REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis; interstitial lung disease; pathogenesis
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:28:49 CEST)
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most serious extra-articular complications of rheu-matoid arthritis (RA), which increases the mortality of RA. Because the pathogenesis of RA-ILD remains poorly understood, appropriate therapeutic strategies and biomarkers have not yet been identified. Thus, the goal of this review was to summarize and analyze the reported data on the etiology and pathogenesis of RA-ILD. The incidence of RA-ILD increases with age, and is also generally higher in men than in women and in patients with specific genetic variations and eth-nicity. Lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of RA-ILD include smoking and exposure to pollutants. The presence of an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, high RA disease activity, and rheumatoid factor positivity also increase the risk of RA-ILD. We also explored the roles of biological processes (e.g., fibroblast–myofibroblast transition, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and immunological processes), signaling pathways (e.g., JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt), and the his-topathology of RA involved in RA-ILD pathogenesis based on published preclinical and clinical models of RA-ILD in animal and human studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; gender; sex; susceptibility; treatment effect
Online: 16 November 2023 (03:06:31 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs more frequently in women than in men, and the studies that have addressed clinical and prognostic differences between sexes are scarce and have contradictory results and methodological problems. The present work aims to evaluate sex and gender-related differences in the clinical expression and prognosis of RA as well as the impact on psychosocial variables, coping behavior, and healthcare use and access. By identifying between-sex differences and gender-related outcomes in RA, it may be possible to design tailored therapeutic strategies that consider the differences and unmet needs. Being sex, together with age, the most relevant biomarker and health determinant, a so-called personalized medicine approach to RA must include clear guidance on what to do in case of differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; drug repurposing; connectivity mapping; transcriptomics
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:17:05 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that has significant impact on quality of life and work capacity. Treatment of RA aims to control inflammation and alleviate pain, however achieving remission with minimal toxicity is frequently not possible with the current suite of drugs. This review aims to summarise current treatment practices and highlight the urgent need for alternative pharmacogenomic approaches to novel drug discovery. These approaches can elucidate new relationships between drugs, genes, and diseases to identify additional effective and safe therapeutic options. This review discusses how computational approaches such as connectivity mapping offers the ability to repurpose FDA approved drugs beyond their original treatment indication. This review also explores the concept of drug sensitisation, to predict co-prescribed drugs with synergistic effects that produce enhanced anti-disease efficacy by involving multiple disease pathways. Challenges of this computational approach are discussed including the availability of suitable high-quality datasets for comprehensive analysis and other data curation issues. The potential benefits include accelerated identification of novel drug combinations, and ability to trial and implement established treatments in a new index disease. This review underlines the huge opportunity to incorporate disease-related data and drug-related data to develop methods and algorithms which have strong potential to determine novel and effective treatment regimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular complications; atherogenesis; cardiac arrhythmias; inflammation; disease
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:05:40 CEST)
The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is 1.5 times higher compared to the general population. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the type of cardiovascular complications that can appear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Reducing the cardiovascular risk, through an aggressive management of the traditional and non-traditional risk factors, is another objective of this study. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapeutic measures to reduce the progression rate of rheumatoid arthritis, while also maintaining an active lifestyle, are the most important problems in young patients. We included a number of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, presenting various stages of disease, concomitant with cardiovascular complications. The incidence by gender was higher in women, while men presented a higher incidence of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. All the patients presented an atherogenic coefficient over 2, indicating a significant risk of atherogenesis. An increased incidence of coronary artery disease was found in men. The patients presented cardiac arrhythmias, especially in the active stage of the condition, while the incidence of atrial fibrillation was higher in women. The active stage of the disease was evaluated using inflammatory biomarkers (ESR, PCR). ESR is not a specific tool for diagnosing the disease, but its important role in monitoring the activity of RA should not be ignored. Moreover, ESR has a significant role in monitoring the evolution and determining the prognostic of congestive heart failure. A target treatment prescribed a target treatment to reduce inflammation and prevent exacerbations was prescribed for all patients. However, in daily clinical practice, the screening for RA is poorly done. Thus, patients are often undiagnosed, while the risk factors are not assessed. In conclusion, even nowadays, RA patients continue to present an increased risk of developing CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: lipoproteins; Bifidobacterium longum; rheumatoid arthritis; microbiome
Online: 19 October 2023 (10:20:11 CEST)
Gut microbiota affects progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study aims at investigating the protective potential of Bifidobacterium longum cell wall lipoproteins (Lpps) shown to modulate the intestinal microbiome and prevent osteoarthritis. Arthritis was induced by collagen (CIA) or anti-collagen antibodies (CAIA) injection. Intake of 0.5 mg Lpps /L, but not 0.25 and 1mg Lpps/L significantly alleviated RA symptoms in CIA DBA/1OOaHsd mice. Arthritis index (AI) was also reduced in CAIA mice. In CIA protected group, colon Ligilactobacillus murinus, caecal Lactobacillus johnsonii and spleen weight correlated with AI, whereas the reverse was observed with splenic CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs). The unprotected CIA Lpps group harbored higher caecal and colon E. coli and lower caecal L.murinus. Lpps administration to CAIA mice after arthritis induction led to lower colon E. plexicaudatum counts. Splenocytes from CIA protected mice triggered by LPS secreted higher Il-10 than control ones. However, higher IL-10 response was not elicited in gnotobiotic RA mice splenocytes with lower cDCs recruitment. Labeled bacteria with Lpps signal were detected in CIA mice bone marrow (BM) cDCs 5 and 16h post-gavage but not in Peyer’s patches and spleen. In vitro uptake of Lpps by primary BM and thymus cells was observed within 24h. FACS analysis detected the Lpps signal in the plasmacytoid cell compartment but not in cDCs. In conclusion, Lpps dosing is critical for preventing arthritis progression and appropriately modulating the microbiome. Our results also highlight the possible triggering of the immune system by Lpps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; SNP; DMARD; methotrexate; pharmacogenomics
Online: 24 August 2020 (07:33:05 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease which causes loss of joint function and significantly reduces quality of life. Plasma metabolite concentrations of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can influence treatment efficacy and toxicity. This study explored the relationship between DMARD metabolising gene variants and plasma metabolite levels in RA patients. DMARD metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass-spectrometry in plasma samples from 100 RA patients with actively flaring disease, collected at two intervals. Taqman-probes were used to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in cohort genomic DNA: rs246240 (ABCC1), rs1476413 (MTHFR), rs2231142 (ABCG2), rs3740065 (ABCC2), rs4149081 (SLCO1B1), rs4846051 (MTHFR), rs10280623 (ABCB1), rs16853826 (ATIC), rs17421511 (MTHFR) and rs717620 (ABCC2). Mean plasma concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) and MTX-7-OH metabolites were higher (p<0.05, C.I. 95%) at baseline in rs4149081 GA genotype patients. Patients with rs1476413 SNP TT or CT alleles in the have significantly higher (p<0.001, 95% C.I) plasma poly-glutamate metabolites at both study time points and correspondingly elevated disease activity scores. Patients with the rs17421511 SNP AA allele reported significantly lower pain scores (p<0.05, 95% C.I.) at both study intervals. Genotyping strategies could help prioritise treatments to RA patients most likely to gain clinical benefit, whilst minimizing toxicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0241.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; miRNA; susceptibility; pathogenesis; epigenetics
