; bed-change; Danube; gravel-sand mixture; 3D CFD modeling
Online: 1 August 2019 (11:12:26 CEST)
In this study, the field measurement-based validation of a novel sediment transport calculation method is presented. River sections with complex bed topography and inhomogeneous bed material composition highlight the need for an improved sediment transport calculation method. The complexity of the morphodynamic features can result in the simultaneous appearance of the gravel and finer sand dominated sediment transport (e.g. parallel bed armoring and siltation) at different regions within a shorter river reach. For the improvement purpose of sediment transport calculation in such complex river beds, a novel sediment transport method was elaborated. The base concept of it is the combined use of two already existing empirical sediment transport models. The method was already validated against laboratory measurements. The major goal of this study is the verification of the novel method with a real river case study. The combining of the two sediment transport models is based on the implementation of a recently presented classification method of the locally dominant sediment transport nature (gravel or sand transport dominates). The results are compared with measured bed change maps. The verification clearly refers to the meaningful improvement in the sediment transport calculation by the novel manner in case of spatially varying bed content.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Proppant; Hydraulic Fracturing; Unconventional Reservoir; Sand; Settling Rate; Crush Rate; Mesh Size; Grain Diameter; Proppant composition; Micro proppant
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:50:26 CEST)
The paper investigates the possible use of a low strength domestic sand (D) (up to today useless – not considered as proppant source) of small particle sizes, instead to that of high strength imported commercial sand (C), as a prospective micro-proppant for low permeability reservoirs in Poland. There is need to develop national unconventional gas resources like tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane. An important energy source of value and readily available in Poland is coal. The basins of this resource are large and bears low permeability coalbed methane reservoirs which needs to be developed to contribute to the energy security, economy and environmental needs of the country. These reservoirs need technological assistance such as hydraulic fracturing which makes use of proppants for development. Most of the commonly used proppants over the years for fracturing have been large grain size commercial proppants of high strength material content bought abroad. Investigated finer proppants are known to have the ability to penetrate narrow fracture networks to ensure effective high reservoir volume and conductivity for production. Results from presented laboratory research shows the D - proppant, which is cheaper and readily available, has the 3K class with low settling rates as a potential micro-proppant for effective transportation, enhancement of conductivity and production rate in the narrow fractures of low permeability reservoirs. Future using of domestic proppant will decrease stimulation cost and will have positive impact on the environment due to omitting long distance transportation from abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Two-phase flow, Sand concentration, PVC and PP 90-degree elbow, Pressure drop, Minor head losses, Mathematical model
Online: 25 February 2019 (14:35:40 CET)
The article presents the results of tests of minor head losses through PVC and PP elbows for a flow of water and mixtures of water and sand with grain sizes of up to 0.5 mm and concentrations of 5.6 g∙L-1, 10.84 g∙L-1, and 15.73 g∙L-1. The tests were carried out at variable flow velocities for three elbow diameters of 63, 75, and 90 mm. The flow rate, pressure difference in the tested cross-sections, and temperature of the fluids were measured and automatically recorded. The results of the measurements were used to develop mathematical models for determining the minor head loss coefficient as a function of elbow diameter, sand concentration in the liquid, and Reynolds number. The mathematical model was developed by cross validation. It was shown that when the concentration of sand in the liquid was increased by 1.0 g∙L-1, the coefficient of minor head loss through the elbows increased, in the Reynolds number range of 4.6∙104 − 2.1∙105, by 0.3−0.01% for PP63, 0.6−0.03 % for PP75, 1.1−0.06 % for PP90, 0.8−0.01 % for PVC63, 0.8−0.02 % for PVC75, and 0.9−0.04 % for PVC90. An increase in Re from 5∙104 to 2∙106 for elbows with diameters of 63, 75 and 90 mm caused a 7.3 %, 6.8 %, and 6.0 % decrease in the minor head loss coefficient, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0261.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: composite; waste plastic; distributed recycling; LDPE; low density polyethylene; plastic sand composites; tensile strength; compressive strength; West Africa; economic development
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:27:25 CEST)
In many developing countries, plastic waste management is left to citizens. This usually results in hazardous landfilling or open-air burning, leading to emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment. An easy, profitable, and clean method of processing and transforming the waste into value is required. In this context, this study provides an open-source methodology to transform low-density polyethylene drinking water sachets, into pavement blocks by using a streamlined do-it-yourself approach that requires only modest capital. Two different materials, sand, and ashes are evaluated as additives in plastic composites and the mechanical strength of the resulting blocks are tested for different proportion mix of plastic, sand, and ash. The best composite had an elastic modulus of 169MPa, a compressive strength of 29MPa, and a water absorptivity of 2.2%. The composite pavers can be sold at 100% profit while employing workers at 1.5X the minimum wage. In the West African region, this technology has the potential to produce 19 million pavement tiles from 28,000 tons of plastic water sachets annually in Ghana, Nigeria, and Liberia. This can contribute to waste management in the region while generating a gross revenue of 2.85 billion XOF (4.33 million USD).