ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0186.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rumen simulation technique; methane production; seaweed; rumen fermentation
Online: 10 August 2022 (03:35:34 CEST)
Several red seaweeds have shown to inhibit enteric CH4 production; however, adaptation of fermentation parameters to their presence is not well understood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of three red seaweeds (Asparargopsis taxiformis, Mazzaella japonica, Palmaria mollis) on in vitro fermentation, CH4 production, and adaptation using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with four treatments, duplicated in two identical RUSITEC apparatus equipped with eight fermenter vessels each. The four treatments included the control (barley straw and barley silage) and the three red seaweeds added to the control diet at 2% diet DM. The experimental period was divided into four phases including a baseline phase (d 0-7; no seaweed included), adaptation phase (d 8-11; seaweed included in treatment vessels), intermediate phase (d 12-16) and a stable phase (d 17-21). The digestibility of organic matter (P = 0.04) and neutral detergent fibre (P = 0.05) was decreased by A. taxiformis during the adaptation phase, but returned to control levels in the stable phase. A. taxiformis supplementation resulted in a decrease (P < 0.001) in molar proportions of acetate, propionate and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, with an increase in molar proportions of butyrate, caproate, and valerate; the other seaweeds had no effect (P > 0.05) on molar proportions or production of individual VFA. A. taxiformis was the only seaweed to suppress CH4 production (P < 0.001), with the suppressive effect increasing (P < 0.001) across phases. Similarly, A. taxiformis increased (P < 0.001) the production of hydrogen (H2, %, mL/d) across the adaptation, intermediate and stable phases, with the intermediate and stable phases having greater H2 production than the adaptation phase. In conclusion, M. japonica and P. mollis did not impact rumen fermentation or inhibit CH4 production within the RUSITEC. In contrast, we conclude that A. taxiformis is an effective CH4 inhibitor and its introduction to the ruminal environment requires a period of adaptation; however, the large magnitude of CH4 suppression by A. taxiformis inhibits VFA synthesis, which may restrict production performance in vivo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0628.v1
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:58:40 CET)
Ruminants perhaps appeared about 50 million years ago (Ma). Five ruminant families had been extinct and about 200 species in 6 ruminant families are living today. The first ruminant family probably was small omnivore without functional ruminal microbiota to digest fiber. Subsequently, other ruminant families evolved around 18-23 Ma along with woodlands and grasslands. Probably, ruminants started to consume selective and highly nutritious plant leaves and grasses similar to concentrates. By 5-11 Ma, grasslands expanded and some ruminants used more grass in their diets with comparatively low nutritive values and high fibers. Historically, humans have domesticated 9 ruminant species that are mostly utilizer of low quality forages for human benefits. Thus, the non-functional rumen microbiota to predominantly concentrate fermenting microbiota, followed by predominantly fiber digesting microbiota had evolved for mutual complementary benefits of holobiont over the million years. The core microbiome of ruminant species seems the resultant of hologenome interaction in an evolutionary unit. The inertia and resilience properties of ruminal ecosystem seem to be due to this core microbiota, which makes the ecosystem most stable in response to perturbations because this core microbiota has evolutionary advantages with logically more generalists (i.e., wide metabolic versatile and redundancy). Also, a part of the ruminal microbiome shows highly plasticity, which is likely useful for evolutionary adaptability of holobiont. This review discusses ecological characteristics of ruminal microbial community in evolutionary perspectives. The updated understanding of ecological traits of ruminal microbiome would be helpful to better modulate the ruminal fermentation favorably for human benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0120.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: magnesium; absorption; rumen; butyrate; volatile fatty acids
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:59:14 CET)
The aim of the present study was to measure the apparent absorption of magnesium (Mg) originating from Mg-butyrate. Six mid-lactation Holstein Friesian dairy cows were used with dietary treatments arranged in a cross-over design. Two different diets were fed during the experiment, consisting of a low Mg diet without Mg-butyrate (L-Mg, 3.1g Mg/kg dry matter) or a high Mg diet with Mg-butyrate (H-Mg, 3.9 g Mg/kg dry matter). Cows offered the L-Mg diet ingested 54.7 g Mg/day while the cows fed the H-Mg diets ingested 66.3 g Mg/day (P < 0.001). The fecal excretion of Mg, however, was similar between the two experimental diets (P = 0.174). Consequently, apparent Mg absorption was found to be 7.9 percentage units greater (P = 0.038) when the cows were fed the diet supplemented with Mg-butyrate. The greater Mg absorption after feeding the H-Mg diet was, however, not reflected by a greater urinary Mg concentration (P = 0.228). These results indicate that the availability of Mg from the Mg-butyrate supplemented diet is high (34.1% of intake). The fractional Mg absorption from Mg-butyrate was calculated to be 71.6%. In conclusion, Mg-butyrate is an attractive alternative to supplement dairy rations with Mg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0444.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: novel rumen yeast; screening; isolation; biomass of yeast; cellulase enzyme
