REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: socket shield; dental Implants; root membrane; buccal shield; aesthetic zone
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:45:00 CET)
There are different treatment options in modern dentistry for the replacement of lost dentition. Of these the most upcoming and acceptable treatment option is Dental implants. The common problem usually with immediate implant placement in the anterior region is the post-operative soft tissue contour as a part of the bone modelling during healing. Hurzeler et al in 2010 introduced a new technique called the “socket shield technique”. This technique has been used as an alternative treatment modality for immediate implant placement in the aesthetic zone.This review articles provides a detailed information regarding the clinical concept of Root membrane technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: grapevine; winter pruning; root distribution; root density; root growth; root/canopy ratio; root/yield ratio
Online: 12 August 2020 (13:31:36 CEST)
As in any other plant, in the grapevine roots play a vital role in terms of anchorage, uptake of water and nutrients, as well as storage and production of chemicals. Their behaviour and development depend on various factors, namely rootstock genetics, soil physical and chemical features, field agronomic practices. Canopy management, involving techniques such as defoliation and pruning, could greatly influence root growth. To date, most of the studies on grapevine winter pruning have focused on the effects on yield and quality of grapes, achievable by using different pruning systems and techniques, while the knowledge of root distribution, development, and growth in relation to winter pruning is still not well understood. In this contest, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of winter pruning on the root system of field-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Gris grafted onto rootstock SO4. We compared two pruning treatments (pruning-P and no pruning-NP) and analysed the effect on root distribution and density, root index and on the root sugar reserves. Root data were analysed in relation to canopy growth and yield, to elucidate the effect of winter pruning on the root/yield ratio. Our data indicated that winter pruning stimulated the root growth and distribution without compromising canopy development, while no-pruning treatment produced less growth of roots but a larger canopy. Information regarding root growth and root canopy ratio is important as it gives us an understanding of the relationship between the aerial and subterranean parts of the plant, how they compete, and finally, offers us the possibility to ponder on cultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Deep root system; Photosynthetic rate; Root angle; Root length; Sorghum; Transpiration rate
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:27:53 CET)
Drought decreases grain yield of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and understanding the mechanism(s) related to drought tolerance is critical for sustaining sorghum production. Variation in root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance were analyzed to provide an integrated view of factors that underlie the drought tolerance of sorghum. The plants were grown in the root column up to the five-leaf stage, then exposed to either 0.9 fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) or 0.4 FTSW for five days. In another experiment, at the five-leaf stage, stress was imposed for 14 days. Various root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance were recorded. The seminal root angle of IS13540 was lower (24.4) than IS23143 (42.6). Drought stress increased the maximum root length (40%) and total root length (58%) of IS13540 than its irrigated control. In contrast, the maximum root length and total root length were decreased in IS23143. Similarly, across the lines, drought stress decreased stomatal conductance (37%), transpiration rate (42%), photosynthetic rate (40%), photosystem II quantum yield (20%), photochemical quenching (44%), and total dry matter production (34%) than irrigated control. An increased transpiration rate was observed in IS23143 than IS13540 under irrigated and drought stress. In IS23143, the reduction in photosynthetic rate under drought may be a combination of stomatal and non-stomatal factors. However, in IS13540, the reduction is especially by the stomatal factors. It is evident that IS13540 is a drought-tolerant line, and tolerance is related to a deep prolific root system and reduced tran-spiration rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0116.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Biomass partitioning; Digital root phenotyping; Image analysis; Rhizotron; Root architecture; Root phenes; RootSnap
Online: 5 August 2022 (04:23:44 CEST)
Citron watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) is an extremely drought-tolerant cucurbit crop widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa in arid and semi-arid environments characterized by drought. The species is a C3 xerophyte used for multiple purposes, including intercropping with maize and has a deep taproot system. The deep taproot system plays a key role in the species’ adaptation to dry conditions. Understanding root system development of this crop could be useful in identifying traits for breeding water-use efficient and drought-tolerant varieties. This study compared root system architecture of citron watermelon accessions under water-stress conditions. Nine selected and drought-tolerant citron watermelon accessions were grown under non-stress (NS) and water stress (WS) conditions using the root rhizotron procedure in a glasshouse. The following root system architecture (RSA) traits were measured, namely: root system width (RSW), root system depth (RSD), convex hull area (CHA), total root length (TRL), root branch count (RBC), total root volume (TRV), leaf area (LA), leaf number (LN), first seminal root length (FSRL), seminal root angle (SRA), root dry mass (RDM), shoot dry mass (SDM), root–shoot mass ratio (RSM), root mass ratio (RMR), shoot mass ratio (SMR) and root tissue density (RTD). The data collected on RSA traits were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and principal component analyses. ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) accession × water stress interaction effect for studied RSA traits. Under WS, RDM exhibited significant and positive correlations with RSM (r = 0.65), RMR (r = 0.66), RSD (r = 0.66), TRL (r = 0.60), RBC (r = 0.72), FSRL (r = 0.73) and LN (r = 0.70). Principal component analysis revealed high loading scores for the following RSA traits: RSW (0.89), RSD (0.97), TRL (0.99), TRV (0.90), TRL (0.99), RMR (0.96) and RDM (0.76). In conclusion, the study has shown that the identified RSA traits could be useful in crop improvement programmes for citron watermelon genotypes with enhanced drought adaptation for improved yield performance under drought-prone environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: aeroponics; soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:20:00 CEST)
Aeroponics is a relatively new soilless culture technology, which may produce food in space limited cities or non-arable land with high water use efficiency. The shoot and root growth, root characteristics, mineral contents of two lettuce cultivars were measured in aeroponics, as compared with hydroponics and substrate culture. The results showed that aeroponics remarkably improved the root growth with a significant greater root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and several times higher total root length, root area and root volume. However, the greater root growth did not lead to a better shoot growth compared with hydroponics, due to the limited availability of nutrients and water. It can be concluded that aeroponics systems may be better for high value true root crops production. Further research is necessary to figure out the suitable pressure, droplet size, and misting interval in order to improve the continuously availability of nutrients and water in aeroponics, if it is used to grow crops like lettuce for harvesting above-ground parts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: phytohormone; transcriptional regulation; apical hook; root elongation; lateral root development; root hair formation; mathematical modeling
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:50:45 CET)
Auxin and ethylene pathways cooperatively regulate a variety of developmental processes in plants. Growth responses to ethylene are largely dependent on auxin, the key regulator of plant morphogenesis. Auxin, in turn, is capable of inducing ethylene biosynthesis and signaling making the interaction of these hormones reciprocal. Recent studies discovered a bunch of molecular events underlying auxin-ethylene crosstalk. In this review, we summarize the results of fine-scale and large-scale experiments on interaction of auxin and ethylene pathways in Arabidopsis. We integrate the knowledge on the molecular crosstalk events, their tissue specificity and associated phenotypic responses to decipher the crosstalk mechanisms at a systems level. We also discuss the prospects of applying systems biology approaches to study the mechanisms of crosstalk between plant hormones.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: irrigation; activation; techniques; root canal treatment; endodontics; root canals
Online: 31 May 2023 (07:37:22 CEST)
As indicated by standards of modern dentistry, the essence of endodontic treatment is chemo-mechanical disinfection of root canal system. The infected tooth should be eradicated of microorganisms and sealed tight with biocompatible materials. Vital element of this process is irrigation of canals with designated solutions as well as their activation. This review article summarizes various techniques of activation of irrigants for endodontic treatment and compares them. Results were gathered using PubMed and Google Scholar databases by searching keywords: irrigation, activation, sodium hypochlorite, irrigation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: carboxylate exudation; P efficiency; root exudate; root traits; rhizosphere
Online: 22 February 2019 (04:12:34 CET)
Alterations in root morphology and physiology are important strategies in plants to adapt to low-phosphorus (P) environments. Maize genotypes differed in nitrogen (N) efficiency may also respond differently to low P stress. This study aimed to investigate the responses of root morphological and physiological traits of these two maize cultivars to P deficit and how these traits were linked with the acquisition of soil P. Two maize cultivars, XY335 (N efficient) and ZD958 (N inefficient), were cultivated for 40 days in a calcareous loamy soil amended with (high P) or without (low P) P. Functional root traits were used to evaluate the morphological and physiological responses to low P supply. Two separate short-term experiments determined the correlation between P uptake rate and P supply intensity (hydroponic) or root hair length under two P treatments (rhizobox). Low P status significantly simulated biomass allocation to roots, specific root length and exudations of carboxylates, while decreased root diameter and rhizosphere pH in both maize cultivars. Two cultivars had different total root length and root surface area under low P stress: increased in ZD958 and decreased in XY335. Both genotypes developed longer root hair under P deficit. ZD958 (greater biomass and shoot P content) has a greater capability at accessing soil P than XY335. Rhizosphere exudation of citric acid was significantly higher in ZD958 than in XY335, while there was not significant genotypic difference in rhizosphere pH and exudation of malic acid and acid phosphatase activity. ZD958 had higher P uptake rate than XY335 when solution P was between 12.5 and 250 µM. This study identified ZD958 as a P-efficient genotype, which better adapted to low P stress by altering root physiological traits (exudation of citric acid and P uptake rate), rather than root morphological traits (total root length, root surface area, root hair length). Our results highlight the importance of analyzing root morphological and physiological traits to enhance our understanding of the physiological mechanisms of P acquisition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1676.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: drip irrigation; root; varietal difference; deep root; plastic-film mulch
Online: 25 September 2023 (10:13:49 CEST)
With the escalating water scarcity in agriculture, a novel water-saving technique has emerged: drip irrigation with plastic-film mulch (DI). Root function is crucial for sustaining rice production, and understanding its response to DI is essential. However, few studies have evaluated root systems in rice varietals and examined which kind of root system contributes to improving rice grain yield and water productivity in DI. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a two-year field experiment comparing two irrigation systems: continuous flooding (CF) and DI. We analyzed their effectiveness with four rice varieties, including upland, F1 lowland, animal feed lowland, and lowland varieties. Vertical root distribution, root bleed-ing rate, photosynthetic-associated parameters, water productivity, and yield performance were analyzed. In our study, the average grain yield of varieties in the DI system (6.4t/ha) was equivalent to those in the CF system (6.6 t/ha). Compared to CF, DI demonstrated significant water-saving potential, saving approximately 35% of the total water supplied, resulting in higher water productivity. Among the varieties, the deep-root weight of the upland variety significantly increased by 51%. The deep-root ratio was positively correlated to transpiration rate, grain yield, and water productivity, which suggested that it contributed to high transpiration, thus maintaining a high carbon assimilation rate resulting in high yield and water productivity. Therefore, deep roots deserve consideration as a trait potentially corresponding to high yield under DI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0389.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: environmental heterogeneity; functional traits; root architecture; root foraging; vegetative expansion
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:13:08 CEST)
Unlike trees, shrubs (i.e., multiple-stemmed woody plants) do not need evenly spaced large diameter structural roots and thus can spread further per unit belowground biomass. We therefore hypothesized that compared to trees, shrubs respond more to asymmetric distributions of nutrients and reach nutrient-rich patches of soil faster and with less below-ground biomass. To test these hypotheses we planted individual seedlings of shrubs (Cornus racemosa, Rhus glabra, and Viburnum dentatum) and trees (Acer rubrum, Betula populifera, and Fraxinus americana) in the centers of sand-filled rectangular boxes. In one direction we created stepwise gradients of increasing soil nutrients with slow-release fertilizer; in the other direction no fertilizer was added. Seedlings were harvested when their first root reached the plexiglass-covered fertilized end of their box; time taken as well as above- and below-ground biomass by nutrient segment were determined. There were no consistent differences between the shrubs and trees in belowground architectural plasticity (= ratio of biomass in fertilized and unfertilized volumes of soil) or in the rate and efficiency of lateral growth. Interspecific variation appeared more related to edaphic characteristics of the native habitats than to growth form. The fastest and most efficient roots were produced by the shrub (R. glabra) and the tree (B. populifolia) that are characteristic of poor soils. Root foraging by R. glabra was also facilitated by rapid rhizomatous expansion. The tested shrubs and trees did not consistently differ in nutrient foraging efficiencies or rates but further study is warranted with larger plants and more species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: combined stresses; drought stress; heat stress; maize; root morphology; root types
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:39:56 CET)
Plants are continually exposed to multiple stresses, which co-occur in nature and the net effects are frequently more non-additive (i.e., synergistic or antagonistic) suggesting ‘unique’ responses respect to that of the individual stress. Further, plant stress responses are not uniforms showing a high spatial and temporal variability among and along the different organs. In this respect, the present work investigated the morphological responses of different root types (seminal, seminal lateral, primary, primary lateral) of maize plants exposed to single (drought and heat) and combined stress (drought + heat). Data were evaluated by a specific root image analysis system (WinRHIZO) and analyzed by uni- and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results indicated that primary root and their laterals were the types more sensitive to the single and combined stresses while the seminal laterals specifically responded to the combined only. Further, antagonistic and synergistic effects were observed for the specific traits in the primary and their laterals and in the seminal lateral roots in response to the combined stress. These results suggested that maize root system modified specific root types and traits to face with different stressful environmental conditions highlighting that the adaptation strategy to the combined stress may be different from that of the individual ones. The knowledge of “unique or shared” responses of plant to multiple stress can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0718.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Best Management Practices; Construction; Root Growth; Root Severing; Southern Live Oak; Tree Protection
Online: 10 November 2023 (13:59:10 CET)
Background: As long-lived organisms, urban trees often encounter development and redevelopment activities in close proximity during their lifespans. These activities can damage tree roots, often through methods like root severing during trenching or excavation. Methods: In 2017, we simulated trenching damage on mature Quercus virginiana Mill. trees at three different distances from the base (3x, 6x, and 12x the stem diameter). After five years, we revisited these trees to assess root regrowth based on the cut root's cross-sectional area (CSA) and distance from the base. Results: We observed regrowth in all but 38 (6.7%) of the 557 cut roots revisited. The lack of regrowth in some roots was not associated with our original treatments, the CSA of the roots at the time of trenching, or distance between the cut root end and the trunk (minimum P-value = 0.841). On average, the observed CSA of the regrowth was 22.2% of the original root's CSA. Only our original trenching treatments significantly predicted the level of regrowth observed five years after pruning (P-value = 0.024). Discoloration due to root pruning was minimal. Conclusion: In summary, our findings indicate that root systems require many years to recover from trenching damage. Increasing the distance between trenching activities and trees may have a minor effect on root regrowth but primarily helps reduce initial stress on the tree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Genotype; seasonal root growth; vertical root distribution; soil depth; soil temperature; soil moisture
Online: 22 August 2023 (03:13:03 CEST)
Minirhizotron tubes were installed to monitor root growth dynamics of mature Shiraz grapevines in a rootstock trial established in the hot climate Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. The vertical root distribution and seasonal root growth dynamics of Shiraz on own-roots and Shiraz grafted on the rootstocks Ramsey, 140 Ruggeri and Schwarzmann was studied for five seasons across a seven-year period to a depth of 60 cm. New root production was significantly influenced by genotype, soil depth, season, growth stage and year. Soil moisture and soil tem-perature were monitored at 10, 30 and 60 cm in the last two seasons. Soil moisture at 30 cm and soil temperature at all three depths were significant predictors of root growth. New root numbers were significantly higher in 140 Ruggeri than the other rootstocks. To the depth studied, 140 Ruggeri roots were evenly distributed from the topsoil down, whereas the majority of roots of Schwarzmann and Shiraz were located at intermediate depths in the 10-40 cm ad 20-40 cm zones respectively, while Ramsey roots were found at 20 cm or below. Depending on genotype, root growth occurred across several phenological stages but tended to peak at flowering. In some years we observed root growth in early and late winter at rates exceeding that of autumn, and this was associated with warmer temperatures during this period. Overall, seasonal rooting dynamics were responsive to abiotic factors but dominated by genotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1686.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Forest; Hydraulic flume; Rill erosion; Root biomass; Root weight density; Unit stream power.
