REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: 5G, Resource allocation, Resource distribution, Congestion, 5G communication, Comprehensive, Review, Systematic.
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:31:27 CEST)
Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology is intended to offer higher data rates, outstanding user exposure, power consumption, and extremely short latency. Such cellular networks will implement a diverse multi-layer model comprising of device-to-device networks, macro-cells, and dissimilar categories of small-cells to assist customers with desired quality-of-service (QoS). This multi-layer model affects several studies that confront utilizing interference management and resource allocation in 5G networks. With the growing need and the lack of resources, the resource distribution problem desires to be focused capably to accomplish the traffic and to enhance network working. One of the utmost serious problems is to alleviate the jamming from the network in support of having a better QoS. However, there are limited review papers written on resource distribution, there is no particularize and organized review carry out in 5G resource allocation. Hence, this article covers and evaluates the argument using a classification of existing developing resource allocation schemes in 5G thoroughly by classifying the schemes to enhance the service quality. This survey comprises the discussion based on metrics used to evaluate the performance. It would also permit ahead beyond evidence on resource allocation methods in 5G and empowers the scholars to meet the present research areas to focus on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0615.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Latvia; social classes; “resource portfolio”; social capital; degree of the resource capitalization.
Online: 25 June 2021 (10:51:58 CEST)
The aim of this study is to investigate “resource portfolios” and total capital, as well as the degree of those resources capitalization, which representatives of different social classes in the modern Latvia have at their disposal. The amount and structure of “resource portfolio” and total capital of different social classes studied using the resource-asset-capital approach. The article presents results of the sociological survey of social stratification in modern Latvia on the example of its one region – Latgale (2019, n = 798, representative sample of the adult population), identifying social classes based on two objective (income and education) and one subjective (self-identification of respondents) criteria. Based on the example of the lower working class and the middle class, the authors proved that representatives of these polar social classes have a total capital of different amount, which is determined by two main reasons: 1) the lower working class has statistically significantly smaller “resource portfolio” than the middle class; 2) the lower working class is not so successful as the middle class in activating the resources at their disposal, turning them into their capital. These statistically significant two-level differences have to be considered when pursuing social policies on reducing differences between social classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0179.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Diversity; resource curse; economic growth.
Online: 13 April 2018 (14:18:36 CEST)
This paper contributes to the debate on the impact of economic diversity and the resource curse on economic growth. We use dynamic panel data models on data on Canadian and US sub-national jurisdictions. We find evidence for a positive relationship between diversity and growth. Based on the Krugman Specialization Index, our analysis shows that the required threshold for not having the resource curse is 0.209. Above this threshold, the marginal contribution of natural resources to economic growth is lower for a more diversified regional economy than a less diversified one. We highlight the policy implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Fire Hawk Optimizer; optimization; metaheuristic algorithms; Building Information Modelling (BIM); resource management; project resource management
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:34:30 CEST)
Project managers should balance a variety of resource elements in building projects while taking into account many major concerns, including time, cost, quality, risk, and the environment. This study presents a framework for resource trade-offs in project scheduling based on the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology and metaheuristic algorithms. First, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Fire Hawk Optimizer (FHO) is used. Using project management software and the BIM process, a 3D model of the construction is created. In order to maximize quality while minimizing time, cost, risk, and CO2 in the project under consideration, an optimization problem is created, and the FHO's capability for solving it is assessed. A predefined stopping condition is taken into account while doing 30 independent optimization runs to obtain the statistical metrics, such as the mean, standard deviation, and the required number of objective function evaluations. The results show that the FHO algorithm is capable of producing competitive and exceptional outcomes when it comes to trade-off various resource options in projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0854.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: resource scheduling; distributed systems; edge computing
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:48:18 CEST)
Recently, there has been a growing interest in distributed edge computing resource scheduling. For example, application scenarios such as intelligent traffic systems and Internet of Things(IoT) intelligent monitoring require the scheduling and migration of distributed resources. Distributed resource scheduling needs to consider the cost of resource scheduling, with the primary goal of finding the optimal strategy among various feasible solutions. There are different definitions for optimization objectives in different application scenarios, such as cost, transmission delay, energy consumption, etc. Current research mainly considers the optimization problem of local resource scheduling but needs more consideration of global resource scheduling. This paper defines a global resource scheduling problem for distributed edge computing and proves that the problem is NP-Hard. A heuristic solution strategy based on the Ant Colony Algorithm(ACO) was proposed, and Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) was used to optimize the parameters of the ACO. Finally, an experimental comparative analysis was conducted to demonstrate that the algorithm proposed in this paper has good accuracy and iteration cost performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Container; Docker; Kubernetes; Cloud; Resource Management;
Online: 11 May 2021 (10:31:35 CEST)
Cloud computing nowadays is not an emerging topic, and virtualization is an indispensable technology to expedite cloud computing to become the next sign of the coming Internet revolution. In real life, scientists never stop at exploring the possibilities from such technology by investigating millions of experiments and applications to enhance the quality of virtual services. However, isolated construction for the virtual machine doesn’t save the technology from unwanted data volumes or insensitive processing time. Containers are created to address such problems, by distributing applications without initiating the entire virtual machine. Docker, as an important player in this game, is an open-source application of the container family. The management tool from Docker containers, Swamskit, does not take heterogeneities in either virtualized containers or physical nodes. There are different nodes in the cluster, and each node is different in configurations, resource availability, or concerning resource, etc. Furthermore, the requirements initiated by different services change all the time. The demand might be CPU-intensive (e.g. Clustering services) and also memory-intensive (e.g. Web services), or completely at the opposite. In this paper, we focus on exploring the Docker container cluster and designing, DRAPS, a resource-aware placement scheme, to improve the system performance in a heterogeneous cluster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0534.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Container Scheduling; Resource Management; Docker; Kubernetes
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:38:57 CET)
In the past decade, we have witnessed a dramatically increasing volume of data collected from varied sources. The explosion of data has transformed the world as more information is available for collection and analysis than ever before. To maximize the utilization, various machine and deep learning models have been developed, e.g. CNN  and RNN , to study data and extract valuable information from different perspectives. While data-driven applications improve countless products, training models for hyperparameter tuning are still time-consuming and resource-intensive. Cloud computing provides infrastructure support for the training of deep learning applications. The cloud service providers, such as Amazon Web Services , create an isolated virtual environment (virtual machines and containers) for clients, who share physical resources, e.g., CPU and memory. On the cloud, resource management schemes are implemented to enable better sharing among users and boost the system-wide performance. However, general scheduling approaches, such as spread priority and balanced resource schedulers, do not work well with deep learning workloads. In this project, we propose SpeCon, a novel container scheduler that is optimized for shortlived deep learning applications. Based on virtualized containers, such as Kubernetes  and Docker , SpeCon analyzes the common characteristics of training processes. We design a suite of algorithms to monitor the progress of the training and speculatively migrate the slow-growing models to release resources for fast-growing ones. Specifically, the extensive experiments demonstrate that SpeCon improves the completion time of an individual job by up to 41.5%, 14.8% system-wide and 24.7% in terms of makespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human resource; management; environmental protection; Serbia
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:27:44 CET)
Starting from the fact that the units of local self-government of the Republic of Serbia are not sufficiently oriented towards innovations related to human resources and the environment, the application of quantitative research tradition examines the positioning and understanding of certain procedures and decisions of human resources management regarding the functioning of the environmental protection system, on the one hand, and future strategies for changing the given system, on the other. A series of 105 face-to-face interviews were conducted during the whole of 2016 in 105 of the 191 municipalities in the Republic of Serbia. Examination of the attitudes of the local self-government was carried out using a specially designed closed electronic questionnaire. The results of the multivariate regressions show that the most important predictor of the possible improvement of the environment is the size of the municipality. The remaining variables (e.g., human resources policy, human resources service) did not have significant effects on the ability to improve the environment. In more than half of local self-governments, there was no clearly defined human resources strategy in the field of environmental protection, an environmental protection service, an Environmental Action Plan, as well as an employment plan for waste management in local governments, etc. The research has shown that top managers of local governments agree that the management of human resources in environmental protection represents a significant opportunity to improve the quality of the environment. The results of the research can be used to improve the organization of human resource competence in environmental protection and the quality of a working and sustainable environment in the area of local self-government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0012.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: data exchange; resource donations; text mining
Online: 5 October 2016 (15:08:32 CEST)
Bio-molecular reagents like antibodies required in experimental biology are expensive and their effectiveness, among other things, is critical to the success of the experiment. Although such resources are sometimes donated by one investigator to another through personal communication between the two, there is no previous study to our knowledge on the extent of such donations, nor a central platform that directs resource seekers to donors. In this paper, we describe, to our knowledge, a first attempt at building a web-portal titled Bio-Resource Exchange that attempts to bridge this gap between resource seekers and donors in the domain of experimental biology. Users on this portal can request for or donate antibodies, cell-lines and DNA Constructs. This resource could also serve as a crowd-sourced database of resources for experimental biology. Further, in order to index donations outside of our portal, we mined scientific articles to find instances of donations of antibodies and attempted to extract information about these donations at the finest granularity. Specifically, we extracted the name of the donor, his/her affiliation and the name of the antibody for every donation by parsing the acknowledgements sections of articles. To extract annotations at this level, we propose two approaches – a rule based algorithm and a bootstrapped relation learning algorithm. The algorithms extracted donor names, affiliations and antibody names with average accuracies of 57% and 62% respectively. We also created a dataset of 50 expert-annotated acknowledgements sections that will serve as a gold standard dataset to evaluate extraction algorithms in the future. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Database URL: http://tonks.dbmi.pitt.edu/brx Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Database online.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: resource efficiency; zero waste; resource recovery from waste; low-carbon economy; circular economy infrastructure; clean growth; resource productivity; sustainable development goals; transdisciplinary research; participatory action research
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:27:02 CET)
The UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices, depleting finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk and economic instability. This over-consumption produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on the wellbeing of people in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW) promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in the transition process. RRfW collaborates with academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach to realise such a transition. Reflecting insights from RRfW’s government engagement, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society. It envisions a long-term future for waste and resource management that maximises the value of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Four themes and an approach are proposed, including recommendations for regulatory instruments and a stable policy framework. It recommends further collaborative research to capitalise on opportunities for economic growth, innovation and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare in all four UK nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1770.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Afforestation; Water resource; Ecological risk; Inner Mongolia
Online: 26 September 2023 (10:21:54 CEST)
In recent years, a large-scale afforestation campaign has taken place in Inner Mongolia, China, to control desertification and soil erosion. However, the water consumption associated with large-scale afforestation significantly impacts the water resources in Inner Mongolia, resulting in a substantial ecological risk. This study aimed to evaluate the ecological risk of water resources caused by afforestation in the region. In this study, based on land cover data, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, and meteorological data, used trend analysis, water balance equation, and Water resources Security Index (WSI) index to analyze the ecological risks of water resources caused by afforestation in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2020. The results show that:(1) The afforestation area in Inner Mongolia was 5.37×104 km2 in 2000-2020; (2) Afforestation in arid and semi-arid areas leads to the reduction of water resources. (3) Afforestation reduces water resources in the study area by 0.76×108m3/year; (4) ~76% of afforestation regions face ecological risks of water resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Anthropization; Environmental impact; Water resource; Land-use.
