ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cAMP; PKA; retina; phototransduction; photoreceptors
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:37:20 CET)
The phototransduction cascade allows the photoreceptor to avoid saturation and retain the ability to detect light over a very wide range of intensities. The main second messenger of the cascade is cGMP and the main regulatory mechanism is calcium feedback, however some experimental data suggest that cAMP may also be involved in the regulation of the phototransduction cascade. For this to be the case, cAMP would have to change on a time scale of seconds. Currently, there are no data on the dynamics of changes in intracellular cAMP levels on this time scale, largely due to the specificity of the sensory modality of photoreceptors, where it is practically impossible to use conventional experimental approaches based on fluorescence methods. In the present work, we used the method of rapid cryofixation of retinal samples after light stimulation and subsequent isolation of outer segment preparations. Levels of cAMP were measured using highly sensitive metabolomics approaches. PKA activity was also measured in these samples by Western blot. We show that when illuminated with near-saturating but still moderate light, cAMP levels rise transiently within approximately the first second and then return to pre-stimulus levels. The increase in cAMP activates PKA, leading to phosphorylation of PKA-specific substrates in frog retinal outer segments.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Retina; Bird vision; Colour vision
Online: 11 March 2020 (16:00:46 CET)
The Avian retina is far less known than that of mammals such as mouse and macaque, and detailed study is overdue. The chicken (Gallus gallus) has potential as a model, in part because research can build on developmental studies of the eye and nervous system. One can expect differences between bird and mammal retinas simply because whereas most mammals have three types of visual photoreceptor birds normally have six. Spectral pathways and colour vision are of particular interest, because filtering by oil droplets narrows cone spectral sensitivities and birds are probably tetrachromatic. The number of receptor inputs is reflected in the retinal circuitry. The chicken probably has four types of horizontal cell, there are at least 11 types of bipolar cell, often with bi- or tri-stratified axon terminals, and there is a high density of ganglion cells, which make complex connections in the inner plexiform layer. In addition, there is likely to be retinal specialisation, for example chicken photoreceptors and ganglion cells have separate peaks of cell density in the central and dorsal retina, which probably serve different types of behaviour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0076.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: retina; vision; ambystoma; salamander; mudpuppy; axolotl
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:06:38 CEST)
Salamanders have been habitual residents of research laboratories for more than a century, and their history in science is tightly interwoven with vision research. Nevertheless, many vision scientists – even those working with salamanders – may be unaware of how much our knowledge about vision, and particularly the retina, has been shaped by studying salamanders. In this review, we take a tour through the salamander history in vision science, highlighting the main contributions of salamanders to our understanding of the vertebrate retina. We further point out specificities of the salamander visual system and discuss the perspectives of this animal system for future vision research.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: pericyte; retina; Imatinib; Gleevec; PDGFR; neurovascular
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:17:52 CET)
The nervous system demands an adequate oxygen and metabolite exchange, making pericytes (PCs), the only vasoactive cells on the capillaries, essential to neural function. Loss of PCs is a hallmark of multiple diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptors (PDGFRs) have been shown to be critical to the PC function and survival. However, how PDGFR-mediated PC activity affects vascular homeostasis is not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a chemotherapeutic agent and a potent PDGFR inhibitor, alters the PC distribution and thus induces vascular atrophy. We performed a morphometric analysis of the vascular elements in sham control and imatinib-treated NG2-DsRed mice. Vascular morphology and the integrity of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) were evaluated using blood albumin labeling. We found that imatinib decreased the number of PCs and blood vessel (BV) coverage in all retinal vascular layers, this was accompanied by a shrinkage of BV diameters. Surprisingly, the total length of capillaries was not altered, suggesting a preferential effect of imatinib on PCs. Furthermore, the blood-retina barrier disruption was not evident. In conclusion, our data suggest that imatinib could help in treating neurovascular diseases and serve as a model for PC loss, without BRB disruption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0498.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: color vision; cone photoreceptors; opponency; retina
Online: 20 November 2018 (11:14:49 CET)
Vertebrate color vision is evolutionarily ancient. Jawless fish evolved four main spectral types of cone photoreceptor, almost certainly complemented by retinal circuits to process chromatic opponent signals. Subsequent evolution of photoreceptors and visual pigments are now documented for many vertebrate lineages and species, giving insight into evolutionary variation and ecological adaptation of color vision. We look at organization of the photoreceptor mosaic and the functions different types of cone in teleost fish, primates, and birds and reptiles. By comparison less is known about the underlying neural processing. Here we outline the diversity of vertebrate color vision and summarize our understanding of how spectral information picked up by animal photoreceptor arrays is adapted to natural signals. We then turn to the question of how spectral information is processed in the retina. Here, the quite well known and comparatively ‘simple’ system of mammals such as mice and primates reveals some evolutionarily conserved features such as the mammalian BlueON system which compares short and long wavelength receptors signals. We then survey our current understanding of the more complex circuits of fish, amphibians, birds and reptiles. Together, these clades make up more than 