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:23:37 CEST)
Plant roots have significant effects on the soil erosion rates, since they can strongly change the soil detachment capacity (Dc). This study quantifies Dc at different flow rates in soils with Alnus subcordata species, compared to three other species (Brachythecium plumose, Gleditsia caspica and Sambucus ebulus species) in the Saravan forest park and develops regression equations for predicting Dc. Undisturbed samples collected from soils with the four tree species and subjected to five slopes (from 4.3 to 38.3%) and five water discharges (from 0.28 to 0.71 l m−1 s−1) using a hydraulic flume. The results showed that Dc was significantly lower in soils with Alnus subcordata species compared to Brachythecium plumose, Gleditsia caspica and Sambucus ebulus species, as the consequence of the changes in the root characteristics, so that Dc was negatively correlated with root weight density, root length and root biomass. The unit stream power had high accuracy for predicting Dc for all of the studied species. The lowest value of rill erodibility (Kr) was obtained in soils with Alnus subcordata species using regression relationship between the Dc and the shear stress of the soil. This experiment helped to show the importance of plant roots in reducing the soil detachment rates and provided a contribution in understanding the choice of appropriate species for soil conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: root canal; irrigation; CFD; dentistry
Online: 16 September 2019 (10:51:10 CEST)
Among the different applicable irrigants for root canal disinfection, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% is one of the most attractive ones. The quality of root canal disinfection is dependent on some factors such as the employed approach, type of flow rate of irrigant and the size of needle. The majority of studies in the field of root canal disinfection are experimentally carried out. In the current article, Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is used for modeling the antimicrobial liquid flow in the root canal and evaluate the effects of needle size and flow rate. Two needles, G28 and G30, are used for irrigation in three volumetric rates of flow including 0.10 mL⁄s , 0.20 mL⁄s and 0.30 mL⁄s. The results of numerical simulations revealed the improved quality of root canal disinfection by augmentation in the rate of flow and decrease in the inner diameter of the needle. According to the outcomes of the modeling, the highest average wall shear stress obtained in the case of using G28 needle and 30 mL⁄s flow rate, which was approximately 10.21 Pa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0154.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Elevated CO2; partial root-zone irrigation; root morphological traits; mineral nutrient; elemental stoichiometric ratio
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:56:31 CET)
Increasing CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in atmosphere decreases mineral nutrients concentration in crops whereas increasing water use efficiency (WUE) especially in drought conditions. Partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) could stimulate soil nutrient mineralization and improve crop nutrient status. Yet the effect of PRI combined with elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) on the element stoichiometry of tomato leaves remains unknown. This study was to investigate the responses of leaf mineral nutrients status and element stoichiometric ratio in tomato grown at PRI exposed to e[CO2]. Tomato plants (cv. Ailsa Craig) were grown in pots in climate-controlled growth chambers with ambient [CO2] (a[CO2], 400ppm) and elevated [CO2] (e[CO2] 800ppm), respectively. Three irrigation regimes (IR) i.e. full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) were applied to tomato plants at flowering stage. The result showed that plants exposed to both reduced irrigations had a similar biomass, an enhanced root growth including greater root to shoot ratio (R/S), root length (RL), surface area (RS), volume (RV) and specific length (RSL), and an improved WUE under e[CO2]. Compared to a[CO2], e[CO2] growth environment resulted in a similar leaf [C], [K] and [Mg], leaf C/K and C/Mg, increased leaf [Ca], [S] and leaf C/N, C/P and N/P, but decreased leaf [N], [P], leaf C/Ca, C/S and N/K at PRI. Additionally, under e[CO2], PRI showed an increase in leaf [C], [N] and [S], no decrease in leaf [K], Ca], [Mg], [S] and [15N], but a decrease in leaf C/N and C/S as compared with FI. Conclusively, PRI had the ability to alleviate the negative effects on mineral nutrient concentrations and maintain or improve most leaf element stoichiometric ratios under e[CO2]. Therefore PRI would be a practicable irrigation for optimizing WUE and nutrient status in tomato leaves in a future freshwater-limited and higher CO2 environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Endodontics; root canal preparation; cone-beam computed tomography; root canal therapy; e-Vol DX software
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:50:14 CET)
This study employed e-Vol DX cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) software to assess dentin remnants in the furcation area of mesial canals in mandibular molars during root canal retreatment (RCR). Four groups (Reciproc®, ProTaper Next®, Race Evo®, Protaper Gold®) were subjected to RCR, and CBCT images were captured before (T1) and after (T2) treatment. Measurements of remaining dentin thickness at 1 mm and 3 mm below the furcation were scrutinized. Results revealed no significant differences in mean thicknesses of mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals at 1 mm and 3 mm from the furcation pre-treatment (T1). Post-treatment (T2) showed analogous findings, with no significant differences in mean thicknesses. However, disparities surfaced between MB and ML canals at both distances, both before and after retreatment. In essence, the evaluated instruments exhibited safety in RCR, implying their appropriateness for use in critical areas of mandibular molars without inducing excessive wear. This study underscores the instruments' reliability in navigating danger zones during RCR, contributing valuable insights for dental practitioners handling complex root canal scenarios in mandibular molars.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Root crops; Evaluation; Mechanical harvesting; Optimization
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:41:36 CEST)
Root crops grow in the soil deeply and bond with soil closely, which results in that the process of the separation between soil and root becomes the most difficult during the harvesting processes. In order to harvest root crops efficiently, the mechanical harvesting has become the main developing trend. However, high power and high damage rate are still occurred when mechanical harvester gets in touch with the roots. In this paper, we review the research of the development and evaluation of the mechanical harvesting of root crops and its performance optimization on the past years. The process of soil separation mainly consists in the initial separation between root and the ground and further separation between root and adhered soil. In general, the soil-cutting operation in the initial separation and the sieving mechanism in the further separation require high draught and power. And the dramatic friction, impact, pressure and so on, which happen in the components and soil-roots, are the key reasons to lead to root damage. The optimization of harvesting methods and parameters, including the digging shovel shape, working conditions, vibration, and screening way, is more significant in improving the harvesting performance. But there are still some limitations in the research and application of the mechanical harvester for root crops. Future research is suggested to focus on the development of the soil break-up when the digging shovel cutting soil, the insight into the interaction between soil and roots by different external compression loads, and the long-term studies to verify the high-efficiency and low-damage performances of mechanical harvester in practical application.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Eggplant, Galls, Meloidogyne, Root-knot, Nematodes
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:50:41 CEST)
Eggplant is a functional food owing to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cardio-protective properties. Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are a threat to the successful production of eggplant. RKN infestation manifests as root damage, stunted development, and structural deformations of the plant. RKN infestation can be managed using a variety of management techniques like soil amendments and chemical treatments. Breeding for nematode tolerance is critical for high yields and stable results. As a result, breeding approaches are the most efficient and cost-effective nematode management methods. Furthermore, with advances in breeding technology and genomics assistance, it is becoming more feasible and straightforward. As a result, we've compiled a list of the most recent breeding developments for Meloidogyne spp. resistance in eggplant. We hope this information will serve as an important resource for the eggplant breeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0232.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sweet potato; Phosphorus fertilizer; Bacillus megaterium DSM2894; leaf and tuberous root nutrients contents; Tuberous root yield
Online: 14 December 2021 (12:15:41 CET)
Under Egyptian soil conditions, when phosphorus fertilizers were applied to the soil, it gets fixed and converts to unavailable form, leading to low solubility for the plant. This study were fulfilled on sweet potato (cv. Beauregard) under undesirable soil properties (CaCO3 10.8 vs 11.3%) using Bacillus megaterium DSM 2894 strain under different five mono calcium phosphate (CSP) levels [(69(CSP20); 138(CSP40); 207 (CSP60); 276 (CSP80) and 345 ((CSP100) kg ha-1 of calcium superphosphate (CSP)] to arise the potential efficiency of some nutrients uptake and decease the applied total amount of CSP in 2019 and 2020 seasons. The results mentioned that highest values were obtained by inoculated plants with DSM2894 strain under 20, 60 and 100% of CSP for all studied nutrients content in both seasons, except Mn content in the 2019. Also, inoculated plants with DSM2894 under previous treatments for all tuberous root nutrients content, except Fe and Zn contents in both seasons, in addition protein and anti-radical power and total yield. Statistically, leaf nutrients uptake and tuberous root content were highly significant affected by DSM and CSP combination. Appling of phosphorus fertilizer with DSM2894 mixture was gave the best values as compared with phosphorus fertilizer or DSM2894, individually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0624.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: litter decomposition; root development and morphology; root-soil continuum; soil C/N; tea bags; telluric microorganisms
Online: 28 August 2020 (08:14:25 CEST)
Plants are affected by soil environments to the same extent they affect soil functioning through interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Here, five plant species (broad bean, pea, cabbage, fennel, and olive) grown under controlled pot conditions were tested for their ability to differently stimulate the degradation of standard litter. Litter, soil C and N contents and soil microbial abundance were measured. The architecture and morphological traits of roots systems were also evaluated by using specific open-source software (SmartRoot). Soil chemical and microbiological characteristics were significantly influenced by the plant species. Variations in soil C/N dynamics were correlated with the diversity of root traits among species. Early-stage decomposition of the standard litter changed on the basis of the plant species. The results indicated that key soil processes are governed by interactions between plant roots, soil C and N, and the microbial metabolism that stimulate decomposition reactions. This, in turn, can have marked effects on soil chemical and microbiological fertility, both fundamental for sustaining crops, and can promote the development of new approaches for optimizing soil C and N cycling, managing nutrient transport, and sustaining and improving net primary production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: AT-hook motif nuclear protein 18; AHL18; At3G60870; Arabidopsis; Lateral root development; Root apical meristem; Cell proliferation
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:40:34 CET)
The AT-HOOK MOTIF NUCLEAR LOCALIZED PROTEIN (AHL) gene family encodes embryophyte-specific nuclear proteins with DNA binding activity. They modulate gene expression and affect various developmental processes in plants. We identify AHL18 (At3G60870) as a developmental modulator of root system architecture and growth. AHL18 regulates the length of the proliferation domain and number of dividing cells in the root apical meristem and thereby, cell production. Both primary root growth and lateral root development respond according to AHL18 transcription level. The ahl18 knock-out plants show reduced root systems due to a shorter primary root and a lower number of lateral roots. This change results from a higher number of arrested and non-developing lateral root primordia (LRP) rather than from decreased initiation. Overexpression of AHL18 results in a more extensive root system, longer primary roots, and increased density of lateral root initiation events. Formation of lateral roots is affected during the initiation of LRP and later development. AHL18 regulate root apical meristem activity, lateral root initiation and emergence, which is in accord with localization of its expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Drought; cotton; Root; Shoot; tolerance; water scarcity
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:34:50 CEST)
Cotton is an important plant since it provides raw materials for various in-dustry bracnhes. Even though cotton is generally tolerant of drought, it is af-fected negatively by long-term drought stress. This experiment was conduct-ed according to a completed randomized plots trial design with 3 replications to determine the upland cotton genotype’s reactions against drought under controlled conditions in the 2022 year. All genotypes were watered with 80 mL-1 of water (100% irrigation, Field capacity) until three true leaves ap-peared. After this period water stress was applied at limited irrigation of 75% (60 mL-1), 50% (40 mL-1), and 25% (20 mL-1) of field capacity. After the trial terminated at 52. Days, the cv. G56, elit line G44, G5, and commercial variety G86 genotype, respectively resulted in the highest Root Length (RL), and the G76 genotype resulted in the lowest RL followed by G41 and G35 elite lines. G1 cultivar showed the highest Root Fresh Weight (RFW), followed by G56, G44, G86, G51, and G88, respectively. The lowest RFW was also obtained in elite lines G76 and G41. The third drought morphological marker, the Num-ber of Lateral Roots (NLRs), was the highest in G44, followed by G86, Cv. G56, elite lines G13 and G5 genotype. The lowest NLRs value was obtained in genotype G47 and G76. The highest RDW means was obtained in elite line G5, followed by Cv. G56, elite line G44, G75 and cv. G90, while the lowes RDW mean obtained in elite line G76, G35, and local varieties G20 and G61. In the SL marker, the highest averages were recorded for genotypes G35, G15, G26, G67, and G56, respectively. In the SFW marker, the highest averages were observed in genotypes G15, G52, G60, G31, and G68, respectively. The lowest SL values were observed in genotypes G91, G72, G32, and G22. Simi-larly, the lowest SFW values were found in genotypes G83, G2, G75, and G91. In another shoot drought marker, Shoot Dry Weight (SDW), the highest val-ues were obtained in genotypes G35, G52, G57, G41, and G60, respectively. Conversely, the lowest SDW values were observed in genotypes G65, G91, G4, G20, and G22. In conclusion, the commercial varieties with high averages in roots, namely G86, G56, G88, and G90, and the genotypes G67, G20, G60, and G57 showing tolerance in shoots, are suggested to be potential parent plants for developing cotton varieties resistant to drought. Using the culti-vars found tolerant in the current study as parents in a drought-tolerant vari-ety development Marker-assisted selection (MAS) plant breeding program will increase the chance of success in reaching the target after genetic diversi-ty analyses are performed. It is highly recommended to continue the plant breeding program with the G44, G30, G19, G1, G5, G75, G35, G15, G52, G29, and G76 genotypes which show high tolerance in both root and shoot sys-tems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: allelopathy; barnyardgrass; root trait; phytohormone; biotic stress
Online: 2 June 2023 (10:29:48 CEST)
Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) is a prevalent type of weed in rice fields worldwide. Despite the growing knowledge concerning allelopathic interference with barnyardgrass, little is understood regarding the competitive mechanisms between allelopathic rice and herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass at the plant physiological level. In this context, a hydroponic system was employed to investigate the root morphological traits and different phytohormones levels of two rice cultivars, i.e., the allelopathic rice cultivar “PI312777” (PI) and the non-allelopathic rice cultivar “Lemont” (LE), when co-planted with quinclorac-resistant and -susceptible barnyardgrass, respectively. The results showed that the shoot and root biomass were greater in the allelopathic rice cultivar. Moreover, the treatments at the two time points induced an increase in shoot and root biomass of PI when subjected to barnyardgrass stress. In terms of root morphology, PI exhibited significantly higher fine-root length in diameters <0.5 mm, a greater number of root tips, and longer root tips compared to LE. In addition, the levels of different plant hormones, including auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA), known for their diverse adaptation strategies to biotic stress, were analysed. The response to quinclorac-resistant barnyardgrass stress was consistent in terms of the content of well-known stress-related hormones, namely SA and JA. The accumulation of SA and JA was observed in both rice cultivars under the stress of quinclorac-resistant barnyardgrass, with higher contents of these hormones in PI than that in LE. The most significant change was observed in IAA and ABA contents in rice, which decreased significantly from 7 days to 14 days under co-culture stress. Additionally, PI contained higher levels of IAA and ABA than LE in the presence of barnyardgrass stress. This research may aid in the development of strategies for reducing the environmental impact of herbicides through the prudent selection of non-chemical herbicide control tactics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: allometry; root; carbon; El Chico National Park
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:41:59 CEST)
The use of allometric tools allows estimating the biomass of a plant species with greater precision. Tree roots are the least studied part of the vegetation due to the difficulty in obtaining complete root systems. For this reason, the objective was to generate an allometric model to estimate the amount of biomass accumulated in the root system of Abies religiosa trees in El Chico National Park, Hidalgo. For this purpose, 61 trees of A. religiosa were extracted from 0.06 to 3.56 m in height, using a backpack sprayer of pressurized water that detached the soil from the root. The response variable was root fresh weight and the independent variables were height, diameter and age+1, according to the fit of the models tested. Diameter was the variable with the best fit (r2 = 0.95 ± 0.04), obtaining the following equation PFR = (20.918 + D (2.4475)). The allometric model accurately estimates the below-ground biomass contained in the roots, which will allow us to obtain the complete biomass of an A. religiosa forest by having access to data on both the aerial and root components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0072.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: TLC-screening; HPLC-DAD; NMR; arctic root
Online: 3 November 2022 (07:47:15 CET)
Artic root is a well-known plant adaptogen with multipotential pharmacological properties. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) – screening followed by diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy proved to be a reliable and convenient method for simultaneous determination of quality of various herbal raw materials and supplements. This combination allowed for comparing and differentiating arctic root samples as well as defining their authenticity. The study provided information on the chemical and biological properties of the seven chosen samples as well as qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the quality markers: rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol. The absence of rosavin, salidroside, and p-tyrosol in three samples was detected using TLC-screening and confirmed by HPLC-DAD and NMR. The paper highlighted the importance of quality control and strict regulation for herbal medicine supplements and preparations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: halophyte; rhizobacteria; PGPR; root inoculation; osmotic stress