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:28:44 CET)
The suppression of natural spaces due to the urban sprawl and increase of the built and agricultural environments has impacted the water resources quality, especially in areas with high population density, as the metropolitan regions. Considering the advance in Brazilian environmental legal framework, the present study aims to verify whether land use has still significantly affected water quality, through a case study in the Stones River watershed, a peri-urban river basin at a metropolitan region, Brazil. Analysis of physical-chemical indicators, collected at several sample points with different land-use (urban areas, commercial forestry, riparian forestry, mixed vegetation, pasture, and sugar cane plantation) at different seasons of the year (dry and rainy) were carried out. As a result, it was verified some statistically significant spatiotemporal effects on the of water quality caused associated to the land-use. In conclusion, in spite of the advances in the Brazilian law, land-use has still significantly affected the water quality, demanding public policies and decisions, so that effective compliance with legal guidelines is ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: EROEI; Lotka Volterra; resource exploitation; dissipative systems
Online: 19 October 2021 (13:57:02 CEST)
The Energy Return on Energy Invested, EROEI, is known as an important parameter for evaluating the efficiency of energy-producing technologies. In this paper we examine the concept of EROEI from a general viewpoint, giving insights on a wider range of applications. In general, natural resources can be seen as energy stocks characterized by a “potential” that can be exploited by creating intermediate stocks. This transformation is typical of dissipative systems and for the first time we found that Lotka-Volterra model, usually confined to the study of biology of populations, can represent a powerful tool to estimate EROEI for some such systems, providing an understanding of the reason for the overexploitation phenomenon and, in some cases, the collapse of the exploiting system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0723.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: airlines; human resource management; COVID-19; crisis
Online: 29 December 2020 (09:24:11 CET)
In January 2020, the World Health Organization declared a public health emergency and announced a new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which would later go on to be declared as a pandemic, changing the global sphere and placing the economies of almost all countries under heavy stress. The airline industry, that had just begun recovering after facing crises one after another in the last two decades, from early 2000 due to 9/11, to the global financial crisis later, is now oce again facing an enormous challenge of closed borders and greater lockdowns due to the pandemic. Borders are closed, with very few planes are in the air, while the rest are grounded. The purpose of this paper is to give a conceptual understanding of the current pandemic situation and its consequences on the airline industry. The paper takes a unique perspective of human resource management (HRM) that is rarely used in the airline industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: resource management; oil curse; footprint; fiscal policy
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:41:25 CET)
The resource curse indicates that economic growth performs poorly in countries with significant natural resources. Nevertheless, certain countries rich in energy managed to protect their resource riches in the long run. It is necessary to enforce effective policies in resource-rich countries to fully leverage the advantages which can come from the abundance of natural resources. This study aimed to evaluate how oil-rich countries would avoid resource flows by successful fiscal and management policies. By taking the guidance of Norway and implementing fiscal policy focused on tax rules on its oil management, it is proposed that oil-exporting countries benefit significantly. The framework attempts to mitigate this resource curse and utilise oil revenues in the interest of the country.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0508.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Docker Container; Kubernetes; Docker Swarm; Resource Management
Online: 26 October 2020 (09:55:52 CET)
In the last decades, we have witnessed a spectacular information explosion over the Internet. Millions of users are consuming the Internet through various services, such as mobile applications, and online games. The service providers, at the back-end side, are supported by state-of-art infrastructures. Targeting on providing the services at scale, virtualization is one of the emerging technologies used in data centers and cloud environments to improve the quality of services. In this project, we aim to develop a dynamic resource management scheme based on virtual containers. It collects the runtime job progress from the running tasks and allocates the resources dynamically to improve the overall system performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: geospatial technologies; distance learning; resource allocation; AIOU
Online: 3 April 2018 (04:29:44 CEST)
Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the largest distance learning institute of Pakistan and providing education to 1.4 million students. This is fairly a large setup across the country where students are geographically distributed. Currently the system works on a manual approach which is not efficient. Allocation of tutors and study centers to students plays a key role in distance learning for a better learning environment. Assigning tutors and study centers to distance learning students is a challenging task when there is huge geographical spread. The utilization of geospatial technologies in open and distance learning can fix allocation problems. This research analyzes the real data of twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The results show that the geospatial technologies can be used for efficient and proper resource utilization and allocation, which in turn can save the time and money. The overall idea fits into improved distance learning framework and related analytics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land system science; governance; natural resource management; resource conflict; conservation; development; stakeholder en-gagement; ecosystem management; wicked problems
Online: 15 August 2022 (04:35:26 CEST)
Integrated landscape approaches (ILA) aim to reconcile multiple, often competing, interests across agriculture, nature conservation, and other land uses. Recognized ILA design principles provide guidance for their implementation, yet application remains challenging, and a strong performance evidence-base is yet to be formed. A comprehensive literature review and focus group discussions with practitioners identified considerable diversity of ILA in actors, temporal, and spatial scales, inter alia. This diversity hampers learning from and steering these integrated planning approaches because of its intractable nature. Therefore, we developed a tool—an ‘ILA mixing board’—to structure the complexity of ILA into selectable and scalable attributes in a replicable way to allow planning, diagnostics, and comparative assessment of ILA. The ILA mixing board tool presents seven qualifiers, each representing a key attribute of ILA design and performance such as project flexibility, inclusiveness of the dialogue, and the centrality of the power distribution. Each qualifier has five (non-normative) outcome indicators that can be registered as present or absent. This process in turn guides planners, evaluators and other participating stakeholders involved in landscape management to diagnose the ILA type, and or its performance. We apply the ILA mixing board as a diagnostic tool to three ILA cases in Nicaragua, Madagascar, and the Congo Basin to show some of the many possible configurations of qualifiers on the mixing board. Overall, the tool allows comparative analyses of the complexity of ILA in a structured and manageable way.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Keywords: Aircraft, Ground Handling, Operations Performance, Resource Allocation, Resource Scheduling, Operations Scheduling, Vehicle Routing, Workers and Vehicles Allocation.
Online: 4 October 2018 (14:04:58 CEST)
Over the past few decades, aircraft Ground Handling Operations (GHO) have been investigated by numerous researchers. Some aspects of GHO have been more focused on than others due to their importance in the GH processes. For instance, GHO performance has been tackled from different perspectives while workers and vehicles allocation suffer from the lack of research in the area. This paper is a literary review of the research that has been conducted in different areas of GHO. It sheds light on GHO performance, resource allocation and scheduling, operations scheduling, vehicle routing, and workers and vehicles allocation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0523.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: frequency difference limens; blindfold; visual cues; auditory-visual synesthesia; gliding frequencies; perceptual limit, common resource theory; multiple resource model
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:40:28 CEST)
How perceptual limits can be overcome has long been examined by psychologists. This study investigated whether visual cues, blindfolding, visual-auditory synesthetic experience and music training could facilitate a smaller frequency difference limen (FDL) in a gliding frequency discrimination test. It was hoped that the auditory limits could be overcome through visual facilitation, visual deprivation, involuntary cross-modal sensory experience or music practice. Ninety university students, with no visual or auditory impairment, were recruited for this one-between (blindfold/visual cue) and one-within (control/experimental session) designed study. A MATLAB program was prepared to test their FDL by an alternative forced-choice task (gliding upwards/gliding downwards/no change) and two questionnaires (Vividness of Mental Imagery Questionnaire & Projector-Associator Test) were used to assess their tendency to synesthesia. Participants with music training showed a significantly smaller FDL; on the other hand, being blindfolded, being provided with visual cues or having synesthetic experience before could not significantly reduce the FDL. However, the result showed a trend of reduced FDLs through blindfolding. This indicated that visual deprivation might slightly expand the limits in auditory perception. Overall, current study suggests that the inter-sensory perception can be enhanced through training but not though reallocating cognitive resources to certain modalities. Future studies are recommended to verify the effects of music practice on other perceptual limits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0070.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Circular Economy; Water; Wastewater; Resource Use; Latin America
Online: 4 January 2023 (06:39:53 CET)
Circular Economy (CE) is noted as an emerging tool or framework to support sustainable production and consumption agenda. In addition, CE is aiming to be a trigger for redefining economic growth pathways to be sustainable, inclusive, and sensitive to ecological and environmental agendas and to focus its operational standards on co-creating societal benefits. Concerning the guiding principles and the standards of practice applied to implement and scale circular economy, this study will provide an overview of the water sector-specific circularity roadmaps and strategies in the Latin American Region. By using a semi-systematic review, document analysis, and qualitative assessment approach, we highlight framings and operational pathways, gaps, and needs within existing practices of circularity in the water sector. The results provide an overview of CE pathways at the national level of selected countries in LAR iterating those nations reflect various levels of advancement (low to high) with CE-focused innovations and policy support structures specific to the water and wastewater sectors. Towards the closing, the study is pointing to the ‘call for action’ to integrate outstanding advances and innovations in the circular economy within sectoral mandates for water and wastewater management, making an argument that circularity in the water sector could serve as an accelerator toward implementing the agenda outlined in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and in particular for SDG 6 (water security for all).