Online: 22 April 2020 (05:52:20 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the regulation of the transcriptome and development of diseases including cancer and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, a comprehensive map, illustrating how miRNAs regulate transcripts, pathways, immune system differentiation, and their interaction with terminal cells, such as T cells, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, is still missing. In this review, we provide a thorough summary of the roles of miRNAs in the susceptibility to pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutic intervention, and prognosis of RA. Numerous miRNAs are abnormally expressed in cells involved in RA, and regulate target genes and pathways including the NF-κB, Fas-FasL, JAK-STAT, IRE1-RIDD, and mTOR pathways. By regulating gene expression, miRNAs affect T cell differentiation to diverse cell types, including Th17 and T-reg cells, and thus constitute promising gene therapy targets to modulate the immune system in RA. We summarize the diagnostic and prognostic potential of blood-circulating and cell-free miRNAs, highlighting the novel opportunities to combine these with rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) to provide accurate diagnosis and prognosis, especially for seronegative patients. Furthermore, we outline how functional genetic variants of miR-499 and miR-146a partly explain the unmet susceptibility to RA. Additionally, we review the evidence implicating miRNAs as promising biomarkers of efficiency, response, and resistance to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMRDs) and immunotherapy. Finally, we discuss the autotherapeutic effect of miRNA intervention as a step toward the development of miRNA-based anti-RA drugs. Collectively, the current evidence supports miRNAs as interesting targets to better understand the pathogenetic mechanisms of RA and design more efficient therapeutic interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; chronic inflammation mechanisms; cardiovascular risk; cardiovas-cular mortality; medications used in rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 7 August 2023 (02:59:14 CEST)
Uncontrolled chronic inflammation results in cardiovascular disease and early death. In this review, we studied the impact of rheumatoid arthritis on the cardiovascular system, including the early and accelerated development of atherosclerosis, and its clinical manifestations, focusing on the inflammatory mechanisms leading to arterial wall damage, rapid atherosclerotic plaque formation, and thrombosis. Furthermore, the influence of medications used to treat rheumatoid arthritis on the cardiovascular system. The influence of chronic inflammation and medicaments on traditional cardiovascular risk factors is not the main subject of this review. We found that uncontrolled chronic inflammation and some medications directly impact all stages of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, reducing inflammation and maintaining long-term remission in rheumatoid arthritis may pre-vent early atherosclerosis. We believe that this review will encourage a better interdisciplinary approach for these patients and further research in this field.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Epigenetic; Methylation; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Pathogenesis; Regulation
Online: 18 August 2020 (16:16:27 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease triggered by the interaction between genetics and environment, especially through the shared epitope (SE) and cell surface calreticulin (CSC) theory. However, the available evidence shows that genetic diversity and environmental exposure cannot explain all the clinical characteristics and heterogeneity of RA. In contrast, recent studies demonstrate that epigenetics play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA, especially DNA methylation and histone modification. DNA methylation and histone methylation are involved in innate and adaptive immune cell differentiation, and migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and mesenchymal characteristics of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Epigenetic-mediated regulation of immune-related genes and inflammation pathways explains the dynamic expression network of RA. In this review, we summarized the comprehensive evidence to show that methylation of DNA and histones is significantly involved in the pathogenesis of RA and could be applied as a promising biomarker in the disease progression and drug response prediction. We also explained the advantages and challenges of the current epigenetics research in RA. In summary, epigenetic modules provide a possible interface, through which genetic and environmental risk factors connect to contribute to the susceptibility and pathogenesis of RA. Additionally, epigenetic regulators provide promising drug targets to develop novel therapeutic drugs for RA. Finally, DNA methylation and histone modifications could be important features for providing a better RA subtype identification, to accelerate personalized treatment and precision medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0723.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; remission; ADL; therapeutic index
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:50:34 CEST)
Background and objectives: The clinical advantage of targeting index-based remission criteria (IR) prior to Boolean remission (BR) was evaluated retrospectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 578 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who were treated for more than three years, were recruited. Patients who were treated to targeted IR and composite measure remission criteria such as BR from the first consultation were divided according to the turn of attaining BR and IR: IB-R, a group that matched IR at the same time BR is attained or earlier; BI-F, a group that attained BR followed by IR or failed; IR-BF, a group that could not attain BR despite attaining IR; Both-F, a group that failed to attain either BR or IR. Background factors were statistically compared among groups. The BR rate in patients who attained IR (BRR) and the rate of failure to attain IR in patients who failed to attain BR (BFR) were statistically evaluated. Results: Groups made of 225, 231, and 482 in IB-R; 160, 154, and 8 in BI-F; 18, 18, and 75 in IR-BF; and 175, 175, and 13 in Both-F when indexing the clinical disease activity index (CDAI), simplified disease activity index (SDAI), and 28-joints disease activity score with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP), respectively. Disease activity indices’ scores after BR demonstrated significantly higher in the BI-F group than in the IB-R group. BRR was 92.6%, 92.8%, and 86.5%, while BFR was 71.3%, 71.3%, and 13.8% when indexing CDAI, SDAI, and DAS28-CRP, respectively. Conclusions: Targeting CDAI and SDAI remission prior to BR contributes to a stable clinical course.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0966.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: osteoimmunology; rheumatoid arthritis; erosions; spondyloarthritis; bone tissue; new bone formation
Online: 14 September 2023 (08:23:05 CEST)
Several rheumatologic diseases are primarily distinguished by their involvement of bone tissue, where it not only serves as a mere target of the condition but often plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. This scenario is particularly prominent in chronic inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA). Given the immunological and systemic nature of these diseases, in this review, we report an overview of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the specific bone involvement, focusing on the complex interactions that occur between bone tissue's own cells and the molecular and cellular actors of the immune system, a recent and fascinating field of interest defined osteoimmunology. Specifically, we have comprehensively elaborated on the distinct pathogenic mechanisms of bone erosion seen in both rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis, as well as the characteristic process of aberrant bone formation observed in spondyloarthritis. Lastly, chronic inflammatory arthritis lead to systemic bone involvement, resulting in systemic bone loss and consequent osteoporosis, along with increased skeletal fragility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0583.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation; neurological extra-articular manifestations; endothelial dysfunction; polyphenols