Online: 14 March 2022 (06:53:44 CET)
Rhizosphere bacteria have a decisive influence on plant ionic adjustment, as well as in ameliorating plant growth under an array of stress situations. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize the rhizosphere of plants and promote plant growth through mechanisms such as solubilization of mineral phosphates, biological N2 fixation, production of siderophores and phytohormones, and can induce systemic resistance in the plant. This can be of extreme importance when considering the restoration of salinized grounds by halophytic species. This present work aims to evaluate the physiological fitness and phytoprotection improvement by salt marsh PGPR in Halimione portulacoides under mild and severe salt stress. Plants inoculated with PGPR-consortium showed higher photochemical performances, improved antioxidant response, and promotion of osmotic balance traits, that boosted the individual’s ability to cope with mild salt stress. All these changes are also in line with the differential elemental profiles (Na, K, and Ca) observed in the different plant tissues. Even under severe salt stress, some physiological traits were improved when compared to the non-inoculated individuals. The results developed under this work, point out an important role of bioaugmentation in promoting plant fitness and improving salt tolerance, with a great potential for applications in seawater agriculture, restoration, and bio-reclamation of salinized soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: citrus; root rhizosphere; mancozeb; bacteria community; diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:12:53 CET)
Mancozeb is extensively used fungicide to prevent citrus melanose in most Asian countries, especially in China. So far, however, there have been no reports of thet effect of Mancozeb on the citrus rhizosphere bacterial community. Therefore, this comparative experiment defined the genomic and functional related to community and soil health of 2-years old Citrus unshiu Marc. rhizosphere through amplicon sequencing and chemical analysis. This study evaluated the effect of mancozeb on the chemical properties of citrus-cultivated soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community. We also investigated the abundance response of rhizosphere bacterial groups to 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 times application of 2 g mancozeb (active ingredient content, ai.) 600 times diluted with water. Our data revealed that the abundance of rhizosphere-associated bacterial species increased significantly after planting citrus. The relative abundance of Candidatus, Saccharibacteria, Parcubacteria, and Proteobacteria increased with the increase in mancozeb watering times. Meanwhile, the abundance of Nitrospirae decreased with the increase in mancozeb application times. The findings indicated that the chemical properties of the soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community did not significantly differ across the mancozeb gradients in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: provenances, height, root-collar-diameter, survival, growth
Online: 18 January 2018 (16:39:53 CET)
The aims of the study were to evaluate seedling growth and survival of Prunus africana provenances in awi highland based on ecological requirement of the tree. We measured survival and growth of three P.africana provenances seedlings found in Ethiopia (provenances sources namely: Gedeo, Jibat and Munnessa). Design of experiment with randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Seedlings planted at 2m, 2.5m and 3m distance between plants, plot, and blocks respectively. A plot size of 10mx10m and 25 plants are found per plot (0.01ha). We used ANOVA to test differences in survival, and growth among provenances over time. Results concluded that, provenances have no significant variation among in establishment rate, plant height and collar diameter growth. Of these provenances, Jibat was the first in establishment (56%), second in height (1.97m) and diameter (2.89cm). Gedeo was stood first in height (2.30m) but second in establishment rate (52%) and thickness(3.45cm), but Munessa with very good growth in diameter(3.59cm) might be prefreed for bark extraction followed by Gedeo, last in height (1.75m),but established second (52%). Contrary to expectations, seedlings were still at substantial risk of mortality ≥3 years after planting. Probably the plants survival rate and growth probably affected by altitude, soil water potential, light exposure, and wild animal presence in the surrounding. In steep slope sites, canopy shade, existing weed vegetation as well as wild animals such as apes is unlikely to enhance seedling survival after planting. Our results suggest that seedling mean growth increased with 0.008mm thickness and 0.41mm per day while 2.8mm thickness and 146.8mm tall increment recorded in 2560meter elevated high land or injibara with mean value of 18.5°C and rain fall is 1300mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; PABA; root growth; folates; cell cycle
Online: 18 October 2023 (16:22:03 CEST)
The continuous growth of roots depends on their ability to maintain a balanced ratio between cell production and cell differentiation at the tip. This process was reported to be regulated by the hormonal balance of cytokinin and auxin. However, other important regulators, such as plant folates, have also been reported to play a regulatory role. In this study, we investigated the impact of the folate precursor PABA on root development. Using pharmacological, genetic, and imaging approaches, we show that the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana roots is repressed by either supplementing the growth medium with PABA or overexpressing the PABA synthesis gene GAT-ADCS. This is associated with a smaller root meristem size, which consists of fewer cells. Conversely, reducing the levels of free root endogenous PABA results in longer roots with extended meristems and increased cell numbers. We provide evidence that PABA represses Arabidopsis root growth in a folate-independent manner and likely acts through two mechanisms: (i) the G2/M transition of cell division in the root apical meristem and (ii) promoting premature cell differentiation in the transition zone. These data collectively suggest that PABA plays a role in Arabidopsis root growth at the point where cell division and cell differentiation intersect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0691.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Root length; MtTGA1; Antioxidant Enzyme; hormones; salt stress
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:18:28 CEST)
The TGACG motif-binding factor1 (TGA1) transcription factor, a significant protein in the bZIP transcription factor family, exhibits a myriad of functions, contributes to numerous biological events, and holds substantial application potential. In this study, our analysis revealed a diverse range of photoregulatory and hormone regulatory elements within the MtTGA1 promoter region. The expression profile of MtTGA1 indicated its highest expression in the root, with its regulation influenced by SA, ABA, BR, and GA. Under salt stress conditions, transgenic plants demonstrated significantly longer root lengths and heightened activities of antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbic acid catalase (APX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in their roots and leaves compared to control plants. Simultaneously, the levels of endogenous hormones ABA and BR escalated in transgenic plants, with a marked change in the morphology of their leaf cells. Transcriptome analysis identified a total of 193 differentially expressed genes, implicating a wide array of biological processes. Furthermore, we found that MtTGA1 is able to interact with Medicago truncatula SPX domain containing protein 1 (SPX1). In conclusion, the MtTGA1 transcription factor plays a crucial role in enhancing salt tolerance, which provides new insights for improving plant survival under salt stress conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Aeroponics; Fuzzy control; sensors; Root-shoot ratio; Lettuce
Online: 2 June 2023 (11:58:58 CEST)
At present, aeroponic control is mainly regulated according to the environmental factors of aeroponics, such as the temperature, humidity, light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution. There is a lack of knowledge available in the literature for an aeroponic control system for plant growth information as the primary feedback signal. Therefore, a fuzzy logic-controlled aeroponics system was developed for the growth of lettuce as a feedback signal. After designing, the effectiveness test of system was performed with experiment having three treatments T1 (180C), T2 (220C) and without control (CK). The results show an increasing trend in shoot length, root length, and shoot area over time in all treatments. In terms of shoot area, the maximum of 345 cm² was observed in the T1 treatment, while the CK treatment had a minimum of 241.8 cm². Statistical analysis indicated that the T1 and T2 treatments were not significantly different, but both were significantly different from the CK treatment. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the fuzzy logic control system and an 18°C nutrient solution temperature, resulting in improved lettuce growth and reduced root-to-shoot ratio. The findings suggest the potential of using fuzzy logic control in aeroponics for optimized cultivation outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Induced resistance; Watermelon; Fusarium; Root-knot nematode; Micronutrients
Online: 16 August 2022 (11:59:40 CEST)
The soil-borne pathogens, particularly Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) and southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) are the major threat to watermelon production in the south-eastern United States. The role of soil micronutrients on induced resistance (IR) to plant diseases is well-documented in soil-based mediums. However, soil-based mediums limit the determination of the role(s) of individual micronutrients in IR. In this manuscript, we utilized hydroponics to assess the effect of controlled application of micronutrient, including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) on the expression of some IR genes (PR1, PR5, and NPR1 from salicylic acid (SA) pathway, and VSP, PDF, and LOX genes from jasmonic acid (JA) pathway) in watermelon seedlings upon inoculation with either FON or RKN or both. Plants were treated with higher (3X) or lower (0.5X) concentrations of micronutrients in Steiner solution (X= standard dose of micronutrient) for 7 days in a hydroponics system under greenhouse conditions. A subset of micronutrient-treated plants was inoculated (on the 8th day of micronutrient application) with FON and RKN (single and mixed). The expression of the IR genes in treated and control samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Although, significant phenotypic differences were not observed with respect to the severity of wilt symptoms or RKN galling with any of the micro-nutrient treatments within the 30 day-experimental-period, differences in the induction of IR genes were observed. However, the level of gene expression varied with sampling period, type and concentration of micro-nutrients ap-plied, and pathogen-inoculation. In the absence of pathogens, no significant changes were observed in the expression level of IR genes on 7th day of micronutrient treatment. However, pathogen inoculation affected the expression levels of the IR genes at 3-day post-inoculation. In FON inoculated plants, PDF was upregulated in high Fe treatment, whereas in RKN inoculated plants, low Mn treatment resulted in up-regulation of VSP. In the case of mixed inoculation with FON and RKN, the plants with low Zn treatment resulted in the upregulation of PR1. These observations suggest that the type and concentration of micronutrients in watermelon may potentially induce systemic resistance against FON and RKN through SA and JA pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0065.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: betanin; natural red; pigment; betalain; Opuntia; beet root
Online: 10 November 2017 (04:56:22 CET)
Sourced so far mostly from beet root juice, betanin is a red-violet natural colorant increasingly used by the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries. We provide an updated bioeconomy perspective into a valued betacyanin whose supply and applications, we argue in this study, will rapidly expand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: canopy; root; biomass; spatial wavelet coherence; radar; lidar
Online: 21 October 2016 (06:05:11 CEST)
Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy lidar (PCL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence at multiple spatial scales ≤ 10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more evenly distributed by height and depth, respectively, as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5-4 meters, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing lidar and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1364.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Tomato; Root-knot nematodes; Site-specific farming; Mwea, Kenya
Online: 20 September 2023 (07:13:05 CEST)
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a high value horticultural crop in Kenya. Nutritionally, the crop is rich in niacin, carotene, thiamine, and vitamin C. Mwea in Kirinyaga County is one of the major tomato growing areas in Kenya. Tomato production in Kenya is hindered by losses due to diseases caused by pathogens that include plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). Among the plant parasitic nematodes, the root-knot nematode (RKN) is the most predominant in Mwea. This study investigated the soil parameters that influence the distribution of the RKN for the purpose of mapping their distribution. This is important since it ensures that nematicide application is only to specific sites where these nematodes are found thereby saving on input costs as well as protecting the environment. The study consisted of surveys conducted in geo-referenced tomato production fields in seven (7) tomato production sites in Tebere and Mwea. Sampling was done in a stratified random manner in both rainfed and irrigated tomato production fields in both dry and rainy seasons for determination of the spatial and temporal distribution of nematodes, respectively. Nematode extraction was done using the centrifugal floatation technique and identification done to genera level using morphological features. Soil characteristics determining PPN distribution patterns in tomato production fields of Mwea were measured using standard methods. Soil parameters measured included soil pH, electrical conductivity, elevation and soil texture. The PPN incidence and diversity was determined using the Shannon-Weiner species diversity index. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was performed to interpret and summarize major patterns of variation within the soil variable data and to estimate the ability of each soil variable to reflect variance in the entire PPN data set. Fourteen (14) genera of nematodes were identified with the diversity between 0.6 and 1.2. RKN distribution differed significantly (p<0.05) among the sites. Among the soil samples analyzed, 81% were positive for RKN infestation. There was an insignificant difference (p>0.05) between nematode densities in the dry and rainy seasons. Rainfed fields exhibited a significantly higher (p<0.05) RKN population densities compared to irrigated fields. The study established a great variability in the soil parameters in the area. The RKN distribution pattern, density and abundance were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with the soil pH and positively correlated (p<0.05) with soil EC. Based on the inverse relationship between soil pH and RKN distribution in the Mwea ecosystem, maps of nematode distribution and soil pH were developed. This enables the possibility of a site specific system for management of RKN
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0816.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: maxillary impacted canine; unilateral impaction; root resorption; tooth morphology
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:11:12 CEST)
(1)Background: The prognosis of orthodontic treatment for a patient with impacted canine teeth can be affected by many factors and understanding some of the characteristics of impacted teeth can increase the effectiveness and reduce the duration of treatment. This study aims to explore the effects of positions and dentoalveolar morphological characteristics of impacted maxillary canines on the prognosis of orthodontic treatment. (2)Methods: In this study, a total of 46 adolescent individuals were divided into 3 groups: CC(no impaction), BC(unilateral maxillary buccal canine impaction), and PC(unilateral maxillary palatal canine impaction). The impacted canine and adjacent teeth were evaluated in terms of position, angulation, inclination, MD and BL widths, root length, dilaceration angle, root resorption. (3)Results: The mean values of U3Ang and U3/U2 angles were statistically significantly higher in the BC and PC groups(p<0.001). The mean values of U2RL(U3root length) and U3RD (U3root dilaceration) angle were statistically significantly lower in the BC and PC groups. (4)Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that shorter lengths and reduced volumes of the maxillary lateral incisors may lead to the ectopic eruption of canines. The higher canine angulations in the PC group make treatment more difficult and increase the degree of root resorption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: hypocotyl growth; neurotransmitter; root growth; skototropism; γ-aminobutyric acid
Online: 3 August 2023 (07:21:57 CEST)
The adaptation of plants to biotic and abiotic stress depends on their abilities to sense their surroundings and to generate and transmit corresponding signals to different parts of their body that can evoke changes necessary for optimizing growth and defense. Light has been shown to be one of the key environmental factors that modulate the physiology of both plants and animals via the diverse photoreceptors found in them. Both plants and animals contain a large repertoire of intra- and intercellular signals molecules that include organic and inorganic. One such molecule is a neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a non-protein amino acid, that rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress and regulates plant growth. Lots of research has been done on GABA in plants for slightly more than half a century now: Its discovery in plant tissues was immediately followed by physiological and biochemical studies. Thereafter molecular-genetics era of cloning the genes encoding the GABA shunt enzymes and transporters, and recombinant expression and purification of the enzymes in vitro to elucidate their regulatory properties and substrate specificity was established. Recently the discovery of the first bona fide GABA target proteins in plants, the ALMTs suggest that GABA indeed could be one of the signaling molecules in plants. All this research did not address in detail the relationship between light and GABA. To better understand the role of GABA in relation to light we set up six light conditions to investigate the changes in the hypocotyl and root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana under different light conditions, including total light, total dark, light blocker, gradient light, shoot dark, shoot dark with blocker. We treated the seedlings with 3-MPA, a GABA inhibitor, using different concentrations grown under different light conditions between 24 to 96 h. Our results show that both the root and hypocotyl are modulated by GABA when grown under different light conditions. These results clearly suggest a link in the signaling pathway of GABA with photoreceptor signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0462.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Newton’s method; normal S-iteration; weak condition; simple root
Online: 31 October 2022 (02:23:04 CET)
In the present paper, we introduced a quadratically convergent Newton’s like normal S2 iteration method free from the second derivative for the solution of nonlinear equations permitting 3 f'(x) = 0 at some points in the neighborhood of the root. Our proposed method works well 4 when the Newton method fails. Numerically it has been verified that the Newton’s like normal 5 S-iteration method converges faster than Fang et al. method [A cubically convergent Newton-type 6 method under weak conditions, J. Compute. and Appl. Math., 220 (2008), 409-412]. We studied 7 different aspects of normal S-iteration method. Lastly, fractal patterns support the numerical 8 results and explain the convergence, divergence, and stability of method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: leguminous root crop; high quality protein; dry matter yield
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:45:52 CET)
