Online: 11 March 2020 (16:00:46 CET)
The Avian retina is far less known than that of mammals such as mouse and macaque, and detailed study is overdue. The chicken (Gallus gallus) has potential as a model, in part because research can build on developmental studies of the eye and nervous system. One can expect differences between bird and mammal retinas simply because whereas most mammals have three types of visual photoreceptor birds normally have six. Spectral pathways and colour vision are of particular interest, because filtering by oil droplets narrows cone spectral sensitivities and birds are probably tetrachromatic. The number of receptor inputs is reflected in the retinal circuitry. The chicken probably has four types of horizontal cell, there are at least 11 types of bipolar cell, often with bi- or tri-stratified axon terminals, and there is a high density of ganglion cells, which make complex connections in the inner plexiform layer. In addition, there is likely to be retinal specialisation, for example chicken photoreceptors and ganglion cells have separate peaks of cell density in the central and dorsal retina, which probably serve different types of behaviour.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0076.v2
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:06:38 CEST)
Salamanders have been habitual residents of research laboratories for more than a century, and their history in science is tightly interwoven with vision research. Nevertheless, many vision scientists – even those working with salamanders – may be unaware of how much our knowledge about vision, and particularly the retina, has been shaped by studying salamanders. In this review, we take a tour through the salamander history in vision science, highlighting the main contributions of salamanders to our understanding of the vertebrate retina. We further point out specificities of the salamander visual system and discuss the perspectives of this animal system for future vision research.
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:17:52 CET)
The nervous system demands an adequate oxygen and metabolite exchange, making pericytes (PCs), the only vasoactive cells on the capillaries, essential to neural function. Loss of PCs is a hallmark of multiple diseases, including diabetes, Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptors (PDGFRs) have been shown to be critical to the PC function and survival. However, how PDGFR-mediated PC activity affects vascular homeostasis is not fully understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a chemotherapeutic agent and a potent PDGFR inhibitor, alters the PC distribution and thus induces vascular atrophy. We performed a morphometric analysis of the vascular elements in sham control and imatinib-treated NG2-DsRed mice. Vascular morphology and the integrity of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) were evaluated using blood albumin labeling. We found that imatinib decreased the number of PCs and blood vessel (BV) coverage in all retinal vascular layers, this was accompanied by a shrinkage of BV diameters. Surprisingly, the total length of capillaries was not altered, suggesting a preferential effect of imatinib on PCs. Furthermore, the blood-retina barrier disruption was not evident. In conclusion, our data suggest that imatinib could help in treating neurovascular diseases and serve as a model for PC loss, without BRB disruption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0498.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: color vision; cone photoreceptors; opponency; retina
Online: 20 November 2018 (11:14:49 CET)
Vertebrate color vision is evolutionarily ancient. Jawless fish evolved four main spectral types of cone photoreceptor, almost certainly complemented by retinal circuits to process chromatic opponent signals. Subsequent evolution of photoreceptors and visual pigments are now documented for many vertebrate lineages and species, giving insight into evolutionary variation and ecological adaptation of color vision. We look at organization of the photoreceptor mosaic and the functions different types of cone in teleost fish, primates, and birds and reptiles. By comparison less is known about the underlying neural processing. Here we outline the diversity of vertebrate color vision and summarize our understanding of how spectral information picked up by animal photoreceptor arrays is adapted to natural signals. We then turn to the question of how spectral information is processed in the retina. Here, the quite well known and comparatively ‘simple’ system of mammals such as mice and primates reveals some evolutionarily conserved features such as the mammalian BlueON system which compares short and long wavelength receptors signals. We then survey our current understanding of the more complex circuits of fish, amphibians, birds and reptiles. Together, these clades make up more than 90% of vertebrate species, yet we know disturbingly little about their neural circuits for colour vision beyond the photoreceptors. Here, long-standing work on goldfish, freshwater turtles and other species is being complemented by new insights gained from the experimentally amendable retina of zebrafish. From this body of work, one thing is clear: The retinal basis of colour vision in non-mammalian vertebrates is substantially richer compared to mammals: Diverse and complex spectral tunings are established at the level of the cone output via horizontal cell feedforward circuits. From here, zebrafish use cone-selective wiring in bipolar cells to set-up color opponent synaptic layers in the inner retina, which in turn lead a large diversity of color-opponent channels for transmission to the brain. However, while we are starting to build an understanding of the richness of spectral properties in some of these species’ retinal neurons, little is known about inner retinal connectivity and cell-type identify. To gain an understanding of their actual circuits, and thus to build a more generalised understanding of the vertebrate retinal basis of color vision, it will be paramount to expand ongoing efforts in deciphering the retinal circuits of non-mammalian models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cholinesterase; acetylcholine; visual function; ocular surface; retina