90% of vertebrate species, yet we know disturbingly little about their neural circuits for colour vision beyond the photoreceptors. Here, long-standing work on goldfish, freshwater turtles and other species is being complemented by new insights gained from the experimentally amendable retina of zebrafish. From this body of work, one thing is clear: The retinal basis of colour vision in non-mammalian vertebrates is substantially richer compared to mammals: Diverse and complex spectral tunings are established at the level of the cone output via horizontal cell feedforward circuits. From here, zebrafish use cone-selective wiring in bipolar cells to set-up color opponent synaptic layers in the inner retina, which in turn lead a large diversity of color-opponent channels for transmission to the brain. However, while we are starting to build an understanding of the richness of spectral properties in some of these species’ retinal neurons, little is known about inner retinal connectivity and cell-type identify. To gain an understanding of their actual circuits, and thus to build a more generalised understanding of the vertebrate retinal basis of color vision, it will be paramount to expand ongoing efforts in deciphering the retinal circuits of non-mammalian models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cholinesterase; acetylcholine; visual function; ocular surface; retina
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:28:38 CEST)
The visual system is regulated by the nervous through neurotransmitters, which play an important role in visual and ocular functions. One of those neurotransmitters is acetylcholine, a key molecule that plays a diversity of biological functions. On the other hand, acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, is implicated in cholinergic function. However, several studies showed that in addition to their enzymatic functions, Acetylcholinesterase exerts non-catalytic functions. In recent years, the importance of evaluating all possible functions of acetylcholine-acetylcholinesterase has been evidenced. Nevertheless, there is evidence that suggests cholinesterase activity in the eye can regulate some biological events both in structures of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye and therefore in the visual information that is processed in the visual cortex. Hence, the evaluation of cholinesterase activity could be a possible marker of alterations in cholinergic activity not only in ocular disease but also in systemic diseases.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: wet-AMD; cataract surgery; cataract extraction complications; retina
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:53:10 CEST)
Background: Cataract and Age-related Macular Degeneration are two characteristic diseases of the so-called elderly age (75-90 years and older). Both determine an important visual impairment, so it is often difficult to understand how much of the visual loss is given by the cataract opacities and how much by the degeneration of the macula and this assumes a relevant medico-legal query in clinical practice. Methods: From that pool we randomized in group 735 eyes with wAMD (males 328, females 407) Average age: 76.23±13.87 years, and in Group 819 eyes without clear signs of wAMD (males 361, females 451) Average age: was 75.88±18.21 years to randomize them we used the online randomization program (http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/index.cfm) selecting random numbers and then randomly assign subjects to groups to undergo our observational study. All patients were examined with full ophtalmological visit including Best Corrected Visual Acuity (with Bailey-Lawson Chart), Anterior Segment examination, Fundus Examination, in all cases with wAMD was also performed OCT. ANOVA multifactorial statistical analysis was drawn. Results: number of patients with unsatisfactory surgery is significantly higher in the group of AMD patients, and this is easily understandable from what has been said above, but I would like to underline that in most patients there are very positive results, therefore cataract surgery is also indicated in AMD patients. Conclusions: Cataract surgery has a positive impact on the patient's life in most cases, you shouldn't be afraid to operate. However, it is necessary to find surgical measures capable of minimizing the consequences of the intervention on the retina.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; ocular surface; retina; immunity; inflammation
Online: 12 May 2023 (11:00:32 CEST)
Diabetes is a prevalent global health issue associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known inflammatory, neurovascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of preventable blindness in developed countries among working-age adults. However, the ocular surface components of diabetic eyes are also at risk of damage due to uncontrolled diabetes, which is often overlooked. Inflammatory changes in the corneas of diabetic patients indicate that inflammation plays a significant role in diabetic complications, much like in DR. The eye´s immune privilege restricts immune and inflammatory responses, and the cornea and retina have a complex network of innate immune cells that maintain immune homeostasis. Nevertheless, low-grade inflammation in diabetes contributes to immune dysregulation. This article aims to provide an overview and discussion of how diabetes affects the ocular immune system’s main components, immune-competent cells, and inflammatory mediators. By understanding these effects, potential interventions and treatments may be developed to improve the ocular health of diabetic patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: TBI; brain; injury; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; retina; degeneration
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:38:56 CET)
A Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the main causes of sudden death after head trauma. These injuries can result in severe degeneration and neuronal cell death in the CNS, including the retina which is a crucial part of the brain responsible for perceiving and transmitting visual information. The long-term effects of mild-repetitive TBI (rmTBI) are far less studied thus far, even though damages induced by repetitive injuries occurring in the brain are more common, especially amongst athletes. rmTBI can also have a detrimental effect on the retina and the pathophysiology of these injuries are likely to differ from the severe TBI (sTBI) retinal injury.Here we showed how rmTBI and sTBI can dissimilarly affect the retina. Our results indicate an increase in the number of activated microglial cells and Caspase3-positive cells in the retina in both traumatic models, suggesting a rise in the level of inflammation and cell death after TBI. The pattern of microglial activation appears evenly distributed and widespread but differs amongst the various retinal layers. sTBI induced microgial activation in both the superficial and deep retinal layers. In contrast to sTBI, no significant change occurred following the repetitive mild injury in the superficial layer, only the deep layer (spanning from the inner nuclear layer to the outer plexiform layer) shows microglial activation. This difference suggests that alternate response mechanisms play a role in the case of the different TBI incidents. The Caspase3 activation pattern showed a uniform increase in both the superficial and deep layers of the retina. This suggests a different action in the course of the disease in sTBI and rmTBI models and points to the need for new diagnostic procedures.Our present results suggest that the retina might serve as such a model of head injuries since the retinal tissue reacts to both forms of TBI and is the most accessible part of the human brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0701.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: retina; neurodegeneration; AMD; aging; neurogenesis; development; transcription factor
Online: 29 June 2021 (12:41:56 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that constitutes the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Incomplete knowledge about its pathogenesis prevents the search for effective methods of prevention and treatment of AMD, primarily its “dry” type, which is by far the most common (90% of all AMD cases). In recent years, AMD became younger: late stages of the disease are now detected in relatively young people. It is known that AMD pathogenesis—according to the age-related structural and functional changes in the retina—is linked with inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an impairment of neurotrophic support, but the mechanisms that trigger the conversion of normal age-related changes to the pathological process as well as the reason for early AMD development remain unclear. In the adult mammalian retina, de novo neurogenesis is very limited. Therefore, the structural and functional features that arise during its maturation and formation can exert long-term effects on further ontogenesis of this tissue. The aim of this review is to discuss possible contributions of the changes/disturbances in retinal neurogenesis to the early development of AMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: LED; light; retina; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; Bcl-2; BAX; degeneration
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:04:11 CEST)
Vision is our primary sense as the human eye is the gateway for more than 65% of information reaching the human brain. Today’s increased exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light from Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) sources could induce retinal degeneration and accompanying neuronal cell death. Damage induced by chronic phototoxic reactions occurring in the retina accumulates over years and it has been suggested to be responsible for the etiology of many debilitating ocular conditions. In this work, we examined how LED stimulation affects vision by monitoring changes in the expression of death and survival factors as well as microglial activation in LED-induced damage (LID) of the retinal tissue. We found an LED exposure-induced increase in the mRNA levels of major apoptosis-related markers -BAX, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 and an accompanying wide-spread microglial and Caspase-3 activation. Everyday LED light exposure was accounted for all the described changes in the retinal tissue of mice in this study, indicating that overuse of non-filtered direct LED light can have detrimental effects on the human retina as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: parvalbumin; calretinin; calbindin; expression; retina; topography; ganglion cell; calcium buffer protein
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:43:03 CET)
The most prevalent Ca2+-buffer proteins (CaBPs: parvalbumin—PV; calbindin—CaB; calretinin—CaR) are widely expressed by various neurons throughout the brain, including the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Even though their retinal expression has been extensively studied, a coherent assessment of topographical variations is missing. To examine this, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the mouse retina. We found variability in the expression levels and cell numbers for CaR, with stronger and more numerous labels in the dorso-central area. CaBP+ cells contributed to RGCs with all soma sizes, indicating heterogeneity. We separated 4-9 RGC clusters in each area based on expression levels and soma sizes. Besides the overall high variety in cluster number and size, the peripheral half of the temporal retina showed the greatest cluster number, indicating a better separation of RGC subtypes there. Multiple labels showed that 39% of the RGCs showed positivity for a single CaBP, 30% expressed two CaBPs, 25% showed no CaBP expression and 6% expressed all three proteins. Finally, we observed an inverse relation between CaB and CaR expression levels in CaB/CaR dually- and CaB/CaR/PV triple labeled RGCs, suggesting a mutual complementary function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration; Glaucoma; Gut microbiota; Mendelian randomization; Gut-retina axis
Online: 9 October 2023 (14:55:25 CEST)
Purpose The objective of this study was to eliminate any ambiguity by examining the correlation between gut microbiota and both AMD and glaucoma. Methods Mendelian randomization studies were conducted utilizing the data sourced from the GWAS database for the gut microbiome, AMD, and glaucoma. SNP estimates were summarized through five MR methods. We utilized Cochran's Q statistic to evaluate the heterogeneity of the instrumental variables. Additionally, we employed a "leave-one-out" approach to verify the stability of our findings. Results IVW suggests that Eubacterium (oxidoreducens group) and Parabacteroides had a protective effect on AMD. Both weighted median and IVW suggests that Lachnospiraceae (NK4A136 group) and Ruminococcaceae (UCG009) had a protective effect on AMD. However, both weighted median and IVW suggests that Dorea had a risk effect on AMD. Similarly, The IVW of Eubacterium (ventriosum group) showed a risk effect on AMD. The weighted median of Eubacterium (nodatum group), Lachnospiraceae (NC2004 group), and Roseburia had a risk effect on glaucoma. IVW suggested that Ruminococcaceae (UCG004) had a risk effect on glaucoma. Reverse MR analysis found a causal link between Eubacterium (nodatum group) and glaucoma. No causal relationships were found between AMD or glaucoma and the other mentioned bacterial groups. No significant heterogeneity or evidence of horizontal pleiotropy was detected. Conclusions This study found that certain gut bacteria had protective effects on AMD, while others may be risk factors for AMD or glaucoma. Besides, reverse MR found that glaucoma led to increased abundance of certain gut bacteria. Further trials are needed to clarify the specific mechanisms involved.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1919.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Super-resolution; OCT-A; implicit neural representation; retina; diabetic retinopathy; opthalmic images