Among the many neglected underutilized species, tuberous Andean root crops like the ahipas (Pachyrhizus ahipa) constitute a promising alternative for increasing diversity in nutrient sources and food security at a regional level. In this study, we present the content of some functional compounds in tuberous roots from several ahipa accessions and the progenies of the interspecific hybrid X207 (P. ahipa × P. tuberosus). A significant objective was to determine protein and free amino acids in the roots to evaluate their food quality as protein supply. The interspecific hybrids have been found to possess the root quality to provide the crop with a higher dry matter content. The high dry matter content of the P. tuberosus Chuin materials is retained in the root quality of the hybrids. Food functional components like carbohydrates, organic acids, and proteins were determined in several ahipa accessions and a stable (non-segregating) progeny of the interspecific hybrid, X207. The X207 roots showed a significantly higher dry matter content and a lower content in soluble sugars, but no significant differences were found in starch content or organic acids compared to the ahipa accessions. About the root mineral contents, Fe and Mn concentrations in X207 were significantly raised compared to the average of ahipa accessions. Among the ahipa and the hybrid, no prominent differences in protein content or protein amino acids were found, being both partially defective in providing sufficient daily intake of some essential amino acids. Root weight, a central component of root yield, was significantly higher in X207, but thorough field studies are required to substantiate the hybrid’s superior yield performance..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: root-lesion nematode; suppressive soil; antagonistic microbes; rhizosphere; cuticle
Online: 1 March 2021 (12:48:25 CET)
Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major constraint for agricultural production. They significantly impede crop yield. To complete their parasitism, they need to locate, disguise, and interact with plant signals exuded in the rhizosphere of the host plant. A specific subset of the soil microbiome can attach to the surface of nematodes in a specific manner. We hypothesized that host plants recruit species of microbes as helpers against attacking nematode species, and that these helpers differ among plant species. We investigated to what extend the attached microbial species are determined by plant species, their root exudates, and how these microbes affect nematodes. We conditioned the soil microbiome in the rhizosphere of different plant species, then employed culture-independent and culture-dependent methods to study the microbial attachment to the cuticle of the phytonematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Community fingerprints of nematode-attached fungi and bacteria showed that the plant species govern the microbiome associated with nematode cuticle. Bacteria isolated from the cuticle belonged to Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Firmicutes. The isolates Microbacterium sp. i.14, Lysobacter capsici i.17, and Alcaligenes sp. i.37 showed the highest attachment rates to the cuticle. The isolates Bacillus cereus i.24 and L. capsici i.17 significantly antagonized P. penetrans after attachment. Significantly more bacteria attached to P. penetrans in microbiome suspensions from bulk soil or oat rhizosphere compared to Ethiopian mustard rhizosphere. However, the latter caused a better suppression of the nematode. Conditioning the cuticle of P. penetrans with root exudates significantly decreased the number of Microbacterium sp. i.14 attaching to the cuticle, suggesting induced changes of the cuticle structure. These findings will lead to a more knowledge-driven exploitation of microbial antagonists of plant-parasitic nematodes for plant protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0481.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Antibacterial activity; Endodontic irrigant; Enterococcus faecalis; Quercetin; Root canal
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:54:58 CET)
(1) Background: Bacterial reinfection and root fracture are the main culprits related to root canal treatment failure. This study aimed to assess the utility of quercetin solution as an adjunctive endodontic irrigant that strengthen root canal dentin with commitment anti-biofilm activity and bio-safety. (2) Methods: Based on a noninvasive dentin infection model, dentin tubules infected with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) were irrigated with sterile water (control group), and 0, 1, 2, 4 wt% quercetin-containing ethanol solutions. The live and dead bacteria proportions within E. fae-calis biofilms were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Elastic modulus and hydroxyproline release and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization was tested on irrigant-treated demineralized dentin to evaluate irrigants’ biostability. The cytotoxicity of irrigants was tested by CCK-8 assay. (3) Results: Quercetin increased the proportion of dead bacteria volumes within E. faecalis, and improved the flexural strength of dentin collagen com-pared to control group. The XPS characterization revealed an increase in C-O peak area under both C1s and O1s narrow-scan spectra. The CCK-8 assay confirmed no cytotoxicity of quercetin solutions. (4) Conclusions: Quercetin exhibited anti-biofilm activity, collagen-stabilizing effect as well as cytocompatibility, supporting quercetin as a potential candidate for endodontic irrigant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rhizosphere; Fungal diversity; Community structure; Wheat root rot disease
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:20:33 CET)
Background: Wheat root rot disease due to soil-borne fungal pathogens leads to tremendous yield losses worth billions of dollars worldwide every year. It is very important to study the relationship between rhizosphere fungal diversity and wheat roots to understand the occurrence and development of wheat root rot disease. Results: A significant difference in fungal diversity was observed between the diseased and healthy groups in the heading stage, but the trend was the opposite in the filling stage. The abundance of most genera with high richness decreased significantly from the heading to the filling stage in the diseased groups; the richness of approximately one-third of all genera remained unchanged, and only a few low-richness genera, such as Fusarium and Ceratobasidium, had a very significant increase from the heading to the filling stage. In the healthy groups, the abundance of most genera increased significantly from the heading to the filling stage; the abundance of some genera did not change markedly, or the abundance of very few genera increased significantly. Physical and chemical soil indicators showed that low soil pH and density, increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Conclusions: Our results revealed that in the early stages of disease, highly diverse rhizosphere fungi and a complex community structure can easily cause wheat root rot disease. The existence of pathogenic fungi is a necessary condition for wheat root rot disease, but the richness of pathogenic fungi is not necessarily important. The increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Low soil pH and soil density are beneficial to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: root length density; ratoon crop; Sacharum spp; varietal selection
Online: 24 December 2018 (15:31:02 CET)
The objective of this study was to determine the association of physiological responses and root distribution patterns on yield of the second ratoon cane and the relationships among these traits. Seventeen sugarcane genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The second ratoon crop was evaluated for germination percentage, cane yield, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content (RWC), specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance. Root length density (RLD) was evaluated by auger method. The root samples were divided into upper soil layer and lowers soil layers to study root distribution patterns. Sugarcane genotypes were significantly different for RLD, germination percentage and cane yield. Root distribution patterns were classified into three groups based on the RLD. High RLD between plants in the upper soil layers at 90 DAH was positively correlated with high germination, whereas high RLD between rows in the lower soil layers at 90 and 270 DAH was associated with high cane yield. RWC at 90 DAH and stomatal conductance at 180 DAH were closely related to germination percentage, whereas chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance at 180 DAH were closely related to cane yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: tagetes erecta; deviation stress; undisturbed soil with a root system; rootless undisturbed soil; moisture content; root content; shear strength parameters; numerical simulation
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:54:37 CEST)
Bare slope instability is a prevalent concern. The root system of, herbaceous vegetation enhances the shear strength of shallow–slope soil. Indoor experiments were conducted on rootless undisturbed soil (RUS) and undisturbed soil with a root system (USRS) using a triaxial compression apparatus to analyze the slope stability of composite soil with a Tagetes erecta root system. Significance tests and correlation analysis of the factors affecting shear performance were conducted using R software. The slope reinforcement, effect by the plant root system was simulated under 24 working conditions using the MIDAS finite element method. The results revealed the influence of the–root content (RC), moisture content (MC), and stress on the shear strength of USRS, the contribution degree, and the variables’ influences on slope stability. Both RUS and USRS exhibited strain hardening during shearing. The internal friction angle (φ) and cohesion (c) of USRS were negatively and positively correlated with the RC and MC (root burial depth), respectively, and a good fit was obtained for the relationship. The maximum deviatoric stress during shear failure was 1.29 times higher for USRS than for RUS. The RC (root depth) was positively correlated with the slope safety coefficient and the slope of the line under different working conditions, whereas the slope gradient was negatively correlated with the slope safety coefficient. The reinforcement effect by the root system resulted in a 13.2% increase in the safety coefficient and improved stability of slopes with a gradient larger than 1.5%. This article investigated the mechanism of the root–soil system and, the effects of different influencing factors on the shear strength of the soil, and slope stability. The findings provide new insights into shallow slope stability in practical slope protection projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0527.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Root rots; Cichorium intybus var. sativum; 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol; inulin
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:11:47 CET)
Boeremia exigua var. exigua is a recurrent pathogen causing root rot in industrial chicory. Currently, there is no chemical or varietal control for this disease, and thus management strategies need to be developed. This study determined the biocontrol effect of strains of Pseudomonas protegens bacteria with antimicrobial compounds on the fungus B. exigua var. exigua under in vitro, in vivo and field conditions. In addition, root colonization by these bacteria was estimated by molecular analysis. Eighteen isolates of Pseudomonas spp were evaluated and the strains that showed the greatest in vitro inhibition of fungal mycelial growth (mm), Ca10A and ChB7, were selected. Inoculation with the strain ChB7 showed less severity (necrotic area) under in vivo conditions (root trials) compared to the control inoculated with the pathogen (P≤0.05). The molecular analysis revealed that root colonization of plants grown in pots was equal or greater than 70%. Similar levels were observed in the field trials conducted in Selva Negra and Canteras experimental stations (2015-16 season), with values ranging from 85.7 to 70.5% and from 75.0 to 79.5%, respectively. Regarding yield (ton ha-1), values were higher in the treatments inoculated with strains Ca10A and ChB7 (P≤0.05) in both experimental sites, while a lower incidence and severity of root rot were observed in Selva Negra. These results suggest that the Chilean strains of P. protegens are a promising tool for the control of root diseases in industrial chicory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Root canal system; antibacterial; irrigants; Thyme Essential Oil; Sodium Hypochlorite
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:13:03 CET)
Irrigation is crucial in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system, because endodontic instruments are unable to reach a large part of the root canal system (isthmuses, accessory canals, apical ramifications) and bacteria that can reside. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is currently used as irrigant in root canal therapies for its non-specific protheolytic and antimicrobial properties, but undesirable effects may be observed especially when used near the terminus of apical foramen. This study aims to evaluate antimicrobial properties of Thyme Essential Oil (TEO) used alone or in combination with NaOCl against different bacterial strains, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. TEO non-cytotoxic concentration (9,28mg/mL) showed antimicrobial properties comparable to NaOCl after 1min of contact, both in presence of organic material (6% sheep blood). Moreover, the combination of TEO and NaOCl did not compromise their individual antimicrobial properties at the same time of contact. These data suggest that TEO could be used as antimicrobial irrigant in root canal therapies in association with NaOCl, to reduce concentration of NaOCl and its undesirable side effects. Due to the absence of cytotoxic effects at tested dilution, TEO could be safely used also near the terminus of apical foramen for its cytocompatibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0034.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: phosphorus; Oryza sativa L.; nutrient uptake; photosynthetic rate; root morphology
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:18:31 CEST)
Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major constraint limiting sustainable rice cultivation in sub-Saharan Africa—partly due to the deeply weathered soils that have low pH and contain high P-fixing Fe and Al oxides. Soil texture also affects P availability and use efficiency. In this study, we evaluated the combined effect of soil texture (sand, clay loam, and clay) and P treatments (P-dipping and two other P fertilizer levels) on growth of NERICA 4 rice in the initial growth stages. In a factorial experiment, we measured the interaction effects of soil texture and P treatments on shoot parameters and root morphology. Both treatments had significant interaction effects on all measured parameters, except shoot biomass, and affected the photosynthetic rate, with the highest mean values obtained under clay loam soil texture and P-dipping treatment, respectively. The treatments also affected rice root morphology. In a striking contrast, whereas mean root length under clay was significantly higher than that under clay loam texture, mean shoot P uptake under clay loam soil was significantly higher than that under clay soil texture. The interactive effect of soil texture and P-dipping influenced NERICA 4 shoot and root physiological and morphological characteristics under clay loam soil texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: AMF; BCF; PGPR; plant immune system; priming; root microbiome; RKNs
Online: 29 September 2023 (11:57:23 CEST)
Commercial formulates of beneficial microbes have been used to enrich the rhizosphere microbiome of tomato plants grown in pots located in a glasshouse. These plants have been subjected to attacks by soil-borne parasites, such as root-knot nematodes (RKNs), and herbivores, such as the miner insect Tuta absoluta. The development of both parasites and the symptoms of their parasitism were restricted in these plants with respect to plants left untreated. A mixture, named in the text as Myco, containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), opportunistic biocontrol fungi (BCF), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was more effective in limiting pest damages than a formulate containing the sole AMF (Ozor). Therefore, Myco-treated plants inoculated with RKNs were taken as a model to further study which biocontrol agent (BCA) was specifically responsible of plant immunization and the molecular pathways exploited to achieve such an immunization. The PGPR contained in Myco were not able to reduce nematode infection, rather, they worsened symptoms on plants, compared with those observed on untreated plants. When plants were treated with suspensions of Bacillus subtilis at concentrations similar to those provided with Myco and then inoculated with RKNs, infection was actually more severe than that on untreated plants. Therefore, it was argued that both BCF and AMFwere the microorganisms that, colonizing roots, synergistically stimulate plant immune system against RKNs. Beneficial fungi lowered the activities of the defense supporting enzymes endochitinases and β-1,3-glucanase to be able to colonize the roots. However, as early as three days after nematode inoculation, these enzyme activities, and the expression of the encoding pathogenesis related genes (PR-2, PR-3) were found to be enhanced in roots with respect to not inoculated plants, thus indicating that plants had been primed against RKNs. Addition of paclobutrazol, which reduced salicylic acid (SA) levels in cells, and of diphenyliodonium chloride, which inhibits superoxides generation, completely abolished the repressive effect of Myco on nematode infection and presumably plant immune reaction. Inhibitors of copper enzymes and of the alternative cyanide-resistant respiration did not significantly alter resistance induction by Myco. When Myco-treated plants were subjected to a moderate water stress and inoculated with nematodes, they retained numbers of developed individuals in the roots similar to those present in regularly watered plants, in contrast to what occurred in roots of untreated stressed plants that hosted very few individuals because of poor nutrient availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0350.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: phoenixin-14; pig; dorsal root ganglia; neuropeptides; immunofluorescence; mass spectrometry
Online: 5 July 2023 (16:14:39 CEST)
Phoenixin-14 (PNX) - a bioactive peptide recently discovered in the rat brain, is highly conserved among many animal species: rodents (rat, mouse), pig, dog as well as humans. In rodents, PNX is expressed in areas responsible for the transmission of sensory information dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, where it is present at relatively high levels and may preferentially suppress visceral pain. However, so far the presence of PNX has not been investigated in DRG in pigs, a species which, due to its anatomical and histological similarity to humans, is considered a better model for biomedical studies than rodents. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoreactivity of PNX in the DRG of the domestic pig. The collected spinal ganglia from the cervical (C), thoracic (Th), lumbar (L) and sacral (S) sections were transversely divided into serial sections of 10 μm thickness. DRG sections from each level of the spinal cord were double-labeled immunohistochemically using antibodies to PNX in a mixture with antibodies to: cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART), calretinin (CRT), calcytonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL), nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), pituitary adenylate cyclase-acrivating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP) or somatostatin (SOM), respectively. Immunohistochemical studies revealed PNX immunoreactivity in approximately 20% of nerve cells in all DRG examined, highlighting mainly the presence of the peptide in cells of small diameter (approximately 74% of all PNX-positive neurons found). Double labeling of DRG sections showed that PNX-immunopositive neurons stained also for CGRP (96.1%), SP (88.5%), nNOS (52.1%), GAL (20.7%), CRT (10.05%), PACAP (7.4%), CART (5.1%), or SOM (4.7%). Our research revealed for the first time the presence of the new peptide PNX in the sensory ganglia of the domestic pig, its co-localization with other important neurotransmitters involved in sensory transmission and its percentage distribution in ganglion domains. The exact function of PNX in DRG is not yet known, however, the high degree of co-localization of this peptide with the main nociceptive transmitters SP and CGRP may indicate its function in modulation of pain transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: bioceramics; multispecies’ biofilm; calcium silicate based root canal sealers; biofilm
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