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:28:38 CEST)
The visual system is regulated by the nervous through neurotransmitters, which play an important role in visual and ocular functions. One of those neurotransmitters is acetylcholine, a key molecule that plays a diversity of biological functions. On the other hand, acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, is implicated in cholinergic function. However, several studies showed that in addition to their enzymatic functions, Acetylcholinesterase exerts non-catalytic functions. In recent years, the importance of evaluating all possible functions of acetylcholine-acetylcholinesterase has been evidenced. Nevertheless, there is evidence that suggests cholinesterase activity in the eye can regulate some biological events both in structures of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye and therefore in the visual information that is processed in the visual cortex. Hence, the evaluation of cholinesterase activity could be a possible marker of alterations in cholinergic activity not only in ocular disease but also in systemic diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0701.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: retina; neurodegeneration; AMD; aging; neurogenesis; development; transcription factor
Online: 29 June 2021 (12:41:56 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that constitutes the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly in developed countries. Incomplete knowledge about its pathogenesis prevents the search for effective methods of prevention and treatment of AMD, primarily its “dry” type, which is by far the most common (90% of all AMD cases). In recent years, AMD became younger: late stages of the disease are now detected in relatively young people. It is known that AMD pathogenesis—according to the age-related structural and functional changes in the retina—is linked with inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and an impairment of neurotrophic support, but the mechanisms that trigger the conversion of normal age-related changes to the pathological process as well as the reason for early AMD development remain unclear. In the adult mammalian retina, de novo neurogenesis is very limited. Therefore, the structural and functional features that arise during its maturation and formation can exert long-term effects on further ontogenesis of this tissue. The aim of this review is to discuss possible contributions of the changes/disturbances in retinal neurogenesis to the early development of AMD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0167.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: LED; light; retina; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; Bcl-2; BAX; degeneration
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:04:11 CEST)
Vision is our primary sense as the human eye is the gateway for more than 65% of information reaching the human brain. Today’s increased exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light from Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) sources could induce retinal degeneration and accompanying neuronal cell death. Damage induced by chronic phototoxic reactions occurring in the retina accumulates over years and it has been suggested to be responsible for the etiology of many debilitating ocular conditions. In this work, we examined how LED stimulation affects vision by monitoring changes in the expression of death and survival factors as well as microglial activation in LED-induced damage (LID) of the retinal tissue. We found an LED exposure-induced increase in the mRNA levels of major apoptosis-related markers -BAX, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 and an accompanying wide-spread microglial and Caspase-3 activation. Everyday LED light exposure was accounted for all the described changes in the retinal tissue of mice in this study, indicating that overuse of non-filtered direct LED light can have detrimental effects on the human retina as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0153.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy; Fundus Images; Retina,; Support vector machine; K-Means Clustering.
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:59:13 CET)
The complication of people with diabetes causes an illness known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). It is very widespread among middle-aged and older people. As diabetes progresses, patients' vision may deteriorate and cause DR. People to lose their vision because of this illness. To cope with DR, early detection is needed. Patients will have to be checked by doctors regularly, which is a waste of time and energy. DR can be divided into two groups: non-proliferative (NPDR) while the other is proliferative (PDR). In this study, machine learning (ML) techniques are used to diagnose DR early. These are PNN, SVM, Bayesian Classification, and K-Means Clustering. These techniques will be evaluated and compared with each other to choose the best methodology. A total of 300 fundus photographs are processed for training and testing. The features are extracted from these raw images using image processing techniques. After an experiment, it is concluded that PNN has an accuracy of about 89%, Bayes Classifications 94%, SVM 97%, and K-Means Clustering 87%. The preliminary results prove that SVM is the best technique for early detection of DR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0145.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: parvalbumin; calretinin; calbindin; expression; retina; topography; ganglion cell; calcium buffer protein
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:43:03 CET)
