ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0274.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: rice bran; rice genes; rice cultivars; metabolic pathway; metabolomics
Online: 15 September 2018 (19:34:43 CEST)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) processing yields ~60 million metric tons of bran annually. Rice genes producing bran metabolites of nutritional and human health importance were assessed across 17 diverse cultivars from seven countries using non-targeted metabolomics and resulted in 378-430 metabolites. Gambiaka cultivar had the highest number and Njavara had the lowest number of metabolites. The 71 rice bran compounds of significant variation by cultivar included 21 amino acids, seven carbohydrates, two metabolites from cofactors and vitamins, 33 lipids, six nucleotides, and two secondary metabolites. Tryptophan, -ketoglutarate, γ-tocopherol/β-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol are example bran metabolites with extensive cultivar variation and genetic information. 34 rice bran components that varied between cultivars linked to 535 putative biosynthetic genes using to the OryzaCyc 4.0, Plant Metabolic Network database. Rice genes responsible for bran composition with animal and human health importance is available for rice breeding programs to utilize in crop improvement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1313.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: System of Rice Intensification; Traditional Rice Varieties; Conserving Rice Biodiversity
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:36:08 CET)
The genetic potentials of rice cultivars will need to be expressed to their fullest if global rice production is to be expanded enough by 2050 to meet the increased demand of expanding population while the availability of land and water per capita dwindles. New and ‘improved’ rice varieties have contributed greatly to increased production over the past 50 years, but the rate of rice yield increase based on genetic changes has declined in recent decades compared with the early years of the Green Revolution. In fact, many rice consumers continue to prefer to consume ‘traditional’ rice varieties (referred to also as local, native, unimproved, or indigenous) because of their taste, aroma, texture, and other qualities. Further, many farmers prefer to cultivate these varieties because of their better adaptation to local climatic and soil conditions and their evolved resistance to endemic stresses. The practices that comprise the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), including transplanting rice seedlings at a young age, wide spacing between plants, keeping the soil well-aerated rather than inundated, and enhancing soil organic matter, provide traditional rice varieties with micro-environments that are more favorable for the expression of their genetic and agronomic potentials. Interactions among rice plants, soil characteristics, water, energy, and other inputs improve the phenotypic and physiological performance of rice plants. This paper considers how the cultivation of traditional rice varieties with SRI methods can raise yields, reduce farmers’ costs of production, and generate higher incomes, while contributing to the conservation of rice biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; gene family; rice blast; bioinformatics.
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:51:49 CEST)
In order to enhance understanding of RNA-binding proteins in rice, a comprehensive investigation was conducted on the RRM1 gene family of rice, encompassing genome-wide identification and exploration of its role in rice blast resistance. Physical and chemical properties of the OsRRM1 gene family in rice was analyzed, including conserved domain, motif, location information, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, collinearity analysis, cis-acting elements, GO, and KEGG. Furthermore, the expression patterns of the OsRRM1 gene were examined at different time intervals following rice blast treatment. Furthermore, the alterations in expression patterns of selected OsRRM1 genes were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). A total of 212 members of the OsRRM1 gene family were identified, which were dispersed across 12 chromosomes. Many of these genes exhibit multiple exons and introns, all of which encompass the conserved RRM1 domain and share analogous motifs. This observation suggests a high degree of conservation within the encoded sequence domain of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of five subfamilies within the OsRRM1 gene family. Furthermore, the investigation of the promoter region identified homeopathic elements that are involved in nucleic acid binding and interaction with multiple transcription factors. By employing GO and KEGG analysis, four RRM1 genes were tentatively identified as crucial contributors to plant immunity, while the RRM1 gene family was also found to have a significant involvement in the complex of alternative splicing. Additionally, gene expression analysis indicated that the majority of OsRRM1 genes exhibited constitutive expression. The results of the qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct temporal changes in the expression pattern of the OsRRM1 gene following rice blast treatment. These findings contribute to the existing knowledge of the OsRRM1 gene family, establish a foundation for further investigation into the role of the OsRRM1 gene in response to rice blast infection, and hold theoretical significance for future studies on the functionality of the OsRRM1 gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0179.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: rice wash; vinegar; rice wine; Soxhlet; fermentation
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:04:45 CEST)
This study was conducted to search for green technology that can extract metabolites from neem leaves for use in the development of botanical pesticide against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae). Rice wine, rice wash, vinegar and distilled water were used as solvents and hot infusion, maceration, hot continuous reflux (Soxhlet), and fermentation were the methods employed. The different leaf extracts prepared by green technology were evaluated for their potentials as pesticide against B. dorsalis. Vinegar extract via Soxhlet extraction (V-S) for eight (8) h registered to have the highest mortality but not significantly different from vinegar - fermentation (V-F), rice wash - Soxhlet (RWa-S), vinegar - maceration (V-M), distilled water - fermentation (DW-F), and rice wash - fermentation (RWa-F) extracts. Phythochemicals present in the extracts are affected by the solvent-extraction interaction. Among the sixteen solvent-extraction interactions, the use of rice wash and fermentation is the most economical method in extracting the extracting the active components of neem leaves against B. dorsalis. Rice wash is a waste that can be utilized in the development of a biopesticide from neem leaves for pest management of B. dorsalis. This is the first report that rice wash is used as extracting solvent in green synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0201.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rice-rice system; crop establishment methods; System of Rice Intensification; modified System of Rice Intensification; greenhouse gases; climate-resilience
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:10:42 CEST)
Initial evaluations of the System of Rice Intensification in India and elsewhere have mainly fo-cused on its impact on yield and income and have usually covered just one or two seasons. Re-searchers at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research conducted a more comprehensive evalua-tion of SRI methods over six years (six wet and six dry seasons), comparing these methods with three other rice crop management systems: modified, partially mechanized SRI (MSRI); direct-seeded rice (DSR); and normal transplanting with inundated fields (NTP). SRI grain yield was found to be about 50% higher than with NTP (6.35 t ha-1 vs 4.27 t ha-1), while the MSRI yield was essentially the same (6.34 t ha-1) and 16% higher than with DSR (5.45 t ha-1). Compared to NTP, SRI methods significantly enhanced soil microbial populations over time, bacteria by 12%, fungi by 8%, and actinomycetes by 20%. Indicators of biological activity in the rhizosphere were also higher, dehydrogenase by 8.5% and FDA enzymes by 16%. Glucosidase activity, an indicator of soil organic matter, was 78% higher. Relative to normal transplanting methods, SRI reduced GHG emissions by 21%, while DSR reduced them by 23% and MSRI by 13%, which indicated pos-itive effects of the alternate and improved methods over normal transplanting. Economic analy-sis showed that both gross and net economic returns to be higher with SRI than with MSRI and the other management systems evaluated. While the six-year study documented many ad-vantages of SRI crop management, the MSRI version evaluated is a promising adaptation that provide similar benefits but with lower labor requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Germinated brown rice; Cooked rice; Texture; Back extrusion
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:40:13 CEST)
The texture properties of cooked rice are a dominant property which can indicate the eating quality. Evaluation of back extrusion (BE) test precision and sensitivity for cooked germinated brown rice (GBR) texture in production process was investigated in this study. BE test on texture properties of cooked GBR rice show high precision of measurement of hardness, toughness and stickiness tests which indicated by the repeatability and reproductivity test but the sensitivity indicated by coefficient of variation of the texture properties. The findings of the study of the effect of different soaking and aging duration in the production of Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) GBR on cooked GBR texture measured by BE test confirmed the developed protocol for evaluation of high precision and sensitivity of the texture measurement method. Repeatability and reproducibility of reliable measurements have a low standard deviation of the farthest different between replicates, which is considered high precision. High coefficient of variation where the relative wide variation of the absolute value of the property can be detected indicate high sensitivity which even small resolution can be detected or vice versa. But the correlation coefficient among the texture properties by BE were not related to the precision or sensitivity of the test. By these results, the original protocol for determination of precision and sensitivity of food texture measurement was successfully verified as the usable evaluation protocol for GBR texture measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0461.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Rice; Fish; Culture; Efficiency; Environment; Rice-Fish Culture
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:04:49 CEST)
The efficiency of rice cum fish culture study was conducted in different areas of Tangail district with those farmers who cultivate rice and fish together at a time. The study was conducted along 60 farmers of different areas in Ghatail upazilla. The primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews and secondary data were collected through different reputed journals, newspapers, authentic portals and so on. Data collection was carried out during the period from November 2021 to May 2022. Both tabular and functional analyses were performed to achieve the specific objectives of the study. NPV, BCR and IRR method was used to estimate the profitability and a multiple regression model was used to find out the factors motivating farmers' decision on rice cum fish cultivation. SWOT analysis was done to find out the internal and external-positive and negative factors faced by the farmers in rice cum fish cultivation. About 40% of farmers are under the age of 30 and most of them got at least primary education. Agriculture was the main occupation of the respondents and fish cultivation was the secondary. The highest annual income among the sample growers came from the production of rice cum fish culture. The BCR of the production is upbeat and 2.09 which indicates that the cultivation is profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: parboiled rice; medium-grain white rice; medium-grain brown rice; sensory evaluation; consumer acceptability
Online: 6 November 2017 (07:07:41 CET)
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that storage of cooked rice at 4 °C for 24 h and reheating to 65 °C significantly reduced starch digestibility and postprandial glycaemic responses. Moreover, the effect was greater for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties commonly consumed in New Zealand. This study aimed to evaluate consumer preferences of related sensory attributes and consumer acceptability of several rice varieties freshly cooked or reheated. Method: Sixty-four consumers volunteered and recorded on Visual Analoge Scales their preference and acceptability of freshly prepared or cold-stored and reheated medium grain white, medium grain brown and parboiled rice. Results: All six rice samples were accepted by participants (average 54%). Reheated parboiled rice and reheated medium grain brown rice were both accepted by participants as a preferred staple meal compared to other rice samples. Among all rice samples, the sweetness and the flavour of freshly cooked warm medium-grain white rice were less preferred (scored 42.1% and 45.0% respectively) compared with other samples (P = 0.05). Participants who prepared and consumed brown rice at home regularly (more than 10 times per month), preferred the reheated brown rice (73.8% (67.4, 80.2)) and reheated parboiled rice (74.3% (67.9, 80.7)) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is suggested that reheated parboiled rice, with the lowest starch digestibility and glycaemic impact (both in vitro glucose release and in vivo glucose response) could be accepted as a healthier alternative for the daily staple meal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1762.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Disease resistance; rice blast disease; sheath blight disease; weedy rice
Online: 26 June 2023 (08:57:43 CEST)
Weeds that infest crops are a primary factor limiting agricultural productivity world-wide. Weedy rice, also called red rice, has experienced independent evolutionary events through gene flow from wild rice relatives and de-domestication from cultivated rice. Each evolutionary event supplied/equipped weedy rice with competitive abilities that allowed it to thrive with cultivated rice and severely reduce yields in rice fields. Under-standing how competitiveness evolves is important not only for noxious agricultural weed management but also for the transfer of weedy rice traits to cultivated rice. Molec-ular studies of weedy rice using simple sequence repeat (SSR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and whole genome sequence have shown great genetic variations in weedy rice population globally. These variations are evident both at whole genome and at single allele level, including Sh4 (shattering), Hd1 (heading and flower-ing), and Rc (pericarp pigmentation). The goal of this review is to describe the genetic diversity of current weedy rice germplasm and the significance of weedy rice germplasm as a novel source of disease resistance. Understanding these variations, es-pecially at an allelic level, is also crucial as individual locus that control important traits can be of great target to rice breeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0499.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: system archetypes; rice production; system dynamics; climate change; Indonesia rice
Online: 28 April 2020 (13:04:04 CEST)
Climate projections show that southern Indonesia such as West Nusa Tenggara is projected to experience a lower precipitation and higher temperatures. To date, research on climate change impact on Indonesian rice production yield is limited. As climate change is projected to decrease rainfall and to increase temperatures, this paper offers a qualitative analysis using system archetypes to understand the impacts of climate change on rice production. Two system archetypes are identified including Limits to Growth and Success to Successful. Both archetypes explain that rice production is hampered by high minimum temperature as photosynthesis output is decreased by increasing respiration. This paper shows that using a simple tool, system archetypes, we can describe the impacts of climate change on rice production. The outputs of this study such as a causal loop diagram and system archetypes can be a basis to develop a simulation model in understanding the impacts of climate change on main crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2191.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: rice canopy height and density; Lidar; rice canopy LAI; regression analysis
Online: 31 August 2023 (13:19:37 CEST)
Rice canopy height and density are directly usable crop phenotypic traits for the direct estimation of crop biomass. Therefore, it is crucial to rapidly and accurately estimate rice canopy phenotypic parameters. To achieve non-destructive detection and estimation of essential phenotypic parameters in rice, a platform based on LiDAR point cloud data for rice phenotypic parameter detection was established. Data collection of rice canopy layers was performed across multiple plots. The LiDAR-detected canopy top point clouds were selected using a method based on the highest percentile, and the rice canopy surface model was calculated. Canopy height estimation was the difference between ground elevation and percentile value. To determine the optimal percentile defining the rice canopy top, testing was conducted incrementally from 0.8 to 1 with an increment of 0.005. The optimal percentile value was found to be 0.975. The root mean square error (RMSE) between LiDAR-detected canopy height and manually measured canopy height was calculated. The prediction model based on canopy height (R2=0.941, RMSE=0.019) exhibited a strong correlation with actual canopy height. Linear regression analysis was conducted between gap fraction of different plots and manually detected average Leaf Area Index (LAI) of rice canopy. Prediction models for canopy LAI based on ground return counts (R2=0.24, RMSE=0.1) and ground return intensity (R2=0.28, RMSE=0.09) showed strong correlations but had lower correlation with rice canopy LAI. Regression analysis was performed between LiDAR-detected canopy height and manually measured rice canopy LAI. The results indicated that the prediction model based on canopy height (R2=0.77, RMSE=0.03) was more accurate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2093.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice production; sustainable production; ghana rice; resource management; environmentally-friendly practice