Even after debridement and chemical root canal preparation, multispecies bacterial biofilms can still be found in root canals and dentinal tubules. This demonstrates the necessity of using suitable antibacterial endodontic sealers. Due to their well-known biological qualities, calcium silicate based root canal sealers or “bioceramic’ sealers have recently been launched and can be successful in endodontic procedures. This study's objective was to compare the impact of CerasealR, Total Fill BC SealerR, Bio-C SealerR, AH Plus BioceramicR, K-biocerR and SealiteR on the elimination of a multispecies’ endodontic biofilm at 3, 7 and 14 days. Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Candida Albicans and Proteus Mirabilis were cultured on specific agars and later grown in Brain Heart Infusion broth on hydroxyapatite discs pretreated with collagen type 1 and incubated for 18 days. The resulting biofilm was then placed on a 10mm round shaped blotting paper set on a metallic net in a 6cm petri dish with an orthodontic bend filled with the calcium silicate based root canal sealer in direct contact with the biofilm. In all tested groups, the total bacterial count has significantly decreased between day 3 and day 14 (P<0.05) with no statistically significant differences among the different sealers’ groups at all time points. Sealite group was capable of decreasing the Candida Albicans count significantly between day 3 and day 14 (P<0.05) in comparison with the bioceramic groups. All sealers had antibacterial activity against the multispecies biofilm between day 3 and day 14.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0664.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ammonium/nitrate ratio; Arnebia euchroma; shikonin; hairy root; ammonium toxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:30:29 CEST)
Nitrogen (N) strongly affects plant growth and metabolism. For shikonin biosynthesis, although the ammonium toxicity phenomenon has been reported, the effects of nitrogen on the shikonin synthesis remains obscure. In this study, we carried out four different concentrations of NH4+ treatments on Arnebia euchroma hairy roots (AEHR) to clarify the influence of NH4+ on the growth and shikonin accumulation in A. euchroma and the possible mechanism. The results showed that compared with the 0% NH4+ treatment (only nitrate as nitrogen source), 10% NH4+ treatment increased the fresh weight and the dry weight of AEHR, and promoted the synthesis of shikonins; 20% NH4+ treatment started to show the inhibition effects on growth and shikonin accumulation of AEHR and 30% NH4+ treatment exhibited the strongest inhibition effects. With increased percentage of NH4+, AEHRs became shorter and thicker with more branches. To further elucidate the mechanism, we analyzed the time-course of nitrogen assimilation, gene expression level of key enzymes involved in the shikonin biosynthesis pathway, and contents of various endogenous hormones under NH4+ toxicity condition. Results indicated that auxin and cytokinin might regulate the growth and architecture of AEHR under NH4+ toxicity, and jasmonate level was reduced along with the inhibition of shikonin biosynthesis. This first comprehensive investigation into the effects of ammonium/nitrate ratio on shikonin biosynthesis not only provided valuable data for optimizing the in vitro culture and shikonin production in A. euchroma, but also suggested potential fertilizer strategies for its cultivation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0448.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: dorsal root ganglia; fatty acids; gliopathy; nerve injury; spinal cord
Online: 27 February 2023 (06:35:32 CET)
Preclinical studies have identified glial cells as pivotal players in the genesis and maintenance of neuropathic pain after nerve injury associated with diabetes, chemotherapy, major surgeries, and virus infections. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) express similar molecular markers and are protective under physiological conditions. They also serve similar functions in the genesis and maintenance of neuropathic pain, downregulating some of their homeostatic functions and driving pro-inflammatory neuro-glial interactions in the PNS and CNS, i.e. “gliopathy”. However, the role of SGCs in neuropathic pain is not simply as “peripheral astrocytes”. We delineate how these peripheral and central glia participate in neuropathic pain by producing different mediators, engaging different parts of neurons, and becoming active at different stages following nerve injury. Finally, we highlight the recent findings that SGCs are enriched with proteins related to fatty acid metabolism and signaling such as Apo-E, FABP7, and LPAR1. Targeting SGCs and astrocytes may lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0383.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Bipolaris sorokiniana; Bacillus halotolerans; common root rot; biocontrol agent; wheat
Online: 23 January 2023 (01:40:03 CET)
Common root rot caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana infestation of wheat is one of the main reasons of yield reduction in wheat crops worldwide. In current study, strain JK-25 was isolated from soil of wheat rhizosphere and identified as Bacillus halotolerans based on morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and molecular identification. The strain showed significant antagonism to B.sorokiniana and broad-spectrum resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia zeae. Inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana mycelial dry weight and spore germination rate by JK-25 fermentation supernatant reached 60% and 88% respectively. The crude extract of JK-25 was found by MALDI-TOF-MS to contain the surfactin that exerted an inhibitory effect on B.sorokiniana. The disruption of mycelial cell membranes was observed under microscopy (LSCM) after treatment of B.sorokiniana mycelium with the crude extract. The antioxidant enzyme activity of B.sorokiniana was significantly reduced and the oxidation product MDA content increased after treatment with the crude extract. The incidence of root rot was significantly reduced in pot experiments with the addition of JK-25 culture ferment, which had a significant biological control effect of 72.06%. Its ability to produce siderophores may help to promote wheat growth, and the production of proteases and pectinases may also be part of the strain's role in suppressing pathogens. These results demonstrate the excellent antagonistic effect of JK-25 against B.sorokiniana and suggest that this strain has great potential as a resource for biological control of wheat root rot strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cellulase; evolution; gene duplication; intron; RNA interference; root-lesion nematode
Online: 12 February 2021 (11:03:57 CET)
Pratylenchus loosi is an important root-lesion nematode that cause damage to tea plantations in Iran and all over the world. The present study reports on the characterization and evolution of three ß-1,4-engoglucanase genes Pl-eng-2, Pl-eng-3 and Pl-eng-4. The gene structure of Pl-eng-2 was fully determined with the predicted signal peptide and devoid of the linker domain and carbohydrate-binding domain, while Pl-eng-3 and Pl-eng-4 were only partially sequenced. The transcription of Pl-eng-2 was localized in the secretory esophageal glands of all life stages, but it was upregulated in male and females stages. Exon/intron structures of Pl-eng-2, Pl-eng-3 and Pl-eng-4 confirmed that they resulted from gene duplication followed by sequence and gene structure diversification with loss of linker domain and carbohydrate-binding domain during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that nematode endoglucanases resulted from horizontal gene transfer of a bacterial gene as Pl-eng-3 showed sister relationships with CelB cellulase of Bacillus subtilis. Silencing Pl-eng-2 by in vitro RNA interference, produced a 60% decrease of the transcript level. The reproductive ability of silenced P. loosi showed a 35% reduction of eggs and larval stages compared to untreated nematodes suggesting that this gene is involved in the early steps of invasion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; Pellet product; Rumen fermentation; Cyanide concentration; Sulfur
Online: 1 December 2020 (18:22:42 CET)
The current work aimed to screen the ruminal cyanide-utilizing bacteria and evaluate the influence of fresh cassava root (FCR) and pellets containing high sulfur (PELFUR) on cyanide content, kinetics of gas, in vitro degradability, and ruminal fermentation. The experiment was conducted in a Completely randomized design (CRD) for a screening of cyanide-utilizing bacteria and the dietary treatments were the level of cyanide at 0, 150, 300, and 450 ppm. A 5 × 3 factorial arrangement in a Completely randomized design was used for in vitro study. Factor A was the level of FCR at 0, 260, 350, 440, and 530 g/kg of 0.5 g dry matter (DM) substrate, and factor B was the level of PELFUR at 0, 15, and 30 g/kg DM substrate. Adding different doses of cyanide significantly affected cyanide-utilizing rumen bacterial growth (p < 0.05). Increasing the concentration of cyanide from 0 to 150 and 150 to 300 ppm, resulted in an increase in cyanide-utilizing rumen bacteria of 38.2% and 15.0%, respectively. Increasing the FCR level to more than 260 g/kg of 0.5 g substrate could increase cumulative gas production (p < 0.05), whereas increasing doses of PELFUR from 15 to 30 g/kg increased the cumulative gas production when compared with that of 0 g/kg PELFUR (p < 0.05). Cyanide concentration in rumen fluid decreased with PELFUR (p < 0.05) supplementation. Degradability of in vitro dry matter and organic matter following incubation increased at 12 and 24 h due to PELFUR supplementation with FCR and increased additionally with 15 g/kg PELFUR (p < 0.05) in 440 g/kg FCR. Proportions of the total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid, as well as the ratio of C2 to C3 among supplementations with FCR (p < 0.05) were significantly different. As the proportion of FCR increased to 530 g/kg of the substrate, the volume of C3 increased by 14.6%. This is the first finding of bacteria in the rumen capable of utilizing cyanide, and cyanide might function as a nitrogen source for bacterial cell synthesis. Inclusion of FCR of 530 g/kg with 30 g/kg PELFUR could increase the cumulative gas production, the bacterial population, the in vitro degradability, the proportion of C3, and the rate of the disappearance of cyanide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ditches; grain yield; lodging resistance; root traits; wet-seeded rice
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:25:04 CET)
The mechanical hill wet-seeded rice machine is benefits to establish uniform seedling, and ditches were established by using this machine. However, little knowledge is known on the effect of the establishment of ditches on growth, lodging and yield, and their relationship with root traits. In this study, two field experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 with using two super rice varieties (i.e. hybrid rice ‘Peizataifeng’ and inbred rice ‘Yuxiangyouzhan’) grown under three ditches establishment treatments (i.e. T1: both water ditches and seed ditches were established by the machine, T2: seed ditches were established by the machine, T3: neither water nor seed ditches were established by the machine). The lodging index and lodging resistance traits, the grain yield and above-ground dry weight and the root traits were measured. The results showed that the lodging index was significantly affected by the treatments with ditches. The strongest lodging resistance was detected in mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment in both 2012 and 2013. The lodging resistance was strongly related to the breaking resistance, the root volume and root superficial area at the heading stage and maturity stage and the total root length at the heading stage. No significant difference was investigated in grain yield or dry weight of mechanical hill wet-seeded rice. Yuxiangyouzhan showed higher grain yield, dry weight and better lodging resistance but unfavorable root growth attributes than Peizataifeng. Therefore, the mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment increased rice lodging resistance is related to root traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0328.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenomics, hordeum vulgare, leaf, root, tissue-specific methylation, developmental epigenomics
Online: 25 April 2018 (16:53:56 CEST)
The barley (Hordeum vulgare) genome comprises over 32,000 genes, with differentiated cells expressing only a subset of genes; the remainder being silent. Mechanisms by which tissue-specific genes are regulated are not entirely understood, although DNA methylation is likely to be involved. DNA methylation patterns are not static during plant development, but it is still unclear whether different organs possess distinct methylation profiles. Methylation-sensitive GBS was used to generate DNA methylation profiles for roots, leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths from five barley varieties, using seedlings at the three-leaf stage. Differentially Methylated Markers (DMMs) were characterised by pairwise comparisons of roots, leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths of three different ages. While very many DMMs were found between roots and leaf parts, only a few existed between leaf-blades and leaf-sheaths, with differences decreasing with leaf rank. Organ-specific DMMs appeared to target mainly repeat regions, implying that organ differentiation partially relies on the spreading of DNA methylation from repeats to promoters of adjacent genes. Furthermore, the biological functions of differentially methylated genes in the different organs correlated with functional specialisation. Our results indicate that different organs do possess diagnostic methylation profiles and suggest that DNA methylation is important for both tissue development and differentiation and organ function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0110.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: capital structure; firm’s performance; panel data; unit root analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:36:36 CET)
Capital structure decision plays an imperative role in firm’s performance. Recognizing the importance, there has been many studies inspected the rapport of capital structure with performance of firms and findings of those studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link of capital structure with performance of banks in Bangladesh. This paper attempted to fill this gap. Using panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005-2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. Results from pooled ordinary least square analysis show that there are inverse impacts of capital structure on bank’s performance. Empirical findings of this study is of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it will call upon concentration of the bank management and policy makers to pursue such policies to reduce reliance on debt and to accomplish optimal level capital structure. This research also contributes to empirical literatures by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cytokine; gene expression; osteoclast; root resorption; pediatric dentistry; protein expression
Online: 27 October 2016 (12:10:55 CEST)
The present study was performed to examine that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in root-surrounding tissues on deciduous teeth during the physiological root resorption regulates the differentiation induction into odontoclast. We prepared root-surrounding tissues with (R) or without (N) physiological root resorption scraped off at three regions (R1-R3 or N1-N3) from the cervical area to the apical area of the tooth and measured both TGF-β and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activities. The TGF-β activity level was increased in N1-N3, whereas the TRAP activity was increased in R2 and R3. In vitro experiments for RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation revealed that TGF-β in N1-N3 and R1-R3 enhanced the TRAP activity in RAW264 cells. A genetic study indicated that the mRNA level of TGF-β1 in N1 and N2 was significantly increased, and corresponded with that of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In contrast, the expression level of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) was increased in R2 and R3. Our findings suggest that TGF-β is closely related to the regulation of OPG induction and RANKL-mediated odontoclast differentiation depending on the timing of RANKL and OPG mRNA expression in the root-surrounding tissues of deciduous teeth during physiological root resorption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0853.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Azerbaijani chestnut; nutrient medium; hormones; micro-shoots in vitro; root induction
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:55:20 CEST)
Castanea sativa Mill., an indigenous species of the mountainous Gabala region of Azerbaijan, where its local variety is now facing the danger of extinction. The preservation of this variety of European chestnut requires the development of effective strategies for reliable in vitro regeneration systems as an alternative to traditional methods, which has become the main objective of this study. In solving this problem, the generally accepted technique of micro-multiplication of axillary shoots was mainly used. First, a phased sterilization of was carried out using liquid soap, Previkur fungicide and mercury (II) chloride. DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut) nutrient medium was used for germination of explants, into which growth stimulants BAP (Benzilamunapurine), IBA (Indole - 3 butyric acid), IAA (Indole Acetic acid), NAA (Naphthalene Acetic Acid) and GA3 (Gibberelic acid) were introduced in various combinations and quantities. The test of the above-mentioned sterilization model revealed significant shortcomings in terms of the acceptability of the results obtained (16-77%). It was also found that the germination of explants takes 14 days and it is better to conduct it in a DKW environment containing hormones BAP (0.6 mg), IBA (0.1 mg) and GA3 (0.1 mg) / 1 L DKW. A mixture of BAP (0.1mg) + IBA (0.35 mg) is more suitable for the reproduction of grown explants + GA3 (0.2 mg) / 1 l DKW (the result is 3 new micro-plants for each explant), and for good root formation (it takes 30 days) – a mixture of IBA 1.0 mg + NAA 0.5 mg + IAA 0.5 mg / l L DKW. After the shoots have acquired a certain length (at least 1.5 cm), it is required to transfer them for 22 days to a DKW medium containing IBA (1 mg), IAA (0.5 mg) and NAA(0.5 mg) / l L DKW so that the root splitting process begins and ends.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant-microbe interactions, signaling molecule, root exudate, disease suppression, crop production
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:33:10 CEST)
Plant roots host various microorganisms around and inside their roots, known as the root microbiome. To become healthy and productive, plants should keep under surveillance niches around the roots to recognize disease-causing microbes and similarly exploit the services of beneficial microorganisms in nutrient acquisition, stress mitigation and growth promotion. Here we presented the communication strategies between plant roots and root-associated microbes in improving plant growth and yield. Understanding how plant root and root-associated microbes communicate is vital in designing ecofriendly strategies for targeted disease suppression and improved plant growth that will help in sustainable agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0122.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: tomato; temperature; damage; seedling; plant; root; weight; photosynthesis; proline; electrical conductivity
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:45:18 CEST)
High temperature (HT) significantly affects the crop physiological traits and reduces the 12 productivity in plants. To increase yields as well as survival of crops under HT, developing heat13 tolerant plants is one of the main targets in crop breeding programs. The present study attempted 14 to investigate the linkage of the heat tolerance between the seedling and the reproductive growth 15 stages of tomato cultivars ’Dafnis‘ and ’Minichal’. This research was undertaken to evaluate heat 16 tolerance under two experimental designs such as screening at seedling stage and screening from 17 reproductive traits in greenhouses. Survival rate and physiological responses in seedlings of 18 tomatoes with 4-5 true leaf were estimated under HT (40 °C, RH 70%, day/night, respectively) and 19 under two control and HT greenhouse conditions (day time 28 °C and 40 °C, respectively). Heat 20 stress significantly affected physiological-chemical (photosynthesis, electrolyte conductivity, 21 proline) and vegetative parameters (plant height, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight) in all 22 tomatoes seedlings. The finding revealed that regardless of tomato cultivars the photosynthesis, 23 chlorophyll, total proline and electrical conductivity parameters were varied in seedlings during the 24 heat stress period. The heat tolerance rate of tomatoes in the seedling stage might not be associated 25 always with reproductive parameters. HT reduced the fruit parameters likeas fruit weight (31.9%), 26 fruit length (14.1%), fruit diameter (19.1%) and fruit hardness (9.1%) in compared to NT under HT 27 in heat susceptible tomato cultivar ‘Dafnis’, while in heat tolerant cultivar ‘Minichal’ fruit length 28 (7.1%) and fruit diameter (12.1%) was decreased by the affect of HT but on the contrary fruit weight 29 (3.6%) and fruit hardness (8.3%) were increased. In conclusion, screening and selection for tomatoes 30 should be evaluated at the vegetative and reproductive stages with consideration of reproductive 31 parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0186.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: stable water isotopes; deuterium; oxygen-18; soil water; fine root system