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:47:17 CEST)
There has been considerable progress in implicit neural representation to upscale an image to any arbitrary resolution. However, existing methods are based on defining a function to predict the RGB value from just four specific loci. Relying on just four loci is insufficient as it leads to losing fine details from the neighboring region(s). We show that by taking into account the semi-local region leads to an improvement in performance. In this paper, we propose applying a new technique called Overlapping Windows on Semi-Local Region (OW-SLR) to an image to obtain any arbitrary resolution by taking the coordinates of the semi-local region around a point in the latent space. This extracted detail is used to predict the RGB value of a point. We illustrate the technique by applying the algorithm to the Optical Coherence Tomography-Angiography (OCT-A) images and show that it can upscale them to random resolution. This technique outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods when applied to the OCT500 dataset. OW-SLR provides better results for classifying healthy and diseased retinal images such as diabetic retinopathy and normals from the given set of OCT-A images. The project page is available at https://rishavbb.github.io/ow-slr/index.html
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0237.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: retina; swept-source; optical coherence tomography-angiography; OCT-A; cardiovascular risk; CHA2DS2-VASc
Online: 5 June 2023 (04:46:25 CEST)
In a context of exponential demographic growth, the imbalance between human resources and public health problems is impelling us to envision other solutions to the difficulties faced in the diagnosis, prevention and large-scale management of the most common diseases. Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A large-scale screening program would make it possible to promptly identify patients with high cardiovascular risk in order to manage them adequately. Optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A), as a window into the state of the cardiovascular system, is a rapid, reliable, and reproducible imaging examination that enables prompt identification of at-risk patients through the use of automated classification models. One challenge that limits the development of computer-aided diagnostic programs is the small number of open-source OCT-A acquisitions available. To facilitate the development of such models, we have assembled a set of images of the retinal microvascular system from 499 patients. It consists of 814 angiocubes as well as 2005 en face images. Angiocubes were captured with a swept-source OCT-A device of patients with varying overall cardiovascular risk. To the best of our knowledge, our dataset, RASTA, is the only publicly available dataset comprising such a variety of images from healthy and at-risk patients. This dataset will enable the development of generalizable models for screening of cardiovascular diseases from OCT-A retinal images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0016.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: glaucoma; retina ganglion cell degeneration; microarray; genes coordination; notch signaling pathway; complement cascade
Online: 23 February 2021 (12:44:20 CET)
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease, characterized by degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). There has been little progress in developing efficient strategies for neuroprotection in glaucoma. We profiled the retina transcriptome of Lister Hooded rats at 2 weeks after optic nerve crush (ONC) and analyzed the data from the Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) to bring additional insights into the molecular mechanisms of the retinal remodeling after induction of RGC degeneration. GFP considers for the expression of each gene 3 independent characteristics: level, variability and correlation with each other gene. Thus, the 17,657 quantified genes our study generated a total of 155,911,310 values to analyze. This represents 8,830x more data per condition than a traditional transcriptomic analysis. ONC led to a 57% reduction in RGC numbers as detected by retrograde labeling with DiI. We observed a higher Relative Expression Variability after ONC. Gene expression stability was used as a measure of transcription control and disclosed a robust reduction in the number of very stably expressed genes. Predicted Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) analysis with STRING revealed axon and neuron projection as mostly decreased processes, consistent with RGC degeneration. Conversely, immune response PPIs were found among up-regulated genes. Enrichment analysis showed that Complement Cascade and Notch Signaling Pathway, as well as Oxidative Stress and Kit Receptor Pathway were affected after ONC. To expand our studies of altered molecular pathways, we examined the pair-wise coordination of gene expressions within each pathway and within the entire transcriptome using Pearson correlations. ONC increased the number of synergistically coordinated pairs of genes and the number of similar profiles mainly in Complement Cascade and Notch Signaling Pathway. This deep bioinformatic study provides novel insights beyond the regulation of individual gene expression and discloses changes in the control of expression of Complement Cascade and Notch Signaling functional pathways that may be relevant for both RGC degeneration and remodeling of the retinal tissue after ONC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: multidrug resistance protein 4; ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters; aging; retina; mouse; electroretinogram