Online: 28 October 2020 (10:39:01 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects about 1% of the global population, with a female-male ratio of 3:1. To date, genetic predisposition, the involvement of a deficient immune system and lifestyle are known to be the major responsible for the onset of the disease. RA preferably affects the joints, with consequent joint swelling and deformities followed by ankylosis. Patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis can also develop extra-articular manifestations, which mainly affect the cardiovascular system, the nervous system, the skin, the eye, the respiratory system, the kidney and the gastrointestinal system. It has been shown that about 20% of RA patients can develop neuropathies, multiple mononeuritis, distal sensory neuropathies and sense motor neuropathies. Neurological involvement occurs as a consequence of vasculitis of the nerve vessels leading to vascular ischaemia, axonal degeneration and neuronal demyelination. In RA, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is very high and depends, most probably, on vascular damage resulting from endothelial dysfunction. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that the integrity of the endothelium is also involved in the neurological disorders resulting from RA. This review aims to highlight the main characteristics of the extra-articular manifestations at the nervous level resulting from rheumatoid arthritis. To this end, the literature main results on these pathological manifestations have been collected with particular focus on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction. In fact, the endothelium could be considered a valuable target for minimizing the incidence of extra-articular neurological manifestations in RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0071.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; precision medicine; new treatment; drug development; method development
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:59:01 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, abnormal inflammatory immune response. It is characterized by the involvement of the synovium and multiple organs and the destruction of joints and articular cartilage. Over the past 30 years, several promising novel compounds and antibodies have been developed for the treatment of RA. The introduction of new drugs and precision medicine for all forms of RA raises several issues related to access to novel treatments by patients, optimal regimen selection, cost-effectiveness, prognosis monitoring and outcome surveillance, particularly with regarding to the development of low drug response rates, drug resistance and adverse side effects. Tremendous attention has been given to the identification of optimized drug combinations for the treatment of RA, particularly in early high-risk vulnerable and early individuals. Addressing these issues requires novel therapeutic approaches with new mechanisms and the establishment of accurate guidelines for drug selection, drug recombination, and non-chemical therapeutic efforts. In this study, we reviewed the most exciting recently established or ongoing novel drugs and methods according to the clinical trial database maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine and discussed the trends in RA drug development and challenges in the treatment, providing a reference significant for the accurate treatment of RA and the research direction in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cigarette smoking, cardiovascular risk.
Online: 21 September 2023 (11:30:14 CEST)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA have a 50-60% increased risk for CVD compared with the general population. Cardiovascular risk is commonly meas-ured using the Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation 2 calculator modified for patients with RA. Traditional modifiable risk factors for CVD include arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and low physical activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of smoking and the risk of CVD in patients with RA. Methods: This was a prospective, clinical, cohort study with an eight-year follow-up pe-riod. A total of 201 patients, 124 with RA (study group) and 77 with osteoarthritis (OA) (control group), were included in this study. However, only 137 patients (82 with RA and 55 with OA) completed the study. Fifty-eight patients (41 with RA and 17 with OA) died during the study period. We compared the prevalence of smoking and its association with the risk for CVD and RA. Results: The prevalence of smoking in the RA group was higher than that in the OA group (p<0.0001). Trends in the prevalence of smoking in both groups did not change signifi-cantly during the follow-up period. In the RA group, smoking was associated with the in-cidence of CVD in current smokers (p=0.028) and in patients with a history of smoking (p=0.016). These results suggest that smokers have an increased risk for RA. The trend of continued smoking in patients with RA may be attributed to attempts to reduce stress caused by RA symptoms. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that current and former smokers with RA have more severe symptoms, more joint damage, and poorer response to therapy than those who have never smoked. However, the reason underlying the trend of continued cigarette smoking in patients with RA remains unclear. Further studies are needed to clarify the trend of continued smoking in patients with RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: polymyalgia rheumatica; elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis; sleep impairment; seronegative rheumatoid arthritis; elderly patients
Online: 21 February 2019 (09:55:22 CET)
Background: Differential diagnosis between polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and seronegative elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (SEORA) is not easy, to the point that in the past they were considered the same entity. In these patients, sleep disorders have been scarcely assessed, and considered as expression of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. Methods: In 38 Caucasian elderly patients (median age: 73.9 ± 8.06 years) consecutively referred to two outpatient clinics from January to May 2018 with diagnosis of PMR and SEORA, sleep impairment was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep scale (MOS-SS). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score, with point 0 for absent and point 3 for severe. Comorbidities were assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Patients taking medications used to treat sleep disturbance or that could favor sleep disturbances were excluded. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, revised 2013. Every patient signed an informed consent form at the time of the first visit. Results: MOS-SS total point in PMR patients was significantly higher than in SEORA patients (47.60 ± 8.4 vs 28.26 ± 12.4; P = 0.000). After six-month therapy with prednisone (12.5–15 mg/day, followed after 4 weeks by gradual tapering), MOS-SS total point improved in the two groups of patients, with no significant difference (17.0 ± 6.2 vs 17.8 ± 4.2; P = 0.644). No correlation was found between MOS-SS and comorbidities, and between MOS-SS, anxiety or depression. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the assessment of sleep impairment could be very useful in the differential diagnosis between PMR and SEORA. Up today, the reasons why patients with PMR have—at the time of diagnosis—a sleep impairment higher than SEORA are speculative. Further ad hoc complementary studies in multicenter cohorts are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; chemerin; visfatin; CRP; uric acid
Online: 29 October 2019 (09:31:13 CET)
Objective: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovium and articular cartilage that initiates joint damage. RA associates with a change in many inflammatory biomarkers. The present study aims to measure the levels of inflammatory adipocytokines (chemerin and visfatin) and their ratio in addition to some related biomarkers in RA patients group in comparison to healthy control group and find out their efficacy in diagnosis of RA.Methods: The study included 60 RA patients and 30 healthy control group. Serum visfatin and chemerin were measured by using ELISA technique, while other biomarkers were determined spectrophotometrically. Multivariate general linear model analysis and Receiver operating curve was used to study the opportunity of using chemerin and visfatin as diagnostic tools for RA.Results: The results indicated that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in all lipid profile components, except HDLc that decreased, in RA patients in comparison with healthy control group; while significant decrease (p<0.001) in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol of RA patients in comparison with control group. Serum chemerin, visfatin, C-reactive protein, and uric acid levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in RA patients than those of control group. The results showed a relatively good sensitivity and specificity of chemerin (sensitivity=88.1, specificity=75.9) at a concentration=187.88ng in diagnosis of RA.Conclusions: chemerin is able to diagnose RA efficiently but this diagnoses, due to relatively small specificity, may interfere with other inflammatory disorders. However, with adjuvant with other diagnostic parameters, chemerin may represent a useful addition in diagnosis of RA.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis; TNF-; IL-6; IL-17; IL-23; GM-CSF; IL-33; IL-2