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0497.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care unit; policy; resource use; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2023 (11:02:35 CEST)
Given that population COVID-19 vaccination does not appreciably reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, instead, the potential to reduce hospitalization has been used to justify coercive vaccine passports. We aim to use a recently published research study as an example in order to demonstrate how data can be misinterpreted and result in deriving misleading ethical and policy implications. Bagshaw et al wrote that unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 in Alberta, Canada “had substantially greater rates of ICU admissions, ICU bed days, and ICU related costs than vaccinated patients did. This increased resource use would have been potentially avoidable had these unvaccinated patients been vaccinated.” The authors in Bagshaw et al then concluded that their findings “have important implications for discourse on the relative balance of increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies, and the sustainability and function of health system infrastructure and capacity during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.” Here we show the following. First, the effect of vaccination on intensive care admissions were grossly over-estimated due to several limitations of this and almost all other vaccine studies. Second, an effect of vaccination on access to acute care and on all-cause excess deaths was grossly over-stated due to several more likely causes being omitted from discussion and from the common narrative. Third, policy implications were overstated and at best unclear due to missing consideration of more relevant aspects required to inform policy. Overall, the data cannot support what Bagshaw et al called “increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies”.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0346.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: dataset; NLP; Human Resource Management; classification; Job description
Online: 27 June 2022 (03:43:51 CEST)
We describe a dataset that contains job description published on a popular online website in the information and technology sector. As the website focus mainly on United Kingdom based jobs, the data have a specific focus on this country. It contains 11.501 job vacancies and 13 related meta data information. The dataset is suitable for HR analysis using machine learning techniques such as natural language processing and neural networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: resource efficiency; productive chain trade-offs; decision making
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:25:38 CEST)
Petrochemicals, which convert oil and gas into products such as plastics, are fundamental to modern societies. Chemists recognize their role in the design of materials and the adverse effects that these may have on the environment, preventing sustainable development. Several methodological frameworks and sustainability assessment approaches have been developed to evaluate the resources used in the petrochemical sector in terms of environmental costs. A combination of Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy Accounting - to assess the environmental support for resource use - is applied in this study of the PET production chain in Europe. The Unit Emergy Values of several intermediates are calculated or updated to facilitate discernment of the quality of energy used and the processes' efficiency. Several routes for synthesizing renewable para-xylene and ethylene glycol from biomass are discussed and confronted with the efforts focused on recycling and recovering the final product providing concurrently a procedure and a valuable data set for future CP actions. The results show that understanding the efficiencies changing across the production chain may help stakeholders make wise choices as to where and when interventions to promote a circular economy are most effective along a petrochemical production chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: resource integration; network analysis; sustainability; small-scale farm
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:26:08 CET)
Shrinking farm size and fragile farm resources pose a significant challenge to the sustainability of small-scale farms. Efficient resource utilization in small-scale farms is crucial to achieving farm sustainability through endogenous mechanisms. However, the precise mechanisms to integrate physical resources to achieve farm sustainability are not very clear yet. By capturing the interaction among farm resources as a network phenomenon, we identify the discrete resource interactions (RIs) in different types of small-scale farms of Indian Sundarbans, which are associated with higher farm sustainability. Thirty-two linkages, 11 reciprocal linkages, 22 triads, and three ‘core elements’ that occurred and cooccurred on highly sustainable farms are found to be critical in achieving farm sustainability. Using the properties of resource interaction networks as explanators of farm sustainability, we anticipate that sustainability in small-scale farms can be achieved by strategically creating new RIs on the farm. However, there may be limitations to such achievement depending on the nature of RI and type of farm. The analytical approach helps to understand the structural basis of sustainability in small-scale farms, and this approach can be used to achieve farm sustainability through the strategic integration of existing farm resources in the smallholder systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0020.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Cloud Resource Management; Container Scheduling; Deep Learning Applications
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:38:31 CET)
The explosion of data has transformed the world since much more information is available for collection and analysis than ever before. To extract valuable information from the data in different dimensions, various deep learning models have been developed in the past years. Although these models have demonstrated their strong capability on improving products and services in various applications, training them is still a time-consuming and resource-intensive process. Presently, cloud, one of the most powerful computing infrastructures, has been used for the training. However, how to manage cloud computing resources and to perform the training efficiently is still challenging current techniques. For example, general resource scheduling approaches, such as spread priority and balanced resource schedulers, actually do not work well with deep learning workloads. Besides, the resource allocation problem on a cluster can be divide into two subproblems: (1) local resource optimization: improve resource configuration for a single machine; (2) global resource optimization: improve the cluster-wide resource allocation. In this thesis, we propose two novel container schedulers, FlowCon and SpeCon, that are designed to address these two subproblems respectively and specifically to optimize performance of short-lived deep learning applications in the cloud. FlowCon focuses on resource configuration of single-node in a cluster, as show that it efficiently improves deep learning tasks completion time and resource utilization, and reduces the completion time of a specific job by up to 42.06\% without sacrificing the overall system time. SpeCon targets on cluster-wide resource configuration that speculatively migrate slow-growing models to release resources for fast-growing ones. Based on our experiments, SpeCon improves makespan for up to 24.7\%, compared to current approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Container Scheduling, Resource Management, Deep Learning, Cloud Computing
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:31:01 CET)
The advent of deep learning has completely reshaped our world. Now, our daily life is fulfilled with many well-known applications that adopt deep learning techniques, such as self-driving cars and face recognition. Furthermore, robotics developed more forms of technology which share the same principle with face recognition, such as hand pose recognition and fingerprint recognition. Image recognition technology requires a huge database and various learning algorithms, such as convolutional neural network and recurrent neural network, that requires lots of computational power, such as CPUs and GPUs. Thus, clients could not be satisfied with the computational resource of the local machine. The cloud resource platform emerged at a historic moment. Docker containers play a significant role of microservices-based applications in the next generation. However, it could not guarantee the quality of service. From clients’ perspective, they have to balance the budget and quality of experiences (e.g. response time). The budget leans on individual business owners and the required Quality of Experience (QoE) depends on usage scenarios of different applications, for instance, an autonomous vehicle requires real-time response, but, unlocking your smartphone can tolerate delays. Plenty of on-going projects developed user-oriented optimization resource allocation to improve the quality of the service. Considering the users’ specifications, including accelerating the training process and specifying the quality of experience, this thesis proposes two differentiate containers scheduling for deep learning applications: TRADL and DQoES .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0603.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Export Product diversification; Poverty; Non-resource tax revenue.
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:59:19 CEST)
The current paper has examined the effect of both export product diversification and poverty on non-resource tax revenue in developing countries. The analysis has used an unbalanced panel dataset of 111 countries over the period 1980-2014. Based on the Blundell and Bond two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments technique, the empirical analysis has shown interesting findings. Export product concentration and poverty influence negatively non-resource tax revenue over the full sample, but this effect varies across countries in the sample. Furthermore, the effect of export product diversification on non-resource tax revenue performance depends on the level of poverty. It appears that export product diversification influences positively non-resource tax revenue performance in countries that experience lower poverty rates. From a policy perspective, these findings show that policies in favour of diversifying export product baskets and reducing poverty would contribute to enhancing non-resource tax revenue performance in developing countries.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: INSAT 3D; INSAT 3DR; Surface insolation; Solar resource
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:19:10 CEST)
Solar Insolation is the major contributor of earth’s radiation and energy budget. The insolation reaching the surface is a prime input for eco-physiological processes such as evapotranspiration and photosynthesis. Therefore, it is as critical component to assess bio-energy and bio-fuel resources. It is also a crucial input to crop simulation model for yield forecasting and its further applications in solar energy solutions. Although ground observations are better for accuracy purpose, they have challenges of maintenance, regular calibration and upkeeping etc. This call for the continuous spatio-temporal satellite based observations barring the acceptable accuracy. In case of INSAT3D/3DR, Bhattacharya et al. (2015) have derived the surface insolation product which is being used widely. We propose a method of improvement in this product. It is envisaged that a correction applied with the help of ground truth estimates may enhance the utilization of insolation products derived from INSAT3D/3DR datasets. In the present study, surface insolation product derived from INSAT 3D/3DR data at an interval of 30 minutes each (collectively 15 minutes interval) with 4 km spatial resolution was used for duration from May-2017 to Apr-2019 over Nagpur. Ground truth observations for same duration were carried out with CNR4, which were used to correct the INSAT 3D/3DR surface insolation product using the statistical best-fit method. Corrected INSAT 3D/3DR products are found correlating with the ground values well with differences of approximately < 1 W/m2. Best-fit parameters evolved in the present study uses only 2 years of simultaneous ground and satellite data which can be further improved by multi-year data base. We propose better utilization of INSAT 3D/3DR based surface insolation products in the assessment of solar resource mapping over Nagpur (and possibly other regions, such as Bhandara) with the help of best-fit parameters as assessed in the present study.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Risk analysis, Information Technology, Hospitals, Human Resource Risks.
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:30:38 CET)
Objective:The application of information technology (IT( is fundamental in the hospitals to stay competitive.In this regard, recognizing the main risks to the implementation of IT in hospitals can provide vastopportunities to improve its efficiency and help to make strategic decisions. This study aimed tosearch for the main risks of implementation of IT projects in the hospitals of Tehran. Methods: This was a practical and cross-sectional study which was conducted in the 18 hospitals of Tehran,Iran, 2018; in which a sample of 65 members were studied. The required data were collected using a questionnaire to examine seven main risks, including market, project management, human resources, technical, organizational, financial, strategic risks. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Additionally, the method used to test the risks in this study was structural equation modeling, which was ran using LISREL 9.30. Results: The results showed that among the seven main risks of to the implementation of IT in hospitals, the highest and lowest means were related to the human resource risks and the market risks, respectively. Also, according to the SEM, human resource risks and market risks had the highest and lowest effects, respectively. Conclusion: Announcing the use of IT in the hospitals, holding conferences about new IT developments with employees, suitable training, encouraging them to use IT tools, providing a motivating atmosphere to use IT tools for employees, are a few effective ways of overcoming the human resource risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: enhancement factors; Epuripur 1995; resource curse; Urbanite Kampala
Online: 18 January 2019 (10:19:45 CET)