The most prevalent Ca2+-buffer proteins (CaBPs: parvalbumin—PV; calbindin—CaB; calretinin—CaR) are widely expressed by various neurons throughout the brain, including the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Even though their retinal expression has been extensively studied, a coherent assessment of topographical variations is missing. To examine this, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the mouse retina. We found variability in the expression levels and cell numbers for CaR, with stronger and more numerous labels in the dorso-central area. CaBP+ cells contributed to RGCs with all soma sizes, indicating heterogeneity. We separated 4-9 RGC clusters in each area based on expression levels and soma sizes. Besides the overall high variety in cluster number and size, the peripheral half of the temporal retina showed the greatest cluster number, indicating a better separation of RGC subtypes there. Multiple labels showed that 39% of the RGCs showed positivity for a single CaBP, 30% expressed two CaBPs, 25% showed no CaBP expression and 6% expressed all three proteins. Finally, we observed an inverse relation between CaB and CaR expression levels in CaB/CaR dually- and CaB/CaR/PV triple labeled RGCs, suggesting a mutual complementary function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0016.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: glaucoma; retina ganglion cell degeneration; microarray; genes coordination; notch signaling pathway; complement cascade
Online: 23 February 2021 (12:44:20 CET)
Glaucoma is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease, characterized by degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). There has been little progress in developing efficient strategies for neuroprotection in glaucoma. We profiled the retina transcriptome of Lister Hooded rats at 2 weeks after optic nerve crush (ONC) and analyzed the data from the Genomic Fabric Paradigm (GFP) to bring additional insights into the molecular mechanisms of the retinal remodeling after induction of RGC degeneration. GFP considers for the expression of each gene 3 independent characteristics: level, variability and correlation with each other gene. Thus, the 17,657 quantified genes our study generated a total of 155,911,310 values to analyze. This represents 8,830x more data per condition than a traditional transcriptomic analysis. ONC led to a 57% reduction in RGC numbers as detected by retrograde labeling with DiI. We observed a higher Relative Expression Variability after ONC. Gene expression stability was used as a measure of transcription control and disclosed a robust reduction in the number of very stably expressed genes. Predicted Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) analysis with STRING revealed axon and neuron projection as mostly decreased processes, consistent with RGC degeneration. Conversely, immune response PPIs were found among up-regulated genes. Enrichment analysis showed that Complement Cascade and Notch Signaling Pathway, as well as Oxidative Stress and Kit Receptor Pathway were affected after ONC. To expand our studies of altered molecular pathways, we examined the pair-wise coordination of gene expressions within each pathway and within the entire transcriptome using Pearson correlations. ONC increased the number of synergistically coordinated pairs of genes and the number of similar profiles mainly in Complement Cascade and Notch Signaling Pathway. This deep bioinformatic study provides novel insights beyond the regulation of individual gene expression and discloses changes in the control of expression of Complement Cascade and Notch Signaling functional pathways that may be relevant for both RGC degeneration and remodeling of the retinal tissue after ONC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: multidrug resistance protein 4; ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters; aging; retina; mouse; electroretinogram
Online: 4 February 2021 (10:58:06 CET)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is an energy-dependent membrane transporter that is responsible for cellular efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics and physiological substrates. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the co-effects of aging and MRP4 deficiency using gene expression microarray and morphological and electrophysiological analyses of the mouse retina. Mrp4-knockout (null) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were reared in the same condition to 8–12 wk (young) or 45–55 wk (aged). Microarray analysis identified 186 differently expressed genes from the retinas of aged Mrp4-null mice as compared to that from aged WT mice, and subsequence gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed that differently expressed genes were related to lens, eye development, vision, and transcellular barrier function that are involved in metabolic pathways or viral infection pathways. No significant change in thickness was observed for each retinal layer among young/aged WT mice and young/aged Mrp4-null mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses of retinal cell type did not exhibit an overt change in the cellular morphology or distribution among the 4 age/genotype groups, and the electroretinogram responses showed no significant differences in the amplitude or the latency between aged WT mice and aged Mrp4-null mice. Aging would be an insufficient stress to cause some damage to the retina in the presence of MRP4 deficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0228.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: lipofuscin; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; docosahexaenoate; docosahexaenoic acid; fluorescence; photodegradation; photobleaching; cell viability; endocytic activity
Online: 14 December 2021 (11:41:14 CET)
Retinal lipofuscin accumulates with age in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) where its fluorescence properties are used to assess the retinal health. It was observed that there is a decrease in lipofuscin fluorescence above the age of 75 years and in early stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of lipofuscin isolated from human RPE, and lipofuscin-laden-cells to visible light, and determine whether an abundant component of lipofuscin, docosahexaenoate (DHA) can contribute to lipofuscin fluorescence upon oxidation. Exposure of lipofuscin to visible leads to a decrease of its long-wavelength fluorescence at about 610 nm with concomitant growth of the short-wavelength fluorescence. The emission spectrum of photodegraded lipofuscin exhibits similarity with that of oxidized DHA. Exposure to light of lipofuscin-laden cells leads to loss of lipofuscin granules from cells, while retaining cell viability. The spectral changes of fluorescence in lipofuscin-laden cells resemble those seen during photodegradation of isolated lipofuscin. Our results demonstrate that fluorescence emission spectra together with quantitation of intensity of long-wavelength fluorescence can serve as a marker useful for lipofuscin quantification and for monitoring its oxidation, thereby useful for screening the retina for increased oxidative damage and early AMD-related changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0206.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: human psychophysics; apparent motion; temporal integration; cat; retina; neural coding; Hassenstein-Reichardt detector; model analysis