Online: 2 August 2021 (10:52:42 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic systemic inflammation causing progressive joint damage that can lead to lifelong disability. The pathogenesis of RA involves a complex network of various cytokines and cells that trigger synovial cell proliferation and cause damage to both cartilage and bone. Involvement of the cytokines TNF- and IL-6 is central to the pathogenesis of RA, but recent research has revealed that other cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, GM-CSF, IL-33, and IL-2 also play a role. Clarification of RA pathology has led to the development of therapeutic agents such as biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, and further details of the immunological background to RA are emerging. This review covers existing knowledge regarding the roles of cytokines, related immune cells and the immune system in RA, manipulation of which may offer the potential for even safer and more effective treatments in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; citrulline-peptides; autoantibody; affinity; cross-reaction; targeting
Online: 2 January 2018 (11:50:04 CET)
Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) are responsible for disease onset and progression, however, our knowledge is limited on ligand binding affinities of autoantibodies with different citrulline-peptide specificity. Methods: Citrulline-peptide specific ACPA IgGs were affinity purified and tested by ELISA. Binding affinities of ACPA IgGs and serum antibodies were compared by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Bifunctional nanoparticles harboring a multi-epitope citrulline-peptide and a complement activating peptide were used to induce selective depletion of ACPA producing B cells. Results: KD values of affinity purified ACPA IgGs varies between 10-6-10-8 M and inversely correlate with disease activity. Based on their cross-reaction with citrulline-peptides we designed a novel multi-epitope peptide, containing Cit-Gly and Ala-Cit motifs in two-two copies, separated with a short, neutral spacer. This peptide detects antibodies in RA sera with 66 % sensitivity and 98 % specificity in ELISA and is recognized by 90% of RA sera, while none of the healthy samples in SPR. When coupled to nanoparticles, the multi-epitope peptide specifically targets and depletes ACPA producing B cells ex vivo. Conclusions: The unique multi-epitope peptide designed on the basis of ACPA cross-reactivity might be suitable to develop better diagnostics and novel therapies for RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; Nutritional Approaches; Natural Products; Mediterranean Diet; Elimination Diet: Diets
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:22:59 CEST)
Genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is evidence that diet can enhance the inflammatory response in genetically predisposed individuals. On the other hand, certain types of diets are thought to alleviate RA symptoms due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Also, natural compounds with potential effectiveness in RA management belong to different chemical classes such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, and alkaloids with their antioxidant characteristics. In this paper, the nutritional approaches to prevent or extenuate the disease progress were examined in the light of current literature. Mediterranean and vegan diets equally have been shown to exhibit positive effects on RA as the consumption of dietary fiber, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds from fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds are high. Whereas Mediterranean diet additionally includes beneficial nutrients of animal origin such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and seafood, patients on vegan diet need to be monitored closely for intake of all critical nutrients. Certain calorie restrictions and intermittent fasting diets have been shown to benefit RA patients although there is an obvious need for further studies to establish solid evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. The research data available strongly suggest that dietary approaches may help delay the onset of RA and/or improve symptoms and thus nutrition should be routinely addressed to facilitate management of the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: crenotheraphy, reduced glutathione, rheumatoid arthritis, hydrogen sulfide
Online: 15 November 2018 (10:33:25 CET)
The tripeptide-glutathione (GSH, γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is one of the most important low molecular antioxidant in human body. Enhancing GSH and associated enzymes represents an aim in the search for cytoprotective strategies against cancer, neurologic degeneration, pulmonary and inflammatory conditions, as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA).The objective of the study was to agree whether crenotherapy (drinking therapy) with sulfide/hydrogen sulfide (SHS) waters from “Zuzanna” spring located in the area of Busko-Zdrój in Poland leads to increasing of reduced glutathione (GSH) content in human blood. SHS water in distinct from mineral water is characterised by specific pharmacokinetic, invariable content and natural microbiological purity. SHS waters contain at least 1 g of total sulfur per kilogram of water and a treatment effect also depends on other bioelements. The method employing capillary electrophoresis with UV detector for the analysis of glutathione in human blood was developed. The group of 106 volunteers consisted of both women and men, in different age range. The therapy with SHS waters lasted 2 weeks. We recently demonstrated that the administration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in SHS waters increases GSH concentration in blood, and therefore crenotherapy could be used in therapeutics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: gut microbiome; methotrexate; microbiota; periodontitis; rheumatoid arthritis; mouth
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:28:22 CET)
This study evaluated the influence of methotrexate (MTX) and non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) on the composition of the oral-gut microbiota in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Assessments were performed at baseline (T0), 6 months after MTX treatment (T1), and 45 days after NSPT (T2). The composition of the oral and gut microbiota was assessed by amplifying the V4 region of the 16S gene from subgingival plaques and stools. The results of the analysis of continuous variables were presented descriptively and non-parametric tests were adopted. Thirty-seven patients (27 with periodontitis) were evaluated at T0; 32 patients (24 with periodontitis) at T1; and 28 patients (17 with periodontitis) at T2. Nine individuals were lost to follow-up. MTX tended to reduce the alpha diversity of the oral-gut microbiota, while NSPT appeared to increase the number of different species of oral microbiota. MTX and NSPT influenced beta diversity in the oral microbiota. The relative abundance of oral microbiota was directly influenced by periodontal status. MTX did not affect the periodontal condition but modified the interactions between clinical parameters and the oral-gut microbiota. MTX and NSPT directly affected the composition and richness of the oral-gut microbiota. However, MTX did not influence periodontal clinical parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: prediction; adherence; methotrexate; self-report questionnaires; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 18 July 2023 (02:57:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to estimate adherence to methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and identify specific nonadherence risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 111 patients (age mean 56.2±10.6 years, 78.4% female, and disease duration mean 6 (3-13) years). Three adherence self-assessment questionnaires were used: the Compli-ance-Questionnaire-Rheumatology (CQR19), the Medication Adherence Reports Scale (MARS-5), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We also collected demographic data, disease and treatment characteristics, and anxiety/depression estimation results (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale- HADS). Results: Adherence was identified in 48.6% of patients (COR19), 70.3% (MARS-5), and 82.9% of patients in the VAS questionnaire. All three questionnaires displayed a significant positive mutual correlation: CQR19 with MARS-5 and VAS (r =0.364, r=0.329 respectively, p<0.001 for both), between VAS and MARS-5 score (r=0.496, p<0.001). A significant positive prediction was shown for urban residence (0.347 (0.134-0.901), p=0.030), using the MARS-5 scale, female sex (0.264 (0.095-0.730), p=0.010) according to CQR19 and for a dose of methotrexate (0.881 (0.783-0.992), p=0.036) in VAS scale, while negative prediction were shown for comorbidity number (3.062 (1.057-8.874), p=0.039), and depression (1.142 (1.010-1.293), p=0.035) using MARS-5 scale and for older age (1.041 (1.003-1.081), p=0.034) according to CQR19. The use of steroids was a significant positive predictor in all three questionnaires and remained an independent predictor for metho-trexate adherence in multivariant logistic regression. Conclusion: We showed nonadherence to methotrexate in a significant number of patients using all three questionnaires. Concomitant steroid therapy emerged as an independent positive predictor for adherence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1521.