ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0439.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Rift Valley fever virus; non-structural NSs protein; interferon antagonist; nuclear filaments; PXXP motifs
Online: 22 January 2021 (09:47:33 CET)
Rift valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that causes an important disease in ruminants, with great economic losses. The infection can be also transmitted to humans; therefore it is considered a major threat to both human and animal health. In a previous work, we described a novel RVFV variant selected in cell culture in the presence of the antiviral agent favipiravir that was highly attenuated in vivo. This variant displayed 24 amino acid substitutions in different viral proteins when compared to its parental viral strain, two of them located in the NSs protein that is known to be the major virulence factor of RVFV. By means of a reverse genetics system, in this work we have analyzed the effect that one of these substitutions, P82L, has in viral attenuation in vivo. Rescued viruses carrying this single amino acid change were clearly attenuated in BALB/c mice while their growth in an IFN-competent cell line as well as the production of IFN-β did not seem to be affected. However, the pattern of nuclear NSs accumulation was modified in cells infected with the mutant viruses. These results unveil a new RVFV virulence marker highlighting the multiple ways of NSs protein to modulate viral infectivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0017.v1
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:07:26 CET)
The forming of large rivers are the integral consequences of the deep earth process and the surface. In contrast to the hot topics for rivers related to orogenic domains, rift-related large rivers are largely ignored especially in deep time studies. The Cenozoic East Asia margin provides very good opportunity to observe this kind of rivers. It has been believed that basin-and-swell physiography dominated the East Asia margin and impeded the forming of large rives in the early Cenozoic. In this paper, we combined provenance analysis of East China Sea Basin, where is a crucial place to trace the river evolution in East Asia margin, and regional geologic constraints to reveal drainage reorganizations. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from the Early Eocene sediments of the East China Sea Basin are firstly reported. Our results together with literature data demonstrate that regional provenance changes occurred at the middle Eocene from one singe age peak at ~110 Ma of proximal sources to multiple age spectrum derived from far inland. Source to sink analysis indicated that the North China Block and Korea Peninsular provided the most detritus. Sedimentation and tectonic features of rift basins in the potential source areas indicated that rivers flowed into Bohai Basin and Jianghan Basin cannot provide terrigenous clasts for the lower reaches in the Eocene. Contrastingly, the dominantly fluvial sediments across the Subei-South Yellow Sea Basin suggested external river system and a bypassing region since the middle Eocene, coinciding with provenance change in ECSB. All these demonstrated that a large river (East Asia River) established in east Asia margin in the middle Eocene and flowed southwestward approximately 1500km to the sea in southern ECSB. This river might last to the middle Miocene. The deep earth processes driven by Izanagi-Pacific ridge subduction resulted in the overfilled stage of Subei-South Yellow Sea Basin and the post-rift subsidence in west depression of ECSB, and thus facilitated the initiation of the EAR. Our finding shed new light on the evolving landscape in East Asia and showed how subduction of deep earth process controlled the initiation of rift-related large rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: geochemistry; hot springs; Lake Kivu; Rift system; safety; Nyamyumba
Online: 1 November 2022 (03:39:17 CET)
Hot spring is a hot water that is naturally occurring on the surface from the underground and typically heated by subterranean volcanic activity and local underground geothermal gradient. There are four main hot springs in Rwanda such as: Kalisimbi, Bugarama, Kinigi and Nyamyumba former name Gisenyi hot springs. It is often believed that soaking in hot springs is a great way which naturally detox human skin. This research focused on the geochemical analysis of Nyamyumba hot springs located near the fresh water of Lake Kivu for the purpose of understanding its healing capacity and safety. Nyamyumba hot springs are located in the western branch of the East African Rift System and they are located near Virunga volcanic complex, explaining the rising and heating mechanism of water. The concentrations of Sulfate, Iron, Ammonia, Alkalinity, Silica, Phosphate, Salinity, Alkalinity, and Conductivity using standard procedures were measured. The results showed that hot spring water has higher concentrations of chemicals compared to Lake Kivu water and the geochemistry of these hot springs maybe associated with rock dissolution by hot water. The measured parameters were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for recreational waters and it has been identified that Nyamyumba hot springs are safe to use in swimming and therapeutic activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: rare earths; platinum; SEDEX ore body; rift mega structure; transgression