Online: 4 February 2021 (10:58:06 CET)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is an energy-dependent membrane transporter that is responsible for cellular efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics and physiological substrates. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the co-effects of aging and MRP4 deficiency using gene expression microarray and morphological and electrophysiological analyses of the mouse retina. Mrp4-knockout (null) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were reared in the same condition to 8–12 wk (young) or 45–55 wk (aged). Microarray analysis identified 186 differently expressed genes from the retinas of aged Mrp4-null mice as compared to that from aged WT mice, and subsequence gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed that differently expressed genes were related to lens, eye development, vision, and transcellular barrier function that are involved in metabolic pathways or viral infection pathways. No significant change in thickness was observed for each retinal layer among young/aged WT mice and young/aged Mrp4-null mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses of retinal cell type did not exhibit an overt change in the cellular morphology or distribution among the 4 age/genotype groups, and the electroretinogram responses showed no significant differences in the amplitude or the latency between aged WT mice and aged Mrp4-null mice. Aging would be an insufficient stress to cause some damage to the retina in the presence of MRP4 deficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1807.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; choroid; cornea; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome; ocular health; ophtalmology; retina; sleep-disordered breathing
Online: 27 September 2023 (02:25:08 CEST)
Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a respiratory condition identified by the partial or complete obstruction of the upper air passages during sleep. These episodes can lead to complications in neurobehavioral and cognitive domains and cardiovascular issues, especially in children. The involvement of OSA in ocular health during adulthood has been reported, but it remains a topic of debate in pediatric cases. Objective: This review aims to analyze the correlation between OSAS and ocular health in children. Specifically, it investigates the effects of OSA on ocular structures and conditions and explores potential improvements through treatment. Subjects and Methods: The research employed three search engines: PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and WebOfScience. After initial identification, 120 irrelevant articles were excluded. Of these, 10 pertained to the adult population, and 110 focused on the pediatric population. Following a careful selection process and the application of enrollment criteria, six relevant articles were included, all in English, focusing on the effects of OSA on children's eyes. Among these, three studies explored correlations with choroidal alterations, while three investigated retinal and optic nerve changes. Two studies analyzed post-otorhinolaryngological intervention ocular changes. Results: OSA leads to increased intraocular pressure and reduced optic nerve thickness in adults, but treatment alleviates this condition. An immediate correlation between OSA and optic nerve thickness in children does not readily emerge, although age appears to play a role. Pediatric patients with OSA exhibit corneal anomalies and an increase in optic nerve thickness, possibly due to intermittent hypoxia. Studies indicate that OSA can influence retinal vascular density in children, with an increase observed after treatment and reduced choroidal thickness in cases of adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Conclusion: This literature review has highlighted how OSA in children can significantly impact ocular health, with observed alterations in the optic nerve, choroid, retina, and cornea. While the direct correlation with the optic nerve may not always be evident, OSA can elevate intraocular pressure and lead to structural changes. However, treatment appears to bring about improvements. The necessity for regular monitoring to detect potential adverse effects underscores the importance of promptly addressing childhood OSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0228.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: lipofuscin; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; docosahexaenoate; docosahexaenoic acid; fluorescence; photodegradation; photobleaching; cell viability; endocytic activity
Online: 14 December 2021 (11:41:14 CET)
Retinal lipofuscin accumulates with age in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) where its fluorescence properties are used to assess the retinal health. It was observed that there is a decrease in lipofuscin fluorescence above the age of 75 years and in early stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of lipofuscin isolated from human RPE, and lipofuscin-laden-cells to visible light, and determine whether an abundant component of lipofuscin, docosahexaenoate (DHA) can contribute to lipofuscin fluorescence upon oxidation. Exposure of lipofuscin to visible leads to a decrease of its long-wavelength fluorescence at about 610 nm with concomitant growth of the short-wavelength fluorescence. The emission spectrum of photodegraded lipofuscin exhibits similarity with that of oxidized DHA. Exposure to light of lipofuscin-laden cells leads to loss of lipofuscin granules from cells, while retaining cell viability. The spectral changes of fluorescence in lipofuscin-laden cells resemble those seen during photodegradation of isolated lipofuscin. Our results demonstrate that fluorescence emission spectra together with quantitation of intensity of long-wavelength fluorescence can serve as a marker useful for lipofuscin quantification and for monitoring its oxidation, thereby useful for screening the retina for increased oxidative damage and early AMD-related changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: human psychophysics; apparent motion; temporal integration; cat; retina; neural coding; Hassenstein-Reichardt detector; model analysis
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:31:03 CEST)