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular complications; atherogenesis; cardiac arrhythmias; inflammation; disease, traditional factors; “non-traditional” factors
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:06:55 CET)
Background and Objectives: The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is two times higher compared to the general population. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the type of cardiovascular complications that can appear in men vs. women with rheumatoid arth-ritis. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapeutic measures to reduce the progression rate of rheumatoid arthritis, while also maintaining an active lifestyle, are the most important problems in young patients. Materials and Methods: We included a number of 200 pa-tients, divided in 2 groups according to gender (124 women and 76 men) with rheumatoid arthritis, presenting various stages of disease concomitant with cardiovascular complications. We assessed traditional and non-traditional risk factors, electrocardio-graphic and echocardiographic findings in both groups. Results: All patients presented an atherogenic coefficient over two, indicating a significant risk of atherogenesis. Men had elevated levels of total cholesterol compared with women (≥ 200 mg/dL; 77.6% - men vs. 25.8% - women, p<0.001). The participants presented cardiac arrhythmias, especially in the active stage of RA. Women had an increased risk of atrial fibrillation by 2.308 times compared with men (p=0.020). One of the most important complications in young women was pulmonary arterial hypertension (p=0.007). Conclusion: However, in daily clinical practice, the screening for RA is poorly done. Thus, patients are often undiagnosed, while the risk factors are not assessed and RA patients continue to present an increased risk of developing CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1896.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; abatacept; CTLA4-Ig; biomarkers; immune cells; Th1; proteomics
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:23:29 CET)
Abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) – a monoclonal antibody which restricts T cell activation – is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we aimed to investigate for biomarkers of response to abatacept. We performed a detailed immunological profiling of CTLA4-treated RA patients’ peripheral blood (PB) cells and sera using flow cytometry and proteomics analysis, respectively. At 6 months of treatment, 34.5% of patients attained clinical response. Notably, baseline levels of Th1 and myeloid cell populations were significantly elevated in PB of responders compared to non-responders (P-value<0.05). Additionally, proteomics analysis revealed 10 amongst 303 molecules which were associated with clinical responses. Should the present data be confirmed in a larger cohort could be of clinical value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0598.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: NLRP3 inflammasome; comorbidities; pathogenic player; therapeutic potential; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:01:25 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by chronic synovitis and progressive destruction of cartilage and bone. RA is commonly accompanied by extra-articular comorbidities. The pathogenesis of RA and its comorbidities is complex and not completely elucidated. Assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome activates caspase-1, which induces the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and leads to cleavage of gasdermin D with promot-ing pyroptosis. Although the available therapeutic agents are effective for RA treatment, their high cost and increased infection rate are causes for concern. Recent evidence revealed the components of NLRP3 inflammasome as potential therapeutic targets in RA and its comorbidities. This nar-rative review summarizes the current research evidence regarding the pathogenic role and the therapeutic potential of NLRP3 inflammasome in RA and its comorbidities. Areas covered. We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed interface and reviewed English-language literature on NLRP3 inflammasome from 2000 to 2023. Its pathogenic role and therapeutic potential in RA and its comorbidities are the focus of this review. Expert opinion. NLRP3 inflammasome may play a critical role in both innate and adaptive im-munity, and its dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of RA and its comorbidities. Conse-quently, the components of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling represent promising therapeutic tar-gets, and ongoing research might lead to the development of new, effective treatments for RA and its comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation, oxidative stress; red blood cells; estrogen receptors.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:25:17 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, mainly attributed to accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods: Thirty-two women (aged more than 18 years) with RA, and 25 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Biomarkers of inflammation, red blood cells (RBCs) redox balance, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression as well as ERK 1/2 phosphorylation content were evaluated in RA patients at baseline and six months after treatment with disease modifying anti‐rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Results: For the first times we demonstrated that in RA patients: i) disease activity score (DAS-28) positively correlated with RBC ER-α expression, and negatively with total antioxidant capacity of plasma; ii) RBC ER-α expression positively correlated with systemic inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters as well as ERK 1/2 phosphorylation; and iii) DMARDs treatments improved the clinical condition measured by DAS-28 score decrease, although the RBCs appeared to be more prone to pro-oxidant status associated to the expression of survival molecules. Conclusion: Our data strongly suggest that RBCs could also participate in vascular homeostasis through fine modulation of an intracellular signal linked to the ER-α.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Fish oil; Inflammation; n-3 PUFAs; Rheumatoid arthritis; Specialized pro-resolving mediators
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:15:43 CET)
Inflammation is a conserved process that involve the activation of immune and non-immune cells aiming at protecting the host from bacteria, viruses, toxins and injury. However, unresolved inflammation and permanent release of pro-inflammatory mediators are responsible for the promotion of a condition called “low-grade systemic chronic inflammation”, characterized by tissue and organ damages, metabolic changes and increased susceptibility to non-communicable diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that different dietary components may influence modifiable risk factors for diverse chronic human pathologies. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are well recognized anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents able to influence many aspects of the inflammatory process. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature that relates to the modulation of human disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, by n-3 PUFAs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0013.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; thematic analysis; Outcomes assessment; Qualitative Research; Patient reported outcome measures
Online: 3 January 2017 (11:32:52 CET)