The potential of Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench) (Epuripur 1995) to phytoremediate petroleum oil-adulterated soils from an automobile repair workshop and the effect of enhancement factors: NPK fertilizer, cow dung and sewage sludge in in situ phytoremediation of the soil by the plant were assessed in this study. 50kg of petroleum oil-contaminated soil was collected from the workshop and divided into five equal portions. Four portions were potted with four sorghum plants with three subjected to equal amounts of enhancements (5%w/w) under normal growth conditions for 72 days. Representative soil samples were collected from spots at depths of 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm from the potted soils and subjected to Soxhlet oil extraction after 72 days. Experimental results revealed that S. bicolor survived in the petroleum oil-contaminated soils. Amendment of the petroleum oil-vitiated soils with cow dung, sewage sludge and NPK fertilizer augmented the remediation capacity of Epuripur 1995 by 12.5%, 6.3% and 9.1%. Addition of cow dung to crude oil contaminated soils could make such soils fully reestablished for agricultural activities. Further research aimed at determination of the phytoremediation potential of cereals such as corn, barley, rye, millet should be done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0139.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: statistical mechanics; resource partitioning; stochastic processes; population dynamics
Online: 22 November 2017 (06:31:17 CET)
Many species of plants are found in regions to which they are alien. Their global distributions are characterised by a family of exponential functions of the kind that arise in elementary statistical mechanics (an example in ecology is MacArthur's broken stick). We show here that all these functions are quantitatively reproduced by a model containing a single parameter – some global resource partitioned at random on the two axes of species number and site number. A dynamical model generating this equilibrium is a two fold stochastic process and suggests a curious and interesting biological interpretation in terms of niche structures fluctuating with time and productivity; with sites and species highly idiosyncratic. Idiosyncrasy implies that attempts to identify a priori those species likely to become naturalized are unlikely to be successful. Although this paper is primarily concerned with a particular problem in population biology, the two fold stochastic process may be of more general interest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0665.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Carsharing; Vehicle balancing; Resource dimensioning; Fleet management; Trip pricing
Online: 9 November 2023 (16:44:20 CET)
Carsharing has become increasingly popular in recent years as a sustainable transportation solution, offering individuals access to shared vehicles on a short-term basis. One-way carsharing, in particular, presents unique challenges due to its flexible nature, allowing users to pick up and drop off vehicles at different locations within a designated service area. This flexibility increases the service ridership but comes at the expense of vehicle imbalance among the stations, as some stations may have excess vehicles while other stations have vehicle shortages. Therefore, carsharing companies need to decide on strategies to ensure a balanced distribution of vehicles among the stations. This is essential as unbalanced vehicle distribution can lead to the unavailability of vehicles when needed or, conversely, result in an increased number of unnecessary rebalancing trips, thereby exacerbating traffic congestion and environmental pollution. Such issues can potentially undermine the overall contribution of carsharing to urban sustainability. To this end, this paper reviews the vehicle imbalance problem that arises in this field and the solution algorithms that solve them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0934.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: wild oats; feeding value; Germplasm resource; environmental factor; origin
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:32:21 CEST)
To explore the forage quality of wild oat populations under different growth environments, the basic nutrient composition and forage quality of five wild oat populations in Israel were compared. Ash, crude protein, and soluble sugar content of oats were significantly (P<0.05) related to some forage quality and possible environment of population origin. Among them, the environmental factors of origin had significant effects on the indicators of ash, crude protein, and soluble sugars of oat straw, but less on the contents of crude fat, total phosphorus, and total potassium. Meanwhile, the annual rainfall and the number of days of rainfall in the country of origin greatly influenced the cellulose content. Finally, we investigated the similarity of feeding values of different populations using PCA analysis. The results showed that, in conclusion, the higher variability of wild oat populations may be a new possibility brought by feeding oats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0265.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: replicator population; stochastic resetting; resource distribution; anomalous fluctuations; clustering
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:38:20 CET)
As a model for economic and ecological systems, replicator dynamics represents a basic form of agent competition for finite resources. Here, we investigate the effects of stochastic resetting in this kind of processes. Random reset events abruptly lead individual resources to a small value from which dynamics must start anew. Numerical results show that resource distribution over the population of competing agents develops highly nonuniform profiles, exhibiting clustering and fluctuations with anomalous dependence on the population size. This non-standard statistical behavior jeopardizes an analytical treatment based on mean-field assumptions. We propose alternative simplified analytical approaches which provide a stylized description of entropy evolution for the clustered distribution of resources and explain the unusually slow decrease of fluctuations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0530.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Resource recovery; circular economy; food waste; anaerobic co-digestion
Online: 31 August 2022 (03:10:30 CEST)
The emergence of the circular economy, and the evolving paradigms in the treatment and management of wastewater, have opened up an opportunity for co-digestion of organic waste (i.e., food waste) with sewage sludges to enhance resource recovery at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper reviewed the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludges, as well as alternative sustainable food waste handling systems in South Africa. The promotion of the circular economy by the latest national solid waste management strategy and the ongoing efforts for resource recovery by the wastewater sector suggests that anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and sewage sludge is possible in South Africa. Furthermore, an integrated food waste disposer (FWD) system was identified as a sustainable alternative for food waste handling. To formulate a roadmap for future food waste and sewage sludge co-digestion implementation, a multi-disciplinary investigation is required to bridge the literature gap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: inertial spiral microfluidics; dendritic cell separation; resource-limited microfluidics
Online: 28 February 2020 (11:54:44 CET)
Microfluidics technology has not impacted the delivery and accessibility of point of care health services like diagnosis of infectious disease diagnosis, monitoring health or delivering interventions. Most microfluidics prototypes from academic research are not easy to manufacture with industrial scale fabrication techniques and cannot be operated without complex manipulations of supporting equipment and additives such as labels or reagents. We propose a label- and reagent-free inertial spiral microfluidic device to separate red blood, white blood and dendritic cells from blood fluid for applications in health monitoring and immunotherapy. We demonstrate that using larger channel widths in the range of 200 to 600 µm allows separation of cells into multiple streams according to different size ranges and we utilize a novel technique to collect the closely separated focused cell streams without constricting the channel. When tested on actual human blood cells, 77% of dendritic cells were separated and 80% of cells remained viable after our assay. Our contribution is a method to adapt spiral inertial microfluidic designs to separate more than two cell types in the same device which is robust against clogging, simple to operate and suitable for fabrication and deployment in resource-limited populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0362.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: employee retention; employee turnover; client embeddedness; human resource management
Online: 28 November 2019 (11:22:28 CET)
The employee turnover literature to date is teeming with process models that assume only organizational and personal factors contribute to employees’ intentions to leave and stay. However, with the average percentage variance explained still only around 50%, it is clear that other factors play a substantial role in these decision-making processes. One possible explanation is to explore the unique role that clients play in employees’ intentions to stay or leave. This paper extends the conceptualization of the role that clients play on employee’s intentions to stay and leave their roles, particularly within service industries such as health care. This paper presents the results of two qualitative studies that examine employees’ decision-making process for turnover and retention intentions. The first study explores the factors influencing employees’ intentions to stay and leave the Australian aged care sector (N = 420) and the second study explores prison health care nurses in the United States (N = 175). The results of both studies reveal that client-related factors affect the choice to stay within a job and, in some cases, are the favoured aspect of the role. Therefore encouraging client-staff relationships will expand job satisfaction and therefore increase retention of employees within both contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0051.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: cloud computing; workload model; workload-aware resource forecasting model
Online: 9 October 2017 (12:40:34 CEST)
The primary attraction of IaaS is providing elastic resources on demand. It becomes imperative that IaaS-users have an effective methodology for learning what resources they require, how many resources and for how long they need. However, the heterogeneity of resources, the diversity resource demands of different cloud applications and the variation of application-user behaviors pose IaaS-users big challenge. In this paper, we purpose a unified resource demand forecasting model suiting for different applications, various resources and diverse time-varying workload patterns. With the model, taking input from parameterized applications, resources and workload scenarios, the corresponding resources demands during any time interval can be deduced as output. The experiments configure concrete functions and parameters to help understanding the above model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1802.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Green human resource management; Sustainability; VOSviewer; Comprehensive Bibliometric analysis; Scopus
Online: 26 July 2023 (13:25:09 CEST)
The current organisation is facing intensifying competition in the global business world with loads of challenges and tries to sustain itself in the market through innovation and cost-cutting. The scientific community has a growing interest in management to make a niche in the global competitive era. They have started focusing on the expediency of green human resource management (GHRM) to steer the way to excel the organizations and their employees for sustainability. Green HRM tries to build an organization that encourages employees to adopt environmentally friendly workplace behaviours and minimize costs. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the comprehensive research advances made in the field of green human resource management through bibliometric analysis. The Scopus database has been used to conduct the research. A total of 551 documents were inferred from Scopus, considering the department time period, 2004 to 2023. The outcomes of the study shed light on the eminence of green HRM research, identifying prolific authors and co-authorship patterns, commonly used keywords, country-wise and organization-wise analysis, research themes, theoretical foundations and simple statistics. This comprehensive exploration has provided valuable insights into the concept of green HRM, its objectives, and its potential benefits for businesses and society as a whole.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Macroeconomic Forecasting Model; Scheduling Algorithm; Enterprise Benefit Optimization; Resource Management
Online: 26 June 2023 (05:34:15 CEST)
For an enterprise, the most critical aspect of development is resource management, which has a significant impact on all aspects of the enterprise. Therefore, enterprises must pay attention to resource management allocation, which can better promote the sustainable development of the enterprise and obtain optimal benefits. In the production and development of modern enterprises, the acquisition of benefits also involves the allocation of resources in enterprise management. This paper proposed a benefit optimization scheduling algorithm based on a macroeconomic prediction model under auction mechanism and a grid resource scheduling algorithm driven by a benefit function to allocate resources reasonably. This article used macroeconomic forecasting models to fully understand the resource needs of various departments and the resources held by enterprises, and rationally allocate various resources in various departments. This can improve the work efficiency of various departments, thereby reducing the cost of the enterprise, and achieving optimal benefits for the enterprise. The experimental results in this paper showed that the cost of resource management allocation for the benefit optimization scheduling algorithm and the grid resource scheduling algorithm based on the benefit function driven under the auction mechanism was 105.6 yuan and 46.8 yuan respectively when the task volume was 125 under the multi user environment. The time allocated for resource management was 36.6s and 18.9s respectively. It can be seen that the efficiency function driven grid resource scheduling algorithm had a lower cost and time for resource management allocation, so the efficiency function driven grid resource scheduling algorithm can achieve enterprise efficiency optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0388.v2
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: biomimetic innovation; additive manufacturing; shape memory alloys; resource efficiency; sustainability
Online: 23 February 2023 (09:47:23 CET)