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:38:20 CEST)
In Ghana, rice remains a critical crop, representing 15% of the country's GDP. However, production has been hindered by limited water access, degraded soil, pests and diseases, and ineffective pesticide use. These issues have impeded industry growth while adversely affecting the environment and impairing socioeconomic development. To combat these challenges, it is necessary to implement sustainable production strategies that emphasize environmental protection, resource management, and socioeconomic progress. This study evaluates sustainable rice production in Ghana, taking into account its consequences on the environment, socioeconomic growth, and food security. It pinpoints gaps and offers advice for stakeholders, policymakers, and scholars to transition to sustainability. The study illuminates the increasing significance of rice in Ghana and its role in food security, illustrating increased output due to widened land rather than higher yields. It underscores the necessity of fulfilling surging demand while implementing environmentally friendly practices. The paper scrutinizes the difficulties encountered by the rice sector, such as restricted water supplies and soil degradation, along with the adverse impacts of pests, diseases and inefficient pesticide utilization. Sustainable methods are imperative for Ghana's agribusiness, environmental protection, and socioeconomic progress. By embracing green techniques, prioritizing resource management, and investing in research, Ghana can surmount production issues. This review provides invaluable insight and suggestions for policymakers, academicians, and stakeholders alike to ensure sustainable rice production for current and future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Risk management; Laos; livelihood; swidden; upland rice; rice bank; NTFPs; market economy; livestock
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:32:52 CET)
In areas with strongly seasonal climates, local people often use complex strategies to manage agricultural production shortages, including diverse activities such as hunting, selling and consuming non-agricultural products, and wage labor. We surveyed all the households in a village in northern Laos to evaluate how such livelihood activities varied during years with differing agricultural production conditions. We compared two years with normal rice production conditions (2010, 2012) and one year with a severe rice shortage (2011) due to a rodent outbreak. Earning wages inside and outside the village was the most important activity for mitigating rice shortages, followed by selling livestock and using/selling non-timber forest products. Villagers also borrowed rice from a village rice bank. Most cash income was earned from selling rice. We concluded that a balance of traditional risk management activities under the swidden system (e.g., raising livestock) with the more recent rice bank system and wages from the market economy will be critical for the sustainable development of mountain villages in northern Laos. Permanent crops and monocultures tend to make local livelihoods more dependent on a single crop, but maintaining the traditional swidden system will help local people to manage agricultural production shortages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0920.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; methanogen; methanotroph; nitrogen fertilization
Online: 13 September 2023 (15:50:39 CEST)
Rice production is a significant contributor to methane emissions, accounting for ap-proximately 11% of global anthropogenic emissions. However, methane emissions in rice fields could effectively be reduced by implementing proper management practices and careful cultivar selection. The impact of nitrogen fertilizers on methane emissions is mul-tifaceted, as these fertilizers enhance crop growth and influence the activity of me-thane-producing (methanogens) and methane-consuming microbes (methanotrophs), leading to complex outcomes in methane emissions. In this study, we used qPCR to quan-tify methanogens and methanotrophs using mcrA (methanogenesis-related gene) and pmoA (methane oxidation-related gene) primer sets under different nitrogen levels (0, 50, and 100%) and rice varieties. The results revealed that higher nitrogen input led to higher methanogen inhabitation in the rhizosphere. Additionally, the abundances of methano-gens and methanotrophs varied among the different rice varieties. Furthermore, it was observed that there may be an additive effect between the rice variety and nitrogen level used. These findings suggest that future breeding efforts should involve screening for me-thane-related microbes in rice cultivars adapted to low-nitrogen conditions. By identifying and selecting rice varieties that promote lower methanogen levels and higher metha-notroph inhabitation, significant steps can be taken to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0789.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; methanogen; methanotroph; nitrogen fertilization
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:43:04 CEST)
Abstract: Rice production is a significant contributor to methane emissions, accounting for approximately 11% of global anthropogenic emissions. However, there is potential for effectively reducing methane emissions from rice fields through the implementation of proper management practices and careful cultivar selection. The impact of nitrogen (N) fertilizers on methane (CH4) emissions is multifaceted, as these fertilizers not only en-hance crop growth but also influence the activity of methane-producing microbes (Meth-anogens) and methane-consuming microbes (Methanotrophs), leading to complex out-comes in CH4 emissions. In this study, we utilized qPCR to quantify methanogens and methanotrophs using mcrA (methanogenesis-related gene) and pmoA (methane oxida-tion-related gene) primer sets under different nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100%) and rice varie-ties. The results revealed that higher nitrogen inputs led to higher methanogen inhabita-tion in the rhizosphere. Additionally, the abundances of methanogens and metha-notrophs varied among different rice varieties. Furthermore, through the analysis of two-way ANOVA, it was observed that there may be an additive effect between rice variety and nitrogen level. Furthermore, enhancing agronomic traits related to yield can reduce methanogen inhabitation. These findings suggest that future breeding efforts should in-volve the screening of methane-related microbes in rice cultivars adapted to low nitrogen conditions. By identifying and selecting rice varieties that promote lower methanogen lev-els and higher methanotroph inhabitation, we can take significant steps towards mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus initiative; Farming; Food traceability; Organic Farming; Rice; Rice paddy fields; Water Management; Sentinels
Online: 20 May 2021 (12:32:52 CEST)
Whereas a vast literature exists on satellite-based mapping of rice paddy fields in Asia, where most of the global production takes place, little has been produced so far that focuses on the European context. Detection and mapping methods that work well in the Asian context will not offer the same performances in Europe, where different seasonal cycles, environmental contexts, and rice varieties make distinctive features dissimilar to the Asian case. In this context, water management is a key clue; watering practices are distinctive for rice with respect to other crops, and within rice there exist diverse cultivation practices including organic and non-organic approaches. In this paper, we focus on satellite-observed water management to identify rice paddy fields cultivated with a traditional agricultural approach. Building on established research results, and guided by the output of experiments on real-world cases, a new method for analysing time series of Sentinel-1 data has been developed, which can identify traditional rice fields with a high degree of reliability. This work is a part of a broader initiative to build space-based tools for collecting additional pieces of evidence to support food chain traceability; the whole system will consider various parameters, whose analysis procedures are still at their early stages of development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0327.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rice; GWAS; tiller angle; QTL; Haplotype
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:42:18 CEST)
Tiller angle (TA) is one of the most important agronomic traits which directly affected plant architecture, photosynthetic efficiency, and planting density of rice. Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated genes for tiller angle have been identified, the detection of QTL for TA still required emphasis. In this study, 238 micro-core germplasm populations were used for genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of the tiller angle. The frequency distribution of TA was shown to be continuous in 2018 and 2019, five QTL designated as qTA1, qTA2, qTA6, qTA9, qTA12, and two QTL designated as qTA1, qTA1-1 were detected in 2018 and 2019, respectively. These QTL explained phenotypic variation ranged from 5.94% to 12.38%. Among them, qTA2 and qTA6 are new QTL for TA, and only qTA1 was detected repeatedly in two years. 253 germplasm from the 3K Rice Genome Project were used for candidate gene and haplotypes analysis, the candidate gene and haplotypes analyzed showed LOC_Os01g67770, LOC_Os02g35180 and LOC_Os09g38130 were the candidate gene of qTA1, qTA2, and qTA9, respectively. The results of this study provide insight into the genetic improvement of plant architecture in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: alternative oxidase; mitochondria; critical node; rice
Online: 14 April 2023 (09:56:24 CEST)
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase 1a (AOX1a) plays an extremely important role in critical node of seed viability. However, the regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The study aims to identify regulatory mechanisms by comparing between OsAOX1a-RNAi and wild type (WT) rice seed during artificial aging treatment. Gain weight and P50 significantly decreased in OsAOX1a-RNAi rice seed, indicating that there might be impaired in seed development and storability. Compared to WT seeds in the 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% germination, respectively, NADH and succinate-dependent O2 consumption, the activity mitochondrial malate dehydro-genase and ATP contents were decreased in OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds in the 100%, 90%, 80%, and 70% germination, respectively, indicating that mitochondrial status in the OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds after imbibition was weaken than the WT. In addition to, the reduced abundance of complex I N and P module subunits might showed that the capacity of mitochondrial electron transfer chain was significantly inhibited in the OsAOX1a-RNAi seed at critical node of seed viability. Above results might indicated that the ATP production was impaired in OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds during ageing. Therefore, we conclude that the activities of mitochondrial metabolism and alternative pathways were severely inhibited in OsAOX1a-RNAi seeds at critical node of viability, which was leading to accelerate the collapse of seed viability. The precise regulatory mechanism of the alternative pathway at the critical node of viability still needs to be further analyzed.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: NDVI; Nitrogen; Rice; SPAD meter; Yield
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:35:30 CEST)
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2018, laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications having seven treatments viz. N omission (T1), N applied as basal and AT (T2), N as basal, AT and PI (T3), N as basal and top dressing at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4), at NDVI threshold of 0.8 (T5), at SPAD threshold of 35.0 (T6) and SPAD threshold of 37.5 (T7) with Rice variety Sahabhagidhan.The study revealed that application of 30 kg N/ha as basal dose and top dressing of 20 kg N/ha twice at 35 and 63 DAS guided by NDVI threshold value of 0.8 (T5) was found to be superior over other treatments with respect to productivity. T5 recorded highest grain yield of 4438 kg/ha which was 17.0% higher than that top dressed at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4) and 7.1% higher than that top dressed at SPAD threshold value of 37.5 (T7). In case of SPAD meter, nitrogen top dressed at threshold value of 37.5 (T7) produced grain yield of 4143 kg/ha which was 15.0% higher than T6. T5 produced maximum dry matter of 8678 kg/ha with highest grain yield (4438 kg/ha), straw yield (5092 kg/ha) and harvest index 46.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinal-2; NDVI; LAI; rice; yield
Online: 21 December 2019 (11:00:09 CET)
Rice is an essential crop for national food security in Egypt. Increasing the population calls for regular increases in rice production. At the same time, cultivated rice crop areas should be decreased because of the gradual scarcity of irrigation water. This means more rice production should be gained from less rice area. This situation calls for the annual accurate system for rice monitoring and yield estimation. Therefore, it is necessary to apply a remotely sensed based system for rice cultivation assessment using satellite imagery parallel with field measurements of some biophysical parameters. Multi-temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) extracted from twelve sentinel-2 imagery cover the whole summer season with variance and maximum value assessed by ground control points (GCPs), were used to isolate uncultivated areas, then to isolate rice areas and other vegetation covers. object-based classification methods with kappa co-efficient 0.9261 and overall accuracy 94.92% was generated to discriminate rice crop area and other summer crops on the study area. Leaf area index (LAI) for the experiment the l site was calculated using the surface energy balance algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model and then tested versus measured (LAI). NDVI and LAI were used to generate an empirical ran rice yield prediction model. Then, this model was used to produce rice to yield a map. The study was carried out in an experimental site in Kafr Elsheikh governorate with a total area of 5040 Hectare. Produced cultivated land use map showed 95% overall accuracy. High similarity was observed between measured and calculated (LAI) with high accuracy of R2 = 0.94. of Rice, yield map showed expected to yield more to than a month before harvest. The generated yield map was tested using a correlation coefficient between actual yield and estimated yield with high accuracy R2 = 0.9. This method is applicable to estimate the acreage and productivity of rice in the northern Nile delta in adequate time before harvest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; RGB; oats; rice; growth
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:48:41 CET)
Fusarium graminearum is a cereal pathogen responsible for economic losses worldwide every year. An understanding of its growth is key to control its infection, but current growth models are limited because their size-based approach provides little information about the mold's metabolism. Recently, a RGB (red, green and blue) imaging analysis demonstrated the predictability of F. graminearum color change as it grows in yeast extract agar (YEA). This study aimed to verify the same phenomenon in oats (aw = 0.94, 0.97 and 0.99) and rice (aw = 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99). Photos were taken using a professional camera and a smartphone (iPhone 6) after incubation and during the subsequent 16 days, and average RGB was quantified using ImageJ software. The photos showed very similar color variations, regardless of the type of grain or aw. The mold first adopted a k-selection strategy by growing as a mycelium and then a r-selection strategy, increasing spore production. All RGB channels showed positive Pearson correlations between them (p < 0.001) and it was possible to design a model showing two lag phases, the first prior to a mycelial phase and the second prior to a sporular phase at the end of the experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pakistan; Climate change; Rice production; ARDL
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:26:03 CET)
This research paper aims to examine the relationship between CO2, temperature, area, fertilizers and rice production in Pakistan. This study used Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests to check the order of integration of each variable. The cointegration analysis with ARDL bounds testing approach is used to examine the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan over time series data from the period 1968 to 2014. The parameter stability test of the model is also checked at the end. The results of estimation show that the important variables of the study are cointegrated demonstrating the presence of long-run association among them. Furthermore, climate change factors, e.g. CO2 and temperature have a long-run and short-run positive effect on the production of rice in Pakistan. This present work is original and it is first time empirically tested the impact of climate change on rice production in Pakistan. The annual time series data of 47 years enhances the validity of the empirical findings. The most fruitful finding of this research is that rice production in Pakistan is positively influenced by emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 5 percent significance level in both long-run and short-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Parboiled rice, medium-grain white rice, cold stored, reheating, blood glucose concentration chewing time, satiety, palatability.