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:32:02 CEST)
Stable isotope concentrations in the soil, rain and ground water have been used to trace the water extraction zones of plants in different environments. The need to identify the plant water use by plants in afforestation programs to control desertification increases the importance of sap water partitioning of plants in sand dune areas. However, the introduction of new plant covers exerts pressure on the water resources and can affect the local soil water conditions. In this study, we analyzed the isotope concentrations in rain, soil, sap, and ground water after the summer of 2010. Two experimental plots established in the Hailiutu catchment (Shaanxi province, northwest China) were selected to gather the water samples between September and October 2010. One plot is dominated by Salix bushes (Salix psammophila C. Wang \& Chang Y. Yang) and the other by the tree species Willow (Salix matsudana Koidz.). The total precipitation at the experimental site was 401 mm/yr during 2010, while 88.7 mm was collected in total for the period September to October. Willow trees transpired 12.82 kg/d being almost three times larger than Salix shrubs (4.57 kg/d). Despite the transpiration rates of both plant species and the few rain events in the region, the soil water beneath the plant covers is not depleted. Stable isotope signature of soil water beneath both covers shows the fractionation front in Salix at 20 cm depth and at Willow at 40 cm depth. However, soil water signature is closer to the groundwater than the collected rain water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0045.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: floating-point arithmetic; inverse square root; magic constant; Newton-Raphson method
Online: 5 August 2019 (05:09:06 CEST)
We present an improved algorithm for fast calculation of the inverse square root for single-precision floating-point numbers. The algorithm is much more accurate than the famous fast inverse square root algorithm and has a similar computational cost. The presented modification concern Newton-Raphson corrections and can be applied when the distribution of these corrections is not symmetric (for instance, in our case they are always negative).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: root biomass; wheat; field crops; black-grass; high-throughput; variety trials
Online: 18 June 2019 (12:51:51 CEST)
Root research on field grown crops is hindered by the difficulty of estimating root biomass in soil. Root washing, the current standard method is laborious and expensive. Biochemical methods to quantify root biomass in soil, targeting species-specific DNA, have potential as a more efficient assay. We combined an efficient DNA extraction method, designed specifically to extract DNA from soil, with well-established quantitative PCR methods to estimate the root biomass of twenty-two wheat varieties grown in field trials over two seasons. We also developed an assay for estimating root biomass for black-grass, a common weed of wheat cultivation. Two robust qPCR assays were developed to estimate the quantity of plant root DNA in soil samples, one specific to wheat and barley, and a second specific to black-grass. The DNA qPCR method was comparable, with high correlations, with the results of root washing from soil cores taken from winter wheat field trials. The DNA qPCR assay showed both variety and depth as significant factors in the distribution of root biomass in replicated field trials. The results suggest that these DNA qPCR assays are a useful, high throughput tool for investigating the genetic basis of wheat root biomass distribution in field grown crops, and the impact of black-grass root systems on crop production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: root selection method; unit hydrograph; Savitzky-Golay filter; Nash-Sutcliffe index
Online: 24 October 2017 (11:22:37 CEST)
As a procedure deriving UH (unit hydrograph), the root selection method necessitates only storm runoff data. However, this method must deal with the uncertainty related to the noise fluctuation of runoff ordinates and derive one optimal UH from many storms. This study proposes a procedure that applies the Savitzky-Golay filter to smooth the noise fluctuation of the runoff ordinates and uses the linear combination of UHs from individual storms to derive an optimal UH. The proposed method is applied to the storms of the Nenagh River basin in Ireland. The applicability of the Savitzky-Golay filter for smoothing the noise fluctuation of storm runoffs is examined by means of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index. Furthermore, the root selection method is extended to also estimate IUHs. The results show that the adoption of the Savitzky-Golay filter improves the applicability of the root selection method and that the optimal UH predicts accurately the time-to-peak and peak discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1293.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: entrepreneurship; unemployment; unit root; Johansen-Juselius cointegration; VAR model; OLS; granger; Namibia
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:19:46 CEST)
: There remains no acquiescence that confirms the extent to which unemployment and entrepreneurship influence each other in developing countries. Thus, an incessant invite for further debate attracted the need to assess the relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurship in terms of business formation in Namibia Given that, this study examines the relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurial activities in Namibia. Time series data were collected from the World Bank database to investigate the relationship between unemployment and entrepreneurship in Namibia. Unit root test was conducted using both the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and the Phillips-Perron test to measure stationarity of the data and found all the variables to have no unit root after the first difference. Thus, we employed the Johansen-Juselius test of cointegration, and the results revealed the absence of a long-run relationship between the variables. Hence, we performed a vector autoregressive (VAR) model to estimate the short-run relationships and found that Namibia exhibit both the refugee and Schumpeter effects. Finally, the direction of causality between the variables was measured using the Pairwise Granger causality test and the results revealed that none of the variables was proven to granger cause the other, concluding that they are all independent of each other. Therefore, in pursuit of unemployment mitigation, we recommend policymakers to focus on other aspects beyond entrepreneurship when devising policies without jeopardizing the ease of business start-up procedures. This will incentivize entrepreneurial activities, which can eventually address other macroeconomic issues beyond unemployment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0203.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: root coverage; gingival recession; suturing technique; coronally positioned tunnel; acellular dermal matrix
Online: 2 June 2023 (12:17:15 CEST)
Objective. The primary aim of this 6-month randomized, controlled, blinded clinical pilot study was to compare the percent root coverage obtained using an acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADM) and a coronally positioned tunnel (CPT) technique with two different suturing techniques. Materials and Methods. Sixteen patients with at least one Miller Class I or II recession defect ≥ 3 mm were randomly selected to receive a CPT with ADM using either two independent continuous sling sutures to secure the graft and the soft tissue separately (SEP) or a single continuous sling suture to secure both the graft and the soft tissue together (TOG) in the test group. Percent defect coverage, predictability of achieving 100% root coverage, keratinized tissue width, and attachment levels were assessed. Results. Both TOG and SEP suturing techniques achieved a significant amount of defect coverage, 83 vs. 85%, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. The predictability of achieving complete defect coverage was 63% for both groups. All maxillary sites had 100% coverage. There was a statistically significant gain of keratinized tissue for the TOG (1.1 ± 0.9 mm), while the SEP group gained only minimal amount (0.2 ± 0.8 mm). Conclusions. The single sling, for simultaneous suturing of the soft tissue and acellular dermal matrix, worked as well as two sling sutures used separately for the soft tissue and ADM. Suturing time was reduced by about 50% for the single sling group indicating a significant clinical advantage for the patient and surgeon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0639.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: root volume; total dry matter; correlation matrix; cross sectional view; harvest index
Online: 20 April 2023 (09:40:25 CEST)
Irrigation and fertilizer are two essential factors affecting rice root traits and yield. In this respect, a pot experiment was performed at the boro (dry season irrigated) season of 2021-22 in the Department of Agronomy of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The variety Binadhan-10 was planted at two irrigation conditions i.e. saturation (S) and continuous flooding (CF); two potassium (K) dose e.g. 65 kg ha-1 (K65) and 98 kg ha-1 (K98) and two nitrogen (N) dose i.e. 140 kg ha-1 (N140) and 210 kg ha-1 (N210). The experiment was laid in split plot design and replicated thrice. The findings confirmed the effectiveness of irrigation, K and N on root number (RN), root length (RL), root volume (RV), leaf area index (LAI), total dry matter (TDM), yield attributes and yield. Considering interaction among irrigation, K and N, S condition with K65 and N140 showed best performance. At 80 DAT, the highest RN (373.00), RL (1700.00 cm), RV (8.90 cm3 hill-1), LAI (4.94) and TDM (25.83 g plant-1) was obtained from this combination. Grain yield (GY) and root traits except root porosity, showed a significant positive association. Grain yield (GY) was highest (27.12 g pot-1) in S condition with K65 and N140.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Photobiomodulation; low level laser therapy; ectopic eye tooth; root resorption; treatment modalities.
Online: 5 January 2022 (13:15:17 CET)
The orthodontic treatment brings numerous benefits and, in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Root resorption (RR) is a common adverse phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. This study evaluates the role of low-level laser emission / Photobiomodu-lation (LE/P) in quantitative measurements of root resorption (QRR). The application of LE/P was done after each orthodontic activation with 4 types of treatment intervention (TI) on the RR after fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) of the upper arch with ectopic eye tooth/teeth [EET]. 32 Orthodontic patients scheduled for FOT were selected and assigned to the 4 groups. These were LE/P+Self ligating bracket (SLB), LE/P+Conventional bracket (CB), Non-Photobiomodulation (non-LE/P)+SLB, and non-LE/P+CB. Standard management stages of FOT were followed in the maxilla. Each patient received a single application of LE/P labially/buccally and palatally, a total of 5 different points during each activation or appointment. The main outcome measure was QRR in maxillary anteriors before and after FOT assessed via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using 3D OnDemand software. Insignificant QRR was found between before and after FOT in SLB, CLB, and LE/P, non-LE/P groups (p > 0.05). QRR in the SLB vs CB and LE/P vs non-LE/P group was significantly different in 11, 13, and 23 (p < 0.05). QRR in the LE/P+SLB group (p < 0.05) was significantly different in 11, 13, and 23 than that in the other groups. The most severe QRR was found on the 13 (0.88 ± 0.28mm and 0.87±0.27mm) and 23 (1.19 ± 0.14 mm and 1.16±0.13mm) in the CB and non-LE/P group (p < 0.001). LE/P+SLB showed highly significant superior outcome (p < 0.001) in relation to non-LE/P+CB, the QRR of 23 were 0.813± 0.114mm and 1.156± 0.166mm respectively. Significantly higher amount of QRR found in EET patients after FOT treated with the CB, non-LE/P, and non-LE/P+CB system and warrants further investigation to explore potential specific causes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant behavior; root-to-shoot-signaling; plants movement; kinematics; climbing plants; circumnutation
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:53:30 CET)
Plants characterized by a soft or weak steam, such as climbing plants, need to find a potential support (e.g., wooden trunk) to reach greater light exposure. Since Darwin’s research on climbing plants, several studies on their searching and attachment behaviors have demonstrated their unique ability to process different support features to modulate their movements accordingly. Nevertheless, the strategies underlying this ability are yet to be uncovered. The present research tries to fill this gap by investigating how the interaction between above- (i.e., stem, tendril, …) and belowground (i.e., the root system) plant organs influence the kinematics of the approach-to-grasp movement. With three-dimensional (3D) kinematical analysis, we characterized the movement of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) towards a support with different thicknesses above and belowground (i.e., thin below, thick aboveground, or the opposite). As a control condition, the plants were presented to supports with the same thickness below- and aboveground (i.e., either entirely thin or thick). The results suggest an integration between the information from below- and aboveground for driving the reach-to-grasp behavior of the aerial plant organs. Information about the support conveyed by the root system seems particularly important to fulfil the end-goal of the movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0460.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Bacteria; community composition; growth stage; rhizosphere; root nodule; soybean; 16S rRNA gene
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:13:15 CEST)
Bacterial communities in rhizosphere and root nodules have significant contributions to the growth and productivity of the soybean (Glycine max L.). In this report, we analyzed the physiological properties and dynamics of bacterial community structure in rhizosphere and root nodules at different growth stages using BioLog EcoPlate and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. The BioLog assay found that the metabolic capability of rhizosphere is in increasing trend in the growth of soybeans as compared to the bulk soil. As a result of the Illumina sequencing analysis, the microbial community structure of rhizosphere and root nodules was found to be influenced by the variety and growth stage of the soybean. At the phylum level, Actinobacteria were the most abundant in rhizosphere at all growth stages, followed by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria and the phylum Bacteroidetes showed the greatest change. But, in the root nodules Alphaproteobacteria were dominant. The results of the OTU analysis exhibited the dominance of Bradyrhizobium during the entire stage of growth, but the ratio of non-rhizobial bacteria showed an increasing trend as the soybean growth progressed. These findings revealed that bacterial community in the rhizosphere and root nodules changed according to both the variety and growth stages of soybean in the field.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Fragaria x ananassa; bare-root fresh plants; productive influence; precocity of production
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:36:01 CET)
In strawberry production, the combination of high productive performance and fruits with desirable physicochemical characteristics requires the use of plants of good quality and high initial vigor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of plants with different crown diameters on the productive performance and fruit quality of strawberry plants of the cultivar 'Pircinque.' The study was conducted in two evaluation cycles (2016/2017 and 2017/2018). The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four repetitions, and plots consisting of 20 plants. This study evaluated the crown diameters of plants of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mm. The productivity and number of fruit values increased significantly with larger caliber plants, which also provided precocity of productivity. The use of more vigorous plants also favored the production of fruits with higher soluble solids / titratable acidity ratios and with epidermis coloration closer to intense red. For the cultivar 'Pircinque', the plant crown diameters between 15 and 17 mm are the most favorable because they condition the best productive performances in combination with precocity and good fruit quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0473.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; DNA methylation; epigenetics; plant resistance; root-knot nematodes; ROS; tomato
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:35:29 CEST)
Two wild-type field populations of root-knot nematodes (Mi-Vfield, Mj-TunC2field), and two isolates selected for virulence in laboratory on resistant tomato cultivars (SM2V, SM11C2), were used to induce a resistance reaction in tomato to the soil-borne parasites. Epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms of resistance were detected and compared with those occurring in partially or fully successful infections. The activated epigenetic mechanisms in plant resistance, as opposed to those activated in infected plants, were detected by analysing the methylated status of total DNA, by ELISA methods, and the expression level of key genes involved in the methylation pathway, by qRT-PCR. DNA hypo-methylation and down-regulation of two methyl-transferase genes (CMT2, DRM5), characterized the only true resistant reaction obtained by inoculating the Mi-1.2-carrying resistant tomato cv Rossol with the avirulent field population Mi-Vfield. On the contrary, in the roots into which nematodes were allowed to develop and reproduce, total DNA was generally found to be hyper-methylated and methyl-transferase genes up-loaded. DNA hypo-methylation was considered to be the upstream mechanism that triggers the general gene over-expression observed in plant resistance. Gene silencing induced by nematodes may be obtained through DNA hyper-methylation and methyl-transferase gene activation. Plant resistance is also characterized by an inhibition of the anti-oxidant enzyme system and activation of the defence enzyme chitinase, as opposed to the activation of such a system and inhibition of the defence enzyme glucanase in roots infested by nematodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0019.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biochar; phytoextraction; corn; uptake; mine soils; heavy metals; root biomass; shoot biomass
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:11:59 CEST)
Mining activities could produce a large volume of spoils, waste rocks, and tailings, which are usually deposited at the surface and become sources of metal pollution. Phytostabilization of the mine spoils could limit the spread of these heavy metals. Phytostabilization can be enhanced by using soil amendments like manure-based biochar capable of immobilizing metal(loid)s when combined with plant species that are tolerant of high levels of contaminants while simultaneously improving properties of mine soils. However, the use of manure-based biochar and other organic amendments for mine spoil remediation are still unclear. In this greenhouse study, we evaluated the interactive effect of biochar application and compost on shoots biomass yield (SBY), roots biomass yield (RBY), uptake, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zn and Cd in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in mine soil. Biochar sources (BS) consisted of beef cattle manure (BCM); poultry litter (PL); and lodge pole pine (LPP) were applied at 0, 2.5, and 5.0% (w/w) in combination with different rates (0, 2.5, and 5.0%, w/w) of cattle manure compost (CMC), respectively. Shoots and roots uptake of Cd and Zn were significantly affected by BS, CMC, and the interaction of BS and CMC. Corn plants that received 2.5% PL and 2.5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn shoot uptake, respectively. Corn plants with 5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn root uptake. When averaged across BS, the greatest BCF for Cd in the shoot of 92.3 was from the application BCM and the least BCF was from the application of PL (72.8). Our results suggest that incorporation of biochar enhanced phytostabilization of Cd and Zn with concentrations of water-soluble Cd and Zn lowest in soils amended with both manure-based biochars while improving biomass productivity of corn. Overall, phytostabilization technique and biochar application have the potential to be combined in the remediation of heavy metals polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1514.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Fusarium spp.; genetic diversity; pathogenicity; phylogenetic analyses; resistance; root rot; Sanger sequencing; soybean