Nature provides plenty of good examples for simple and very efficient joint assemblies. One example is the enormously flexible cervical spine of American barn owls, which consists of 14 cervical vertebrae. Each pair of vertebrae produces a comparatively small individual movement in order to provide a large overall movement of the entire cervical spine. The biomimetic replication of such joints is difficult due to the delicate and geometric unrestricted joint shapes as well as the muscles that have to be mimicked. Using X-ray as well as micro computed tomography images and with the utilisation of additive manufacturing, it is possible to produce the owl neck vertebrae in scaled-up form, to analyse them and then to transfer them into technically usable joint assemblies. The muscle substitution of these joints is realised by smart materials actuators in the form of shape memory alloy wire actuators. This actuator technology is outstanding for its muscle-like movement and for its enormous energy density [1,2]. The disadvantage of this wire actuator technology is the low rate of contraction, which means that a large length of wire has to be installed to generate adequate movement. For this reason, the actuator wires are integrated into additively manufactured carrier components to mimic the biological joints. This results in joint designs that compensate for the disadvantages of the small contraction of the actuators by intelligently installing large wire lengths on comparatively small installation spaces, while also providing a sufficient force output. With the help of a test rig, the developed technical joint variants are examined and evaluated. This demonstrates the technical applicability of this bionic joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cervical cancer screening; barriers; recommendations; slum; low-resource settings; qualitative
Online: 22 September 2022 (07:31:38 CEST)
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women globally despite being a largely treatable and preventable malignancy. Developing countries account for over 80% of all new cases of cervical cancer. Women residing in low-resource settings such as those residing in slums have a higher risk of cervical cancer, and lower uptake of cervical cancer screening. Diverse barriers influence the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low-resource settings. Objectives: This qualitative study was carried out prior to a cervical cancer screening program and explored women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, and their perceived barriers and recommendations for the program.Method: Four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among 35 women between the ages of 21 – 65 years residing in two urban slums in Lagos, Nigeria. Each FGD was limited to 8-10 participants of women of similar ages. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysis was done using thematic analysis.Results: Most of the women were not aware of cervical cancer and none knew the symptoms or risk factors of cervical cancer. The participants felt that the cervical cancer screening program would be well accepted in the community, however, they expressed concerns about the cost of the screening test and the sex of the person performing the test. The recommendations proffered for a successful cervical cancer screening program include; reducing the cost of the test or providing the test free of charge, having people that speak the local language as part of the team, using female health care providers, using a private location within the community or nearby PHC, and publicizing the program with the use of SMS, phone calls, town crier, and health talks. It was recommended that organizing health education sessions would help improve women’s poorly perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer.Conclusion: Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low resource settings need to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer and address the barriers to cervical cancer screening such as cost, distance, and as much as possible, sex of the healthcare provider should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: human resource management; personnel audit; personnel indicators; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:45:49 CEST)
The article deals with human resource management and selected personnel indicators in 10 sustainable development. The main goal of this paper is to analyse and describe human resource 11 management focused on audit of workload, motivation of employees, the competence of staff, their 12 knowledge and experience. The article shows how the selected personnel indicators are examined 13 in selected establishments of multinational company in Slovakia, as an attractive employer inter-14 ested in growth of its employees, thus employer branding. For research methods, a case study meth-15 odology is used. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire survey with employees in 16 the company as well as an interview with sale advisors and managers. The research aimed to point 17 out a case study of the investigation of selected personnel indicators in human resources manage-18 ment in a selected company and to examine the perception of the performance of employees in 19 connection with their financial evaluation and their satisfaction in the selected company with an 20 impact on employees´ performance. Furthermore, the research aimed to determine whether there 21 was a dependence between the subjectively perceived performance of the employees and selected 22 aspects. Further indicators were calculated, such as employment rate, proportion of wasted time 23 and labour productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0290.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: human resource management; personnel politics; personnel indicators; Covid-19 Pandemic
Online: 16 August 2022 (11:56:29 CEST)
The article deals with human resource management and selected personnel indicators in sus-tainable development. The main goal of this paper is to analyse and describe human resource management focused on audit of workload, motivation of employees, the competence of staff, their knowledge and experience. The article shows how the selected personnel indicators are examined in selected establishments of multinational company in Slovakia, as an attractive em-ployer interested in growth of its employees, thus employer branding. For research methods, a case study methodology is used. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire survey with employees in the company as well as an interview with sale advisors and managers. The research aimed to point out a case study of the investigation of selected personnel indicators in human resources management in a selected company and to examine the perception of the per-formance of employees in connection with their financial evaluation and their satisfaction in the selected company with an impact on employees´ performance. Furthermore, the research aimed to determine whether there was a dependence between the subjectively perceived performance of the employees and selected aspects. Further indicators were calculated, such as employment rate, proportion of wasted time and labour productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0066.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: code-switching; automatic speech recognition; low resource languages; language modelling
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:09:31 CEST)
We present improvements in n-best rescoring of code-switched speech achieved by n-gram augmentation as well as optimised pretraining of long short-term memory (LSTM) language models with larger corpora of out-of-domain monolingual text. In addition, we consider the application of large pretrained transformer-based architectures. Our experimental evaluation is performed on an under-resourced corpus of code-switched speech comprising four bilingual code-switched sub-corpora, each containing a Bantu language (isiZulu, isiXhosa, Sesotho, or Setswana) and English. We find in our experiments that, by combining n-gram augmentation with the optimised pretraining strategy, speech recognition errors are reduced for each individual bilingual pair by 3.51% absolute on average over the four corpora. Importantly, we find that even speech recognition at language boundaries improves by 1.14% even though the additional data is monolingual. Utilising the augmented n-grams for lattice generation, we then contrast these improvements with those achieved after fine-tuning pretrained transformer-based models such as distilled GPT-2 and M-BERT. We find that, even though these language models have not been trained on any of our target languages, they can improve speech recognition performance even in zero-shot settings. After fine-tuning on in-domain data, these large architectures offer further improvements, achieving a 4.45% absolute decrease in overall speech recognition errors and a 3.52% improvement over language boundaries. Finally, a combination of the optimised LSTM and fine-tuned BERT models achieves a further gain of 0.47% absolute on average for three of the four language pairs compared to M-BERT. We conclude that the careful optimisation of the pretraining strategy used for neural network language models can offer worthwhile improvements in speech recognition accuracy even at language switches, and that much larger state-of-the-art architectures such as GPT-2 and M-BERT promise even further gains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Qinling mountains; Wild Chinese prickly ashes; HPLC fingerprint; Resource evaluation.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:55:32 CEST)
Wild Chinese prickly ash with elevated antioxidants is a valuable genetic resource for Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim improvement. There are rich wild germplasm resources in the Qinling Mountains. In a study with wild germplasm resources from different altitudes and six cultivated varieties, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatograms of them were basically the same, although their chemical composition content was greatly different. The thirty samples were divided into three categories through the hierarchical clustering analysis. And catechin, hyperoside and quercitrin were considered to be key compound for the quality evaluation, by contrast, the wild samples with an altitude of 2300±50 m (Ⅳ group) had the highest content of key compounds, and showed stronger antioxidant activity and antibacterial ability, indicating that these wild samples could be used as an excellent breeding resource. This is the first time to evaluate the quality of wild Chinese prickly ash in different altitude areas of Qinling Mountains. These excellent wild germplasm resources provided substantial potential accessions for use directly in Chinese prickly ash breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: participatory approach, WECC nexus, South Africa, integrated water resource management
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:14:46 CEST)
This paper discusses the use of a participatory approach to assess the level of understanding of the Water-Energy-Climate Change nexus in South Africa. The aim is to facilitate the development of well-coordinated, systematic, and holistic strategies for efficient management of the nexus and its implications in the country. The assessment was guided by the broader Integrated Water Resource Management framework, which promotes a participatory approach in the administration of water resources. The paper argues that despite the reasonable level of understanding of WECC, there is still a lack of integrated policy development and planning among key stakeholders. This is exacerbated by limited coordination and consultation among these stakeholders, particularly policymakers. This necessitates the urgent adoption of holistic and systems thinking approaches, and the promotion of collaboration among different stakeholders mandated to manage WECC sectors. Until such approaches are adopted, the WECC nexus will continue to impede the country’s socio-economic development and environmental wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Blockchain Technology; Blockchain Trust; Security; Fraud; Human Resource (Hr) Management
Online: 5 May 2021 (11:33:40 CEST)
The impact that new technologies have on all aspects of our lives, work, and businesses is significant and growing over time. Blockchain and artificial intelligence, among other innovative technologies, are having a profound effect on practically all business functions, including most human resources (HR) tasks. The HR sector is currently facing a variety of challenges as HR departments invest many hours in vetting candidates' applications and authenticating records to decrease the chances of imperfect recruiting. Nowadays, more technologically based processes are utilised for talent search, selection and management, as well as for accumulating, retaining, and integrating new talents into a company. These HR practices are far more effective compared to traditional methods but can also be more expensive if the transactional costs are considered. This paper consists of two parts. Following an introduction, the first part discusses the trust and confidentiality that can be attained, while the second part examines security, fraud prevention and the productivity gained from using blockchain technology in HR activities. Finally, there is a concluding section, discussing the implications of blockchain technology for firms who choose to employ it.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Business innovation; financing choices; Nigeria; Entrepreneur; resource based view; motivation
Online: 6 November 2020 (17:14:45 CET)
The paper is to examine the influence of business innovation, business expansion, product and service development, working capital, machinery and equipment on financing choices in the western part of Nigeria. To determine the effect on financing choices, a logistic regression analysis was used. The results in an impressive manner indicate that entrepreneur, essentially with working capital (WC), machinery and equipment (ME) requirement and business innovation (BI) used internal funding sources while business expansion (BE) and product and service development (PS) lean toward external funding sources and the more established and larger firm utilizes debt financing. The approach and the experiential findings offer an unprecedented degree of investigation from an academic point of view through the previous study on Nigeria entrepreneur. Similarly, the experimental results will strengthen the entrepreneur's knowledge, awareness and perception. Through the capabilities of the entrepreneurs, they can prepare and adapt in accordance with the business condition they conduct business and to help them in their choice procedure regarding the capital structure of their organization in the midst of an interval when the fuss of entrepreneur funding is gradually elicited in the Nigerian climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Scrap; waste; materials; trade; resource flows; embedded emissions; circular economy
Online: 2 October 2020 (13:56:05 CEST)
Growing evidence about the negative socio-environmental consequences of plastic pollution led to various initiatives for better plastic scrap governance and its trade. At the same time, an examination of recent data shows that plastic scrap represents only a fraction of recyclable materials which are traded internationally and are also subject to similar problems of cross-border environmental governance. A limited analysis comparing plastics, textiles, paper and ferrous metals suggests that ongoing momentum for improvement of plastic scrap governance and circularity should also be framed to consider other types of secondary materiais.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0174.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud computing; big data; fog computing; software-defined; networking; network management; resource management; topology.