Online: 2 March 2018 (08:58:08 CET)
This work shows the preliminary description of the origin of a sedimentary - exhalative outcrop of Jurassic Lower Pliensbachian. The location of this deposit was achieved by applying an examination based in the identification of sedimentary transgressions of heterochronies ages and the identification of a Rift – type mega –structure. According with the methodology, it was carried out a study of the discordant relationships between two types of sediments: continental and marine. According the characterization, it was noted the existence of light rare earths, in values that show positive anomalies in comparison with the distribution of elements in upper continental crust according to the Clarke , reflecting so a felsic affinity of the mineral deposit. Also, positive anomalies of platinum and Pd, were determined with marginal contents of Au and Ag; and finally the base metals Zn, Pb and Cu were detected in low contents, which could be due to the presence of altered shale. According to the sedimentary lithology found, which was of siliciclastic type; to the exhalative roots observed during the fieldwork; the presence of quartz minerals such as biotite and muscovite; the presence of minerals of hydrothermal remobilization like chalcopyrite with some base metals, altered shale, as well as sulfur deficiency; this mineral reservoir could be defined as a SEDEX – type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0022.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: rift valley fever virus; arbovirus; caprine; challenge model; animal vaccine; zoonosis
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:25:35 CET)
Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus of the Phenuiviridae family. Infection causes abortions in pregnant animals, high mortality in neonate animals and mild to severe symptoms in both people and animals. There is currently an ongoing effort to produce safe and efficacious veterinary vaccines against RVFV in livestock to protect against both primary infection in animals and zoonotic infections in people. To test the efficacy of these vaccines it is essential to have a reliable challenge model in relevant target species, including ruminants. We evaluated two goats breeds (Nubian and LaMancha), three routes of inoculation (intranasal, mosquito-primed subcutaneous and subcutaneous) using an infectious dose of 107 pfu/ml, a virus strain from the 2006-07 Kenyan/Sudan outbreak and compared the effect of using virus stocks produced in either mammalian or mosquito cells. Our results demonstrated that Nubian goats achieved the highest levels and longer duration of viremia. In the Nubian goats, all three routes of inoculation were equally efficient at producing clinical signs, consistent viremia (peak viremia: 1.2x103 - 1.0x105 pfu/ml serum), nasal and oral shedding of viral RNA (1.5x101 – 8x106 genome copies/swab), a systemic infection of tissues, and robust antibody responses. The Nubian goat breed and a needle-free intranasal inoculation technique could both be utilized in future vaccine and challenge studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0092.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: fractures; potential fields; lineament analysis; fault reactivation; Midcontinent rift system; Nemaha uplift
Online: 8 April 2018 (10:52:09 CEST)
Reactivation of pre-existing weaknesses in the upper crust can be documented using surface features, and has occurred throughout time and space, particularly in regions where the basement material dates from the Precambrian and has undergone successive deformation events. This study aims to use surface features such as fracture patterns to document evidence of such reactivation in the Paleozoic and Cenozoic of Nebraska and Kansas (units separated by an unconformity in the study area). The most prominent basement features in southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas are oriented NE-SW, likely related to the midcontinent rift, and oriented NW-SE, likely related to fabrics from the Central Plains Orogen. These features are well defined in the potential fields data. Fracture patterns in the study area show an E-W oriented trend, as well as clearly discernable NE-SW and subsidiary N-S and NW-SE trends. The E-W trend is interpreted to be related to far-field stresses from Laramide and Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogenic events, whilst the NE-SW trend is interpreted to be related to subtle reactivation on the Mid-continent rift and related faults, observed in basement data. These movements produced stresses of sufficient magnitude to produce extensional fractures in the overlying rock units, but not sufficient to generate shear. Similarly, the ~N-S and NW-SE fracture trends are taken as evidence of subtle reactivation on the Nemaha Uplift and Central Plains Orogen systems, generating fractures but not shear movement. This contribution therefore provides a convincing case-study of the value of fracture orientations (that is, surface morphodynamics) in discerning buried tectonic trends and subtle reactivation thereon.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: One Health; zoonotic disease; zoonotic disease control; anthrax; brucellosis; rabies; rift valley fever; zoonotic influenza