Online: 17 April 2017 (05:35:10 CEST)
Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot and cold stored parboiled rice to widely available medium grain white rice. Method: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a three treatment experiment where postprandial blood glucose was measured over 120 minutes after consumption of 140g of rice. Three rice samples were freshly cooked medium-grain white rice, freshly cooked parboiled rice, and parboiled rice stored overnight at 4 ºC. All rice was served warm at 65 ºC. Chewing time was recorded. Results: The 24-hours cold-stored and reheated parboiled rice resulted in a 42% and 12% lower blood glucose concentration trajectory than freshly cooked medium-grain white rice and freshly cooked parboiled rice. Chewing time for 10g cold stored parboiled rice was 6 seconds (25%) longer and was considered more palatable, visually appealing and better tasting than freshly cooked medium grain (all P<0.05). Conclusions:. For regular consumers of rice reheating cooked rice after cold storage would lower the dietary glycaemic load and long term may reduce risk for type 2 and gestational diabetes. More trials are needed to identify the significance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: OsNRAMP5; cadmium; manganese; rice; transporter; random mutation
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:23:32 CET)
OsNRAMP5—a member of the same family as the iron, manganese (Mn), and cadmium (Cd) transporter OsNRAMP1—is responsible for the transport of Mn and Cd from soil in rice. Knockout of OsNRAMP5 markedly reduces both Cd and Mn absorption; therefore, in low -Mn environments, such plants would exhibit Mn deficiency and suppressed growth. Amino acid mutations in IRT1 alter its metal selectivity. We generated random mutations in OsNRAMP5 via error-prone PCR, and used yeast to screen for the retention of Mn absorption and inhibition of Cd absorption. The results showed ththat alanine 512th is the most important amino acid residue for Cd absorption, and that its substitution resulted in the absorption of Mn but not Cd.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1989.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: dairy cow; broken rice; indirect calorimetry; energy
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:16:06 CEST)
The objectives of this research were to determine 1) the energy contents of broken rice in dairy cows by animal calorimetry and 2) the effects of various levels of broken rice in diets on dairy cow performance. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows at 70 ± 31 (mean ± SD) days in milk were assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four periods. The four treatments included a diet substitution with broken rice on a 0, 12, 24, and 36% dry matter basis in the basal ration. Indirect calorimetry with a ventilated head box respiration system was used to determine energy metabolism. The substitution of broken rice in the diet did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed efficiency or energy balance (p > 0.05). Increasing broken rice substitution in the diet resulted in a linear increase in enteric methane energy losses and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and fiber (p < 0.05), whereas the digestibility of crude protein and ether extract decreased (p < 0.05). The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was 504 kJ/kg metabolic body weight, and the efficiency of metabolizable energy used for lactation was 0.76. The estimated net energy value of broken rice for lactation was 8.68 MJ/kg. Our results indicated that increasing the proportion of broken rice in the diet up to 36% had no adverse effect on feed intake and production performance in dairy cows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1690.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Aerobic rice; hybrids; heterosis; stability; water crisis
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:51:04 CEST)
An experiment was conducted in 2016 & 2017 for development of novel rice hybrids for aerobic ecology with lesser yield penalties in comparison to irrigated ecosystem, further with added advantage of reduced methane emissions and water budget as witnessed in irrigated system. Based on the restorer / maintainer reaction and spikelet fertility (%), 10 restorer lines were selected to cross with 3 CMS lines in the line by tester fashion in Yasangi (summer) season 2016-17. Resulting 30 experimental hybrids besides 13 parental lines (10 Restorer lines and 3 B - lines of akin CMS lines) and checks (GK 5022, CR Dhan 201) assessed during Vankalam (rainy) season 2017 at three different places/locations viz., Rajendranagar, Warangal and Kampasagar. The outcome of experiment were two experimental hybrids viz., APMS-6A × HRSV – 7 and IR-79156A × ATR – 372, were categorized as stable hybrids with desirable sca effects, heterosis (ranging from 7% to 13%) over best check GK 5022 along with an in-essence performance for yield and other yield attributing characters.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Antagonism of ions; Cadmium; Calcium; Rice; Translocation
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:52:49 CEST)
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in rice grains is posing a significant threat to global food security. To restrict the transport of Cd in the soil-rice system, an efficient way is to use the ionomics strate-gy. Since calcium (Ca) and Cd have similar ionic radii, their uptake and translocation may be linked in multiple aspects in rice. However, the underlying antagonistic mechanisms are still not fully understood. Therefore, we first summarized the current knowledge on the physiological and molecular footprints of Cd translocation in plants and then explored the potential antagonistic points between Ca and Cd in rice, including exchange adsorption on roots, plant cell wall compo-sition, co-transporter gene expression, and transpiration inhibition. This review provides sugges-tions for the Ca/Cd interacting study in rice and introduces the ionomics research to better control the accumulation of Cd in plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0483.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Rice seeds; dehydration rate; RNA-seq; DEGs
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:54:11 CEST)
The transcriptomic analysis of the dehydration rate of mature rice seeds was conducted to explore candidate genes related to the dehydration rate and provide a theoretical basis for breeding and utilization. In this study, we selected Baghlani Nangarhar, an extremely fast dehydration material, and Saturn, a slow dehydration material, based on the results of the previous studies of screening of 165 germplasm materials for dehydration rate phenotypes. Fast dehydration experiment on these two types of seeds was conducted. Four comparative groups were set up under control and dehydration conditions. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were quantified by transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). GO and KEGG analyses were carried out. The results showed that in Baghlani Nangarhar, 53 DEGs were screened, of which 33 were up-regulated and 20 were down-regulated. Similarly, in Saturn, 25 DEGs were screened, of which 19 were up-regulated and 6 down-regulated. The results of the GO analysis showed that the sites of action of the differentially expressed genes enriched in the fast dehydration modes were concentrated in the cytoplasm, internal components of the membrane and nucleosomes. They play regulatory roles in catalysis, binding, translocation, transcription, protein folding, degradation and replication. They are involved in adaptive responses to adverse external environments such as reactive oxygen species and high temperature. The KEGG analysis showed that the main metabolic pathways enriched are protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, amino acid biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation. The key differentially expressed genes and the most important metabolic pathways in the rapidly and slowly dehydrated materials obtained in this study were protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative phosphorylation metabolism, which are presumed to have important regulatory roles in stress/defense, energy metabolism, protein synthesis/folding, and signal transduction during dehydration and drying of mature seeds. The results of this study could potentially provide a valuable reference for further research on the genes and metabolic pathways related to the dehydration rate of mature rice seeds and provide theoretical guidance for the selection and breeding of new rice germplasm that can be rapidly dehydrated at the mature stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; heat treatment; rice; drinking water
Online: 28 April 2023 (09:45:10 CEST)
Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have become the most widely used insecticides in the world since the mid-1990s. According to Chinese dietary habits, rice and water are usually heated before being consumed, but the information about the alteration through the heat treatment process is very limited. In this study, the parents of NEOs (p-NEOs) accounted for >99% of the total NEOs mass (∑NEOs) in both uncooked (median: 66.8 ng/g) and cooked (median: 41.4 ng/g) rice samples from Guangdong Province, China, while the metabolites of NEOs (m-NEOs) involved in this study accounted for less than 1%. We aimed to reveal the concentration changes of NEOs through heat treatment process, thus, several groups of rice and water samples from Guangdong were cooked and boiled, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in acetamiprid, imidacloprid (IMI), thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam (THM) have been observed after the heat treatment of the rice samples. In water samples, the concentrations of THM and dinotefuran decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the heat treatment. These results indicate the degradation of p-NEOs and m-NEOs during the heat treatment process. However, the concentrations of IMI increased significantly in tap water samples (p < 0.05) after heat treatment process, which might be caused by the potential IMI precursors in those industrial pesticide products. The concentrations of NEOs in rice and water can be shifted by the heat treatment process, so this process should be considered in relevant human exposure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Asian rice; salt stress; morphology; physiology; biochemistry
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:51:35 CET)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary energy food for Asian population. One of the most constraints in rice production is soil salinity because of the rice is very susceptible to salt. Meanwhile, many agricultural land in Asia are in the saline area. It is important to identify and develop salt-tolerant rice varieties that can adapt in Asian climate. By combining morphological, physiological, and biochemical assessments for screening the salt tolerant of 116 Asian rice cultivars was able to classify into tolerant, moderate, and sensitive rice cultivars under salinity stress condition, and also for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. The rice cultivars which belong to salt-tolerant including Pokkali from India, TCCP 266 from Philippines, IR 45427 also from Philippines, and Namyang 7 from Korea. Whereas, salt-sensitive rice varieties like IR29 from Philippines, IR58 also from Philippines, Daegudo from Korea, and Guweoldo also from Korea. The salt-tolerant varieties showed signs of tolerance, including lower percent reduction of percentage germination, root length, root fresh weight, shoot length, plant biomass, and chlorophyll content. In order to maintain the cellular osmotic balance under saline condition, the salt-tolerant ones exhibited less membrane damage, lower Na/K ratio, high proline and sugar accumulation, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pokkali from India, TCCP 266 from Philippines, IR 45427 also from Philippines, and Namyang 7 from Korea are recommended as valuable germplasm resource for Asian rice breeding program in saline agricultural area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1819.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Veterinary antibiotics; translocation; phytotoxicity; bioconcentration factor; rice paddy
Online: 27 September 2023 (06:57:05 CEST)
Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) have been indiscriminately used in animal feed for the past five decades to increase and ensure profits with negligible environmental considerations. The VAs amoxicillin (AMX), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC), which can be unintentionally introduced by irrigation water during rice cultivation, were evaluated for their phytotoxic effects, absorption-translocation into plants, and soil residues using a randomized complete block design. It was found that exposure to VAs can severely affect the photosynthetic pathway of rice plants. The uptake and translocation of VAs by rice plants varied significantly. CTC and OTC translocated more easily than AMX, a member of the β-lactam class, which accumulated at the lowest concentration compared to CTC and OTC across all treatments. Rice yield was about 4.3 - 5.7% lower in the experimental plots that received fifty-fold the background levels of VAs compared to the control. The findings indicate that these widely used veterinary antibiotics can hamper crop production, leave residues in the soil, and constitute a risk to human health if introduced into the agro-ecosystem unintentionally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0593.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; integrated cultivation practices; microbial diversity; environmental factors
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:07:03 CEST)
Integrated cultivation strategies can significantly improve rice yield. However, it is unclear how integrated cultivation practices improve soil microbial diversity and its related mechanism in rice field. Therefore, four integrated cultivation practices i.e., no N application (N0), local farmers’ practice (FP), high-yield and high-efficiency practice (HYEY), and super-high-yield cultivation practice, impacts on soil properties and structure composition of microbial community were explored. Compared with N0, SHY treatment, significantly increased soil alkaline nitrogen and organic matter contents. HYHE and SHY treatments significantly altered soil fungal community and Alpha diversity. Based on Venn diagram analysis, the composition of bacterial communities under all treatments was similar, but with different compositions of fungal communities. Cluster analysis indicates that the Proteobacteria was the absolute dominant group of bacterial communities, and Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant group. Different cultivation methods also led to changes in the main factors affecting soil bacteria and fungi composition. Available potassium and organic matter were the main environmental factors that affected bacteria, with the strong of available potassium on the soil. To sum up, SHY and HYEY were beneficial management options in terms of improved soil fertility Alpha diversity of the soil bacterial community respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2056.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: proline; rice; trivalent chromium; nitrogen source; mass balance
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:11:46 CEST)
The effects of exogenous inorganic [i.e., nitrate (NO3-)/ammonium (NH4+)] and organic [i.e., glutamate (Glu)/argine (Arg)] N alone and in combination on the accumulation of proline (Pro) in rice plant under trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] stress were studied through the mass balance matrix model (MBMM). ‘NH4+’ application showed the largest contribution to the Pro content in rice shoots under different concentrations of Cr(III), followed by ‘NO3-’, ‘Arg’, and ‘Glu’ application respectively. While, ‘Arg’ application displayed the largest contribution to the Pro content in roots under Cr(III) stress, followed by ‘NH4+’, ‘Glu’, and ‘NO3-’ application. Among the combination cases of N sources used, the application of ‘NH4++Arg’ showed the greatest contribution to the Pro content in both roots and shoots of Cr(III)-treated rice seedlings, while the application of ‘NO3-+Glu’ showed the least contribution to the Pro content in rice seedlings under Cr(III) stress. Results from this study indicated that the level of indigenous Pro in rice seedlings is quite sensitive to Cr(III) stress under different N sources, and mathematical modeling showed a reliable result to estimate the relationship between Pro content and N source application in rice plants in response to Cr(III) exposure .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2072.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rice; Grain shape; Chalkiness; QTL mapping; Effect verification
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:27:10 CEST)
Grain shape and chalkiness are important appearance quality traits of rice, which also affect the yield and milling quality. In this study, 190 F2 families derived from the cross between Hua 5178S and Hua 611 were sequenced to construct a genetic linkage map. Combined with F2 and F2:3 generations grain shape and chalkiness phenotype, a total of 15 QTL were detected. There are 8 grain shape QTL distributed on chromosomes 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10; 7 chalkiness QTL distributed on chromosomes 2, 3, and 6. A QTL cluster affecting multiple chalkiness traits was found on chromosome 6, qWBR6.1, qWCR6 and qCR6 were selected for genetic effect verification. It was found that qWBR6.1, qWCR6 and qCR6 explained 13% and 24%, and 29% of the phenotypic variations respectively, and qWCR6 and qCR6 were co-mapped. This study laid a foundation for further cloning of rice appearance quality genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1973.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Trichoderma; Bacillus; Pseudomonas; Soil health; Sclerotium oryzae; Rice
Online: 28 June 2023 (09:49:34 CEST)
Soil is a crucial component for plant growth, as it provides water, nutrients, and mechanical support. Various factors, such as crop cultivation, microflora, nutrient addition, and water availability, significantly affect soil properties. Maintaining soil health is important, and one approach is the introduction of native organisms with multifaceted activities. In this study, the effects of four native microbes (Trichoderma asperellum strain TAIK 1, Bacillus cabrialesii strain BIK3, Pseudomonas putida strain PIK1, and Pseudomonas otitidis strain POPS1) and their consortia on soil health, plant growth, and the incidence of stem rot disease caused by Sclerotium oryzae in rice are evaluated. Upon bioagent treatment of soil through seed treatment or soil application, variations in chemical properties of the soil were observed, viz., pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Carbon (OC), available Soil Nitrogen (SN), Soil Phosphorus (SP), Soil Potassium (SK), and soil enzymes (urease, acid and alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase), compared to untreated soils. The treated seeds with the consortia of four native bioagents resulted in a significant increase in plant height (39.16%), number of panicles (30.29%), and average grain yield (41.36%) over control plants. Under controlled conditions, the bioagents-treated plants showed a 69.37% reduction in stem rot disease. The findings of this study indicate a positive correlation between soil properties and plant growth as well as a highly negative association with stem rot disease severity. The results suggest that using native bioagents as a management strategy can control stem rot disease and enhance crop productivity while reducing reliance on chemical interventions. These findings provide valuable insights for the development of sustainable agricultural practices that promote soil health, plant growth, and disease management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: early maturing rice; transplanting date; yield; quality; protein
Online: 2 March 2023 (06:44:04 CET)