Online: 26 February 2020 (15:34:25 CET)
Cloud infrastructure provides computing services where computing resources can be adjusted on-demand. However, the adoption of cloud infrastructures brings concerns like reliance on the service provider network, reliability, compliance for service level agreements (SLAs), etc. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a networking concept that suggests the segregation of a network’s data plane from the control plane. This concept improves networking behavior. In this paper, we present an SDN-enabled resource-aware topology framework. The proposed framework employs SLA compliance, Path Computation Element (PCE) and shares fair loading to achieve better topology features. We also present an evaluation, showcasing the potential of our framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Resource-based view, regional competitiveness, renewable energy, wind power, island
Online: 20 February 2019 (10:59:22 CET)
This paper aims to propose a new approach of territorial competitiveness assessment revisited from the resource-based view, as the combination of location-specific resources and capabilities can improve the territorial socio-economic development. A territorial competitiveness index is calculated in order to assess the potential of renewable energy sources to improve the sustainable development in islands. Different sources of information and methodologies have been employed to measure the variables included in the model, thus ensuring a rigorous process in the index calculation. In order to quantify the basic resources, for example, a methodology based on a multicriteria analysis (MCA) with geographic information system (GIS) is suggested, with the objective of obtaining an indicator called index of available territorial resources. This index synthesizes the map information through a numerical value that allows integrating the territorial resource with other indicators of the model. The results of the study show that capability development is a key factor to better exploit the territorial resource endowment in order to achieve a competitive advantage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Cropland allocation, linear programming, Crop production performance, Smallholder, resource management
Online: 7 September 2018 (15:41:18 CEST)
Crop production is a major livelihood activity of smallholders in Ethiopia. However, it is often characterized by low performance. In an effort to improve crop production, a series of agricultural extension programs have been running in Ethiopia since the 1950s. Nevertheless, the performance of agriculture is still low. In this study, it is argued that the limited attention given to cropland allocation methodologies is one of the major causes of low performance of crop production and increased environmental degradation. This study used linear programming to examine the role and impacts of cropland allocation methods on performance of crop production. The data for this study was drawn from household survey of 75 randomly selected households combined with focus-grouped discussion, key informant interview, and secondary data. In the current conventional cropland allocation, households were not able to meet their household consumption. The average profitability of farms under current practice was found significantly below than estimated optimal level of profit that could be realized using linear programming. In addition, it uncovered that low performance of crop production (in terms of meeting household consumption demand and profitability) is the primary cause that limited the effort of households to participate in environmental and natural resource management. This study suggests the use of linear programming-based cropland allocation to enhance the profit performance of smallholder crop production, meeting household consumption requirement, and thereby promote sustainable utilization of natural and environmental resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: residential house; deconstruction; resource harvesting; whole house reuse; circular economy
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:49:34 CEST)
This study analyses the case study of a deconstruction project called the ‘Whole House Reuse’ (WHR) which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. The study applies characterization of recovered materials through deconstruction. In addition to the material recovery, the study assesses the embodied energy saving and greenhouse gas emission abatement of the deconstruction project. Around twelve tonnes of various construction materials were harvested through a systematic deconstruction approach, most which would otherwise be disposed to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. The study estimates that the recovered materials could potentially save around 502,158MJ of embodied energy and prevent carbon emission of around 27,029kg (CO2e). Deconstruction could eventually contribute to New Zealand’s national emission reduction targets. In addition, the project successfully engages local communities and designers to produce 400 new products using the recovered materials and exhibited to the local people. The study concludes that there is a huge prospect in regard to resource recovery, emission reduction, employment and small business opportunities using deconstruction of the old house. The socio-cultural importance of the WHR project is definitely immense; however, the greater benefits of such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy. It is acknowledged that under a favourable market condition and with appropriate support from local communities and authorities, deconstruction could contribute significantly to resource conservation and environmental protection despite its requirement of labour intensive efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: shallow geothermal resource; borehole heat exchanger; thermal response test; TRT
Online: 1 December 2017 (11:18:32 CET)
Theory of the Thermal Response Testing (TRT) is a well-known part of sizing process of the geothermal exchange system. Multiple parameters influence accuracy of effective ground thermal conductivity measurement; like testing time, variable power, climate interferences, groundwater effect etc. To improve accuracy of the TRT we introduced procedure to additionally analyze falloff temperature decline after power test. Method is based on a premise of analogy between TRT and petroleum well testing, since origin of both procedures lies in diffusivity equation with solutions for heat conduction or pressure analysis during radial flow. Applying pressure build-up test interpretation technique to the borehole heat exchanger testing, greater accuracy could be achieved since ground conductivity could be obtained from this period. Analysis was conducted on coaxial exchanger with five different power steps, and with both direct and reverse flow regime. Each test was set with 96hr of a classical TRT, followed by 96hr of temperature decline, making it almost 2000 hours of cumulative borehole testing. Results showed that ground conductivity value could vary as much as 25% depending on test time, seasonal period and power fluctuations while thermal conductivity obtained from a falloff period gives more stable values with only 10% value variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0699.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: TD3; MEC; NOMA; vehicular networks; edge cache; computation offloading; resource allocation
Online: 11 October 2023 (14:30:23 CEST)
In this paper, in order to reduce the energy consumption and delay of data transmission, the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and edge caching technologies are jointly considered. As for the cache-assisted vehicular NOMA-MEC networks, a problem of minimizing the energy consumed by vehicles (mobile devices, MDs) is formulated under the latency and resource constraints, which jointly optimizes the computing resource allocation, subchannel selection, device association, offloading and caching decisions. To solve the formulated problem, we develop an effective joint computation offloading and task caching algorithm based on the twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient (TD3) algorithm. Such a TD3-based offloading (TD3O) algorithm includes a designed action transformation (AT) algorithm used for transforming continuous action space into a discrete one. In addition, to solve the formulated problem in a non-iterative manner, an effective heuristic algorithm (HA) is also designed. As for the designed algorithms, we provide some detailed analyses of computation complexity and convergence, and give some meaningful insights through simulation. Simulation results show that the TD3O algorithm may achieve lower local energy consumption than several benchmark algorithms, and HA may achieve a lower one than the completely offloading algorithm and local execution algorithm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Biogas; Dye-containing wastewater; Resource recovery; Sludge; UASB reactors; Water reuse
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:27:04 CEST)
Dye-containing effluent generated in textile industries is polluting and complex wastewater. It should be managed adequately before the final destination. The up-flow anaerobic blanket (UASB) reactor application is an eco-friendly and cost-competitive treatment. The present study briefly reviews the UASB application for dye wastewater valorization. Bioenergy and clean water production potential during dye-containing wastewater treatment are emphasized to promote resource recovery in textile industries. Efficiencies of color and chemical oxygen demand of 50–97% and 60–90% are reported in bench-scale UASB studies. A biogas yield of 0.36–36.04 L d-1 in UASB, which treats dye-containing effluents, is documented. Bioenergy production and water reuse allow environmental and economic benefits. However, data on full-scale UASB treating dye wastewater are missing. Besides, studies on combined systems integrating membrane processes, such as ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, and pretreatment of wastewater and sludge for improvements in biogas production might realize the complete potential for resource recovery of UASB technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1175.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Biomass resource utilization; Biochar microspheres; Structural modification; Oily dye wastewater treatment
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:48:19 CEST)
Oil agents produced from degreasing treatment of synthetic fibers are typical pollutants in printing and dyeing wastewater, which may cause large-scale environmental pollution without proper treatment. How to purify oily dye wastewater with low cost is a key problem at present. In this study, the biochar microspheres with oil removal ability were prepared deriving from waste bamboo chips using hydrothermal method. The structure of biochar microsphere was regulated by the activation and modification processes. The biochar microspheres were characterized and their adsorption behaviors for oily dye wastewater were explored. The results showed that the adsorption efficiency of biochar microspheres for oily dye wastewater (DTY) was improved significantly after the secondary pyrolysis and lauric acid grafting reaction. The maximum COD removal quantity of biochar microspheres for DTY was 889 mg/g with removal rate of 86.06% in 30 min. Besides, the kinetics showed that the chemisorption was the main adsorption manner. The application of biochar microspheres can decrease the costs of oily wastewater treatment and avoid environmental pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2093.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice production; sustainable production; ghana rice; resource management; environmentally-friendly practice
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:38:20 CEST)
In Ghana, rice remains a critical crop, representing 15% of the country's GDP. However, production has been hindered by limited water access, degraded soil, pests and diseases, and ineffective pesticide use. These issues have impeded industry growth while adversely affecting the environment and impairing socioeconomic development. To combat these challenges, it is necessary to implement sustainable production strategies that emphasize environmental protection, resource management, and socioeconomic progress. This study evaluates sustainable rice production in Ghana, taking into account its consequences on the environment, socioeconomic growth, and food security. It pinpoints gaps and offers advice for stakeholders, policymakers, and scholars to transition to sustainability. The study illuminates the increasing significance of rice in Ghana and its role in food security, illustrating increased output due to widened land rather than higher yields. It underscores the necessity of fulfilling surging demand while implementing environmentally friendly practices. The paper scrutinizes the difficulties encountered by the rice sector, such as restricted water supplies and soil degradation, along with the adverse impacts of pests, diseases and inefficient pesticide utilization. Sustainable methods are imperative for Ghana's agribusiness, environmental protection, and socioeconomic progress. By embracing green techniques, prioritizing resource management, and investing in research, Ghana can surmount production issues. This review provides invaluable insight and suggestions for policymakers, academicians, and stakeholders alike to ensure sustainable rice production for current and future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1926.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Airport capacity management; Service resource allocation; Monte Carlo simulation; Mathematical modeling
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:28:16 CEST)
To effectively estimate airport terminal area capacity and assess the maximum throughput the sector can achieve when the capacity is given, this research proposes an approach to assess the terminal area capacity from the viewpoint of service provision resources. Terminal area capacity is optimized based on the equilibrium of air traffic service resource supply and demand. The supply-demand nexus is examined in consideration of terminal area route structure, traffic flow characteristics, and safety regulations. A flight service probability matrix and a terminal area demand and supply service time model are constructed to quantify resource expenditure at varied capacity levels. A optimization model is then developed to apportion maximal capacity under resource limitations. Model computation and computation results demonstrate the deviation between estimated and amended capacities is under 0.3 flight sorties per hour. The outcomes are congruent with historical statistics, thereby validating the accuracy and reliability of the model proposed in this study. Given capacity parameters, the model can deduce the maximal aircraft quantity served concurrently in terminal areas during peak periods. These revelations indicate the submitted model furnishes theoretical foundation and reference for terminal area sector partition and traffic alerting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2125.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-2; remote sensing; Google Earth Engine; large-scale; water resource
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:24:44 CEST)
Evaluating the performance of water indices and mapping the spatial distribution of water-related ecosystems are important for monitoring surface water resources. This is particularly the case for Ethiopia since there is limited information available on water resources development over time despite its relevance for the people and ecosystems. To address this problem, this paper evaluates the performance of seven water indices for country-scale surface water detection based on high spatial and multi-temporal resolution Sentinel-2 data, processed using the Google Earth Engine cloud computing system. Results show that the water index (WI) and automatic water extraction index with shadow (AWEIsh) are the most accurate ones to extract surface water. Comparisons are based on qualitative visual inspections and quantitative accuracy indicators. For the latter, WI and AWEIsh obtained kappa coefficients of 0.96 and 0.95, respectively, and an overall accuracy of 0.98 each. Both indices accounted for similar spatial coverages of surface waters with 82,650 km2 (WI) and 86,530 km2 (AWEIsh) for the whole of Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: anuran; competition; disruptive selection; diversification; fear; phenotypic plasticity; resource polymorphism; specialization
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:07 CET)