Online: 18 December 2020 (07:26:28 CET)
We hypothesized that rumen fluid with yeast producing cellulase enzyme can occur and also produces a high biomass compared to S. cerevisiae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen and isolate yeast from rumen fluids with an experimental design method. We optimized a fermentation medium containing sugarcane molasses as a carbon source and urea as a nitrogen source to measure the efficiency of biomass production and cellulase activity. Two fistulated-crossbred Holstein Friesian steers, averaging 350 ± 20 kg body weight, were used to screen and isolate ruminal yeast. The two experiments were designed. A 12 × 3 × 3 factorial was used in a completely randomized design to determine biomass and carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Factor A was isolated yeasts and S. cerevisiae. Factor B was sugarcane molasses (M) concentration. Factor C was urea (U) concentration. Potential yeast was selected for identified and analyzed as a 4 × 3 factorial use in a completely randomized design including. Factor A was incubation times. Factor B was isolated yeast strains including code H-KKU20 (as P. kudriavzevii-KKU20), I-KKU20 (C. tropicalis-KKU20), and C-KKU20 (as Galactomyces sp.-KKU20). Isolation was under aerobic conditions, resulting in a total of 11 different colonies. We noted two appearances of colonies including, asymmetric colonies of isolated yeast (indicated as A, B, C, E, and J) and ovoid colonies (coded as D, F, G, H, I, and K). The highest biomass was observed in three yeasts including codes H, I, and C-KKU20 when inoculated in 25% molasses with 1% urea (M25+U1) (p <0.01). The highest CMCase activity was observed in yeast code H-KKU20 when inoculated in all media solutions (p <0.01). Ruminal yeasts strains H-KKU20, I-KKU20, and C-KKU20 were selected for their ability to produce biomass and their CMCase enzyme synthesis. Identification of isolates H-KKU20 and I-KKU20 revealed that those isolates belonged to Pichia kudriavzevii-KKU20 and Candida tropicalis-KKU20, while C-KKU20 was identified as Galactomyces sp.-KKU20. Two strains provided maximum cell growth: P. kudriavzevii-KKU20 (9.78 and 10.02 Log cell/ml) and C. tropicalis-KKU20 (9.53 and 9.6 Log cells/ml) at 60 and 72 h of incubation time, respectively. The highest ethanol production was observed in S. cerevisiae: 76.4, 77.8, 78.5, and 78.6 g/L at 36, 48, 60, and 72 h of incubation time, respectively (p <0.01). The P. kudriavzevii-KKU20 yielded the least reducing sugar about 30.6 and 29.8 g/L at 60 and 72 h of incubation time, respectively. It could be concluded that screening and isolating yeast from rumen fluids resulted in 11 different characteristics of yeasts. The first novel yeasts discovered in the rumen fluid of cattle were Pichia kudriavzevii-KKU20, Candida tropicalis-KKU20, and Galactomyces sp.- KKU20. P. kudriavzevii-KKU20 had higher results than the other yeasts in terms of biomass production, cellulase enzyme activity, and cell number.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0042.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fresh cassava root; Pellet product; Rumen fermentation; Cyanide concentration; Sulfur
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:22:42 CET)
The current work aimed to screen the ruminal cyanide-utilizing bacteria and evaluate the influence of fresh cassava root (FCR) and pellets containing high sulfur (PELFUR) on cyanide content, kinetics of gas, in vitro degradability, and ruminal fermentation. The experiment was conducted in a Completely randomized design (CRD) for a screening of cyanide-utilizing bacteria and the dietary treatments were the level of cyanide at 0, 150, 300, and 450 ppm. A 5 × 3 factorial arrangement in a Completely randomized design was used for in vitro study. Factor A was the level of FCR at 0, 260, 350, 440, and 530 g/kg of 0.5 g dry matter (DM) substrate, and factor B was the level of PELFUR at 0, 15, and 30 g/kg DM substrate. Adding different doses of cyanide significantly affected cyanide-utilizing rumen bacterial growth (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of cyanide from 0 to 150 and 150 to 300 ppm, resulted in an increase in cyanide-utilizing rumen bacteria of 38.2% and 15.0%, respectively. Increasing the FCR level to more than 260 g/kg of 0.5 g substrate could increase cumulative gas production (p < 0.05), whereas increasing doses of PELFUR from 15 to 30 g/kg increased the cumulative gas production when compared with that of 0 g/kg PELFUR (p < 0.05). Cyanide concentration in rumen fluid decreased with PELFUR (p < 0.05) supplementation. Degradability of in vitro dry matter and organic matter following incubation increased at 12 and 24 h due to PELFUR supplementation with FCR and increased additionally with 15 g/kg PELFUR (p < 0.05) in 440 g/kg FCR. Proportions of the total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid, as well as the ratio of C2 to C3 among supplementations with FCR (p < 0.05) were significantly different. As the proportion of FCR increased to 530 g/kg of the substrate, the volume of C3 increased by 14.6%. This is the first finding of bacteria in the rumen capable of utilizing cyanide, and cyanide might function as a nitrogen source for bacterial cell synthesis. Inclusion of FCR of 530 g/kg with 30 g/kg PELFUR could increase the cumulative gas production, the bacterial population, the in vitro degradability, the proportion of C3, and the rate of the disappearance of cyanide.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: rumen-protected l-tryptophan; growth performance; metabolites; glucose; gene expression