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:19:16 CEST)
Effectively preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases requires a One Health approach that involves collaboration across sectors responsible for human health, animal health (both domestic and wildlife), and the environment, as well as other partners. Here we describe the Generalizable One Health Framework (GOHF), a five-step framework that provides structure for using a One Health approach in zoonotic disease programs being implemented at the local, sub-national, national, regional, or international level. Part of the framework is a toolkit that compiles existing resources and presents them following a stepwise schematic, allowing users to identify relevant resources as they are required. Coupled with recommendations for implementing a One Health approach for zoonotic disease prevention and control in technical domains including laboratory, surveillance, preparedness and response, this framework can mobilize One Health and thereby enhance and guide capacity building to combat zoonotic disease threats at the human-animal-environment interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0452.v1
Subject: Keywords: neurodegeneration; Parkinson's disease; essential tremor; Deep Brain stimulation; Levodopa; Virtual Reality; Oculus Rift; Medical Virtual Reality; Tremor stabilization; Equalizers
Online: 29 February 2020 (03:56:19 CET)
Multidisciplinary neurotechnology holds the promise of understanding and non-invasively treating neurodegenerative diseases. In this preclinical trial on Parkinson's disease (PD), we combined neuroscience together with the nascent field of medical virtual reality and generated several important observations. First, we established the Oculus Rift virtual reality system as a potent measurement device for parkinsonian involuntary hand tremors (IHT). Interestingly, we determined changes in rotation were the most sensitive marker of PD IHT. Secondly, we determined parkinsonian tremors can be abolished in VR with algorithms that remove tremors from patients' digital hands. We also found that PD patients were interested in and were readily able to use VR hardware and software. Together these data suggest PD patients can enter VR and be asymptotic of PD IHT. Importantly, VR is an open-medium where patients can perform actions, activities, and functions that positively impact their real lives - for instance, one can sign tax return documents in VR and have them printed on real paper or directly e-sign via internet to government tax agencies. Lastly, we generated a technical framework wherein movements in the real world can be measured side-by-side with those in virtual reality. With this framework, we observed anecdotal evidence of parkinsonian tremors being reduced in real life when our algorithms abolished digital hand tremors in VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: soil gas anomalies; Helium, Radon, CO2; Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE); Meinweg; Roer Valley Rift System (RVRS); Molasse Basin; Bodanrück; Freiburg–Bonndorf–Bodensee Fault Zone (FBBFZ); GeoBio-Interactions
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:47:53 CEST)
We investigated fault gases (helium, radon, CO2) in two seismically active Cenozoic sedimentary environments: a) Meinweg (in 2015) at a tectonically quiet horst structure in the Lower Rhine Embayment and b) Bodanrück (in 2012; Lake of Constance) at the Molasse Basin and part of the Freiburg–Bonndorf–Bodensee Fault Zone (FBBFZ). Both study areas were selected because recent “GeoBio-Interactions” findings showed, that red wood ants (RWA) are biological indicators of otherwise undetected degassing systems. A total of 817 soil gas samples was analyzed. Currently, Meinweg can be considered “no ants land” due to the very low background-level geogas concentrations. Thus, anomalies (Rn-CO2) weakly trending in NE-SW extension direction emerged. This could probably indicate the onset of (re)activation of the NE-SW trending (Variscan) structures or the development of new fractures as an aftershock process of the 1992 Roermond earthquake that occurred about 15 km to the west. Results at Bodanrück (3 RWA clusters and two RWA-free corridors) revealed degassing patterns in NW-SE and NNE-SSW directions in the clusters corresponding to re-activated and recent strike-slip fault systems. No gas anomalies were found in RWA-free corridors. The RWA nest distribution was shown to be a valuable tool for identifying areas of even actively degassing spotty anomalies caused by macro- and microscale brittle deformation masked by sediment cover.