Disruptive selection arises when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage compared to more intermediate phenotypes. Theory and evidence suggest that intraspecific resource competition is a key driver of disruptive selection. However, while competition can be indirect (exploitative) or direct (interference), the role of interference competition in disruptive selection has not been tested, and most models of disruptive selection assume exploitative competition. We experimentally investigated whether the type of competition affects the outcome of competitive interactions using a system where disruptive selection is common: Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles develop into alternative resource-use phenotypes: carnivores, which consume fairy shrimp and other tadpoles, and omnivores, which feed on algae and detritus. Tadpoles intermediate in phenotype have low fitness when competition is intense, as they are outcompeted by the specialized tadpoles. Our experiments revealed that the presence of carnivores significantly decreased foraging behavior in intermediate tadpoles, and that intermediate tadpoles had significantly lower growth rates in interference competition treatments with carnivores but not with omnivores. Interference competition may therefore be important in driving disruptive selection. As carnivore tadpoles are also cannibalistic, the ‘fear’ effect may have a greater impact on intermediate tadpoles than exploitative competition alone, similarly to non-consumptive effects in predator-prey or intraguild relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river discharge; hydro informatics; water resource; data-driven; deep learning; LSTM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:30:24 CEST)
River flow prediction is a pivotal task in the field of water resource management during the era of rapid climate change. The highly dynamic and evolving nature of the climatic variables e.g., precipitation has a significant impact on the temporal distribution of the river discharge in recent days making the discharge forecasting even more complicated for diversified water-related issues e.g., flood prediction and irrigation planning. To predict the discharge, various physics-based numerical models are used using numerous hydrologic parameters. Extensive lab-based investigation and calibration are required to reduce the uncertainty involved in those parameters. However, in the age of data-driven predictions, several deep learning algorithms showed satisfactory performance in dealing with sequential data. In this research, Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) neural network regression model is trained using over 80 years of daily data to forecast the discharge time series up to 3 days ahead of time. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.09. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyper parameter tuning. This model can be transferred to other locations with proper feature engineering and optimization to perform univariate predictive analysis and potentially be used to perform real-time river discharge prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0249.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Green energy; Natural resource rents; Economic growth; SDGs; FGLS; PMG & MG
Online: 16 September 2022 (11:37:20 CEST)
The concept of green energy is now at the forefront of development discourse, with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7, 11, and 12 all aimed at promoting green energy consumption to combat the three planetary crises: climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution. Similarly, issues regarding Africa’s natural resource curse have caused a stir in the growth and development literature for some time now and there is no sign that it will die out. This study, the first of its kind, simultaneously assesses the impact of green energy consumption and Africa’s natural resources rents on economic growth by applying the Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) estimator and the dynamic panel models of the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) and Mean Group (MG) estimators on data from 1990 to 2020 for 24 selected African countries. The results show that green energy consumption has a short-run growth-limiting effect and a long-run growth-enhancing effect in Africa. The study also found evidence of the natural resource curse phenomenon in Africa. The study, therefore, calls for the advancement and usage of green energy for both domestic and industrial production in Africa. The study further calls for a revamp in the global tax policy to curb illicit financial activities and strengthening institutional quality for transparency and accountability in the entire value chain of natural resource management in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Management; telework; communication; human resource management; business; digitalization; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 15 August 2022 (05:57:07 CEST)
In the context of the pandemic caused by Covid-19, an important aspect that was affected and changed was the way people communicate. Communication efficiency can be improved by using modern technologies, for example: mobile devices, digital audio and video platforms, text platforms, social media and more. For further economic success, digital skills are needed not only for executives, but also for managers, in order to be able to lead teams and avoid situations of stress and tension in the virtual environment. This scientific paper includes a primary research of how the pandemic affected the communication at the workplace. For this a qualitative analysis was first performed, in which the interview was used as a working tool. Next, on the basis of a questionnaire, a hypothesis was formulated and validated afterwards through multiple linear regression. This research highlighted the particularly important role of communication and, in this context, the role of the remote team leader. In order to keep the team motivated and interested in the virtual environment, the manager must use modern tools to motivate, support and express his appreciation when the team, respectively the members of his team, achieve their goals successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0341.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: medical education; public health; medical schools; community; global health; human resource
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:03:49 CEST)
Background: With new challenges to the health system, many new competencies within the scope of teaching public health need to be addressed in medical schools’ curricula such as disaster risk management and health system science. The aims of this study were to identify the needs of public health competencies for medical doctors in Thailand and to assess the level of integration for technical collaboration in teaching public health. Method: A total of 17 out of 21 Thai medical schools participated in the national survey. Qualitative inquiries applied focus group interviews of community representatives from ten sample villages and in-depth interviews of representatives from stakeholder organizations particularly employers. The list of public health competencies framework recommended by WHO-SEARO was applied. Quantitative analysis applied descriptive analysis using STATA 15 and qualitative findings were validated by interrelating the meaning of themes from Word Clouds created in NVivo12. Data integration applied a mixed-method Quan-qual approach. Results: 17 medical schools returned the questionnaires (80.95 % yield). The most common regionally-defined public health competencies (in over 70% of schools) were shown to be: Biostatistics, Community Medicine, Epidemiology, Family Medicine, Medical Ethics and Professional Laws, Preventive Medicine, Health Promotion, Holistic Care, and Research. The curriculum in only one medical school lacked Health Economics, whilst Disaster Management was lacking in two other schools. Discipline-based subjects were found to be more prevalent than interdisciplinary competencies. A variety of methods were being applied for teaching public health. The majority of the schools applied lecture as the main teaching method and multiple-choice questions as the main assessment method. Thai communities expect the doctors to get in touch with the community more often, lead the primary health care team through training the health professionals and community health volunteers, and educate the community for better health. Conclusion: Human resource is the main challenge in addressing interdisciplinary competencies. It is necessary to establish a collaborating mechanism among the big and small medical schools and the faculties of public health to improve the teaching of public health to undergraduate students in medical schools. There is also a need to strengthen the health system science and leadership so that future MDs can lead health service delivery according to the needs of their employers such as the Ministry of Public Health and the Rural Doctors Association. The findings of this study may help to identify a national framework of public health core competencies for medical schools and create a common platform for interdisciplinary collaborations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0287.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Institutional support; new ventures; entrepreneurial orientation; innovation resource acquisition; innovation performance.
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:12:07 CET)
Based on the institutional theory and resource-based theory and the "institution-strategy-performance" research paradigm, this research explores the mechanism of institutional support on the innovation performance of new ventures, focusing on the mediating role of entrepreneurs and the moderating role of innovative resource acquisition. An empirical analysis based on 278 survey samples shows that: ① (formal/informal) institutional support positively affects the innovation performance of new ventures; ② entrepreneurial orientation plays an intermediary role between institutional support and innovation performance of new ventures; ③ innovation resource acquisition not only positively regulates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and innovation performance of new ventures, but also enhances the mediation of entrepreneurial orientation between institutional support and innovation performance. The conclusion shows that institutional support plays an important role in the innovation practice of new ventures, and can provide guidance for the innovation management practices of new ventures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable Development Goals; SDG; Resource security; Land; Water; Air; Biodiversity
Online: 7 August 2020 (10:19:38 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) purport to report holistically on progress towards sustainability and do so using more than 231 discrete indicators with a primary objective to achieve a balance between the environment, social and economic aspects of development. The research question underpinning the analyses presented in this paper is: are the indicators in the SDGs sufficient and fit-for-purpose to assess the trajectory of natural resources towards sustainability? We extracted the SDG indicators that monitor the state of natural resources, or alternately support policy or governance for their protection, and determined if these are adequate to provide the essential data on natural resources to achieve the aims of the SDGs. The indicators are clustered into four natural resource categories; land, water (both marine and freshwater), air and biodiversity. Indicators for monitoring land resources show that the most comprehensive land resource indicator, for degraded land, is not fully implemented and that missing from land monitoring is an evaluation of vegetation health outside of forests and mountains, the condition of soils, and most importantly the overall health of terrestrial ecosystems. Indicators for monitoring water resources have substantial gaps, unable to properly monitor water quality, water stress, many aspects of marine resources and most significantly, the health of fresh and salt water ecosystems. Indicators for monitoring of air have recently become more comprehensive, but linkage to IPCC results would benefit both programmes. Monitoring of biodiversity is perhaps the greatest weakness of the SDG Agenda, having no comprehensive assessment even though narrow aspects are monitored. Again, deliberate linkages to other global biodiversity programmes (e.g. CBD and the Post 2020 Biodiversity Framework; IPBES; Living Planet, etc.) are recommended on condition that data can be defined at a country level. While the SDG list of indicators in support of natural resource is moderately comprehensive, it lacks holistic monitoring in relation to evaluation of ecosystems and biodiversity to the extent that these missing but vital measures of sustainability threaten the entire SDG Agenda. In addition, an emerging issue is that even where there are appropriate indicators, the amount of country-level data remains inadequate to fully evaluate sustainability. This signals the delicate balance between the extent and complexity of the SDG Agenda and uptake at a country level
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Organ Transplantation, Ethics, Healthcare Resource Allocation, Lower Priority, Substance Use, Merit
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:05:34 CET)
Organ transplantation centers set criteria for candidate qualification, which has led to disparate healthcare resource allocation practices affecting those with a substance use history. These individuals are denied organ transplants by committees and healthcare providers who assign them lower priority status. The lower priority argument claims that healthcare resources should not be provided equally to individuals failing to share responsibility for not doing enough in addressing the diseases associated with substance use. The purpose of this work is to explore the interrelatedness between the ethics of a merit-based system of moral responsibility and lower priority setting involved in healthcare resource allocation pertaining to those with substance use histories. An integral approach to the argument against the lower prioritists with a focus on the relationship between different organ allocation practices affecting substance users and the justification for resource allocation practices in healthcare and transplant committees. Lower priority setting is challenged, and an argument offered in which substance users are assigned higher priority when relying on “doing enough” in a merit-based system of moral responsibility. It is determined that one cannot substantiate assigning a lower priority status since a lack of success in rehab does not imply a lack of effort. Additionally, neither to confirmatory behavior, nor to non-conforming behavior may freedom be justifiably ascribed in a merit-based system of responsibility because freedom to choose can neither be established a priori, nor a posteriori with respect to meritorious behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0034.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: multi-objective optimization; resource efficiency; metal mines; production process; NSGA-II
Online: 29 November 2018 (10:59:56 CET)
The optimization of the production process of metal mines has been traditionally driven only by economic benefits while ignoring resource efficiency. However, it has become increasingly aware of the importance of resource efficiency since mineral resource reserves continue to decrease while the demand continues to grow. To better utilize the mineral resources for sustainable development, this paper proposes a multi-objective optimization model of the production process of metal mines considering both economic benefits and resource efficiency. Specifically, the goals of the proposed model are to maximize the profit and resource utilization rate. Then, the fast and elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to optimize the multi-objective optimization model. The proposed model has been applied to the optimization of the production process of a stage in the Huogeqi Copper Mine. The optimization results provide a set of Pareto-optimal solutions that can meet varying needs of decision makers. Moreover, compared with those of the current production indicators, the profit and resource utilization rate of some points in the optimization results can increase respectively by 2.99% and 2.64%. Additionally, the effects of the decision variables (geological cut-off grade, minimum industrial grade and loss ratio) on objective functions (profit and resource utilization rate) were discussed using variance analysis. The sensitivities of the Pareto-optimal solutions to the unit copper concentrate price were studied. The results show that the Pareto-optimal solutions at higher profits (with lower resource utilization rates) are more sensitive to the unit copper concentrate prices than those obtained in regions with lower profits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0611.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water resources; natural resources; resource security; SDGs; goal; target; benchmark; standard
Online: 28 November 2018 (14:03:52 CET)