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:31:03 CEST)
Under optimal conditions, just 3–6 ms of visual stimulation suffices for humans to see motion. Motion perception on this time scale implies that the visual system under these conditions reliably encodes, transmits, and processes neural signals with near-millisecond precision. Motivated by in vitro evidence for high temporal precision of motion signals in the primate retina, we investigated how neuronal and perceptual limits of motion encoding relate. Specifically, we examined the correspondence between the time scale at which cat retinal ganglion cells in vivo represent motion information and temporal thresholds for human motion discrimination. The time scale for motion encoding by ganglion cells ranged from 4.6–91 ms, depended nonlinearly on temporal frequency but not on contrast. Human psychophysics revealed that minimal stimulus durations required for perceiving motion direction were similarly brief, 5.6–65 ms, similarly depended on temporal frequency but, above ~10%, not on contrast. Notably, physiological and psychophysical measurements corresponded closely throughout (r = 0.99), despite more than a 20-fold variation in both human thresholds and optimal time scales for motion encoding in the retina. These results demonstrate that neural circuits for motion vision in cortex can maintain and make use of the high temporal fidelity of the retinal output signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0066.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: carotenoid; lutein; zexanthin; dehydrolutein; retina; retinal pigment epithelium; singlet oxygen; photosensitized oxidation; age-related macular degeneration.
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:04:44 CEST)
Dehydrolutein accumulates in substantial concentrations in the retina. The aim of this study was to compare antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein with other retinal carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and their effects on ARPE-19 cells. The time-resolved detection of characteristic singlet oxygen phosphorescence was used to compare the singlet oxygen quenching rate constants of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The effects of these carotenoids on photosensitized oxidation were tested in liposomes, where photooxidation was induced by light in the presence of photosensitizers, and monitored by oximetry. To compare the uptake of dehydrolutein, lutein, and zeaxanthin, ARPE-19 cells were incubated with carotenoids for up to 19 days, and carotenoid contents were determined by spectrophotometry in cell extracts. To investigate the effects of carotenoids on phototocytotoxicity, cells were exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal or all-trans-retinal. The results demonstrate that the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching are 0.77x1010, 0.55x1010, and 1.23x1010 M-1s-1 for dehydrolutein, lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Overall, dehydrolutein is similar to lutein or zeaxanthin in protection of lipids against photosensitized oxidation. ARPE-19 cells accumulate substantial amounts of both zeaxanthin and lutein but no detectable amounts of dehydrolutein. Cells pre-incubated with carotenoids are equally susceptible to photosensitized damage as cells without carotenoids. Carotenoids provided to cells together with the extracellular photosensitizers offer partial protection against photodamage. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of dehydrolutein are similar to lutein and zeaxanthin. The mechanism responsible for its lack of accumulation in ARPE-19 cells deserves further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: NMDA; excitotoxicity; Glaucoma; melanopsin-RGCs; intrinsically photosensitive-RGCs; Brn3a+RGCs; adult albino rat; retina; SD-OCT
Online: 23 May 2019 (04:43:45 CEST)
We studied short- and long-term effects of intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on melanopsin-containing (m+) and non-melanopsin-containing (Brn3a+) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In adult SD-rats, the left eye received a single intravitreal injection of 5µL of 100nM NMDA. At 3 and 15 months, retinal thickness was measured in vivo using SD-OCT. Ex vivo analyses were done at 3, 7, 14 days or 15 months after damage. Whole-mounted retinas were immunolabelled for Brn3a and melanopsin, the total number of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were quantified and their topography represented. In control retinas, the mean total numbers of Brn3a+RGCs and m+RGCs were 78,903±3,572 and 2,358±144 (mean ± SD; n=10), respectively. In the NMDA injected retinas, Brn3a+RGCs numbers diminished to 50% and 25%, at 3 and 14 days, respectively, but there was no further loss up to 15 months. The number of immunoidentified m+RGCs decreased significantly at 3 days, recovered between 3-7 days and was back to normal thereafter. OCT measurements revealed a significant thinning of the left retinas at 3 and 15 months. Intravitreal injections of NMDA induce a rapid loss of 75% of Brn3a+RGCs, a transient downregulation of melanopsin expression but not m+RGC death, and a thinning of the inner retinal layers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0284.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Retina; Retinal nerve fiber layer; Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Optical coherence tomography; OCT; CPAP; Upper airway surgery.