This study aimed to investigate how transplanting date affects the agronomic and grain quality traits of two early maturing rice varieties. The experiment was conducted in the rice research field of Chungnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services, South Korea and rice materials were transplanted at intervals of approximately 15 days from April 16 to July 16 in 2019 and 2020. Results showed that agronomic and grain quality traits varied according to the transplanting date, and earlier transplanting resulted in the longer period of days from transplanting to heading (DTH). The spikelet number m-2 was highly correlated with the milled rice yield (r = 0.963** for Jinbuol, r = 0.909** for Yeoreumi) and it significantly decreased as the transplanting date was delayed, which was leading to lower yield. Environmental factors, the mean temperature during the grain filling stage, had a negative correlation with head rice rate (r2 = 0.825** for Jinbuol, r2 = 0.803** for Yeoreumi), and the number of days from transplanting to heading showed negative correlation with protein content (r2 = 0.777** for Jinbuol, r2 = 0.833** for Yeoreumi). Therefore, increasing the number of days from transplanting to heading date can lead to higher milled rice yield and lower protein content, and avoiding heading dates on July 17 can improve the appearance traits. As a results, it is suggested that early transplanting is advantageous to increase the milled rice yield and grain quality of early maturing rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aromatic rice; salt screening; RAPD marker; genetic diversity
Online: 14 November 2022 (07:43:36 CET)
Salinity is abiotic stress, which causes adverse environmental conditions for rice cultivation. In particular, local aromatic rice cultivation is heavily influenced by soil salinity stress, which has an impact on global food security. This study aimed to screen local aromatic rice genotypes in a hydroponics experiment using Yoshida solutions to evaluate the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on the early growth stages of rice seedlings. Genetic diversity along with phylogenetic relationship was assessed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Out of 20 RAPD markers, 17 markers produced reproducible polymorphic bands. Individuals of all genotypes shared 88 (89.80%) of the 98 total RAPD elements amplified. The genetic distance-focused similarity index ranged from 0.05 to 0.94. The highest genetic distance (0.94) was discovered between genotypes Nayanmoni and Kalijira Barisal, and the lowest was between Badshabhog and Kataribhog (0.05). In addition, the OPS 3(510bp) and OPA 14(1100bp) markers could be used to identify salt-tolerant genotypes. According to genetic distance, the salt stress tolerant check genotype, Pokkali was genetically related to Chinigura as well as Kalijira Barisal. This study established a simple and consistent method for evaluating variability across various aromatic rice genotypes, which will benefit in genotype selection for breeding salinity stress tolerant aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Methylococcaceae; methanotroph; Indian rice field; Methylmonas; novel species
Online: 11 July 2022 (09:56:06 CEST)
An aerobic methanotroph, strain Kb3T, was isolated from a rhizospheric soil sample collected from a tropical Indian rice field. The cells were motile, Gram-negative bacilli, formed pink colonies and pink turbid/pellicles in the liquid medium. Biochemical characteristics showed that strain Kb3T utilised only methane and methanol as its sole carbon and energy sources. The isolate's 16S rRNA gene sequence expressed 99.52% similarity to the recently described valid species Methylomonas fluvii EbB (Mmf), with 92% query cover. But examining the genome similarity between Kb3 and EbB, a DDH value of 44.20% [41.6 - 46.7%] and an Ortho-ANI value of 91.48 was observed that were below the current cut-off values for species differentiation. Also, the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and the phylogenomic analysis branched the two species separately. The major fatty acid in Methylomonas sp. Kb3 was C14:0, followed by C16:1 ω5c. The genome sequence revealed the size of strain Kb3 is 5.1 Mb, with the G + C content of 51.8%. Strain Kb3T shared the closest relatedness with Methylomonas sp. LW13 reveals a 99.66% 16S rRNA gene similarity, an Ortho-ANI value of 97.9%, a DDH value of 87.3%, and a close branching in the phylogenomic tree Kb3 and LW13 together form a new species. The genomic and phylogenetic distinction between species Mmf and strain Kb3 supports Kb3T to be described as a novel species within the genus Methylomonas, with the proposed name, Methylomonas aquatica sp. nov. (Mma) and the type strain being Kb3T (=MCC 4012, =JCM 33634, =KCTC 72521).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0093.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: waxy rice starch; α-amylase; protein; amylopectin structure
Online: 4 November 2021 (08:00:31 CET)
Waxy rice is one of the most popular traditional crops served as a staple food in China. In this study, the effect of different factors including α-amylase activity, protein, and amylopectin structure on the pasting properties of four waxy rice varieties were investigated. Rice flours treated with AgNO3 solution, DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) or protease, suggested that both α-amylase activity and protein significantly decrease the pasting viscosity of waxy rice flours. Chain length distribution of amylopectin as measured by high performance ion exchange chromatography (HPAEC-PAD) showed that starch with higher ratio of short chain leading to a higher pasting viscosity. X-Ray diffractograms showed that the crystal type of all the four varieties of rice starches were characteristic A-type. Relative crystallinity of each rice starch was further calculated, and a higher crystallization resulted in a higher viscosity. Our study would provide a fundamental knowledge of the relationship between different factors and waxy starch pasting properties, as well as be a reference for controlling the quality of waxy rice starch-based food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0673.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Aflatoxin; Food safety; Maize; Mycology; Nigeria; Pupuru; Rice
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
Cereals and cassava-based foods serve as major dietary sources for several households in Nigeria. However, these foods are highly prone to contamination by moulds and aflatoxins owing to poor storage and vending practices. We therefore studied the fungal diversity of maize, cassava-based flour (pupuru) and rice vended in markets from Ondo state, Nigeria, and assessed the aflatoxin levels of these using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fungi were detected in 93 (88 %) of the 106 food samples. Molecular analysis of 65 representative isolates revealed 26 species belonging to 5 genera: Aspergillus (80.9 %), Penicillium (15.4 %) and Talaromyces (1.9 %) in the Ascomycota; Syncephalastrum (1.2 %) and Lichtheimia (0.6%) in Mucoromycota. Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species in the food samples. Aflatoxins were found in 98 % of the 42 representative food samples and about one half (49.8 %) exceeded the 10 μg/kg threshold adopted in Nigeria for total aflatoxins. Integrated mitigation options, including at post-harvest stages, are suggested to ensure consumer safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Water saving; Irrigation; Water productivity; Grain yield; Rice
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:22:02 CEST)
Tanzania with 945 million hectares of land area and annual rainfall of 300 mm on 67% of its territorial land is considered as a semi-dry region in the world. Rice production in Tanzania needs to be increased to feed a growing population, whereas water for irrigation is getting scarce. One way to decrease water consumption in paddy fields is to change the irrigation regime for rice production and to replace continuous flooding with alternate wetting and drying. In order to investigate the effect of different regimes of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water productivity of hybrid rice, two greenhouse pot experiments comprising soils from upland and lowland production ecologies were conducted at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania during crop seasons of 2019. The experiment was arranged in split plots based on randomized completely block design with 3 replications. Water regimes were the main factor comparing continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) with nitrogen fertilizer levels as the sub-factor including absolute control , 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) improved water productivity in both upland and lowland production ecologies compared to CF. AWD increased yield under lowland production by 13.3% while in upland there was 18.5% decrease in yield. The average water use varied from 31.5 to 84 L pot-1 under upland trials, while in lowland trials it was 36 to 82.3 L. Higher yield and lower water application led to an increase in WP varying from 1.2 to 1.8 kg cm-3 under upland trials, and 0.6 to 1.5 kg cm-3 under lowland trials. The variation in water productivity among treatments was mainly due to the differences in the yield, water and nitrogen levels used in the production process. Both sets of trials recorded water saving up to 34.3% and 17.3% under lowland and upland trials, respectively. Under upland trials, the yield varied from 39.9 to 124.1 g pot-1 and in lowland trials yield ranged from 20.6 to 118.2 g pot-1 representing paddy rice. The measurements showed that less water can be used to produce more crops under alternative rice growing practices. The results are important for water-scarce areas, providing useful information to policy makers, farmers, agricultural departments, and water management boards in devising future climate-smart adaptation and mitigation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: black rice; transcriptome sequencing; genic SSRs; genetic diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (09:03:34 CET)
Study in black rice has gain prominence in recent times due to its high nutritive value, curative effect, and anti-oxidant properties. However, its poor agronomic traits, including low yield necessitates the incorporation of the colour-grain trait into elite varieties through plant breeding techniques. SSR markers play an important role in plant identification and breeding. Here, the generation of reference-based transcriptome, annotation of transcriptome datasets, and a large set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Black rice have been described. In all 28664 SSRs were predicted in 34978 (48.59%) expressed transcripts. However, 7068 (20.20%) transcripts were found to have more than one SSR. The identified SSRs were dominated by tri-nucleotide and tetra-nucleotide repeats representing about 54.11% and 33.31% respectively, of total SSRs. Validation of selected markers associated with anthocyanin trait performed across different black rice accessions established the reliability of the process used for mining SSR markers. The SSR markers identified in this study could be used to select varieties with desired traits, and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of black rice. Furthermore, the findings from this study may prove beneficial in future genetic diversity studies, primer development, and selective breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0189.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: rice; leaf senescence; abscisic acid (ABA); OsWRKY; NAC
Online: 18 August 2019 (03:19:48 CEST)
The onset of leaf senescence is triggered by external cues and internal factors such as phytohormones and signaling pathways involving transcription factors (TFs). Abscisic acid (ABA) strongly induces senescence and endogenous ABA levels are finely tuned by many senescence-associated TFs. Here, we report on the regulatory function of the senescence-induced TF OsWRKY5 TF in rice (Oryza sativa). OsWRKY5 expression was rapidly upregulated in senescing leaves, especially in yellowing sectors initiated by aging or dark treatment. A T-DNA insertion activation-tagged OsWRKY5-overexpressing mutant (termed oswrky5-D) promoted leaf senescence under natural and dark-induced senescence (DIS) conditions. By contrast, a T-DNA insertion oswrky5-knockdown mutant (termed oswrky5) retained leaf greenness during DIS. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that OsWRKY5 upregulates the expression of genes controlling chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. Furthermore, RT-qPCR and yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY5 indirectly upregulates the expression of senescence-associated NAC genes including OsNAP and OsNAC2. Precocious leaf yellowing in the oswrky5-D mutant might be caused by elevated endogenous ABA concentrations resulting from upregulated expression of ABA biosynthesis genes OsNCED3, OsNCED4, and OsNCED5, indicating that OsWRKY is a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis during leaf senescence. Furthermore, OsWRKY5 expression was significantly suppressed by ABA treatment, indicating negative feedback regulation of OsWRKY5 expression by ABA. OsWRKY5 is a positive regulator of leaf senescence that upregulates senescence-induced NAC genes leading to expression of ABA biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: red yeast rice; berberis aristate; morus alba; PCSK9
Online: 15 October 2018 (07:49:55 CEST)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is the key regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma levels. We previously observed that treatment of dyslipidemic subjects with nutraceutical combination containing red yeast rice (monacolin K 3.3 mg), Berberis aristata cortex extract (Berberine 531.25 mg) and Morus alba leaves extract (1-deoxynojirimycin 4 mg) (LopiGLIK®) did not alter the plasma PCSK9 levels. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of these three components on PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cell line in relationship to their effects on LDL-C cellular uptake. HepG2 cell line were incubated with Berberis aristata cortex extract (BCE), red yeast rice (RYR) and Morus alba leaves extract (MLE) alone or in combination for 24 h. RYR (50 µg/mL) increased PCSK9 protein expression (WB and ELISA assays), PCSK9 mRNA and its promoter activity. BCE (40 µg/mL) reduced PCSK9 expression, mRNA levels and promoter activity. MLE determined a concentration-dependent inhibition of PCSK9 at mRNA and protein levels, with a maximal reduction at 1 mg/mL; no significant changes in PCSK9 promoter activity were found. MLE also downregulates the expression of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels. The combination of RYR, BCE and MLE reduced PCSK9 at mRNA, protein, and promoter activity. Finally, this combination induced the LDL receptor and LDL-C uptake by HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the positive effect of MLE on PCSK9 supports the rational of using this nutraceutical combination to control hyperlipidemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0024.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SWAT; water quality; paddy fields; irrigation; rice; watershed
Online: 13 September 2018 (08:42:30 CEST)
The recent increase in global consumption of rice has led to increased demand for sustainable water management in paddy cultivation. In this study, we propose an enhanced paddy simulation module to be introduced to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate the sustainability of paddy cultivation. The enhancements added to SWAT include: (1) modification of water balance calculation for impounded fields, (2) addition of an irrigation management option for paddy fields that are characterized by flood irrigation with target water depth, and (3) addition of a puddling operation that influences the water quality and infiltration rate of the top soil layer. In a case study, the enhanced model, entitled SWAT-Paddy, was applied to an agricultural watershed in Japan. The results showed that the SWAT-Paddy successfully represented paddy cultivation, water management, and discharge processes. Simulated daily discharge rates with SWAT-Paddy (R2 = 0.8) were superior to the SWAT result (R2 = 0.002). SWAT-Paddy allows the simulation of paddy management processes realistically, and thus can enhance model accuracy in paddy-dominant agricultural watersheds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; OsCDPK1; grain size; amylose content; endosperm appearance
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:00:14 CEST)
Overexpression of a constitutively active truncated form of OsCDPK1 (OEtr) in rice produced smaller seeds, but a double-stranded RNA gene-silenced form of OsCDPK1 (Ri) yielded large seeds, suggesting that OsCDPK1 plays a functional role in rice seed development. In the study presented here, we propose a model in which OsCDPK1 plays key roles in negatively controlling the grain size, amylose content, and endosperm appearance, and also affects the physicochemical properties of the starch. The dehulled transgenic OEtr grains were smaller than the dehulled wild-type grains, and the OEtr endosperm was opaque and had a low amylose content and numerous small loosely packed polyhedral starch granules. However, the OEtr grain sizes and endosperm appearances were not affected by the temperature being either optimal (25 °C ) or low (22 °C) or high (31 °C) during the grain-filling phase. In contrast, the transgenic Ri grains were larger, had higher amylose contents, and had more transparent endosperms filled with tightly packed polyhedral starch granules. This demonstrates that OsCDPK1 plays a novel functional role in starch biosynthesis during seed development and affects the transparent appearance of the endosperm. These results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which the grain filling process occurs in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: OsCd1; Cadmium accumulation; rice grain; indica; japonica; GWAS
Online: 9 February 2018 (07:13:17 CET)
Cadmium accumulation in rice grain poses a serious threat to people’s health. Understanding the genetic basis on grain cadmium accumulation facilitates efforts to reduce it. Here, we show that OsCd1 is involved in Cd uptake and contributes to grain accumulation in rice. Natural variation in OsCd1 with a missense mutation Val449Asp is responsible for the divergence of rice grain cadmium accumulation between japonica and indica. Notably, near-isogenic line tests confirmed that the indica variety carrying the OsCd1V449 allele could reduce the grain cadmium accumulation. The favorable allele OsCd1V449 may be an important genetic resource to reduce grain cadmium accumulation for indica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0108.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: food sustainable innovation; rice with milk; hedonic tasting
Online: 16 November 2017 (07:29:20 CET)
Sustainable innovation in the agro-food system has become a strategy increasingly used by companies as a means to increase their competitiveness and position themselves in the market. In this context, the objective of this work is to identify the attitudes and sensory perceptions of consumers towards sustainable food technology through two scales (Food Technology Neophobia and Domain Specific Innovativeness) and hedonic tastings. For this, a new product was selected in the market: powder to prepare rice with milk. Most consumers have attitudes toward low neophobia to products with food technology, but there is also some caution, situation that is corroborated by the moderate predisposition towards innovations. Color and flavor attributes can make the difference in positive perceptions. It should not be forgotten that there is a segment of innovative sustainable consumers that represent a key market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: rice; water requirement; climate change; Penman-Monteith; CROPWAT
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:21:42 CET)