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:49 CET)
Fusarium spp. are commonly associated with the root rot complex of soybean (Glycine max). Previous surveys identified six common Fusarium species from Manitoba, including F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. graminearum, F. solani, F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum. This study aimed to determine their pathogenicity, assess host resistance and evaluate the genetic diversity of Fusarium spp. isolated from Canada. Pathogenicity was tested on two cultivars, ‘Akras’ (moderate resistance) and ‘B150Y1’ (susceptible), under greenhouse conditions. The virulence of the fungal isolates varied, with root rot severities ranging from 1.5 to 3.3 on a 0-4 scale. The six species were used to screen a panel of 20 Canadian soybean cultivars for resistance in a greenhouse. Cluster and principal component analyses were conducted based on the same traits as for the pathogenicity study. Two of the cultivars, ‘P15T46R2’ and ‘B150Y1’, were consistently found to be tolerant to F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. graminearum and F. solani. To investigate the incidence and prevalence of Fusarium spp. in Canada, fungi were isolated from 106 soybean fields surveyed across Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec. Two-hundred twenty-one Fusarium isolates were identified, with phylogenetic analyses indicating diversity of the isolates in the major soybean production regions of Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1448.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Algebraic Formula Method; Newton Sum; AI system; ChatGPT; Vieta Theorem; Quadratic Root Functions
Online: 23 October 2023 (16:22:06 CEST)
Introduction: This empirical study investigates the impact of two distinct mathematical problem-solving methods – the Algebraic Formula Method and the Newton Sum Method – on enhancing ChatGPT's competence in effectively solving quadratic root functions. The integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into mathematical problem-solving has paved the way for innovative approaches. In this study, we delve into the Algebraic Formula Method and the Newton Sum Method, essential techniques for solving quadratic root functions. We aim to showcase the profound influence of these methods on ChatGPT's capacity to excel in solving quadratic equations. Evidence Through concrete evidence, we demonstrate ChatGPT's adept utilization of the Newton Sum Method for quadratic root function calculations. While ChatGPT can compute quadratic root functions of the form α^15 + β^15 using this method, its proficiency in using algebraic formula methods typically extends only up to α^4 + β^4. This marked discrepancy underscores the pivotal role that different methods play in amplifying the AI system's mathematical capabilities Result The results of this study provide concrete evidence of ChatGPT's superior utilization of the Newton Sum Method for calculating quadratic root functions. The model adeptly computes expressions of the form α^15 + β^15 using this method, while its proficiency using algebraic formula methods is generally limited to α^4 + β^4. This striking discrepancy underscores the transformative impact that different methods can have on elevating the AI system's mathematical prowess. Conclusion :Pushing Boundaries: Pioneering Novel Maths Approaches for Overcoming Limitations in AIThis study serves as an illuminating testament to the significance of pioneering innovative methodologies, rules, theorems, or formulas to surmount the current limitations in AI systems like ChatGPT. These innovative pursuits hold the key to unlocking the untapped potential that lies within, propelling AI systems to greater heights of proficiency. In essence, they offer a strategic pathway towards expanding the capabilities of AI and pushing the boundaries of what can be achieved. Discussion The outcomes derived from this study underscore the significant influence wielded by the method selection in augmenting the mathematical competencies of ChatGPT. Particularly noteworthy is the application of the Newton Sum Method, which surfaces as a compelling exemplar. This method serves as a pivotal conduit through which the model surpasses its prior constraints, allowing it to venture into the realm of calculations entailing higher exponents. Implications and Future Research: These findings not only contribute to AI's mathematical competencies but also emphasize the need for pioneering new methods, rules, theorems, or formulas to further enhance AI systems like ChatGPT. Future research could explore the development of novel mathematical techniques tailored to AI systems, thus expanding their capabilities across diverse problem-solving domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; dental education; educational models; root canal therapy; ledge; endodontics
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:23:56 CEST)
Ledge formation presents a significant challenge in endodontic treatment. Yet, there is still a lack of educational tooth models for hands-on practice. This study aimed to create and evaluate a tooth model for ledge management practice. A natural tooth with curved roots was collected for scientific use under ethics committee approval. Following initial root canal preparation, the tooth was scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and 3D reconstructed. A K-file, created via computer-aided design (CAD), was partly inserted into the root canal wall of the 3D-reconstructed tooth. By subtracting the K-file from the tooth, a tooth model with a root canal ledge was produced. The models were then 3D printed for a hands-on workshop. A seven-item Likert scale questionnaire was administered to 20 postgraduate students and 10 endodontists to assess the model's quality and training effectiveness. The feedback from both students and experts was positive, with no statistically significant differences found between the two groups (p > 0.05). This novel tooth model is expected to address the existing gap in endodontic education and provide benefits for dental practitioners in future applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0848.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Root-related proteins; Deep learning; Graph convolutional network; Multi-head attention; Network embedding
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:41:34 CEST)
The root system plays an irreplaceable role in plant growth. Its improvement can increase crop productivity. However, such system is still mysterious for us. The underlying mechanism has not been fully uncovered. The investigation on proteins related to the root system is an important means to complete this task. In the previous time, lack of root-related proteins makes it impossible to adopt machine learning methods for designing efficient models for the discovery of novel root-related proteins. Recently, a public database on root-related proteins was set up and machine learning methods can be applied in this field. In this study, we proposed a machine learning based model, named Graph-Root, for identification of root-related proteins. The features derived from protein sequences and one network were extracted, where the former features were processed by graph convolutional neural network and multi-head attention, and the later features abstracted the linkage between proteins. These features were fed into the fully connected layer to make prediction. The 5-fold cross-validation and independent tests suggested its good performance. It also outperformed the only one previous model, SVM-Root. Furthermore, the importance of each feature type and component in the proposed model was investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: drought stress; introgression; leaf area; root to shoot ratio; wild species; yield loss
Online: 28 April 2023 (05:15:13 CEST)
Drought stress is a major production constraint in crops globally. Crop wild relatives are important source of resistance and tolerance for both biotic and abiotic stresses, respectively. A breeding program was initiated to introgress drought tolerance in sunflower through hybridization between the wild species Helianthus argophyllus and the cultigen pool of H. annuus. Selection was carried out in the F2 to F5 segregating populations for high cuticular waxes, smaller leaf area, single heading and high oil content. The selected F5 breeding lines were compared with non-adapted elite sunflower germplasm in a replicated randomized complete block research project using different water treatments comparing fully irrigated (T0), with 75 (T1), 50 (T2) and 25% (T3) irrigation treatments. The comparison between the two types of germplasm showed that drought tolerant breeding lines had comparatively lesser decreases in leaf area, shoot weight and root shoot ratio 10 under the various drought treatments. Leaf area of the drought selected F5 lines were smaller than that of the elite germplasm under controlled irrigated treatments, but they maintained their leaf area under the drought treatments. Several drought resistant promising lines D-2, D-5, and D-27 were identified and showed high leaf area, great root length and increase root to shoot ratio under the highest stressed treatments (T3). Some of the lines could be directly used for the development of drought tolerant hybrids. Combining ability test indicated D-27 (F7) as good general combiner for seed yield plant−1 and oil contents when mated with male line RSIN.82. These hybrids could help to minimize seed yield losses due to water stress and to achieve profitable cultivation of sunflower in 18 arid regions of Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0570.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: bone resorption; butyric acid; HDAC inhibitor; osteoblasts; osteoprotegerin/RANKL; periodontal/root canal pathogens
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:21:42 CEST)
Butyric acid as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor was produced by a number of periodontal and root canal microorganisms (such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium etc.). Butyric acid may affect the biological activities of periodontal/periapical cells such as osteoblasts, periodontal ligament cells etc., and thus affect periodontal/periapical tissue destruction and healing. The purposes of this study were to study the toxic effects of butyrate on matrix and mineralization markers’ expression of MG-63 osteoblasts. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cellular apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by propidium iodide/Annexin V flow cytometry. Protein and mRNA expression of OPG, and RANKL were analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. OPG, soluble RANKL (sRANKL), 8-isoprostane, pro-collagen I, MMP-2, osteonectin (SPARC), osteocalcin and osteopontin secretion into culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Histone H3 acetylation levels were evaluated by immunofluorescent staining (IF) and western blot. We found that butyrate induced morphologic changes of growing MG-63 cells, with bigger and flattened in appearance. Butyrate activated histone H3 acetylation of MG-63 cells. Exposure of MG-63 cells to butyrate partly decreased cell number with no marked increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Butyrate stimulated RANKL protein expression, whereas it inhibited OPG protein expression. Butyrate also inhibited the secretion of OPG in MG-63 cells, whereas sRANKL level was below detection limit. Butyrate stimulated 8-isoprostane, MMP-2 and osteopontin secretion, but not procollagen I, osteonectin, osteocalcin in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, butyric acid generated by periodontal and root canal microorganisms may potentially induce bony destruction and impair bone repair by alteration of OPG/RANKL expression/secretion, 8-isoprostane, MMP-2, and osteopontin secretion, and affect cell proliferation. These effects are possibly related to increased histone acetylation. These events are important in the pathogenesis of periodontal and periapical destruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: walnut; hybrid rootstock; RNAseq; crown gall; Phytophthora root and crown rots; vigor; disease susceptibilit
Online: 4 December 2023 (03:52:42 CET)
Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens), crown/root rot (Phytophthora spp.), root lesion disease (Pratylenchus vulnus), and tree vigor are key traits affecting productivity and quality of walnuts in California. Non-inoculated hybrid rootstocks were analyzed by RNA-seq to examine pre-formed factors affecting these traits. Enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that increased expression of cell wall biogenesis-related genes plays a key role in susceptibility to A. tumefaciens, Phytophthora spp., increased vigor, but not P. vulnus. Analysis of the predicted subcellular loci of the encoded proteins revealed that many gene products associated with vigor and susceptibility were targeted to the plasma membrane and extracellular space, connecting these traits to sustaining barrier function. We observed that RNA processing and splicing, along with predicted nuclear targeting, were associated with resistance to A. tumefaciens, Phytophthora spp., low vigor, but not P. vulnus. Four genes within the J. microcarpa QTL region for resistance to A. tumefaciens and Phytophthora spp. were represented among our transcripts, with two of the genes being differentially expressed in association with resistance to A. tumefaciens and decreased vigor. No differential expression related to Phytophthora spp. or P. vulnus traits was observed in this region. Additionally, the J. microcarpa haplotype expressed more transcripts associated with resistance to A. tumefaciens, Phytophthora spp., and low vigor, but not P. vulnus than the J. regia haplotype. We also report unique and shared hormone and defense responses associated with each trait. This research suggests a link between cell wall biogenesis, vigor, and critical root diseases of walnut.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Jarin-1, root length, jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile)
Online: 3 October 2023 (02:39:19 CEST)
Jasmonates (JAs), including jasmonic acid (JA) and its biologically active derivative JA-Ile, are lipid-derived plant signalling molecules. They govern plant responses to stresses, such as wounding and insect herbivory. Wounding elicits a rapid increase of JA and JA-Ile levels as well as the expression of JAR1, coding for the enzyme involved in JA-Ile biosynthesis. Endogenous increase and application of JAs, such as MeJA, a JA methylester, result in increased defence levels, often accompanied by diminished growth. The function of jarin-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was assessed. To investigate whether jarin-1 does function similarly in other plants, we tested this in Medicago truncatula, Solanum lycopersicum, and Brassica nigra seedlings in a root growth inhibition assay. Application of jarin-1 alleviated the inhibition of root growth after MeJA application in M. truncatula seedlings, proving that jarin-1 is biologically active in M. truncatula. Jarin-1 did not show, however, a similar effect in S. lycopersicum and B. nigra seedlings treated with MeJA. Even JA-Ile levels were not affected by application of jarin-1 in wounded leaf disks from S. lycopersicum. Based on these results, we conclude that the effect of jarin-1 is highly species-specific. Researchers intending to use jarin-1 for studying the function of JAR1 or JA-Ile in their model plants, must test its functionality before use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0799.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: cinnamon; clove; essential oils; E. faecalis; antibiotics; gentamycin; streptomycin; kanamycin; ampicillin; root canal infection
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:52:11 CEST)
Recurrent infections after root canal treatments often involve Enterococcus faecalis, a microorganism closely associated with therapy failures due to its biofilm production, survival in nutrient-deprived conditions, and antibiotic tolerance. Essential oils (EOs), which display anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial properties, exhibit inhibitory effects on the growth of many microorganisms including E. faecalis. This study assessed the in vitro efficacy of combining antibiotics (Gentamicin 1.5mg/ml, Streptomycin 2.5 mg/ml, Ampicillin 5 mg/ml, and Kanamycin 2.5 mg/ml) with Cinnamon (1.25% to 5%) or Clove (25% to 50%) EOs using disk diffusion tests. Disks were treated with EOs-only, antibiotics-only, or EO-antibiotic combinations, placed on BEA agar plates, incubated for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition were measured against E. faecalis. Results showed robust growth inhibition by cinnamon and clove EOs across all tested concentrations. Furthermore, there were synergistic antimicrobial effects when gentamicin, streptomycin and kanamycin were combined with 2.5% and 50% concentrations of cinnamon and clove EOs, respectively, leading to significant growth inhibition of E. faecalis by 139% to 193% compared to using antibiotics or EOs alone. Clove EO showed positive synergism with three antibiotics (gentamicin, streptomycin, and kanamycin) whereas cinnamon EO showed synergism with two antibiotics (streptomycin and kanamycin). These findings suggest that combining cinnamon and clove EOs with aminoglycoside antibiotics can significantly reduce the expansion of E. faecalis compared to antibiotics alone. Further in vivo studies should determine the safety, efficacy, and treatment duration, with the potential to reduce antibiotic dosages and associated toxicity while preventing recurrent infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0744.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: lettuce; wireworms; ascorbate-glutathione system; root volatile organic compounds; entomopathogenic nematodes; slug parasitic nematodes
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:35:32 CEST)
Effect of wireworm-damaged lettuce roots on antioxidative defence system (ascorbate-glutathione cycle, photosynthetic pigments) and movement of insect/slug parasitic nematodes towards determined root exudates was studied in a glasshouse experiment. Lettuce seedlings were grown in a substrate soil in the absence/presence of wireworms (Elateridae). Determination of antioxidants and photosynthetic pigments were analysed. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from lettuce roots were investigated by GC-MS. Herbivore induced root compounds, namely 2,4-nonadienal, glutathione and ascorbic acid, were selected for a chemotaxis assay with nematodes Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, P. papillosa, and O. myriophilus. Root pests negatively affected photosynthetic pigment contents even before the appearance of visible symptoms, as protective pigments responded to the presence of reactive oxygene species (ROS). Using lettuce as a model plant, we recognised ascorbate-glutathione system as a redox hub in defense response against wireworms and analysed its role in root-exudate mediated chemotaxis of nematodes. Infected plants also demostrated increased levels of volatile 2,4-nonadienal. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs, S. feltiae, S. carpocapsae, and H. bacteriophora) proved to be more mobile than parasitic nematodes O. myriophilus and P. papillosa towards chemotaxis compounds. Among them 2,4 – nonadienal repelled all tested nematodes. Most exudates that are involved in belowground tritrophic interactions remain unknown but an increasing effort is being made in this field of research. Understanding more of these complex interactions would not only allow a better understanding of the rhizosphere but could also offer ecologically sound alternatives in pest management of agricultural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: operational transconductance amplifiers; symbolic circuit analysis; pole/zero extraction; root splitting; simplification; simulated annealing
Online: 9 February 2023 (11:08:12 CET)
Symbolic pole/zero analysis is an important step when designing an analog operational amplifier. Generally, a simplified symbolic analysis of analog circuits suffers from NP-hardness, i.e., an exponential growth of the number of symbolic terms of the transfer function with the circuit size. In this study, we present a mathematical model combined with a heuristic-metaheuristic solution method for the symbolic pole/zero simplification in operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA). At first, the circuit is symbolically solved and an improved root splitting method is applied to extract symbolic poles/zeroes from the exact expanded transfer function. Then, a hybrid algorithm based on heuristic information and a metaheuristic technique using simulated annealing is performed for the simplification of the derived symbolic pole/zero expressions. The developed method has been tested on three analog OTAs. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method to achieve accurate simplified symbolic pole/zero expressions with the least complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0302.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Searaser; Flow-3D; Prediction; Long short term memory; deep neural network; Root mean error.
