ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Rockfall hazard; Rockfall runout; QGIS; QPROTO; Cone Method
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:49:19 CET)
The identification of the most rockfall-prone areas is the first step of the risk assessment procedure. In the case of land and urban planning, hazard and risk analyses involve large portions of territory and thus preliminary methods are preferred to define specific zones where more detailed computations are needed. To reach this goal, we developed the QGIS-based plugin QPROTO, able to quantitatively compute rockfall time-independent hazard over a three-dimensional topography on the basis of the Cone Method. This is obtained by combining kinetic energy, passing frequency and detachment propensity of each rockfall source. QPROTO requires the definition of few angles (i.e., the energy angle ϕ_p and the lateral angle α) that should take into account all the phenomena occurring during the complex block movement along the slope. The outputs of the plugin are a series of raster maps reporting the invasion zones and the quantification of both the susceptibility and the hazard. In this paper, we propose a method to relate these angles to some characteristics of the block (volume and shape) and the slope (inclination, forest density), to provide QPROTO users with a tool for estimating the input parameters. The results are validated on a series of case studies belonging to the North Western Italian Alps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0274.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall impact; impact resistance; hollow thin-walled bridge pier; response surface model; dura-bility assessment
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:04:48 CEST)
Continuous rigid frame bridges across valleys are often at the risk of rockfalls caused by heavy rainfalls, earthquakes and debris flows in a mountainous country. Hollow thin-walled bridge piers (HTWBP) in valleys are exposed to the threat of the impact of accidental rockfalls. In the current research, ANSYS/LS-DYNA is used to establish a high-precision rockfall-HTWBP model. The rockfall-HTWBP model is verified against a scaled impact test of a previous research. A mesh independence test is also performed to obtained an appropriate mesh size. Based on the rockfall-HTWBP model, the impact force, damage and dynamic response characteristics of HTWBP under the rockfall impact are studied. In addition, a damage assessment criteria is proposed based on the response surface model combined with Central Composite Design method and Box-Behnken Design method. The main conclusions are as follows: 1）The impact force of rockfall has a substantial impulse characteristic, and the duration of the impulse load is approximately 0.01s. 2）The impacted surface of the pier is dominated by the final elliptic damage with the conical and strip damage areas as the symmetry axis. The cross-sectional damage mode is compression failure in the impact area and shear failure at the corner. 3）The maximum displacement occurs in the middle height of the pier. The maximum displacement increases with impact height, impact velocity and rockfall diameter and decreases with the uniaxial compressive strength of the concrete. 4) The initial impact velocity and diameter of the rockfall are the most significant parameters affecting the damage indices. In addition, a damage assessment method with a damage zoning diagram based on the response surface method is established for the fast assessment of the damage level of impacted HTWBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0142.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Rockfall Hazard; Remote Sensing; 3D Modelling.
Online: 8 December 2022 (02:56:53 CET)
The increased accessibility of drone technology and the wide use of Structure from Motion 3D scene reconstruction have transformed the approach for mapping inaccessible slopes undergoing active rockfalls. The Poggio Baldi landslide offers the possibility for many of these techniques to be deployed and integrated with the aim of defining a suitable workflow for the analysis of hazards in mountainous regions. The generation of multitemporal digital slope twins (2016 – 2019), informed a rockfall trajectory analysis that was carried out with a physical-based GIS model. We tested the rockfall scenario reconstructed and calibrated on the analysis of the rock mass characteristics and the geometrical and physical constraints given by the multi-temporal analysis of the SfM point clouds. This time-independent rockfall hazard analysis is a critical component to any subsequent holistic risk analysis on this case study, and any potential similar mountainous setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0519.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rockfall; failure; propagation; hazard; risk; probability; frequency
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:23:02 CET)