In this paper, Rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement in Amol agro meteorological Station in 2016-2045 are forecasted based on the projected meteorological data of Hadcm3 under A2 scenario. Rice water requirements are estimated by using crop coefficient approach. Reference evapotranspiration are calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method. Moreover, the irrigation water requirements are simulated by calibrated CROPWAT model using the meteorological parameters. The results show that both crop water requirement and irrigation water requirement present downward trend in the future. In 2016-2045, the rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement decrease by more than 9.9% under A2 scenario, respectively. Furthermore, the precipitation rise may be the main reason for the decrease in crop water requirement, while significant decrease of irrigation water requirement should be attributed to combined action of rising precipitation and a slight increase in temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0004.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: technical efficiency; SFA; rice production; Cambodia; agriculture; productivity
Online: 13 September 2016 (10:20:53 CEST)
The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors effecting rice production in Cambodia. Four-years dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of entire 25 provinces between 2012-2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA) was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity) of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4% implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency by given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production technique and amount of agricultural supporting staffs are being as the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring into more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staffs and rural farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1937.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: neonicotinoids; pollinator; rice field; qRT PCR; toxicity stress-genes
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:46:53 CET)
Honey bees are vital organisms that provide ecological and economic value to humans. However, in recent years, the increase in honey bee losses due to various environmental factors, including pesticides, has become a growing concern. In Europe, neonicotinoid pesticides that are banned are being used without restrictions in the domestic setting, leading to ongoing damages as a result. Ongoing research is continually being conducted to demonstrate the risks associated with neonicotinoid pesticides. However, validation of the actual damages and impact in the field remains absent. Therefore, in this study, we observed changes in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies located near rice cultivation areas as they progressed beyond the rice pesticide application period. Furthermore, we collected honey bees exposed to the clothianidin and analyzed their stress-related gene expression. The results showed that the foraging behavior of honey bee colonies located near rice cultivation areas did not exhibit significant differences between the treatment site (Cheongyang and Gimje) and the control site (Wanju) during the experimental period. However, it was observed that the expression levels of stress-related genes in honey bees collected from the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control. Most of the stress-related genes were associated with detoxification processes in response to pesticides. As a result, pesticide treatment in proximity to rice cultivation areas did not cause direct damage to honey bees but had an indirect impact, suggesting the potential for ongoing chronic damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agroforestry; rice-fish-duck-forest; ecosystem services; sustainable development
Online: 31 July 2023 (12:04:00 CEST)
Agroforestry with a sustainable model of production is considered to be an effective solution to the unsustainability of the existing model in agricultural production, and it is also an important topic for ecosystem services and sustainable development goals to improve human well-being. In addition, existing literatures confirm that the importance of forest functions in increasing agricultural production and maintaining agro-ecological sustainability. The "rice-fish-duck-forest" is an important representative of the agroforestry complex ecosystem because of its unique management mechanism and characteristic social culture. As a result, "rice-fish-duck-forest" ecosystem services are beginning to be studied. In the absence of a systematic scientific understanding of the ecosystem services of "rice-fish-duck-forest", there are potential challenges to its sustainable development. This study thoroughly analyzed the current literature on rice-fish-duck-forest ecosystem services in order to have a more thorough grasp of it and to be more sustainable. This research found that research on the ecosystem services of "rice-fish-duck-forest" involves four themes: "regulational", "ecology", "economy", and "socio-culture". Deforestation, socio-cultural marginalization, and Low community management participation are the three main issues facing the "rice-fish-duck-forest" ecosystem service. To address these issues, this paper builds a framework for the sustainable development of rice-fish-duck-forest ecosystem services within the context of current management frameworks for agriculture and forestry, and further discusses its relevance to the Sustainable Development Goals. This study will provide a theoretical decision-making guide for the transformation of agriculture to agroforestry and the sustainable development of agroforestry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1799.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Epistasis; Homeostasis; Single segment substitution line; Heading date; Rice
Online: 31 July 2023 (09:42:16 CEST)
To avoid the endless accumulation of QTL effects during pyramiding breeding, QTL epistasis plays a role of homeostasis. Four single-segment substitution lines with heading date QTLs were utilized to construct pyramiding materials with dual QTLs and triple QTLs, allowing for the estimation of QTL epistatic effects on heading date in rice. The epistatic components of dual QTL and triple QTL interactions were analyzed using data from three seasons of two years. All four QTLs can be considered as dominant loci, demonstrating superdominance. 75% of dual QTL interactions and 81.25% of triple QTL interactions obtained statistically significant results, reaffirming the prevalence of epistasis. Interactions of four QTLs with three positive effects and one negative effect generated 62.5% negative dual QTL epistatic effects and 57.7% positive triple QTL epistatic effects, forming the balance relationship “positive-negative-positive”. In fact, QTL effects were consistently partially neutralized by mixed QTL epistatic effects so as to control the infinite accumulation of QTL effects. QTL epistasis plays a role of homeostasis on heading date in rice. However, there were two exceptions. The directions of OsMADS50 and Hd3a-2 effects were consistently aligned with those of their mixed epistases, suggesting that the QTL or gene could be employed in pyramiding breeding with different objectives. This study elucidated the mechanism of epistatic interactions among four QTLs and provided valuable genetic resources for improving heading date in rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0419.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: chalky rice; xylanase activity; cellulase activity; hard water; hardness
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:40:23 CEST)
Global warming has led to the increase in chalky grains of rice, which has also caused the deteriorations of physicochemical and cooking qualities of rice grains. These chalky rice grains are characterized by high α-amylase activity, high protease activity, and low apparent amylose contents, low degree of hardness and stickiness of boiled rice than those of the whole rice grains. In the present paper, we evaluated 14 Japonica unpolished rice grains harvested in Japan in 2021, and these samples (original grains) were divided to two groups (whole grain group and chalky grain one). We found that the chalky rice grains showed higher values of xylanase activity than those of the whole rice grains, while cellulase activity were lower than that of whole rice grains. Using rice grains blended with 30 % of chalky grains as material, we compared sugar and mineral contents and textural properties of the boiled rice grains soaked and boiled in the ordinary water or in the hard water, such as Evian or Contrex. It was shown that the hard water is useful for the prevention of the texture deterioration of the boiled rice grains due to the inhibition of the reduction of endogenous hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylase, proteinase, and xylanase. Furthermore, we found that hard water is useful for the increase of calcium and magnesium intake through the meal with the boiled rice grains soaked and cooked using hard water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1861.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: grain yield; biomass; N application rate; high-quality rice
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:23:37 CEST)
High-quality rice (Oryza sativa L.) is increasingly widely planted in China with the improvement of people's living standards and the achievement of rice breeding efforts in recent years. However, the agronomic and physiological performances of high-quality indica rice (HQIR) under different nitrogen(N) application conditions in southern China are little known. Two-year consecutive field experiments were conducted with two HQIR and two ordinary-quality indica rice (OQIR) varieties under moderate and high N application rates, with yield and yield components, biomass, N up-take, and their related traits investigated. We found that grain yields of HQIR were slightly de-creased, but grain yields of OQIR were significantly increased by 6.60%-8.88% under high N rate compared with moderate N rate in both years. Thereby, OQIR produced 8.34%-11.87% and 22.00%-22.50% higher grain yield than HQIR under moderate and high N rates, respectively. The different responses of grain yield to N application rates were mainly due to decreased grain set-ting rate in HQIR and increased spikelets m-2 in OQIR under high N rate. Furthermore, high N rate significantly reduced pre-anthesis AE and improved grain-leaf area ratio, while did not in-crease post-anthesis DM compared with moderate N rate in HQIR, which might result in carbon metabolic deterioration and imbalance of source-sink relationship and subsequently lower supply of carbohydrate to panicle. Our results suggest that a moderate N rate (165 kg N ha-1) is beneficial for HQIR varieties to balance the maximum grain yield and high quality in southern China
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Rice bran fermentation; Niacin; Behavior; Neural activity; Neurochemistry; Zebrafish
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:10:17 CEST)
Rice bran (RB) is a promising food ingredient that can improve biological function. In this study, we investigated the effects of RB, both unfermented (RB30) and fermented (RBF30) with five different microorganisms on the neurobehavioral activity in zebrafish larvae. Analytical methods such as UV spectrum and MS scan were performed. Interestingly, niacin content, which is known to improve brain functions such as cognition and emotion, was found to be higher in RBF30 than in RB30. Furthermore, niacin content was highly increased in the RBF30-exposed fish, compared to those in control fish. Therefore, we profiled behavioral patterns and various neurochemistry in zebrafish larvae following supplementation with RBF30 as well as performed calcium imaging on Tg (huC:GAL4-VP16);(UAS:GCaMP7a) zebrafish larvae to determine the correlation of neural activity. RBF30 revealed greater stimulation of locomotor activity without negatively affecting decision-making behavior in zebrafish larvae, as compared to RB30 or niacin. Its behavioral activation is mainly linked with the elevations of neural activity and several neurochemicals such as serotonergic and dopaminergic systems that are implicated in the control of anxiety and stress. Taken together, these results suggest that RBF30 could be a food material that improve the behavioral health by modulating neural activity and brain neurochemistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; variety; hybrid; lines; anther; induction; callus; regeneration; digaploids
Online: 28 January 2023 (10:30:44 CET)
The evaluation of the possibility of obtaining dihaploids by the method of anther culture in vitro to accelerate selection for resistance to prolonged flooding of seeded rice with water was carried out. The object of research is rice hybrids F2 of the Rice Breeding and Seed Production Laboratory of the “Donskoy” ASC, obtained as a result of interbreeding the best economically valuable varieties with samples bearing genes of resistance to prolonged flooding with water. Basic nutrient medium with an optimal composition of nutrition elements and growth hormones stimulating callo- and morphogenesis were used. For the induction of callus formation, 12604 anthers were planted, according to 26 hybrid combinations represented by 68 plants, as a result, 716 neoplasms were obtained, including 586 non–morphogenic callus, 130 regenerating plants. Cultivation of anthers revealed large genotypic differences in the samples. According to the responsiveness to neoplasms, 60% of the panicles showed a positive result, the rest did not give callus. The most responsive to the formation of callus were hybrid combinations: 5009/2 – 84 pcs., 5010/2 – 94 pcs., 4565/3 – 85 pcs., 4641/2 – 69 pcs. They also showed the ability to morphogenesis. Androgenic plants were obtained by 14 hybrid combinations, their share was 1.03% of the total number of inoculated anthers. 30 green regenerative lines from four rice hybrids were obtained, differing in visual morphological assessment: 5009/2 - 5 pcs., 5010/2 – 5 pcs., 4565/3 – 2 pcs., 4641/2 – 18 pcs. The isolated lines are characterized by good responsiveness in the culture of anthers in vitro, carry genes for resistance to prolonged flooding, and can be used in rice breeding programs using DG technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rojolele; aromatic rice; intensification system; mutation breeding; transgenic lines
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:10:49 CEST)
Rojolele is an Indonesian traditional rice variety from Klaten (Central Java) that classified as tropical japonica and low land rice which become a premium rice variety and have higher price in the market due to a delicious taste and a fragrance aroma. The agronomic characteristics of Rojolele are having high plant stature with sturdy stems and upright plant shape, thick and rough leaves, strong and deeper root systems, long panicle length, and long duration of life. Rojolele rice cultivation is facing important challenges from drought, diseases, long duration, and lodging. Thus, breeding Rojolele cultivars with resistance to drought, diseases, lodging, and short duration is the major focus for Rojolele rice improvement. Indonesian farmer have learned to successfully cultivate Rojolele by applying practical skills, leading to increase the rice productivity. Molecular breeding program, including quantitative trait loci (QTL), genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic selection, and genome editing can be applied to improve Rojolele characteristics. In this review, important agronomic and quality traits, intensification system for irrigation and pest control, mutation breeding, transgenic lines, and also future perspectives for Rojolele research were presented. Rojolele is useful for rice breeding program in order to guarantee the food security to overcome increasing population and climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0263.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: rice; nutrient elements; toxic elements; phenotypic variance; genetic basis
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:31:22 CEST)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is primary dietary source for half of the global population that comprising both essential nutrients and toxic heavy metal elements for human health. A number of nutrients are required within the diet and generally lacking in human diets, and need to biofortify into the rice grains, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), iodine (I), selenium (Se), and Sulphur (S). Meanwhile, some elements are toxic to human, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) which need to be eliminated from the rice grains. This article reviews the aspects of phenotypic variation of grain elemental concentration in the diverse rice genotypes, relationship of environmental conditions and rice grain elemental accumulation, correlation between rice grain elemental content and others agronomic traits, and also genetic basis of grain elemental concentration in rice. All of these aspects are important to develop rice varieties with a balanced elemental nutrients and lower toxic heavy metal elements. Enhancing the concentration of essential mineral elements and reducing the accumulation of toxic elements in the rice grain are important to improve the rice quality for human health in addressing mineral deficiency and toxicity that could be accomplished by using plant breeding, agronomic, and genetic engineering approaches.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Rice yield production; Crop model; Nitrogen fertilizer; DSSAT; WRF
Online: 23 April 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
To increase rice production, fertilizer plays a crucial role in rice yield. In this research, we applied the coupled atmospheric and crop model, which is based on the WRF and CERES-Rice models, to find the appropriate nitrogen fertilizer level for increasing rice yield production in northern Thailand. The model was conducted from October to December in 2011 to 2015. To evaluate the model capability, the output from the model, including meteorological data, i.e., precipitation and temperature, and rice production, as compared to actual observation data. The modeling system shows an acceptable level of output for statistical examination; for example, the R2 values were 0.93, 0.76, and 0.97 for precipitation, temperature, and rice production, respectively. To assess the optimization of the nitrogen fertilizer level, we designed 9 experiments: control cases and other cases that were multiplied by a factor of 2 – 10 times the nitrogen fertilizer levels. The model suggested that we can produce worthwhile rice yield production by approximately 4830 kg/ha if we increase the nitrogen fertilizer levels by 36 kg/ha.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0298.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanomaterials; Carbon nanotubes; Rice husk; Agriculture waste; Carbon nanofibres
Online: 13 September 2020 (16:23:49 CEST)
Today is the era of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which finds applications in the field of medicine, electronics, or environmental cleanup. Even though the nanotechnology is in its emerging phase, but still it provides solutions to numerous challenges. Nanotechnology and nanoparticles are found very effective because of their unique chemical and physical properties, high surface area, but their high cost is one of the major hurdles in its wider application. So, the synthesis of nanomaterials especially 2D nanomaterials from the industrial, agricultural and other biological activities could provide a cost-effective technique. The nanomaterials synthesized from such waste not only minimizes the pollution but also provides an eco-friendly approach towards the utilization of the waste. In the present review work, the emphasis has been given on the types of nanomaterials, different methods for the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials from the waste generated from industries, agriculture and their application in electronics, medicine and catalysis.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; yield; HYV; Tongil; indica; japonica; SNP; molecular breeding