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:51:25 CEST)
Accurate forecasts of ocean waves energy can not only reduce costs for investment but it is also essential for management and operation of electrical power. This paper presents an innovative approach based on the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to predict the power generation of an economical wave energy converter named “Searaser”. The data for analyzing is provided by collecting the experimental data from another study and the exerted data from numerical simulation of searaser. The simulation is done with Flow-3D software which has high capability in analyzing the fluid solid interactions. The lack of relation between wind speed and output power in previous studies needs to be investigated in this field. Therefore, in this study the wind speed and output power are related with a LSTM method. Moreover, it can be inferred that the LSTM Network is able to predict power in terms of height more accurately and faster than the numerical solution in a field of predicting. The network output figures show a great agreement and the root mean square is 0.49 in the mean value related to the accuracy of LSTM method. Furthermore, the mathematical relation between the generated power and wave height was introduced by curve fitting of the power function to the result of LSTM method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Fine root; tropical rainforest; nutrients dynamics; litter bags; decay rate; nitrogen mineralization, Calcium, Magnesium.
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:09:06 CET)
Plants produce above- and below-ground biomass. However, our understanding of both production and decomposition of below-ground biomass is poor, largely because of the difficulties of accessing study materials. Below-ground organic matter decomposition studies are scanty and especially rare in the tropics. Here, we used a litter bag experiment to quantify the mass loss and nutrients dynamics of decomposing twigs and fine roots from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal associated tree, Parashorea chinensis, in a tropical rain forest in Southwest China. Overall, twig litter decomposed 1.9 times faster than fine roots (decay rate (k) twig=0.255, root=0.134). The difference in decomposition rates can be explained by a difference in phosphorus (P) concentration, availability and use by decomposers or C quality. Both materials showed an increase in N concentration, with final measurements still higher than initial levels. This suggests N may not be available due to microbial immobilization. Both carbon and nitrogen dynamics were significantly predicted by mass loss and showed a negative and positive relationship, respectively. Our study results imply that fine roots carbon and nitrogen contribute more to soils organic matter and enlarge the resident time. Therefore, better understanding of carbon cycle requires better understanding of mechanisms governing below ground biomass decomposition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: brachypodium; neutral red; root; casparian bands; PEG-6000; osmotic stress; real time imaging; PDMS
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:05:36 CET)
To elucidate dynamic developmental processes in plants, live tissues and organs have to be visualized frequently and for long time periods. The development of roots is studied in depth at a cellular resolution not only to comprehend the basic processes fundamental to maintenance and pattern formation but also study stress tolerance adaptation in plants. Despite technological advancements, maintaining continuous access to samples and simultaneously preserving their morphological structures and physiological conditions without causing damage presents hindrances in the measurement, visualization and analyses of growing organs including plant roots. We propose a preliminary system which integrates the optical real-time visualization through light microscopy with a liquid culture which enables us to image at the tissue and cellular level horizontally growing Brachypodium roots every few minutes and up to 24 hours. We describe a simple setup which can be used to track the growth of the root as it grows including the root tip growth and osmotic stress dynamics. We demonstrate the system’s capability to scale down the PEG-mediated osmotic stress analysis and collected data on gene expression under osmotic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0406.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: nonstationary processes; spectral measure; differential geometry; shape manifold; square root velocity function; Lie group
Online: 23 July 2018 (06:02:32 CEST)
We proposed in this work the introduction of a new vision of stochastic processes through geometry induced by dilation. The dilation matrices of a given process are obtained by a composition of rotation matrices built in with respect to partial correlation coefficients. Particularly interesting is the fact that the obtention of dilation matrices is regardless of the stationarity of the underlying process. When the process is stationary, only one dilation matrix is obtained and it corresponds therefore to Naimark dilation. When the process is nonstationary, a set of dilation matrices is obtained. They correspond to Kolmogorov decomposition. In this work, the nonstationary class of periodically correlated processes was of interest. The underlying periodicity of correlation coefficients is then transmitted to the set of dilation matrices. Because this set lives on the Lie group of rotation matrices, we can see them as points of a closed curve on the Lie group. Geometrical aspects can then be investigated through the shape of the obtained curves, and to give a complete insight into the space of curves, a metric and the derived geodesic equations are provided. The general results are adapted to the more specific case where the base manifold is the Lie group of rotation matrices, and because the metric in the space of curve naturally extends to the space of shapes, this enables a comparison between curves’ shapes and allows then the classification of processes’ measure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: AirMOSS; radar backscatter; P-band remote sensing; root zone; soil moisture profile; Richards’ equation
Online: 31 August 2016 (08:48:11 CEST)
P-band radar remote sensing applied during the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission has shown great potential for estimation of root zone soil moisture. When retrieving the soil moisture profile (SMP) from P-band radar, a mathematical function describing the vertical moisture distribution is required. Because only a limited number of observations are available, the number of free parameters of the mathematical model must not exceed the number of observed data. For example, a second order polynomial that contains 3 free parameters was presumed based on in-situ SMP data. The polynomial is currently parameterized based on 3 backscatter observations provided by AirMOSS (i.e. one frequency at three polarizations of HH, VV and HV). In this paper, a more realistic, physically-based SMP model containing 3 free parameters is derived based on a solution to Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow in soils. Evaluation of the new SMP model based on both numerical simulations and measured data revealed that it exhibits greater flexibility for fitting measured and simulated SMPs than the currently applied polynomial. It is also demonstrated that the new SMP model can be reduced to a second order polynomial at the expense of fitting accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0403.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Water saving; Energy consumption; Partial root drying; organic mulch; Water productivity; Water stress; Climate change
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:05:09 CEST)
Many techniques have been and are being made to find alternatives to water-saving practices. Among them, Partial root drying (PRD), one of the effective approaches, plays a major role in reducing the harmful effects of water deficit stress. An experiment was carried out using irrigation strategies [I1 (100% full irrigation “FI”), I2 (75%FI), I3 (50%FI), and I4 (PRD (50%FI)] and soil organic mulch [L0 (Zero layer organic soil mulch” control”), L1 (Single layer organic soil mulch), L2 (Two layers of organic soil mulch), and L3 (Three layers of organic soil mulch)] to inspect the impact of those treatments for increasing yield, water productivity and saving energy under arid region conditions. To meet the study's objective, two field experiments were carried out at a private farm. Our results demonstrated a general decrease in water stress and salt accumulation inside root-zone area with PRD with L3. The PRD strategy increased fruit yields by 3.7 and 7.3% and water productivity by 51.9 and 53.1% compared with I1 during 2020/2021 and 2021/2022, respectively, while reducing the applied irrigation water by 50 %. The PRD strategy showed superior results in increasing mango yield and water productivity. In general, PRD can be used as good technique to save water and energy up to 50% and enhance productivity along with using organic mulching, ultimately improving mango yield under arid climatic regions. It may prove a good adaptation strategy for current and future water shortage scenarios of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0566.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: the square root of 2 ,the decimal point; jump; change in direction; the infinitely great
Online: 30 November 2022 (06:18:32 CET)
The calculation of the exact value of the square root of 2 is requested. In order to obtain its infinite value, A new concept is proposed where the accumulations of the infinitely many of finity is indicated by the change in direction which means that there is a jump from finity to infinity .The meaningless for an infinite number with a decimal point is indicated by this jump because any decimal number only have meanings within a finite range values and there is only an infinite integer quantity that can not be operated by algorithms like operations of multiplication，division,addition, and subtraction . The final result of the change in direction is two quantity where the second quantity and the first quantity extend in parallel line and never intersect and the second quantity represent the size of the first quantity. The first quantity is the infinitely great that can't be talked about anything outside of it and can compress any quantities outside of it to nothing and it is the exact value of the square root of 2 .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Linear analysis; Non-linear analysis; Detrended fluctuation analysis; Entropy; Recurrence plot; Root mean square; Fractals
Online: 4 August 2022 (03:32:16 CEST)
This study aimed to apply different complexity-based methods to surface electromyography (EMG) in order to detect neuromuscular changes after realistic warm-up and stretching procedures. Sixteen volunteers conducted two experimental sessions. They were tested before, after a standardized warm-up, and after a stretching exercise (static or neuromuscular nerve gliding technique). Tests included measurements of the knee flexion torque and EMG of biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. EMG was analyzed using the root mean square (RMS), sample entropy (SampEn), percentage of recurrence and determinism following a recurrence quantification analysis (%Rec and %Det) and a scaling parameter from a detrended fluctuation analysis. Torque was significantly greater after warm-up as compared to baseline and after stretching. RMS was not affected by the experimental procedure. In contrast, SampEn was significantly greater after warm-up and stretching as compared to baseline values. %Rec was not modified but %Det for BF muscle was significantly greater after stretching as compared to baseline. The a scaling parameter was significantly lower after warm-up as compared to baseline for ST muscle. From the present results, complexity-based methods applied to the EMG give additional information than linear-based methods. They appeared sensitive to detect EMG complexity increases following warm-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Fresh cassava root; pellet containing high sulfur; ruminal characteristics; blood thiocyanate; Thai native beef cattle
Online: 17 December 2020 (09:16:26 CET)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of feeding pellet containing high sulfur (PELFUR) diet and fresh cassava root (FCR) to Thai native beef cattle on feed use efficiency, ruminal characteristics, and blood metabolites. Four male Thai native beef cattle (150 ± 15.0 kg of body weight (BW)) were allocated with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was FCR supplementation at 15 and 20 g/kg of BW. Factor B was the sulfur level in the PELFUR ration at 15 and 30 g/kg of dry matter (DM). No interaction effect was found among FCR supplementation and PELFUR in terms of feed intake and nutrient intake (p > 0.05). Cyanide intake was significantly increased based on FCR supplementation (p < 0.05), whereas sulfur intake was increased by level addition of PELFUR levels (p < 0.05). There were interaction effects among FCR supplementation and PELFUR on digestibility coeﬃcients of DM and organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05). FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg demonstrated the highest digestibility of DM and OM. Moreover, interactions were observed between FCR and PELFUR for bacterial populations (p < 0.01). The populations of bacteria were highest in FCR supplementation at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg at various feeding times. An interaction effects from among feeding FCR with PELFUR was found on blood thiocyanate concentrations at various feeding times (p < 0.01). The highest mean values of blood thiocyanate were observed when feeding FCR at 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR at 30 g/kg. No interaction effect was found between FCR and PELFUR on total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and their profiles (p >0.05). However, the proportions of the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding were increased when FCR at 20 g/kg BW was supplemented (p < 0.01). FCR at 20 g/kg BW could enhance propionate (C3) at 4 h post-feeding when compared with FCR at 15 g/kg BW (p < 0.01). Moreover, supplementation of PELFUR at 30 g/kg increased the total VFA at 0 and 4 h post-feeding, whereas the concentration of C3 at 4 h post-feeding was enhanced (p < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found for any parameters among treatments and between the main effect of FCR and PELFUR supplementation (p > 0.05). In conclusion, feeding of two combinations (FCR 20 g/kg BW with PELFUR 30 g/kg) could promote the nutrient digestibility, the bacterial populations, and the rate of disappearance of cyanide without having any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: periodontitis; Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract; proanthocyanidins; bacteriotoxicity; inflammatory cytokines; gene expression; fibroblasts; macrophages; leukocytes
Online: 18 September 2019 (04:07:50 CEST)
The study explores antibacterial, antiinflammatory and cytoprotective capacity of Pelargonium sidoides DC root extract (PSRE) and proanthocyanidin fraction from PSRE (PACN) under conditions characteristic for periodontal disease. Following previous finding that PACN exerts stronger suppression of Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to the effect on commensal Streptococcus salivarius, the current work continues antibacterial investigation on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Escherichia coli. PSRE and PACN are also studied for their ability to prevent gingival fibroblast cell death in the presence of bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to block LPS- or LPS+IFNγ-induced release of inflammatory mediators, gene expression and surface antigen presentation. Both PSRE and PACN were more efficient in suppressing Staphylococcus and Aggregatibacter compared to Escherichia, prevented A. actinomycetemcomitans- and LPS induced death of fibroblasts, decreased LPS-induced release of interleukin 8 and prostaglandin E2 from fibroblasts and IL-6 from leukocytes, blocked expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and surface presentation of CD80 and CD86 in LPS+IFNγ-treated macrophages, and IL-1β and COX-2 expression in LPS-treated leukocytes. None of the investigated substances affected either the level of secretion or expression of TNFα. In conclusion, PSRE, and especially PACN, possess strong antibacterial, antiinflammatory and gingival tissue protecting properties under periodontitis mimicking conditions and are suggestable candidates for treatment of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Lithium ion battery pack; state of charge; square root; unscented Kalman filter; adaptive covariance matching
Online: 10 October 2018 (14:45:10 CEST)
The state of charge estimation is an important part of the battery management system, the estimation accuracy of which seriously affects the working performance of the lithium ion battery pack. The unscented Kalman filter algorithm has been developed and applied to the iterative calculation process. When it is used to estimate the SOC value, there is a rounding error in the numerical calculation. When the sigma point is sampled in the next round, an imaginary number appears, resulting in the estimation failure. In order to improve the estimation accuracy, an improved adaptive square root - unscented Kalman filter method is introduced which combines the QR decomposition in the calculation process. Meanwhile, an adaptive noise covariance matching method is implied. Experiments show that the proposed method can guarantee the semi-positive and numerical stability of the state covariance, and the estimation accuracy can reach the third-order precision. The error remains about 1.60% under the condition of drastic voltage and current changes. The conclusion of this experiment can provide a theoretical basis of the state of charge estimation in the battery management of the lithium ion battery pack.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1642.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: light quality; photomorphogenesis; seed germination; seedling de-etiolation; shoot-root develop-ment; leaf development; greenhouse horticulture
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:56:43 CEST)
It is well-established that plants are sessile and photoautotrophic organisms that rely on light throughout their entire life cycle. Light quality (spectral composition) is especially important as it provides energy for photosynthesis and influences signaling pathways that regulate plant devel-opment in the complex process of photomorphogenesis. During past years, significant progress has been made in the physiological and biochemical effects of light quality on crops. However, understanding how light quality modulates plant growth and development remains a complex challenge. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of light quality in regulating early development of plants, encompassing processes such as seed germination, seedling de-etiolation, and seedling establishment. These insights can be harnessed to improve production planning and crop quality by producing high-quality seedlings in plant factories and improving the theoretical framework for modern agriculture.