Background. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. Methods. Forty persons with RA were purposefully recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were then analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. Conclusions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Charlson Comorbidity Index; Elixhauser Comorbidity Index; Multimorbidity index; Rheumatic Disease Comorbidity Index; Rheumatoid arthritis; Cormorbidity index
Online: 15 June 2021 (12:01:03 CEST)
Objectives To examine the comorbidity burden in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a nationwide population-based cohort by assessing the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI), Multimorbidity Index (MMI), and Rheumatic Disease Comorbidity Index (RDCI) scores and to investigate their predictive ability for all-cause mortality. Methods We identified 24,767 RA patients diagnosed between 1998–2008 in Taiwan and followed up until December 31, 2013. The incidence of comorbidities was estimated in three periods (before, during, and after the diagnostic period). The incidence rate ratios were calculated by comparing during vs. before and after vs. before the diagnostic period. One- and 5-year mortality rates were calculated and discriminated by low and high-score groups and modified models for each index. Results The mean score at diagnosis is 0.8 in CCI, 2.8 in ECI, 0.7 in MMI, and 1.3 in RDCI, and annual percentage changes are 11.0%, 11.3%, 9.7%, and 6.8%, respectively. The incidence of any increase in the comorbidity index is significantly higher in the periods of ‘during’ and ‘after’ the RA diagnosis (incidence rate ratios for different indexes: 1.33-2.77). The mortality rate significantly differs between the high and low-score groups measured by each index (adjusted hazard ratios: 2.5-4.3 for different indexes). CCI is slightly better in the prediction of 1- and 5-year mortality rates. Conclusion Comorbidities are common before and after RA diagnosis, and the rate of accumulation accelerates after RA diagnosis. All four comorbidity indexes are useful to measure the temporal changes and to predict mortality.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Fibroblasts; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Cancer; Metabolic Reprogramming; Glycolytic Switch; Systems Biology; Computational Modelling
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:28:02 CET)
Fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in the connective tissue, are key modulators of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. These spindle-shaped cells are capable of synthesizing various extracellular matrix proteins and collagen. They also provide the structural framework (stroma) for tissues and play a pivotal role in the wound healing process. While they are maintainers of the ECM turnover and regulate several physiological processes, they can also undergo transformations responding to certain stimuli and display aggressive phenotypes that contribute to disease pathophysiology. In this review, we focus on the metabolic pathways of glucose and highlight metabolic reprogramming as a critical event that contributes to the transition of fibroblasts from quiescent to activated and aggressive cells. We also cover the emerging evidence that allows us to draw parallels between fibroblasts in autoimmune disorders and more specifically in rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. We link the metabolic changes of fibroblasts to the toxic environment created by the disease condition and discuss how targeting of metabolic reprogramming could be employed in the treatment of such diseases. Lastly, we discuss Systems Biology approaches, and more specifically, computational modelling, as a means to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms and accelerate the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1; CTHRC1; rheumatoid arthritis; biomarker; bone erosion; cartilage destruction; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; Wnt signaling
Online: 10 July 2020 (07:51:23 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, causing inflammation of joints, cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Biomarkers and new drug targets are actively sought and progressed to improve available options for patient treatment. The Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 protein (CTHRC1) may have an important role as a biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis, as CTHRC1 protein concentration is significantly elevated in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients, compared to osteoarthritis (OA) patients and healthy individuals. CTHRC1 is a secreted glycoprotein that promotes cell migration and has been implicated in arterial tissue-repair processes. Furthermore, high CTHRC1 expression is observed in many types of cancer and this is associated with cancer metastasis to the bone and poor prognosis. However, the function of CTHRC1 in RA is still largely undefined. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the role of CTHRC1 as a potential biomarker and pathogenic driver of RA progression that may be linked to the pathogenic behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA); alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT); DBA/1JJmsSlc mice Proteome analysis; rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Online: 28 December 2021 (14:44:54 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which joints are gradually de-stroyed, and early diagnosis and treatment before joint deformation or destruction is im-portant. The detection of novel RA biomarkers in saliva may facilitate the early detection of RA before the onset of disease. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of salivary proteins from RA model mice. Proteins were identified by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum, saliva, and ankle joints from DBA/1JJmsSlc mice, a model of rheumatoid arthritis. Ankle joints and submandibular glands were hematoxylin and eosin stained and immunostained, and the results were compared with those of control mice. Citrullinated α1 antitrypsin (A1AT, 46 kDa) was commonly detected in saliva, serum, and ankle joints of severe RA model mice, and was confirmed by proteome analysis. Western blotting detected a band corresponding to 46 kDa in serum, saliva and ankle joints, and immunostaining of ankle joints with A1AT an-tibody showed a strong positive signal in the synovium. In DBA/1JJmsSlc mice, not only cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies but also A1AT may be involved in protein citrulli-nation and contribute to the development and severity of RA.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1802.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PAD4/PADI4; PAD2/PADI2; Interstitial Lung Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis; RA-ILD, AIM
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:56:40 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease mainly characterized by joint inflammation. It presents extra-articular manifestations, with the lungs one of the affected areas. Among these, damage to the pulmonary interstitium (Interstitial Lung Disease -ILD) has been linked to proteins involved in the inflammatory process and related to extracellular matrix deposition and lung fibrosis establishment. Peptidyl arginine deiminase enzymes (PAD), which carry out protein citrullination, play a role in this context. A genetic association analysis was conducted on genes encoding two PAD isoforms, PAD2 and PAD4. This analysis also included ancestry informative markers and protein level determination in samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, RA-associated ILD, and clinically healthy controls. Significant single nucleotide variations (SNV) and a haplotype were identified as susceptibility factors for ILD-RA development. Elevated levels of PAD4 were found in ILD-RA cases, while PADI2 showed an association with RA susceptibility. This document presents the data obtained from the conducted research, which has been published.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1605.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: pH sensitive Polymer; Methacrylate Polymers; Eudragit L100; Polymeric nanoparticles; Apocynin; Rheumatoid arthritis; Carbopol-934 based Hydrogel; Transdermal Drug Delivery System