Online: 12 May 2020 (05:56:38 CEST)
The inter-subspecific crossing between indica and japonica subspecies in rice have been utilized to improve the yield potential of temperate rice. In this study, a comparative study of the genomic regions in the eight high-yielding varieties (HYVs) was conducted with those of the four non-HYVs. The Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) mapping on the Nipponbare reference genome identified a total of 14 common genomic regions of japonica-originated alleles. Interestingly, the HYVs shared japonica-originated genomic regions on nine chromosomes, although they were developed through different breeding programs. A panel of 94 varieties was classified into four varietal groups with 38 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 38 genes residing in the japonica-originated genomic regions and 16 additional trait-specific SNPs. As expected, the japonica-originated genomic regions were only present in the japonica (JAP) and HYV groups, except for Chr4-1 and Chr4-2. The Wx gene, located within Chr6-1, was present in the HYV and JAP variety groups, while the yield-related genes were conserved as indica alleles in HYVs. The japonica-originated genomic regions and alleles shared by HYVs can be employed in molecular breeding programs to further develop the HYVs in temperate rice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: gene flow; Oryza species, wild rice; GM crops; biosafety
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:09:42 CEST)
Several transgenic rice lines have been developed and are currently under field trials around the world. There are future plans for the commercial release of transgenic rice into the environment. Rice is an autogamous plant and therefore not perceived to be a very high candidate for pollen mediated gene flow to wild and weedy relatives. However, in a tropical environment like Ghana, where sexually compatible wild Oryza species which belongs to the AA genome are present within the ecology of cultivated rice, the possibility of gene flow to wild species cannot be overlooked. There is little evidence on gene flow and its consequences on the wild rice species should they acquire useful genes through gene flow. This review discusses the chances of cultivated to wild rice gene flow in Ghana and the biosafety considerations that should be put in place before the commercial release of genetically modified (GM) rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0074.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: AmRosea1 gene; transcriptome analysis; drought tolerance; salt tolerance; rice
Online: 14 December 2016 (09:16:50 CET)
Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stress. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable amount of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Rice cadmium; Nitrogen fertilizer; Fe plaque; Cell wall; available Cd
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:47:44 CET)
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has become a serious problem in China. In this study, the goals of the field experiments were to understand how the application of nitrogen fertilizer at the full heading stage and filling stage reduced the uptake of Cd in rice by affecting the distribution of Cd in iron plaques on the root surfaces and subcellular in the root and flag leaf. The hydroponic culture experiments aimed to explore the effect of interaction or deficiency of nitrogen and cadmium on cadmium accumulation in rice at the late growth stage. The results showed that under the condition of having enough nitrogen supply during the early growth stage, applying nitrogen fertilizer during the full heading stage and filling stage resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of Fe and Cd on the root plaques at the milk stage and mature stage. Additionally, it increased the concentration and proportion of Cd in the soluble fraction of subcellular in the flag leaves at the milk stage. On the other hand, when there was a deficiency of nitrogen, the concentration of Fe in the root plaques increased significantly, while the concentration of Cd in the root plaques decreased significantly. Moreover, the proportion of Cd in the flag leaf cell walls increased significantly. Regardless of whether there was sufficient or deficient nitrogen supply during the early growth stage, applying nitrogen at the full heading stage reduced the Cd concentration in brown rice by 35.11% and 57.25%, respectively. Under hydroponic culture conditions with both Cd exposure and later-stage nitrogen supply significantly increased the Cd concentration in brown rice. However, in the absence of Cd, nitrogen supply significantly reduced the Cd concentration in brown rice. The accumulation of Cd in brown rice was significantly correlated with the accumulation of Fe and Mn at the late growth stage. Our findings indicate that when there is sufficient nitrogen nutrition during the early growth stage of rice, topdressing nitrogen fertilizer at the full heading stage combined with lime with mineral element fertilizers such as Fe and Mn is an effective approach to reduce the presence of cadmium in rice grains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1823.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: nitrous oxide; rice paddy; nitrogen fertilization; soil moisture; weather condition
Online: 27 September 2023 (10:44:40 CEST)
Rice cultivation serves as a significant anthropogenic source of methane (CH4), a primary greenhouse gas, and nitrous oxide (N2O), a secondary greenhouse gas. Although N2O emissions remain relatively small compared to CH4 emissions, they are remarkably affected by nitrogen-fertilized soil conditions during rice cultivation. To date, investigations are very limited concerning N2O emissions from rice cultivation in relation to environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, and soil properties. In this case study, we investigated the characteristics of N2O emissions in the central region of South Korea, where a single rice cropping cycle occurs annually over a span of three years, from May 2020 to May 2023. We investigated the impact of variations in temperature and soil moisture on N2O emissions during rice cultivation. In this context, we attempted to discover the complex dynamics of N2O emissions by comparing longer fallow periods with the rice cultivation periods and extended non-dry periods with irrigated periods. We observed that extremely high N₂O flux events encountered during the fallow period appeared to have a substantial impact on the yearly cumulative N₂O emissions, surpassing the impact of cumulative N₂O emissions during the rice cultivation period. We found that high N₂O flux events arose not only from artificial nitrogen inputs but also due to temperature and soil moisture variations influenced by weather conditions. We concluded that assessing N₂O emissions solely based on the rice cultivation period would underestimate annual emissions. To prevent underestimation of N₂O emissions, continual gas collection throughout a year covering both rice cultivation and fallow phases is required in align with monitoring of varying temperature and soil moisture conditions. Based on our findings, we recommend that at least a three whole year evaluation period is needed to ensure estimation accuracy of N₂O emissions under varying nitrogen fertilization rates. Also, the findings from this study would help prepare a further revision or refinement of N2O emission factor from rice cultivation in the national greenhouse gas inventories defined by the inter-governmental panel on climate change (IPCC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Aerobic Rice; Chlorosis; Iron Deficiency; Oryza; Wild Germplasm; IDIC; SPAD
Online: 5 April 2023 (11:34:36 CEST)
Transplanted rice cultivation has caused groundwater depletion in several regions globally. Direct-seeded rice under aerobic conditions is a water-saving alternative. However, under aerobic conditions, iron in the soil is oxidized from ferrous to ferric, which is not easily available for rice, resulting in iron deficiency induced chlorosis (IDIC) causing significant reduction in yield. Cultivated rice genotypes have limited variations for IDIC tolerance, while wild Oryza germplasm could be a potential source for IDIC tolerance. In this study, 313 Oryza accessions were evaluated for IDIC tolerance at the tillering stage under aerobic conditions and twenty IDIC tolerant lines were identified. The twenty lines showed no signs of chlorosis and had high levels of iron content and SPAD values, while eight cultivated controls exhibited varying degrees of chlorosis symptoms and low levels of SPAD and iron content. To confirm their tolerance, the selected lines were evaluated again in a subsequent year, and they showed comparable levels of tolerance indicating these lines were efficient in iron uptake and utilization resulted maintained high chlorophyll and leaf area index. These accessions may be useful for developing IDIC-tolerant cultivars for aerobic rice cultivation and future study of molecular basis of IDIC tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0507.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; samples; resistance to flooding; conductive system; power of growth
Online: 27 January 2023 (13:00:06 CET)
The article presents the results of a morpho-physiological assessment of rice samples by the strength of growth, as well as an assessment of the degree of development of the conducting system of the flag leaves of rice plants. The resistance of varieties to flooding is very relevant in the fight against weeds due to the deep layer of water that weeds cannot overcome. Currently, there are no zoned varieties in Russia that would meet these requirements. Therefore, the problem of creating such rice varieties is urgent, as it will reduce production costs, reduce grain losses during harvesting, improve the quality of the products obtained, and also reduce the pesticide load on the ecosystem. As a result of research, a number of studied samples revealed the potential to quickly lengthen the first leaves, overcome a large layer of water and accumulate vegetative mass. As a result of the evaluation of the conducting system of the flag leaf of rice plants, it was found that in plants with the flood resistance gene Sub1A, which stops growth under water, the conductive beams were smaller in comparison with other fast-growing samples with the AG, Sk genes. Consequently, fast-growing samples have bigger sizes of the conducting system as a resistance mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rice-husk; power plants; CO2 emission reductions; Clean Development Mechanism
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:33:39 CEST)
The research is designed for developing the pilot small-scale clean development mechanism bundled project activities in Vietnam electricity/ energy sector. Its overall purpose is to assess the potential of rice husk - fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta. Based on estimating the electricity potential of a bundle of rice husk-fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta with the capacity of 11 MW per project, assessing their CO2 emission reductions (CERs) and CER credits, calculating and comparing their financial indices (NPV, B/C, IRR) in two cases: W/O CDM and W/CDM, the research expects to establish a rice husk energy balance flowchart for the whole Mekong delta in the year 2021 and recommend policies to use for bio-power generation the unused rice husk that is dumped and discharged from local paddy milling centers into rivers and canals, as well as, to put forward a safe and environmentally friendly solution to minimize thoroughly the current serious pollution of rivers and canals in Mekong delta with the increasing unused rice husk quantity in the context is where the sea level rise phenomenon is the strongest in the world .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0539.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Rhus chinensis Mill; Syzygium aromaticum; Rice sheath blight; Antifungal activity
Online: 24 February 2021 (10:05:28 CET)
Plant diseases reduce crop yield and quality, hampering the development of agriculture. Fungicides, which restrict chemical synthesis, are the strongest controls for plant diseases. However, the harmful effects on the environment due to continued and uncontrolled utilization of fungicides has become a major challenge in recent years. Plant-sourced fungicides are a class of plant antibacterial substances or compounds that induce plant defenses. They can kill or inhibit the growth of target pathogens efficiently with no or low toxicity, degrade readily, do not prompt development of resistance, which has led to their widespread use. In this study, the growth inhibition effect of 24 plant-sourced ethanol extracts on rice sprigs was studied. Ethanol extract of gallnuts and cloves inhibited the growth of rice sprites by up to 100%. Indoor toxicity measurement results showed that the gallnut and glove constituents inhibition reached 39.23 μg/mL and 18.82 μg/mL, respectively. Extract treated rice sprigs were dry and wrinkled. Gallnut caused intracellular swelling and breakage of mitochondria , disintegration of nuclei, aggregation of protoplasts, and complete degradation of organelles in hyphae and aggregation of cellular contents. Protection of Rhizoctonia solani viability reached 46.8% for gallnut and 37.88% for clove in water emulsions of 1,000 μg/mL gallnut and clove in the presence of 0.1% Tween 80. The protection by gallnut was significantly stronger than that of clove. The data could inform the choice of plant-sourced fungicides for the comprehensive treatment of rice sprig disease. The studied extract effectively protected rice sprigs and could be a suitable alternative to commercially available chemical fungicides. Further optimized field trials are needed to effectively sterilize rice paddies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0361.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Transgenic rice; metacaspase; ER stress; salinity stress; programmed cell death
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:04:38 CET)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important organelle responsible as protein synthesis regulator in plant. High salinity can also lead to the activation of ER stress, caused by the accumulation of misfolded protein. This could lead to a stress response mechanism, unfolded protein response (UPR). Failure of UPR to reverse the effect of protein misfolding will activate Programmed Cell Death (PCD). Metacaspase genes regulate programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive gene analyses of the expression patterns of type II rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and salinity stress in rice leaf and OsMC4 in callus. A strong evidence of unfolded protein response (UPR) during tolerance to both ER and salinity stress was found in the present study. Overexpression of OsMC4 in rice callus as a fusion protein with TagRFP and controlled by the CaMV35 promoter caused major changes in the expression of the stress ER-marker genes, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Binding immunoglobulin Protein (BiP), and OsMC4 in overexpressing calli. These expression analyses of the OsMC family provide valuable information for further functional studies on the biological roles of OsMCs in PCD related to ER and salinity stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0472.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: BLB Resistance; Xa genes; Xoo; Molecular characterization; Rice; LRR; S_TKc
Online: 23 October 2020 (09:13:39 CEST)
Globally, rice is utilized as staple food, belongs to the family Poaceae. From the past few decades under variable climate conditions, it greatly affected by the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease caused by a bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Scientists studied causes of the disease and found more than 61 isolates of Xoo. About 39 Xa genes were noted that cause race specifically resistance either individually or in pairs against Xoo. The canvas on the characterization of these genes is still unrevealed. In this study, amino acid sequences of Xa15, Xa19, Xa20 and Xa21 were mined and used for motif-domain identification, characterization, and comparative analysis. It includes screening of physical and chemical characteristics, sequence comparison to find sequence similarity between them and their phylogenetic comparison with other Xa genes and other species based upon LRR and S_TKc domains to find evolutionary relationship among them. The comparison-based modeling was performed and assessed by different tools to gain better understanding and structural evaluation. The results showed identified domains are specific in function, each domain involved in resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses through regulating different cellular processes. This study also revealed high similarity (>98% sequence identity) between these genes and encode a similar leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase like protein. It will optimize the breeding programs as it will be useful for the selection of effective genes to produce resistance in rice varieties against the specific strains of Xoo that will be more effective against BLB than the other Xa genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Stubble management; Tillage system; Rice wheat cropping system; happy seeder
Online: 16 October 2020 (07:24:43 CEST)
Rice wheat cropping system prevailed in more than fifty percent areas of rice belt of central and upper Punjab. In this area yield of wheat is curtailed every year due to late harvesting of rice crop. In addition to this, lack of machinery for direct sowing of wheat into combine harvested rice is a major limitation for timely wheat sowing due to presence of heavy straw load dropped by the combine harvester. A field experiment was planned and executed during two consecutive years 2017-18 and 2018-19 at Agronomic Research Station Farooqabad to evaluate the various stubble management techniques for the sowing of wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system. The Experiment consist of four treatments Happy seeder (Zero tillage), conventional sowing without burning of rice stubble, Rotavator two times, and Conventional sowing with the burning of rice stubble. The trail was arranged as a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications having a net plot size of 8 m x 20 m. The Treatments have significant effects on Plant height, Number of productive tillers, 1000- grain weight, and grain yield. Maximum plant height (94.74 and 94.25 cm), numbers of productive tillers/m2 (324.00 and 322.25), 1000-grain weight (36.35 and 36.20 g), grain yield (3780 and 3613 kg/ha), and benefit-cost ratio (2.54 and 2.43) were recorded from the treatment happy seeder (Zero tillage) during both years respectively. It is concluded that the sowing of wheat with a happy seeder (Zero tillage) is an appropriate technique in the rice-wheat cropping system by protecting the environment and soil health from the burning of rice stubbles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0128.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ditches; grain yield; lodging resistance; root traits; wet-seeded rice
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:25:04 CET)