Under optimal conditions, just 3–6 ms of visual stimulation suffices for humans to see motion. Motion perception on this time scale implies that the visual system under these conditions reliably encodes, transmits, and processes neural signals with near-millisecond precision. Motivated by in vitro evidence for high temporal precision of motion signals in the primate retina, we investigated how neuronal and perceptual limits of motion encoding relate. Specifically, we examined the correspondence between the time scale at which cat retinal ganglion cells in vivo represent motion information and temporal thresholds for human motion discrimination. The time scale for motion encoding by ganglion cells ranged from 4.6–91 ms, depended nonlinearly on temporal frequency but not on contrast. Human psychophysics revealed that minimal stimulus durations required for perceiving motion direction were similarly brief, 5.6–65 ms, similarly depended on temporal frequency but, above ~10%, not on contrast. Notably, physiological and psychophysical measurements corresponded closely throughout (r = 0.99), despite more than a 20-fold variation in both human thresholds and optimal time scales for motion encoding in the retina. These results demonstrate that neural circuits for motion vision in cortex can maintain and make use of the high temporal fidelity of the retinal output signals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: lipofuscin; retina; fundus autofluorescence; fluorescence imaging; oxidative stress; photooxida-tion; oxidation; biomarker; age-related macular degeneration
Online: 5 July 2023 (10:42:37 CEST)
Lipofuscin accumulates with age as intracellular fluorescent granules originating from incomplete lysosomal digestion of phagocytosed and autophagocytosed material. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current understanding of the role of oxidative stress and/or lysosomal dysfunction in lipofuscin accumulation and its consequences, particularly for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Next, the fluorescence of lipofuscin, spectral changes induced by oxidation, and its contribution to retinal fluorescence are discussed. This is followed by reviewing recent developments in fluorescence imaging of the retina, and the current evidence on the prognostic value of retinal fluorescence for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the major blinding disease affecting elderly people in developed countries. The evidence of lipofuscin oxidation in vivo, and the evidence of increased oxidative damage in AMD retina ex vivo lead to the conclusion that imaging of spectral characteristics of lipofuscin fluorescence may serve as a useful biomarker of oxidative damage which can be helpful in assessing the efficacy of potential antioxidant therapies in retinal degenerations associated with accumulation of lipofuscin and increased oxidative stress. Finally, amendments to currently used fluorescence imaging instruments are suggested, to be more sensitive and specific for imaging spectral char-acteristics of lipofuscin fluorescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0066.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: carotenoid; lutein; zexanthin; dehydrolutein; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; singlet oxygen; photosensitized oxidation; age-related macular degeneration.
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:04:44 CEST)
Dehydrolutein accumulates in substantial concentrations in the retina. The aim of this study was to compare antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein with other retinal carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and their effects on ARPE-19 cells. The time-resolved detection of characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence was used to compare the singlet oxygen quenching rate constants of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The effects of these carotenoids on photosensitized oxidation were tested in liposomes, where photooxidation was induced by light in the presence of photosensitizers, and monitored by oximetry. To compare the uptake of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin, ARPE-19 cells were incubated with carotenoids for up to 19 days, and carotenoid contents were determined by spectrophotometry in cell extracts. To investigate the effects of carotenoids on phototocytotoxicity, cells were exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal or all-trans-retinal. The results demonstrate that the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching are 0.77x1010, 0.55x1010, and 1.23x1010 M-1s-1 for dehydrolutein, lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Overall, dehydrolutein is similar to lutein or zeaxanthin in protection of lipids against photosensitized oxidation. ARPE-19 cells accumulate substantial amounts of both zeaxanthin and lutein but no detectable amounts of dehydrolutein. Cells pre-incubated with carotenoids are equally susceptible to photosensitized damage as cells without carotenoids. Carotenoids provided to cells together with the extracellular photosensitizers offer partial protection against photodamage. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein are similar to lutein and zeaxanthin. The mechanism responsible for its lack of accumulation in ARPE-19 cells deserves further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: NMDA; excitotoxicity; Glaucoma; melanopsin-RGCs; intrinsically photosensitive-RGCs; Brn3a+RGCs; adult albino rat; retina; SD-OCT
Online: 23 May 2019 (04:43:45 CEST)
We studied short- and long-term effects of intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on melanopsin-containing (m+) and non-melanopsin-containing (Brn3a+) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In adult SD-rats, the left eye received a single intravitreal injection of 5µL of 100nM NMDA. At 3 and 15 months, retinal thickness was measured in vivo using SD-OCT. Ex vivo analyses were done at 3, 7, 14 days or 15 months after damage. Whole-mounted retinas were immunolabelled for Brn3a and melanopsin, the total number of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were quantified and their topography represented. In control retinas, the mean total numbers of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were 78,903±3,572 and 2,358±144 (mean ± SD; n=10), respectively. In the NMDA injected retinas, Brn3a+RGCs numbers diminished to 50% and 25%, at 3 and 14 days, respectively, but there was no further loss up to 15 months. The number of immunoidentified m+RGCs decreased significantly at 3 days, recovered between 3-7 days and was back to normal thereafter. OCT measurements revealed a significant thinning of the left retinas at 3 and 15 months. Intravitreal injections of NMDA induce a rapid loss of 75% of Brn3a+RGCs, a transient downregulation of melanopsin expression but not m+RGC death, and a thinning of the inner retinal layers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Retina; Retinal nerve fiber layer; Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Optical coherence tomography; OCT; CPAP; Upper airway surgery.