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:51:12 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate the therapeutic potential of apocynin (APO) loaded pH-sensitive nanoparticles (NPs) based transdermal hydrogel for management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Slightly modified nanoprecipitation technique was used for preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. Optimization was done through design expert software. Optimized APO-NPs were loaded into carbopol-934 based hydrogel as final dosage form and further studied for physicochemical properties. Optimized APO-NPs formulation had a minimum particle size 63.44 nm, polydisperibility index 0.161, and zeta potential -15mV with a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 89%. In-vitro and ex-vivo studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel was performed at pH 5.5 (pH of normal skin) and 6.8 (pH of inflammed joint) showed a pH-responsive sustained drug release and increased penetration in comparison to free APO based hydrogel. The stability studies of APO-NPs based hydrogel were done to strengthen the potential use of the prepared formulation through transdermal route. Assessment and therapeutic efficacy of the prepared pH-sensitive nanocarriers system was evaluated in chronic inflammatory RA mice model. Parameters associated with chronic inflammation were investigated including behavioral changes and histopathological, and radiological x-rays images of joints of mice paws. In-vivo study depicts improvement in behavioral parameter, decline in synovial hyperplasia and bone structure restoration. In conclusion, APO loaded pH-sensitive NPs based transdermal is a promising carrier system that can effectively manage RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; medicinal plants; herbs
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:56:32 CET)
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and an efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even many of them have been proved effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarise the available scientific information on these joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been already tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswelliaspp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytumprocumbens, Salix spp., Sesamumindicum, Symphytumofficinalis, Zingiberofficinalis, Panaxnotoginseng, Whitaniasomnifera.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1014.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: HAQ; Rheumatoid Arthritis; PROM`s; DMARD; DAS28
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:29:35 CEST)
Several studies have shown that tapering or stopping disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in sustained remission is feasible. However, tapering/stopping bears the risk of decline in physical function as some patients may relapse and face increased disease activity. Here we analysed the impact of tapering or stopping DMARD treatment on the physical function of RA patients. The study was a posthoc analysis of physical functional worsening for 282 patients with RA in sustained remission tapering and stopping DMARD treatment in the prospective randomized RETRO study. HAQ and DAS-28 scores were determined in baseline samples of patients continuing DMARD (arm 1), tapering their dose by 50% (arm 2), or stopping after tapering (arm 3). Patients were followed over 1 year, and HAQ and DAS-28 scores were evaluated every 3 months. The effect of treatment reduction strategy on functional worsening was assessed in a recurrent-event Cox regression model with a study-group (control, taper, taper/stop) as the predictor. 282 patients were analysed. In 58 patients, functional worsening was observed. The incidences suggest a higher probability of functional worsening in patients tapering and/or stopping DMARDs, which is likely due to higher relapse rates in these individuals. At the end of the study, however, functional worsening was similar among the groups. Point estimates and survival curves show that functional decline after tapering or stopping DMARDs in RA patients with stable remission is small and related to relapses but to on overall functional decline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive; achondroplasia
Online: 18 January 2020 (09:31:32 CET)
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are common cartilage and joint diseases that globally affect more than 200 and 20 million people, respectively. Several transcription factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of osteoarthritis, including Runx2, C/EBPβ, HIF2α, Sox4, and Sox11. IL-1β also leads to osteoarthritis through NF-ĸB, IκBζ, and Zn2+-ZIP8-MTF1 axis. IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα play a major pathological role in rheumatoid arthritis through NF-ĸB and JAK/STAT pathways. Indeed, inhibitory reagents for IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα provide clinical benefits for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Several growth factors, such as BMP, FGF, PTHrP, and Indian hedgehog, play roles regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Disruption and excess of these signaling cause genetic disorders in cartilage and skeletal tissues. FOP, an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by ectopic ossification, is induced by mutant ACVR1. mTOR inhibitors were found to prevent ectopic ossification by ACVR1 mutations. ACH and related diseases are autosomal genetic diseases, which manifest severe dwarfism. CNP is currently the most promising therapy for ACH. In these ways, investigation of cartilage and chondrocyte diseases at molecular and cellular levels sheds light on the development of effective therapies. Thus, identification of signaling pathways and transcription factors implicated in these diseases is important.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0122.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: tendon sheath; metacarpophalangeal; rheumatoid arthritis; tenosynovitis; peritendinitis; anatomy
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:29:32 CEST)
Background. MRI-detected inflammation around the extensor tendons of metacarpophalangeal (MCP-)joints is prevalent in RA and poses a markedly increased risk of RA-development when present in arthralgia patients. Such inflammation is called ‘peritendinitis’ since anatomy literature reports no presence of a tenosynovial sheath at these tendons. However, the presence or absence of tenosynovium at these extensor tendons has never been studied. Methods. Therefore, an anatomical and histological study of extensor tendons at the MCP-joints of two embalmed human hands was performed. Routine histology with Haematoxylin-Eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining was performed. Results. Immunohistochemistry showed presence of markers for synovial macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes bordering a natural dorsal space next to the extensor tendon, suggesting the presence of a synovial lining. Conclusion. This implies that contrast-enhancement on MRI around extensor tendons at MCP-joints observed in early RA and pre-RA likely represents tenosynovitis and that inflammation of this synovial tissue is an early feature of RA.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1962.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: methotrexate (MTX); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); cytokeratin -18 ( CK -18)
Online: 29 May 2023 (08:56:15 CEST)
Background: CK-18 is a serological marker of apoptosis that has been widely associated with fibrosis and steatosis in NASH. Many studies have showed association CK-18 levels with NAFLD. To date, there is a profound lack of rheumatology studies on the effect of MTX therapy with regard to CK-18 levels. The relationship between CK-18 levels and cumulative MTX dose, MTX treatment duration, weekly MTX dose is not available in the literature. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) and cumulative methotrexate dose in rheumatology patients on methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Besides, we studied the correlations between CK-18 and clinical parameters including age, disease duration , duration of MTX therapy, cumulative steroid dose and biochemical parameters such as alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase AST). Methods : We recruited 79 rheumatology patients on methotrexate (MTX) therapy as MTX group and 38 patients not on MTX therapy as non-MTX group . All subjects were tested for their serum CK-18 levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. We identified 20 patients with the highest CK-18 levels and 20 patients with the lowest CK-18 levels and had ultrasound liver performed on them. Results : The median serum CK-18 levels were marginally higher among the patients on MTX (1.20 ng/mL [0.19-37.15]) compared to the non-MTX group (1.17 ng/mL [0.37-34.32]). There was a significantly positive relationship between serum CK-18 levels and cumulative MTX dose (r = 0.329, p = 0.003) and total duration of MTX therapy (r = 0.284, p = 0.011). Apart from the above-mentioned variables, the CK-18 levels in MTX group significantly correlated with age (r = 0.265, p = 0.018), ALT (r = 0.440, p = <0.001) and AST (r = 0.478, p= 0.004). Ultrasound liver findings showed median CK-18 levels was higher among patients with abnormal liver findings although statistical significance was not reached. Conclusion : Among patients on MTX therapy, serum CK-18 levels correlated positively with cumulative MTX dose , total duration of MTX treatment , ALT and AST levels. These findings are preliminary and requires validation by future studies in the field of rheumatology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0683.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; synovitis; cartilage; bone; antisense; oligonucleotides; therapeutics.