The mechanical hill wet-seeded rice machine is benefits to establish uniform seedling, and ditches were established by using this machine. However, little knowledge is known on the effect of the establishment of ditches on growth, lodging and yield, and their relationship with root traits. In this study, two field experiments were conducted during 2012 and 2013 with using two super rice varieties (i.e. hybrid rice ‘Peizataifeng’ and inbred rice ‘Yuxiangyouzhan’) grown under three ditches establishment treatments (i.e. T1: both water ditches and seed ditches were established by the machine, T2: seed ditches were established by the machine, T3: neither water nor seed ditches were established by the machine). The lodging index and lodging resistance traits, the grain yield and above-ground dry weight and the root traits were measured. The results showed that the lodging index was significantly affected by the treatments with ditches. The strongest lodging resistance was detected in mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment in both 2012 and 2013. The lodging resistance was strongly related to the breaking resistance, the root volume and root superficial area at the heading stage and maturity stage and the total root length at the heading stage. No significant difference was investigated in grain yield or dry weight of mechanical hill wet-seeded rice. Yuxiangyouzhan showed higher grain yield, dry weight and better lodging resistance but unfavorable root growth attributes than Peizataifeng. Therefore, the mechanical hill wet-seeded rice with ditches treatment increased rice lodging resistance is related to root traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: GRAMI model; remote sensing; rice yield; satellite imagery; vegetation index
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:33:37 CEST)
The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) of the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) increases the chance of acquiring images with greater clarity at eight times a day and is equipped with spectral bands suitable for monitoring crop yield with a moderate spatial resolution. The objectives of this study were to classify nationwide paddy fields and to project rice (Oryza sativa) yield and production using the grid-based GRAMI-rice model and GOCI satellite products over South Korea from 2011 to 2014. Solar insolation and temperatures were obtained from COMS and the Korea local analysis and prediction system for model inputs, respectively. The paddy fields and transplanting dates were estimated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance and land cover products. The crop model was calibrated using observed yield data in 11 counties and was applied to 62 counties in South Korea. The overall accuracies of the detected paddy fields ranged from 89.5 to 90.2%. The simulated rice yields statistically agreed with observed yields, with root-mean-square errors of 0.219 to 0.451 ton ha-1 and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.241 to 0.733 in four years, respectively. According to paired t-tests (α = 0.05), the simulated and observed rice yields were not significantly different. These results demonstrate the possible development of a crop information delivery system that can classify land cover, simulate crop yield, and monitor regional crop production on a national scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: rice landscape; natural enemies; location; population dynamics; variography; LANDSAT 8
Online: 14 May 2018 (10:13:50 CEST)
Relationships among the population abundance of four predator groups for rice insect pests, namely: carabid beetles, staphylinid beetles, green mirid bugs, and spiders in three landscape categories were evaluated. Both rice plots and the associated bund margins of these rice plots found among three Bangladesh landscape categories were sampled by sweep net. The results revealed that the abundance significantly varied across landscapes. The rice landscape of one location harbored higher numbers of a specific predator than other location in other regions of Bangladesh. The results also showed a dependency on the width of the rice bund margins of the rice plots, where spiders populations increased with increased bund widths, but the population abundance of these predators did not depend on the diversity of the number of weed species found on the rice bund margins. The relative abundance of predator populations also significantly differed among the three landscapes, with the green mirid bug having the highest number among the four predators. This study indicates that predators of rice insect pests are highly landscape specific. In order to design integrated pest management systems for different Bangladeshi rice production locales, considerations unique to the characteristics of each locale are necessary. Preliminary efforts to apply variography analyses to the RED spectral band of LANDSAT 8 imagery from December 2016 are presented as first step toward learning a suite of methods which describe useful local characteristics affecting rice pest predators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0080.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: APEX; rice paddy; water quality; agriculture; modeling; nonpoint source pollution
Online: 12 October 2017 (06:10:32 CEST)
The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is widely used for evaluating agricultural conservation efforts and their effects on soil and water. A key component of APEX application in Korea is simulating water quality impacts of rice paddies because rice agriculture claims the largest cropland area in the country. In this study, a computational module called APEX-Paddy is developed to simulate water quality with considering pertinent paddy management practices such as puddling, flood irrigation management. Data collected at two experimental paddy sites in Korea were used to calibrate and validate the model. Results indicate that APEX-Paddy performs well in predicting runoff discharge rate and nitrogen yield while the original APEX highly overestimates runoff rates and nitrogen yields on large storm events. With APEX-Paddy, simulated and observed flow and mineral nitrogen yield (QN) are found to be highly correlated after calibration (Nash & Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) = 0.87 and Percent Bias (PBIAS) = −14.6% for flow; NSE = 0.68 and PBIAS = 2.1% for QN). Consequently, the APEX-Paddy showed a greater accuracy in flow and QN prediction than the original APEX modeling practice using the SCS-CN method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0086.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: arsenic pollution; differential display; genes; resistance; rice crop; soil contamination
Online: 22 June 2017 (05:16:08 CEST)
The main objective of the present study was to investigate arsenate [As (V)] resistance genes in rice cultivars grown in arsenic contaminated Egyptian soil in order to genetically induce resistance against arsenic in the local rice varieties as well as defining contaminated rice grains and/or soil. Three local rice cultivars; Sakha 102-104 were cultivated on modified Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MS medium) containing elevated concentrations of arsenate (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/l). The three varieties showed different resistant attitudes against arsenate with Sakha 104 being the most resistant. Extracted messenger RNA (mRNA) from treated and untreated Sakha 104 plantlets was scanned using differential display to demonstrate the arsenate resistant genes using three different arbitrary primers. About 100 different RNAs with (1500 bp - 50 bp) were obtained from which seven were up-regulated genes, subjected to DNA cloning using TOPO TA system and the selected clones were sequenced. The sequence analysis described four genes out of the seven namely disease resistance protein RPM1, Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-1-like, CwfJ family protein and outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA while the other three genes were hypothetical proteins. It is concluded the four induced genes in the resistant rice cultivar considered as a direct response to arsenic soil pollution. Genes detected in the present study can be used as geno-sensors for rice grains and soil contamination with As (V). Moreover, local rice cultivars may be genetically modified with such genes to induce high resistance and to overcome arsenic soil pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0097.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: vulnerability; resilience; rice value chains; climate change; Sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:09:07 CEST)
Abstract: Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threaten to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1430.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Oryza sativa; Magnaporthe oryzae; rice; rice blast; panicle blast; high field resistance; quantitative resistance; major gene; adult plant resistance; durability; sustainable use; sustainable development goals
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:30:25 CEST)
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, poses significant threat to rice production. Rice blast susceptibility has been observed in Japanese rice varieties with excellent eating quality. Enhancing blast resistance is essential to ensure minimal use of agricultural chemicals. Two types of blast resistance are observed: true resistance, which is a type of qualitative resistance expressed by a major gene, and field resistance, which is a type of quantitative resistance expressed by multiple micro-acting genes. ‘Resistance collapse’, in which a variety with a true resistance gene becomes diseased by blast fungus races compatible with the resistance gene, has been observed. Varieties carrying blast-resistance genes, such as Pb1 (panicle blast resistance 1), have been developed through DNA marker-assisted selection. In this review, we focus on the Pb1, which expresses strong quantitative resistance to panicle blast and has been widely used in Japan without showing ‘resistance collapse’ for 40 years. Pb1 is an ‘adult plant resistance gene’ that does not exert strong selection pressure on the blast population during the leaf blast stage, thus preventing the selective multiplication of Pb1-compatible blast strains. This epidemiological mechanism prevents ‘resistance collapse’. Interdisciplinary research and breeding are required to sustainably use genes that induce high field resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1745.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fragrant rice; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; OsP5CS1; OsbZIP60-like
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:45:25 CET)
The 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) is the most important volatile in determining the aroma of fragrant rice, however, the transcriptional regulation mechanism of 2-AP biosynthesis in fragrant rice is still unclear. In this study, the Osp5cs1 knockout mutant lines and OsP5CS1 over-expression lines were constructed by genetic transformation of indica rice cultivar i.e., ‘Zhonghua11’, which was knocked out OsBADH2 to produce fragrance in aromatic rice. The OsP5CS1 gene was also identified as a key gene in the 2-AP biosynthesis pathway of aromatic rice. The OsP5CS1 promoter was used as bait, and the transcription factor OsbZIP60-like was screened by yeast one-hybrid assays. The transcription factor OsbZIP60-like specifically bound to the OsP5CS1 gene. The dual luciferase reporting system found that OsbZIP60-like transcription factor promoted the transcriptional activation of OsP5CS1. Compared with the wild type, the OsP5CS1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated in Osbzip60-like mutant, and resulted in substantial reduction in 2-AP biosynthesis. Moreover, the OsP5CS1 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in OsbZIP60-like over-expressed plants, and the 2-AP concentrations were also increased whereas the Osbzip60-like mutants were found to be sensitive to Zn deficiency. Overall, the OsbZIP60-like transcription factor promoted the 2-AP accumulation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the transcriptional regulation mechanism of 2-AP biosynthesis and explores the function of OsbZIP transcription factor in fragrant rice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0454.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: salinity; planting density; nitrogen fertilization; feed values; forage rice; soil condition
Online: 8 November 2023 (03:37:00 CET)
The purpose of this study is to identify the different effects exerted by planting density and nitrogen fertilization on high-salinity Reclaimed Paddy Fields(RPF) and General Paddy Fields(GPF), and to find the amount of fertilization and the planting density suitable for the growth of forage rice in each paddy field. In both experimental locations, there was no significant change in the soil due to N treatment, but in the case of RPF, electrical conductivity(EC) decreased significantly from more than 5dS/m to up to 2.87dS/m during the yellow ripe stage due to the influence of floods and concentrated precipitation on the fields. In all soils, as both the amount of N treatment and the planting density increased, there was a proportional relationship in which the number of tillers and the dry weight also increased, with the occurrence of lodging also being increased. The dry weight, as expected, was 1.5 times higher at a planting distance of 10 cm, rather than 16 cm. In addition, in both locations N treatment led to an increase in the dry weight, but when N treatment reached 400kg/ha (2.0), the dry weight decreased instead. Moreover, although there was no clear difference in feed value according to N treatment, in RPF, neutral detergent fiber(NDF) was higher than 60%, RFV was less than 98, and TDN was also low, confirming that the quality of rice was higher in GPF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Philippines; flood-prone area; MODIS; time-series data; remote sensing; rice
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:16:03 CET)
Floods are some of the most devastating crop disasters in Southeast Asia. The Pampanga River Basin in the Philippines is a representative flood-prone area, where cultivation patterns are varied according to the flood risk. However, quantitative analyses on the effects of flooding on cultivation patterns remain quite limited. Accordingly, this study analyzes MODIS LAI data (MCD15A2H) from 2007 to 2022 to evaluate annual and geographical differences in cultivation patterns in the Candaba municipality of the basin. The analysis consists of two stages of hierarchical clustering: a first stage for area classification and a second stage for the classification of annual LAI dynamics. As a result, Candaba is divided into four areas, which are found to be partly consistent with the observed flood risk. Subsequently, the annual LAI dynamics in each area are divided into two or three clusters. The obvious differences among the clusters are caused by flooding in the late rainy season, delaying the start of planting in the dry season. The clusters also indicate that the cultivation patterns slightly changed over the 16 years of the study period. The results of this study suggest that the two-stage clustering approach provides an effective tool for the analysis of MODIS LAI data when considering cultivation patterns characterized by annual and geographical differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: SNP Chip DNA Marker; GAPIT; GWAS; Genomic Selection; Grain traits; Rice
Online: 20 September 2023 (02:17:56 CEST)
This study investigated novel quantitative traits loci (QTLs) associated with the control of grain shape and size as well as grain weight in rice. We employed a joint strategy multiple GAPIT (Genome Association and Prediction Integrated Tool) models [(Bayesian-information and Linkage-disequilibrium Iteratively Nested Keyway (BLINK)), Fixed and random model Circulating Probability Uniform (FarmCPU), Settlement of MLM Under Progressive Exclusive Relationship (SUPER), and General Linear Model (GLM)]–High Density SNP Chip DNA Markers (60,461) to conduct a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). GWAS was performed using genotype and grain-related phenotypes of 143 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Data show that parental lines (Ilpum and Tung Tin Wan Hein 1, TTWH1, Oryza sativa L., ssp. japonica and indica, respectively) exhibited divergent phenotypes for all analyzed grain traits), which was reflected in their derived population. GWAS results revealed the association between seven SNP Chip makers and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain length, co-detected by all GAPIT models on (Chr) 1–3, 5, 7, and 11), were qGL1-1BFSG (AX-95918134, Chr1: 3820526 bp) explains 65.2%–72.5% of the phenotypic variance explained (PVE). In addition, qGW1-1BFSG (AX-273945773, Chr1: 5623288 bp) for grain width explains 15.5%–18.9% of PVE. Furthermore, BLINK or FarmCPU identified three QTLs for grain thickness independently, and explain 74.9% (qGT1Blink, AX-279261704, Chr1: 18023142 bp) and 54.9% (qGT2-1Farm, AX-154787777, Chr2: AX-154787777 bp) of the observed PVE. For t length-to-width ratio, the qLWR2BFSG (AX-274833045, Chr2: 10000097 bp) explains nearly 15.2%–32% of PVE for LWR. Likewise, the major QTL for thousand-grain weight (TGW) was detected on Chr6 (qTGW6BFSG, AX-115737727, 28484619 bp) and explains 32.8%–54% of PVE. The qTGW6BFSG QTL coincides with qGW6-1Blink for grain width and explained 32.8%–54% of PVE. Putative Candidate genes pooled from major QTLs for each grain traits have interesting annotated functions that require functional studies to elucidate their function in the control of grain size, shape, or weight in rice. Genome selection analysis proposed makers useful for downstream marker-assisted selection based on genetic merit of RILs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0181.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice (Oryza sativa L.); drought stress; Osdsm3; genetic analysis; fine mapping
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:58:40 CEST)
Drought poses a significant constraint on rice production, and in this study, we have discovered a novel drought-sensitive mutant, designated as dsm3, arising from the progenies of indica rice variety Zhonghui8015 treated with EMS. Under drought stress conditions, dsm3 exhibited characteristic withered leaf tips, accompanied by increased levels of MDA and H2O2, reduced Pn, and decreased activity of POD and SOD. Genetic analysis revealed that the withered leaf tip phenotype was governed by a single recessive gene, designated as Osdsm3.To begin with, Osdsm3 was initially mapped to the short arm of chromosome 1 through a cross involving dsm3 and 02428. Subsequently, utilizing a population of 2591 F2 individuals, we narrowed down the location of Osdsm3 to a 78Kb interval, encompassing 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Sequencing analysis unveiled a mutation (1275G→A) in the exon of the candidate gene (LOC_Os01g10680), leading to premature translation termination. Moreover, a quantitative RT-PCR assay demonstrated high expression of OsDSM3 in the panicle and sheath, with a significant upregulation of drought stress-related genes under drought conditions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Osdsm3 shares evolutionary homology with UNE1, an intracellular transport protein found in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subcellular studies further confirmed that OsDSM3 resides in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, the forthcoming cloning of Osdsm3 holds promise for delving deeper into the molecular mechanisms governing rice drought resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0617.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Fermented beverages; type 2 diabetes; postprandial hyperglycemia; carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; Rice
Online: 11 July 2023 (03:02:32 CEST)
Background: The therapeutic benefits of fermented foods in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus have been reported. Aim: Inhibitory effect of fermented rice beverages on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Method: Two fermented rice beverages-fermented rice alone (FKR) and fermented rice plus roasted peanuts (FKRG) were produced using spontaneous fermentation. Capacity of the beverages to inhibit al-pha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase and pancreatic lipase in vitro was evaluated and compared with standards (positive controls). Results: FKR exerted inhibition of α-glucosidase between 9.23-21.11% and FKRG 1.11-17.36% at the various concentrations respectively, with both samples showing the most significant inhibition (about 20%) at 125 μg/mL. FKRG exhibited greater alpha-amylase inhibition activity than FKR, but for both samples, the most significant (P < 0.05) inhibition occurred at 500 μg/mL. With pancreatic lipase, no significant inhibition was observed for both FKR and FKRG at the tested concentrations compared to Orlistat used as control; how-ever, at 31.25 μg /mL FKRG showed an inhibitory effect of approximately 15%, which was not evident at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Low to moderate inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by both FKR and FKRG, showed that the fermented rice beverages have potential to modulate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes in vitro. This is an indi-cation that fermented rice beverage could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: livelihood diversification; entropy index; capital; rice farming households; Partial Least Squares