Online: 29 September 2019 (09:02:27 CEST)
We assessed the growth performance, physiological traits, and gene expressions in steers fed with dietary rumen-protected L-tryptophan (RPT) under cold environment. Eight Korean native steers were assigned to two dietary groups, no RPT (Control) and RPT (0.1% RPT supplementation on a dry matter basis), 6 wks. Maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the experiment were 6.7°C and -7.0°C, respectively. Supplementation of 0.1% RPT to a total mixed ration did not increase body weight but had positive effects of elevating average daily gain (ADG) and reducing the feed conversion ratio (FCR) at day 27 and 48. Metabolic parameter showed higher glucose level (at day 27) in the 0.1% RPT group compared to the control group. Real-time PCR analysis showed no significant differences in the expression of muscle (MYF6, MyoD, and Desmin) metabolism genes between the two groups, whereas the expression of fat (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FABP4) metabolism genes was lower in the 0.1% RPT group than in the control group. Thus, we demonstrate that long-term (6 wks) dietary supplementation of 0.1% RPT was beneficial owing to enhanced growth performance by increasing ADG and glucose level, decreasing FCR, and maintaining homeostasis in immune responses in beef steers during cold environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0156.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: quercetin; eugenol; organic compounds; rumen; environment; HPLC-DAD; polyphenols-containing plants
Online: 13 April 2019 (05:23:35 CEST)
This study had the objective to evaluate the effect of Piper betle L. powder (PP) at 5 different doses in substrate incubated by sunflower oil as secondary function of PUFA using in vitro gas production technique. The treatments of this study were run as a 2X5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomised design using the PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.4: (1) control (S1) without supplementation of PP; (2) 15 mg PP (S2); (3) 30 mg PP (S3); (4) 45 mg PP (S4); and (5) 60 mg PP (S5), while sunflower oil was supplemented in all treatments: low 15 mg/incubation and high 30 mg/incubation. A 500 mg of TMR (hay: concentrate, 50:50) was assigned to basal substrate. The PP containing 1.84 mg/g DM quercetin and 1.00 mg/g DM eugenol altered rumen fermentation without change pH (p < 0.001) and methane production was lesser (p < 0.001) about -30% and -25% for DM and OM measurement, respectively. Gas kinetic, degradability, and ammonia level was significantly affected by supplementing PP (p < 0.01). Overall, this study suggested quercetin and eugenol deriving from PP acted three major accelerations: assembled carbon dioxide, behaved antimicrobial role and performed the balance water molecules in the rumen kinetic. This study suggests that PP promotes changing in vitro rumen fermentation and diminishing methane production within recommended doses, 0.1-15 mg/incubation in DM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: enteric methane; ruminants; mitigation; rumen; adoption; cost effectiveness; methanogenesis inhibition; feed additives
Online: 5 September 2022 (10:29:25 CEST)
This paper analyzes the mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants with the use of feed additives inhibiting of rumen methanogenesis to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C. A mathematical simulation conducted herein predicted that pronounced inhibition of rumen methanogenesis with pure chemicals or bromoform-containing algae can contribute to limit global temperature increase by 2050 to 1.5 °C only if widely adopted at a global level and considering an efficacy higher than obtained in most studies. Currently, the most important limitations to the adoption of antimethanogenic feed additives are probably increased feeding cost without a consistent return in production efficiency, and achieving sustained delivery of inhibitors to the rumens of non-supplemented, extensively ranging animals. Economic incentives, and changes in rumen microbial metabolism caused by inhibiting methanogenesis, could potentially be used to make the methanogenesis inhibition intervention cost effective. Also, the composition of the methanogenic community, and rate of disappearance of inhibitors of methanogenesis in the rumen can influence the effective dose of the inhibitors, and hence the cost of their adoption. Possible means for sustained delivery of antimethanogenic compounds to extensively grazing animals are discussed. Limitations and knowledge gaps of these approaches, and future research directions, are examined.