Online: 17 December 2021 (08:47:15 CET)
Retinal findings may change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The present study aims to evaluate several retinal findings such as macula layer thickness, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and the optic nerve head in patients with OSAS using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and monitor the result of several types of treatment of OSAS with OCT. A prospective comparative study was designed. Patients were recruited at a Sleep Unit of a University Hospital and underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations. Following exclusion criteria, fifty-two patients with OSAS were finally included. Patients were examined by OCT twice: first, before treatment; secondly, after six months of treatment. In mild-moderate patients, where retinal swelling has been demonstrated, retinal thicknesses decreased [fovea (p=0.026), as well as inner ring macula (p=0.007), outer ring macula (p=0.015), and macular volume (p=0.015)]. In severe patients, where retinal atrophy had been observed, retinal thickness increased [fovea (p<0.001)]. No statistically significant differences in efficacy between treatments were demonstrated. In conclusion, OCT can evaluate the retina in patients with OSAS and help monitor results after treatment. In severe OSAS, retinal thickness increased six months after treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Gene therapy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9, Cas12a, dual AAV, triple AAV, clinical trials, retina, hereditary retinal dystrophies
Online: 1 October 2018 (13:52:23 CEST)
Recently, there have been revolutions in the development of both gene therapy and genome surgical treatments for inherited diseases. Much of this progress has been centered around hereditary retinal dystrophies, because the eye is an immune-privileged and anatomically ideal target. Gene therapy treatments, already demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in numerous clinical trials, are benefitting from the development of new viral vectors, such as dual and triple AAVs. CRISPR/Ca9, which revolutionized the field of gene editing, is being adapted into more precise “high fidelity” and catalytically dead variants. New CRISPR endonucleases, such as CjCas9 and Cas12a, are generating excitement in the field as well. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative, allowing human embryo derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to be edited precisely in vitro and then reintroduced into the body. This article highlights recent progress made in gene therapy and genome surgery for retinal disorders, and it provides an update on precision medicine FDA treatment trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0244.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vertebrate retina, mouse, zebrafish, two-photon microscopy, biosensor, activity probes, visual stimulus-evoked activity, laser-evoked retinal activity
Online: 26 March 2019 (14:01:49 CET)
Two-photon imaging of light stimulus-evoked neuronal activity has been used to study all neuron classes in the vertebrate retina, from the photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells. Clearly, the ability to study retinal circuits down to the level of single synapses or zoomed out at the level of complete populations of neurons, has been a major asset in our understanding of this beautiful circuit. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities and pitfalls of using an all-optical approach in this highly light-sensitive part of the brain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Gut-retina axis, Gut microbiota, Dietary habits, Micronutrients, Fish oil, omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Personalised medicine
Online: 16 October 2018 (17:39:27 CEST)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged >=65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30-50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many observational studies, such as AREDS-1 and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD. Recently, low-grade inflammation, sustained by dysbiosis and a leaky gut, has been shown to contribute to the development of AMD. Given the ascertained influence of the gut microbiota in systemic low-grade inflammation and its potential modulation by macro- and micro-nutrients, a potential role of diet in AMD has been proposed. This review discusses the role of the gut microbiota in the development of AMD. Using PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, we searched for recent scientific evidence discussing the impact of dietary habits (high fat and high glucose or fructose diets), micronutrients (vitamins C, E, and D, zinc, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and omega-3 fatty acids on the modulation of the gut microbiota and their relationship with AMD risk and progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0449.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Central Nervous System; Ependymal Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; NG2+ Cells; Regenerative Medicine; Retina Injury; Spinal Cord Injury; Traumatic Brain Injury.
Online: 16 June 2021 (15:02:02 CEST)
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to learning, memory, maintenance of homeostasis, energy metabolism and many other essential processes. They are highly heterogeneous populations that require input from a regionally distinct microenvironment including a mix of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, NG2+ glia, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and others. The diversity of NSPCs is present in all three major parts of the CNS, i.e., the brain, spinal cord, and retina. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals, e.g., neurotrophic and growth factors, master transcription factors, and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), collectively regulate activities and characteristics of NSPCs: quiescence/survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration. This review discusses the heterogeneous NSPC populations in the normal physiology and highlights their potentials and roles in injured/diseased states for regenerative medicine.