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:39:11 CEST)
Rice farming households having limited capital do various combinations of the capital to get diversified livelihoods in continuing their lives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the household capital of rice farmers on livelihood diversification in Indramayu District. Survey method with data sources from 214 rice farming households taken by proportional simple random sampling technique. Data analysis used the partial least square method. The results found that the household capital of rice farmers has a positive and significant effect on the livelihood diversification. Government policy recommendations were determined in order of priority are physical capital with the help of agricultural tools and machinery, natural capital by anticipating climate change, financial capital by increasing support for capital sources, social capital by social networks, and human capital by improving farming skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: rice; variety; selection; mutagenesis; gamma rays; fast neutrons; salinity; drought tolerance
Online: 13 March 2023 (10:28:52 CET)
The article presents research results of the γ-ray and fast neutrons impact on various rice species, in order to obtain mutant forms resistant to salinity (NaCl) and drought factors (sorbitol. They are going to be used as initial forms in synthetic selection when creating varieties, adapted to the stressful conditions of, both, soil and climate in the Kazakhstan Aral Sea. The average lethal doses (LD50) of γ-rays and fast neutrons, as well as the average NaCl and sorbitol lethal concentrations were established. Such environment is best suited for clear manifestation of the mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and the resistance of rice plants to salinity and drought. A distinct dependence in the effect of ionizing radiation and stress factors on the number of induced resistant mutant forms has been related to the initial rice sort. The largest number of mutant forms was obtained from the local variety Syr Suluy, followed by Leader and AyKerim varieties. From all varieties, the number of mutants obtained from exposure to γ-rays was 43 pieces out of 4500 grains, and from the impact of fast neutrons - 115 pieces out of 2700 grains. M1 mutant plants significantly differ from the initial forms in terms of morphological features – plant height, panicle length, grain size Most plants are characterized by short growth and even dwarfism (˂80 cm). They are lodging tolerant, have short and highly sterile panicles, indicating that they are mutants and resistant to salinity, drought, or both.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0387.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: bio-stimulant; seaweed liquid extract; rice; Oryza sativa; plant growth promoter
Online: 25 October 2022 (10:55:27 CEST)
Rice is considered as the most important crop for most of the world population. Utilization of seaweed as bio-stimulant can be an alternative way to enhance rice plant growth and productivity, as well as a strategic move to reduce the use of inorganic fertilizer that is harmful to the environment. Seaweed and its derivative products have been widely used as bio-stimulant in the agricultural industry because of their potential use in increasing plant growth and productivity. Auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinin are some of growth regulators found in seaweed extract, as well as macro and micronutrients required for plant growth and development. Several studies have found that seaweed extract has a variety of favorable effects as a plant growth promoter, including early seed germination and establishment, improved nutritional quality, increased yield and crop performance, and increased tolerance to environmental stress. The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the impacts of several seaweed species on seed germination, crop development and production, enhancement of rice plants (Oryza sativa) nutritional quality and the modes of action of seaweed extract includes the chemical components that might be causing plant physiological changes.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Aerated concrete; ultimate load; finite element analysis and rice husk ash
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:56:53 CEST)
Aerated concrete, which is manufactured from binding material, sand, foaming agent and water, is currently being utilized in the construction industry because of its lightweight and durability. The binding material, cement, along with other materials used in the concrete produces huge carbon footprints during its fabrication. The utilization of natural aggregates name as coarse aggregates depletes the natural resources of the country. Therefore, huge amounts of agricultural wastes have led scholars to investigate the effectiveness of replacing conventional materials used in concrete with agricultural wastes. In the current study, rice husk ash (RHA) was used as supplementary cementing material, thereby reducing the amount of cement used in aerated concrete (AC) mixture will reduce carbon footprints. The experimental and numerical analysis were conducted to investigate structural behavior of reinforced RAC- B beams subjected to flexural load. Parametric study on structural performance of RAC- B beam under flexure were conducted using finite element analysis (FEA). From the experiment and FEA. Results from the parametric study showed that RAC-10%RHA-B with higher depth structurally performed better compared to RAC-B under flexure with greater load carrying capacity, lesser maximum deflection, and less cracks developing in the tension area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0153.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant system; chilling stress; mineral homeostasis; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; rice
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:32:41 CET)
Being a chilling-sensitive staple crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is vulnerable to climate change. The competence of rice to withstand chilling stress should, therefore, be enhanced through technological tools. The present study employed chemical intervention like application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of NO-mediated chilling tolerance in rice. At germination stage, germination indicators were interrupted by chilling stress (5.0 ± 1.0°C for 8 h day‒1), while pretreatment with 100 μM SNP markedly improved the indicators. At seedling stage (14-day-old), chilling stress caused stunted growth with visible toxicity along with alteration of biochemical markers, for example, increase in oxidative stress markers (superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde) and osmolytes (total soluble sugar; proline and soluble protein content, SPC), and decrease in chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC), and antioxidants. However, NO application attenuated toxicity symptoms with improving growth performance which might be attributed to enhanced activities of antioxidants, mineral contents, Chl, RWC and SPC. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that water imbalance and increased oxidative damage were the main contributors to chilling injury, whereas NO-mediated mineral homeostasis and antioxidant defense were the critical determinants for chilling tolerance in rice. Collectively, our findings revealed that NO protects against chilling stress through valorizing cellular defense mechanisms, suggesting that exogenous application of NO could be a potential tool to evolve cold tolerance as well as climate resilience in rice.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought stress; osmotic stress; rice; transcription factors; stress signaling; qtl; breeding
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:39:50 CET)
Many studies were done in the development of drought stress-tolerant transgenic plants, including crop plants. Rice is considered to be a vital crop target for improving drought stress tolerance. Much transgenic rice showed improved drought stress tolerance was reported to date. They are genetically engineered plants that are developed by using genes that encode proteins involved in drought stress regulatory networks. These proteins include protein kinases, transcription factors, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, receptor-like kinase. Of the drought stress-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, most of them display retarded plant growth. In crop crops, plant health is a fundamental agronomic trait that can directly affect yield. By understanding the regulatory mechanisms of retarded plant growth under drought stress, conditions are necessary precursors to developing genetically modified plants that result in high yields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0264.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: mesoporous silica; surface area; rice husk ash; hydrolysis-ageing time, hydrophobicity
Online: 18 June 2018 (13:38:56 CEST)
This work describes the preparation of mesoporous silica by the green reaction of rice husk ash (RHA) with glycerol, followed by the modification and the potential use as a drug carrier. The reaction was carried out at 215 °C for 2 h. The solution was further hydrolyzed with deionized water and aged for various times (24, 48, 120, 360, 528 and 672 h) before calcinations at 500 oC for 24 h. Further treatment of prepared mesoporous silica was performed using trimethylmethoxysilane (TMMS) to obtain hydrophobic Mesoporous silica. For all synthesized silica, silica contents were as high as 95%wt, whereas organic residues were less than 3%wt. RHA-glycerol showed the highest specific surface area with smallest pore diameter (205.70 m2/g, 7.46 nm) when aged for 48 h. The optimal hydrolysis-ageing period of 120 h resulted in 500.7 m2/g BET surface area, 0.655 cm3/g pore volume and 5.23 nm pore diameter. The surface modification of RHA-glycerol was succeeded through the reaction with TMMS as confirmed by FTIR. Ibuprofen was selected as a model drug for the adsorption experiments. The adsorption under supercritical CO2 was carried out at isothermal temperature of 40 ˚C and 100 bar, % ibuprofen loading of TMMS modified mesoporous silica (TMMS-g-MS) was 6 times less than mesoporous silica aged for 24 h (MS-24h) due to the hydrophobic nature of modified mesoporous silica, not surface and pore characteristics. The release kinetics of ibuprofen-loaded mesoporous silicas were also investigated in vitro. The release rate of ibuprofen-loaded MS-24h was much faster than that of ibuprofen-loaded TMMS-g-MS, but comparable to the crystalline ibuprofen. The slower release rate was attributed to the diffusion control and the stability of hydrophobic nature of modified silica. This would allow the design for the controlled release drug delivery system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: ANFIS; basmati rice; image processing; grading; quality assessment; fuzzy inference system
Online: 11 April 2018 (06:28:49 CEST)
Grading of rice grains has gain attentions due its requirement of quality assessment during import or export. Rice grain quality depends on milling operation, where rice hull is removed with a huller system followed by whitening operation. In such process, adjustment of rollers, control, and operation is important in terms of quality of milled rice. Especially, the basmati rice needed more quality assurance as it is not parboiled rice and exported globally with a high product value. In this present work, the basic problem of quality assessment in rice industry is addressed with digital image processing based technique. Machine vision and digital image processing provide an alternative with the automated, nondestructive, cost-effective, and fast approach as compared with traditional method which is done manually by human inspectors. A model of quality grade testing and identification is built based on morphological features using digital image processing and knowledge based adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The qualities of rice kernels are determined with the help of shape descriptors and geometric features using the sample images of milled rice. The adopted technique has been tested on a sufficient number of training images of basmati rice grain. The proposed method gives a promising result in an evaluation of rice quality with 100% classification accuracy for broken and whole grain. The milling efficiency is also assessed using the ratio between head rice and broken rice percentage and it is 77.27% for the test sample. The overall results of the adopted methodology are promising in terms of classification accuracy and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: DNA barcoding; genetic diversity; hymenopteran parasitoids; Nephotettix spp.; Nilaparvata lugens; rice
Online: 13 November 2017 (17:06:38 CET)
On-going intensification of rice production systems in Southeast Asia is causing devastating yield losses each year due to rice hoppers. Continuing development of immunity to resistant rice varieties and pesticide application further complicate this problem. Hence, there is a high demand for biological control agents. Egg parasitoid wasps are among the most important natural enemies of rice hoppers such as Nilaparvata lugens and Nephotettix spp. However, our knowledge on their diversity is still very limited due to their small size and the lack of available morphological information. Classifying these parasitoids is the first step to properly understand their role in the rice agroecosystem. We used traditional morphological identification as well as DNA sequencing of COI and 28S genes to investigate the diversity of four important hopper egg parasitoid genera in the Philippines. Parasitoids of the genera Anagrus spp., Oligosita spp., Gonatocerus spp. and Paracentrobia spp. were collected in eight study landscapes located in Luzon. We found discrepancies between the morphological and the molecular analysis. Morphological and molecular results were only valid for Paracentrobia spp. Anagrus spp. and Gonatocerus spp. showed more genetic diversity, than expected after the morphological analysis, indicating cryptic species. The sequences for Oligosita spp. revealed less variation than expected. This is the first study on molecular diversity of rice parasitoids in the Philippines. More research combining morphological, behavioural and genetic methods as well as the establishment of a comprehensive DNA database is urgently needed to assess the performance and suitability of these organisms as biocontrol agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0161.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Agricultural productivity; Cambodia; Rice production; Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA); Technical Efficiency
Online: 29 September 2017 (18:21:43 CEST)
Rice is the most important food crop in Cambodia and its production is the most organized food production system in the country. The main objective of this study is to measure technical efficiency (TE) of Cambodian rice production and also trying to identify core influencing factors of rice TE at both national and household level, for explaining the possibilities of increasing productivity and profitability of rice, by using translog production function through Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model. Four-years dataset (2012-2015) generated from the government documents was utilized for the national analysis, while at household-level, the primary three-years data (2013-2015) collected from 301 rice farmers in three selected districts of Battambang province by structured questionnaires was applied. The results indicate that level of rice output varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total actual harvested area, and technically fertilizers application within provinces, while level of household rice output varied according to the differences in efficiency of production processes, techniques, total annual harvested land, and technically application of fertilizers and pesticides of farmers. The overall mean TE was estimated at 78.4% (national-level) and 34% (household-level), indicates that rice output has the potential of being increased further by 21.6% (national production) and 66% (household) at the same level of inputs and technology if farmers had been technically efficient. The TE also recorded -7% decreasing rate at the national-level and -14.3% at household-level due to highly affected of natural disasters and various environmental and social factors during the study periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1568.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: water governance; rice farming; irrigation; community fisheries; community fish refuge; water conflict
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:42:26 CEST)
Cambodia faces the challenge of managing excess water during the wet season and insufficient water during the dry season. This harms human life and endangers aquatic and natural resources, agricultural practices, and food security. In order to ensure the well-being of both people and food security, water governance is crucial. However, Cambodia's water governance is hindered by various obstacles, including sectoral and centralized influences, top-down and large-scale strategies, a lack of coordination among relevant agencies, and limited involvement of local communities. This study delves into water governance across different sectors, from centralized to community-based natural resources management to tackle these challenges. Through analyzing literature and case studies of farmer water user communities (FWUC), community fisheries (CFis), and community fish refuges (CFRs) in three Mekong Delta provinces in Cambodia, the study concludes that although water governance has improved, it has resulted in a decline in fishery resources from rivers and water bodies and an increase in water conflicts among farmers and sectors in the face of climate change. To enhance water governance in Cambodia, it is critical to integrate it at the district level. This will promote sustainable water use and management across the country and pave the way for a brighter future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0499.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: gamma-oryzanol; vitamin E tocotrienols; rice bran; high cage density; laying hen
Online: 9 October 2023 (09:34:47 CEST)
A 4×2 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of feeding dietary gamma-oryzanol and vitamin E tocotrienols in hens reared in 840 (low cage density; LCD) or 420 cm2/hen (high cage density; HCD). A total of 120 hens were allocated into eight groups with five replicates. Diets were a control (CON) or the control diet supplemented with 200 ppm gamma-oryzanol (GO-200), 200 ppm vitamin E tocotrienols (VE-200) or 200 ppm gamma-oryzanol + 200 ppm vitamin E tocotrienols (GE-400). Results showed that HCD-housed hens decreased (P < 0.01) egg performance and quality. Average egg weight (AEW), egg mass and FCR improved in all supplemented treatments. Results on the AEW, FCR, and eggshell qualities of birds kept at the HCD revealed the best responses in the GE-400 group (P < 0.01). Among hens kept on an HCD, there was a noticeable decrease in HMGCR mRNA abundance in the VE-200 group, while the highest IFN-γ mRNA abundance was found in hens fed the GO-200 diet (P < 0.05). Thus, this study suggested that dietary GO or VE at 200 ppm either individually or in combination could improve performance and egg quality as well as regulate the abundance of immune- and stress-related genes.