Online: 17 December 2021 (08:47:15 CET)
Retinal findings may change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The present study aims to evaluate several retinal findings such as macula layer thickness, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and the optic nerve head in patients with OSAS using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and monitor the result of several types of treatment of OSAS with OCT. A prospective comparative study was designed. Patients were recruited at a Sleep Unit of a University Hospital and underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations. Following exclusion criteria, fifty-two patients with OSAS were finally included. Patients were examined by OCT twice: first, before treatment; secondly, after six months of treatment. In mild-moderate patients, where retinal swelling has been demonstrated, retinal thicknesses decreased [fovea (p=0.026), as well as inner ring macula (p=0.007), outer ring macula (p=0.015), and macular volume (p=0.015)]. In severe patients, where retinal atrophy had been observed, retinal thickness increased [fovea (p<0.001)]. No statistically significant differences in efficacy between treatments were demonstrated. In conclusion, OCT can evaluate the retina in patients with OSAS and help monitor results after treatment. In severe OSAS, retinal thickness increased six months after treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Gene therapy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9, Cas12a, dual AAV, triple AAV, clinical trials, retina, hereditary retinal dystrophies
Online: 1 October 2018 (13:52:23 CEST)
Recently, there have been revolutions in the development of both gene therapy and genome surgical treatments for inherited diseases. Much of this progress has been centered around hereditary retinal dystrophies, because the eye is an immune-privileged and anatomically ideal target. Gene therapy treatments, already demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in numerous clinical trials, are benefitting from the development of new viral vectors, such as dual and triple AAVs. CRISPR/Ca9, which revolutionized the field of gene editing, is being adapted into more precise “high fidelity” and catalytically dead variants. New CRISPR endonucleases, such as CjCas9 and Cas12a, are generating excitement in the field as well. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative, allowing human embryo derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to be edited precisely in vitro and then reintroduced into the body. This article highlights recent progress made in gene therapy and genome surgery for retinal disorders, and it provides an update on precision medicine FDA treatment trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0362.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Arf-like protein 2 (ARL2); tubulin αβ-heterodimers; retina; rod photoreceptors; microtubule cytoskeleton (MTC); dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1)
Online: 21 November 2022 (02:50:04 CET)
Arf-like protein 2 (ARL2) is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase with multiple functions. In cell culture, ARL2 participates with tubulin cofactor D (TBCD) in the neogenesis of tubulin αβ-heterodimers, the building blocks of microtubules. To evaluate this function in retina, we conditionally deleted ARL2 in mouse retina at two distinct stages, either during embryonic development (retArl2-/-) or after ciliogenesis specifically in rods (rodArl2-/-). retArl2-/- retina sections displayed distorted nuclear layers and a disrupted microtubule cytoskeleton (MTC) as early as postnatal day 6 (P6). Rod and cone outer segments (OS) did not form. By contrast, rod ARL2 knockouts were stable at postnatal day 35 and revealed normal ERG responses. Cytoplasmic dynein is reduced in retArl2-/- inner segments (IS), suggesting that dynein may be unstable in the absence of a normal MTC. We investigated microtubular stability in the absence of either ARL2 (retARL2-/-) or DYNC1H1 (retDync1h1-/-), the dynein heavy chain, and found that both the retArl2-/- and retDync1h1-/- retinas exhibited reduced microtubules and nuclear layer distortion. The results suggest that ARL2 and dynein depend on each other to generate a functional MTC during early photoreceptor development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: vertebrate retina, mouse, zebrafish, two-photon microscopy, biosensor, activity probes, visual stimulus-evoked activity, laser-evoked retinal activity
Online: 26 March 2019 (14:01:49 CET)
Two-photon imaging of light stimulus-evoked neuronal activity has been used to study all neuron classes in the vertebrate retina, from the photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells. Clearly, the ability to study retinal circuits down to the level of single synapses or zoomed out at the level of complete populations of neurons, has been a major asset in our understanding of this beautiful circuit. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities and pitfalls of using an all-optical approach in this highly light-sensitive part of the brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Gut-retina axis, Gut microbiota, Dietary habits, Micronutrients, Fish oil, omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Personalised medicine
Online: 16 October 2018 (17:39:27 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged >=65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30-50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many observational studies, such as AREDS-1 and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD. Recently, low-grade inflammation, sustained by dysbiosis and a leaky gut, has been shown to contribute to the development of AMD. Given the ascertained influence of the gut microbiota in systemic low-grade inflammation and its potential modulation by macro- and micro-nutrients, a potential role of diet in AMD has been proposed. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AMD. Using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, we searched for recent scientific evidence discussing the impact of dietary habits (high fat and high glucose or fructose diets), micronutrients (vitamins C, E, and D, zinc, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and omega-3 fatty acids on the modulation of the gut microbiota and their relationship with AMD risk and progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; aging retina; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha; PGC-1 AMD; cellular senescence; autophagy; oxidative stress