There is an increasing need for quantitative rockfall hazard and risk assessment that requires a precise definition of the terms and concepts used for this particular type of landslide. This paper suggests to use terms that appear to be the more logic and explicit as possible, and describes methods to derive some of the main hazard and risk descriptors. The terms and concepts presented concern the rockfall process (failure, propagation, fragmentation, modelling) and the hazard and risk descriptors, distinguishing the cases of localized hazards and diffused hazards. For a localized hazard, the failure probability of the considered rock compartment in a given period of time has to be assessed and the probability for a given element at risk to be impacted with a given energy must be derived combining the failure probability, the propagation probability and the exposure of the element. For a diffuse hazard that is characterized by a failure frequency, the number of rockfalls reaching the element at risk per unit of time and with a given energy (reach frequency) can be derived. However, when the element at risk is not replaced or repaired, the probability that it is impacted by at least one rockfall must be considered.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: landslide; rockfall; risk; stochastic; uncertainty; transportation corridors
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:17:48 CET)
Based on a previous risk calculation study along a road corridor, risk is recalculated using stochastic simulation by introducing variability for most of the parameters in the risk equation. This leads to an exceedance curve comparable to that of catastrophe models. This approach introduces uncertainty into the risk calculation in a simple way, which can be used for poorly documented cases to fulfil lack of data. This approach seems to tend to minimize risk or to question risk calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall; susceptibility; GIS; rainfall; earthquake; fault; inventory
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:54:57 CEST)
The assessment of rockfall risks on human activities and infrastructure is of great importance. Rock falls pose a significant risk to a) transportation infrastructure b) inhabited areas and c) Cultural Heritage sites. The paper presents a method to assess rockfall susceptibility at national scale in Greece, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. An extensive inventory of rockfalls for the entire country was compiled for the period between 1935 and 2019. The rockfall events that were recorded are those, which have mainly occurred as distinct rockfall episodes in natural slopes and have impacted human activities, such as roads, inhabited areas and archaeological sites. Through a detailed analysis of the recorded data, it was possible to define the factors which determine the occurrence of rockfalls. Based on this analysis, the susceptibility zoning against rockfalls at national scale was prepared, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. The rockfall susceptibility zoning takes into account the following parameters: (a) the slope gradient, (b) the lithology, (c) the annual rainfall intensity, (d) the earthquake intensity and (e) the active fault presence. Emphasis was given on the study of the earthquake effect as a triggering mechanism of rockfalls. Finally, the temporal and spatial frequency of the recorded events and the impact of rockfalls on infrastructure assets and human activities in Greece were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0344.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Nature-based solutions (NBS); Hydrometeorological hazards; PHUSICOS project; Implementation barriers; Flooding; Landslides; Avalanches; Rockfall; Europe
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:19:27 CET)
Nature Based Solutions (NBS) are becoming increasingly important in both the EU and individual countries' political agendas, as a sustainable means to reduce the risk posed by hydrometeorological hazards. However, as the use of NBS is increasing, a number of barriers regarding their practical implementation also becomes apparent. A number of review studies have summarized and classified barriers, mainly in urban settings. PHUSICOS is a H2020 Innovation Action to demonstrate the use of NBS in rural and mountain landscapes. Large scale demonstrator case sites with several sub-projects are established in Italy, Norway and in the French and Spanish Pyrenees. The present paper describes the project's NBS measures, and their experienced barriers, some of which have resulted in full cancellation of the planned interventions. Many of the barriers experienced in rural settings have the same root causes as the ones described from urban areas, and the main barrier-creating mechanisms are institutional factors, resistance among stakeholders and technical and economic issues. The key element, however, is lack of knowledge about the ability of NBS to deliver a series of co-benefits in addition to their risk-reducing effects, and that long-term thinking is required to see the effect of many of these co-benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0395.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Innovation; Up-scaling; NBS Nature-based solutions (NBS); Hydrometeorological hazards; PHUSICOS project; Flooding; Landslides; Avalanches; Rockfall; Europe
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:33:57 CET)
Impact in the form of innovation and commercialisation is an essential component of publicly funded research projects. PHUSICOS, an H2020 Innovation Action project, aims at demonstrating the use of nature-based solutions for mitigating hydrometeorological hazards in rural and mountainous areas. The work program is built around key innovation actions, and each WP leader specifically responsible for nurturing innovation processes, maintaining market focus and ensuring relevance for the intended recipients of the project results. Key success criteria for PHUSICOS include up-scaling and mainstreaming of NBS to reach broader market access. An innovation strategy and supporting tools for implementing this within PHUSICS has been developed and key concepts forming the basis for this strategy are presented in this research note.