Online: 28 June 2021 (16:01:16 CEST)
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are two of the most common chronic inflammatory joint diseases, for which there remains a great clinical need to develop safer and more efficacious pharmacological treatments. The pathology of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis involves multiple tissues within the joint, including the synovial joint lining and the bone, as well as the articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. In this review, we discuss the potential for the development of oligonucleotide therapies for these disorders by examining the evidence that oligonucleotides can modulate the key cellular pathways that drive the pathology of the inflammatory diseased joint pathology as well as evidence in preclinical in vivo models that oligonucleotides can modify disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Humeral resurfacing arthroplasty; long-term outcomes; rheumatoid arthritis; avascular necrosis
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:03:19 CEST)
Humeral resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) entails the substitution of the articular surface alone with a prosthetic cap without stem. It is a more conservative procedure which can be easily converted in a total arthroplasty if necessary. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiographical outcomes in a series of patients treated with HRA. 33 patients with a mean fol-low-up of 11 years were clinically (Constant score; Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, DASH) and radiographically assessed before and after surgery. Constant and DASH score improved significantly after surgery, and only 2 cases needed revision surgery. HRA represents a valid therapeutic option in selected cases to improve the quality of life and delaying the need for more invasive procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Covid-19; innate immune memory; rheumatoid arthritis; autoimmune disease; redox bioregulation
Online: 18 September 2023 (08:53:40 CEST)
The best form of prevention against human infection through bacteria, viruses and other parasites is ozone disinfection of wastewater and drinking water as a highly effective, well-known method. As a therapeutic measure, various preclinical studies showed promising results, which are being revisited and reconsidered in times of pandemics and led to interesting results in recent clinical trials and reports, as presented by the example of protective measures against covid-19 in particularly vulnerable clinical personnel. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, repeated ozone treatments have led to new findings in the "immunomodulation" through ozone. The more effective immune response is discussed as the response of innate immune memory and opens interesting aspects for complementary treatment of autoimmune diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; rheumatoid arthritis; oligonucleotides; cartilage; bone; synovium
Online: 5 December 2022 (15:23:19 CET)
Age-related disorders of the musculoskeletal system including sarcopenia, osteoporosis and arthritis represent some of the most common chronic conditions worldwide, for which there remains a great clinical need to develop safer and more efficacious pharmacological treatments. Collectively, these conditions involve multiple tissues, including skeletal muscle, bone, articular cartilage and the synovium within the joint lining. In this review, we discuss the potential for oligonucleotide therapies to combat the unmet clinical need in musculoskeletal disorders by evaluating the successes of oligonucleotides to modify candidate pathological gene targets and cellular processes in relevant tissues and cells of the musculoskeletal system. Further, we discuss the challenges that remain for the clinical development of oligonucleotides therapies for musculoskeletal disorders and evaluate some of the current approaches to overcome these.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1979.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: autoimmunity; glycolysis; metabolites; psoriasis; rheumatoid arthritis; T-cell function; T-cell motility; T-lymphocytes
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:01:58 CEST)
Immune surveillance and adaptive immune responses, involving continuously circulating and tissue-resident T-lymphocytes, provide host defense against infectious agents and possible malignant transformation while avoiding autoimmune tissue damage. Activation, migration, and deployment of T-cells to affected tissue sites are crucial for mounting an adaptive immune response. An effective adaptive immune defense depends on the ability of T-cells to dynamically reprogram their metabolic requirements in response to environmental cues. Inability of the T-cells to adapt to specific metabolic demands may skew cells to become either hyporesponsive creating immunocompromised conditions or hyperactive causing autoimmune tissue destruction. Here, we review maladaptive T-cell metabolic fitness that can cause autoimmune diseases and discuss how T-cell metabolic programs can potentially be modulated to achieve therapeutic benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0303.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inflammation; NF-κB; drug repurposing; drug development; autoimmunity; COVID-19; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:16:25 CET)
NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation, response to DNA damage and oxidative stress. As a result of its central role in so many important cellular processes, NF-κB dysregulation has been implicated in the pathology of important human diseases. NF-κB activation causes inappropriate inflammatory responses in diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, modulation of NF-κB signaling is being widely investigated as an approach to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The emergence of COVID-19 in late 2019, the subsequent pandemic and the huge clinical burden of patients with life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia led to a massive scramble to repurpose existing medicines to treat lung inflammation in a wide range of healthcare systems. These efforts continue and these efforts continue to be con-troversial. Drug repurposing strategies are a promising alternative to de-novo drug development, as they minimize drug development timelines and reduce the risk of failure due to unexpected side effects. Different experimental approaches have been applied to identify existing medicines which inhibit NF-κB that could be repurposed as anti-inflammatory drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Biomarker; CTHRC1; extracellular matrix; interstitial lung disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; rheumatoid arthritis; post-COVID; pirfenidone
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:20:09 CEST)
Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible lung disease characterized by fibrotic scarring in the lung parenchyma. This condition involves the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (EM) due to a persistently activated wound-repair response. The aberrant activation of myofibroblasts in the alveolar environment by Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) and other signaling molecules is considered a key event in the development and progression of fibrosis. A primary target of TGF-β signaling in fibrosis is Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 (CTHRC1), a secreted glycoprotein that plays a pivotal role in extracellular matrix deposition. CTHRC1 is transcriptionally regulated by TGF-β and inhibits both TGF-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways. This dual function suggests that CTHRC1 is vital in regulating tissue remodeling during wound repair. In this review, we will highlight recent studies suggesting that CTHRC1 can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease, systemic sclerosis, and post-COVID lung fibrosis. Notably, the expression of CTHRC1 is responsive to antifibrotic drugs such as pirfenidone indicating its potential as a therapeutic target. Collectively, these findings suggest that CTHRC1 may present new opportunities for the diagnosis, stratification, and treatment of patients with lung fibrosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0579.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; Rheumatic diseases; Rheumatology; Rheumatoid arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Spondyloarthropathies; Osteoarthritis; Hyperuricemia; Gout
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:18:44 CEST)
Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining healthy mineralized skeleton. It is also consid-ered an immunomodulatory agent that regulate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Multi-ple observational studies have demonstrated the association between low level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and presence and severity of several rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), spondyloarthropathies and oste-oarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the specific benefits of vitamin D supplement for treatment and prevention of rheumatic diseases are less accepted as the results from randomized clinical trials are inconsistent, although some conceivable benefits of vitamin D for improvement of disease ac-tivity of RA, SLE and OA have been demonstrated in meta-analyses. It is also possible that some individuals might benefit from vitamin D differently from others since inter-individual difference in responsiveness to vitamin D supplementation has been observed in genomic studies. Although the optimal level of serum 25(OH)D is still debatable, it is advisable it is advisable that patients with rheumatic diseases should maintain serum 25(OH)D level at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) to prevent osteomalacia, secondary osteoporosis and fracture, and possibly 40 – 60 ng/mL (100 – 150 nmol/L) to achieve maximal benefit from vitamin D for immune health and overall health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; chemical composition; miRNA; nanocarriers; inflammation; neurological diseases; liver; kidney and lung injuries; rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis; intestinal bowel diseases
Online: 14 August 2023 (05:22:25 CEST)
Inflammatory diseases are common pathological processes caused by various acute and chronic factors and some of them are autoimmune diseases. Exosomes are fundamental extracellular vesicles secreted by almost all cells, which contain a series of constituents, i.e. cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins (actin, tubulin, histones), nucleic acids (mRNA, miRNA, DNA), lipids (diacylglycerophosphates, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, ceramide), and other bioactive components (cytokines, signal transduction proteins, enzymes, antigen presentation and membrane transport/fusion molecules, adhesion molecules). This review would be a synopsis of the actual knowledge on the contribution of exosomes from different cell sources as possible therapeutic agents against inflammation, focusing on several inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, intestinal bowel disease, asthma, liver and kidney injuries. Current knowledge indicates that the role of exosomes in therapy of inflammation and in inflammatory diseases could be distinctive. Main limitations to their clinical translation are still production, isolation, and storage. Additionally, there is an urgent need to personalize the treatments in terms of selection of exosomes, their dosages and routes of administration, and a deeper knowledge about their biodistribution, type and incidence of adverse events and long-term effects of exosomes. In conclusion, exosomes can very promising next generation therapeutic option, superior to synthetic nanocarriers and cell therapy, and can represent a new strategy of effective, safe, versatile and selective delivery systems in the future.