Online: 18 July 2023 (11:09:42 CEST)
We previously showed that mice with knockout in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) gene encoding the PGC-1a protein and nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2) gene, showed some features of the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) phenotype. To further explore the mechanism behind the involvement of PGC-1a in AMD pathogenesis we used young (3-month) and old (12-month) mice with knockout in the PPARGC1A gene and age-matched wild-type (WT) animals. An immunohistochemical analysis showed age-dependent different expression of markers of oxidative stress defense, senescence and autophagy in the retinal pigment epithelium of KO animals as compared with their WT counterparts. Multivariate inference testing showed that senescence and autophagy proteins had the greatest impact on the discrimination between KO and WT 3-month animals, but proteins of antioxidant defense also contributed to that discrimination. A bioinformatic analysis showed that PGC-1a might coordinate the interplay between genes encoding proteins involved in antioxidant defense, senescence and autophagy in the aging retina. These data support importance of PGC-1a in AMD pathogenesis and confirm the utility of mice with PGC-1a knockout as an animal model to study AMD pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0723.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: retina organ culture; neuroretinal degenerative disease; oxidative stress; antioxidant; age-related macular degeneration (AMD); diabetic retinopathy (DR); Scutellarin; PEDF; GM-CSF; 4R
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:42:33 CEST)
Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal neurodegenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and an important target of therapeutic treatments. New therapeutics are tested in vivo despite limits in transferability and ethical concerns. Retina cultures using human tissue can deliver critical information and significantly reduce the number of animal experiments along with increased transferability. We cultured up to 32 retina samples derived from one eye, analyzed models’ quality, induced OS, and tested efficiency of antioxidative therapeutics. Bovine, porcine, rat, and human retinae were cultured in different experimental settings for 3-14 d. OS was induced by high-glucose or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated by Scutellarin, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), and/or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Tissue morphology, cell viability, inflammation, and glutathione level were determined. Retina samples showed only moderate necrosis (23.83±5.05 increased to 27.00±1.66 AU PI-staining over 14 d) after 14 days in culture. OS was successfully induced (reduced ATP content of 288.3±59.9 vs. 435.7±166.8 nM ATP in controls); antioxidants reduced OS-induced apoptosis (from 124.20±51.09 to 60.80±319.66 cells/image after scutellarin-treatment). Enhanced mammalian animal and human retina cultures allow reliable, highly transferable research on OS-triggered age-related diseases and pre-clinical testing during drug development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0449.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Central Nervous System; Ependymal Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; NG2+ Cells; Regenerative Medicine; Retina Injury; Spinal Cord Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury.
Online: 16 June 2021 (15:02:02 CEST)
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i.e., the brain, spinal cord, and retina. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals, e.g., neurotrophic and growth factors, master transcription factors, and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), collectively regulate activities and characteristics of NSPCs: quiescence/survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration. This review discusses the heterogeneous NSPC populations in the normal physiology and highlights their potentials and roles in injured/diseased states for regenerative medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD); Cornea; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); drug delivery; non-invasive ocular delivery platform (NIODP); ocular disease; omega-3; retina; retinal delivery; retinal dis
Online: 14 August 2023 (15:18:22 CEST)
To this day, use of oily eye drops and non-invasive retinal delivery remains a major challenge. Oily eye drops usually cause ocular irritation and interfere with normal function of the eye, while ocular injections for retinal drug delivery cause significant adverse effects and a high burden on the healthcare system. Here the authors report a novel topical Non-Invasive Ocular Delivery Platform (NIODP) through the periorbital skin for high efficiency anterior and posterior ocular delivery in a non-human primate model (NHP). A single dose of about 7mg JV-MD2 (omega-3 DHA) via the NIODP reached the retina at Cmax of 111µg/g and the cornea at Cmax of 66µg/g. NIODP also delivered JV-DE1, an anti-inflammatory agent in development for dry eye diseases, as efficiently as eye drops did to anterior segments of NHP. The topical NIODP seems to transport drug candidates through the cornea pathway to the anterior and via the conjunctiva/sclera pathway to the posterior segments of the eye. The novel NIODP method has the potential to reshape the landscape of ocular drug delivery, especially for oily eye drops and retinal delivery, where the success of treatment lies in the ocular tolerability and bioavailability of drugs in the target tissue.