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the SDGs, are high on the agenda for most countries of the world. In its publication of the SDGs, the UN has provided the goals and target descriptions that, if implemented at a country level, would lead towards a sustainable future. The IAEG (InterAgency Expert Group of the SDGs) was tasked with disseminating indicators and methods to countries that can be used to gather data describing the global progress towards sustainability. However 2030 Agenda leaves it to countries to adopt the targets with each government setting its own national targets guided by the global level of ambition but taking into account national circumstances. At present, guidance on how to go about this is scant, but it is clear that the responsibility is with countries to implement and that it is actions at a country level that will determine the success of the SDGs. SDG reporting by countries takes on two forms 1) global reporting using prescribed indicator methods and data; 2) National Voluntary Reviews where a country reports on its own progress in more detail but is also able to present data that are more appropriate for the country. For the latter, countries need to be able to adapt the global indicators to fit national priorities and context, thus the global description of an indicator could be reduced to describe only what is relevant to the country. Countries may also, for the National Voluntary Review, use indicators that are unique to the country but nevertheless contribute to measurement of progress towards the global SDG target. Importantly, for those indicators that relate to the security of natural resources security (e.g. water) indicators, there are no prescribed numerical targets/standards or benchmarks. Rather countries will need to set their own benchmarks or standards against which performance can be evaluated. This paper presents a procedure that would enable a country to describe national targets with associated benchmarks that are appropriate for the country. The procedure focusses on those SDG targets that are natural resource-security focussed e.g. extent of water-related ecosystems (6.6), desertification (15.3) etc., because the selection of indicator methods and benchmarks is based on the location of natural resources, their use and present state and how they fit into national strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: UAV backhaul networks; Stackelberg game; delay durance; resource allocation; energy efficiency
Online: 5 October 2018 (12:58:17 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) severing as the relay is an effective technology method to extend the coverage. It can also alleviate the congestion and increase the throughput, especially applied in UAV networks. However, since the energy of UAVs is limited and the resources in UAV networks are scarce, how to optimize the network delay performance under these constraints should be well investigated. Besides, the relationship among different resources, e.g. power and bandwidth, is coupled which makes the optimization more complex. This article investigates the problem of joint power and bandwidth allocation in UAV backhaul networks, which considers both the delay performance and the resource utilization efficiency. Considering the heterogeneous locations characteristics of different UAVs, we formulate the optimization problem as a Stackelberg game. The relay UAV acts as the leader and extended UAVs act as followers. Their utility functions take both the delay durance and the resource consumption into account. To capture the competitive relationship among followers, the sub-game is proved to be an exact potential game and exists Nash equilibriums (NE). The Stackelberg Equilibrium (SE) is proved afterwards. We utilize a hierarchical learning algorithm (HLA) to find out the best resource allocation strategies, which also reduces the computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: aggregator; demand response; distributed energy resource; information communication technology; SWOT; PEST
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:27:20 CEST)
The world is progressing towards a more advanced society where end-consumers have access to local renewable-based generation and advanced forms of information and technology. Hence, it is in a current state of transition between the traditional approach to power generation and distribution, where end-consumers of electricity have typically been inactive in their involvement with energy markets and a new approach that integrates their active participation. This new approach includes the use of distributed energy resources (DER) such as renewable-based generations and demand response (DR), which are being rapidly adopted by end-consumers, where incentives are strong. This paper presents the role of DR aggregator to effectively integrate DER technologies as a new source of energy capacity, into the electricity networks using information communication technology and industry knowledge. This framework based on DR aggregators will facilitate renewable energy integration and customer engagement in electricity market efficiently. To this aim, advantages and disadvantages of DR aggregators are discussed in this paper from political, economic, social and technological (PEST) point of views. Based on this analysis, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis for a typical DR aggregator is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0151.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecological footprint; biocapacity; resource consumption; grazing land; carbon emission; renewable energy
Online: 9 July 2018 (14:05:23 CEST)
Urbanization and industrialization processes in Mongolia have been significant and rapid for the last half-century. During this period, changes in political and economic systems, growth in the population, and the occasional harsh climate conditions were subject to fluctuations in the natural resource usage. The total Ecological Footprint (EF) in Mongolia has increased from 6.8 million global hectares (gha) in 1961 to 14.6 million gha in 2012. However, Biocapacity (BC) has decreased from 50.6 million gha in 1961 to 39.0 million gha in 2012. The study shows that grazing land Footprint and carbon uptake land Footprint are the two major contributors of the recent intensified use of biological resources. To ensure stable economic development and sustainable use of natural resources, environmental planning is required to consider both the population’s pressure on the environment and the ecosystem’s regeneration capacity, simultaneously. We have proposed a few possible strategies for sustainable utilization of grazing land Footprint and carbon Footprint. For grazing land Footprint, efficient management of both herding practice and number of animals should be considered. In case of carbon Footprint, it is estimated that with the improved combustion efficiencies of coal-based power plants and the maximum use of renewable energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Mongolia can be reduced up to 30% compared to the base line business as usual case in 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0268.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Circular economy; sustainability; environmental management; resource management; strategy; motivations; knowledge; challenges.
Online: 18 June 2018 (14:15:28 CEST)
The move towards a new Circular Economy (CE) economic model has been advocated and supported in Portugal, however, there is limited research on this topic. To address this gap, a quantitative research based on an online survey was carried out among 99 Portuguese organizations, encompassing a wide range of sectors and sizes. The results show that CE is regarded as a strategic and relevant issue for profitability and value creation. Furthermore, the perception that it requires the adoption of new business models in addition to the classical “reduce, reuse, and recycle” approach is growing. Moreover, based on the hypotheses raised, results suggest that the level of CE adoption is positively impacted by the status of the EMS (Environmental Management System) certification and the willingness to improve the environmental performance and achieve a sustainable business model. However, CE activities are still relatively modest and a friendlier context (fiscal, legal, organizational, etc.) and the stronger support from supply chain agents and consumers are required. Future research should focus on how to design and shape the transition from a linear to a CE economy, and to ascertain if the positive attitude towards CE is materialized in changing the way business is done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: distributed system; power density; renewable energy; sustainability; utility scale; wind resource
Online: 11 April 2018 (06:07:49 CEST)
The physical and economic sustainability of using Built Environment Wind Turbine (BEWT) systems depends on the wind resource potential of the candidate site. Therefore, it is crucial to carry out a wind resource assessment prior to deployment of the BEWT. The assessment results can be used as a referral tool for predicting the performance and lifespan of the BEWT in the given built environment. To date, there is limited research output on BEWTs in South Africa with available literature showing a bias towards utility-scale or conventional ground based wind energy systems. This study aimed to assess wind power generation potential of BEWT systems in Fort Beaufort using the Weibull distribution function. The results show that Fort Beaufort wind patterns can be classified as fairly good and that BEWTs can best be deployed at 15m for a fairer power output as roof height wind speeds require BEWT of very low cut-in speed of at most1.2ms−1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1698.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: single-valued neutrosophic sets; RANCOM; AROMAN; sustainable human resource management; sustainable development
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:01:06 CEST)
Along with the economic growth, the companies must contribute to social progress and promote environmental sustainability in equal harmony. Sustainable human resource management (SHRM) strategies make it possible to attain the economic, social and environmental goals of a firm. In this regard, a survey method is discussed using the literature review and online questionnaire to identify the main factors/indicators during the SHRM evaluation of manufacturing firms in India. Uncertainty is commonly occurred in the assessment of SHRM factors. As a generalized version of fuzzy sets, single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) has been demonstrated as a valuable tool to illustrate the indeterminate, inconsistent and uncertain data of realistic decision-making problems. Considering the idea of SVNSs, this study develops a hybrid multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) approach for assessing the SHRM of manufacturing firms under uncertainty settings. For this purpose, an SVN-alternative ranking order method accounting for two-step normalization (AROMAN) is proposed based on VIFI-score function-based decision experts’ (DEs’) weighting tool and integrated criteria weight-determining model to solve the MCGDM problems with fully unknown DEs and criteria weights. In this regard, we develop new SVN-distance measure to compute the degree of difference between SVNSs. Some examples are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of developed measure over the existing ones. In addition, new criteria weight-determination model is presented with the integration of objective weights through IVIF-distance measure-based model and subjective weights through ranking comparison (RANCOM) tool on SVNSs. The proposed ranking method is applied to an empirical study of SHRM assessment for manufacturing firms in India, which shows its applicability and feasibility. In this study, the evaluation criteria are characterized into social, environmental and economic aspects with DE’s opinions. Comparative and sensitivity analyses are made to show the strength and steadiness of presented approach. This study provides an innovative MCGDM analysis framework, which makes a significant contribution to the SHRM assessment problem under indeterminate, inconsistent and uncertain setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0519.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Green Logistics; Green Human Resource Management; Sustainable Development of Organizations; Sustainable Production
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:50:39 CEST)
Purpose, This research aimed to examine the effect of green logistics (GL) and green human resource management (GHRM) on the performance of environmentally friendly manufacturing industries oriented towards sustainable development of organizations (SDO) through the role of sustainable production (SP) as a mediating variable. Methodology, A quantitative approach was employed through a standardized questionnaire to obtain data from 110 manufacturing industries in Indonesia that implemented environmentally friendly practices. Advanced statistical techniques, such as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and data analysis using Smart PLS (Partial Least Square) version 4 were utilized to analyze the collected data. Findings, The results showed that the model supported the statistical significance of all seven hypotheses and confirmed the direct and mediating effects of GL, GHRM, and SP on SDO. Practical implications, This research added critical insights into the theory and practice of GL and GHRM to realize SDO through the role of SP as a mediator in environmentally friendly manufacturing industries. Originality, This research contributd to the existing literature by adding to the effect of SP mediation on the relationship of GL and GHRM on SDO. There was no previous research that discussed the important role of SP mediation in influencing the relationship between GL and GHRM on SDO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0307.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: environmental regulation; water resource utilization performance; dual effects; two-step system GMM
Online: 13 April 2023 (07:49:02 CEST)
Environmental regulation has dual effects on water resource utilization performance through various channels such as the "three red lines" and the "Porter hypothesis". Based on the detailed analysis of the impact path of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance, the two-step system GMM method was adopted to test the dual effects of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance by using panel data of 30 provinces and cities from 2004 to 2020. The results show that: (1) Environmental regulation has a significant direct impact on water resource utilization performance, and is currently in the stage of positive relationship of an inverted u-shaped relationship. (2) Environmental regulation has a significant indirect impact on water resource utilization Environmental regulation has dual effects on water resource utilization performance through various channels such as the "three-red lines" and the "Porter hypothesis". In accordance with a detailed examination of the influence path of environmental regulation on the performance of water resource utilization, the double effects of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance were examined using panel statistics from 30 provinces and cities from 2004 to 2020 using the two-step system GMM approach. The results demonstrate that: (1) Environmental regulation has a direct effect on water resource utilization performance which is currently in the stage of the positive relationship of an inverted u-shaped relationship. (2) The influence of environmental regulation on water resource utilization performance through government intervention and industrial structure adjustment is indirect, among which government intervention can significantly improve water resource utilization performance, while the growth of the tertiary industry as a percentage can lower water resource utilization performance. (3) Both direct and indirect impacts indicate that enhancing the efficiency of the use of water resources is sustainable, and the water resource utilization performance of the preceding period had a major positive impact over the present phase. Therefore, the paper sets out a few policy suggestions, such as choosing reasonable environmental regulation tools, actively guiding the market-oriented reform with constraints, and upgrading the industrial structure in a green way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Special Character Areas; homeowner’s satisfaction; property value analysis; capital value; resource consent
Online: 12 April 2023 (07:23:41 CEST)
Heritage conservation area designation is often resisted by communities due to concerns with overly strict regulations for property alterations and negative impacts on property values. This paper addresses these concerns by examining Freemans Bay and Onehunga – two Special Character Areas (SCAs) in Auckland, New Zealand. A property value analysis was used to assess the impact of SCA designation on property values and an online questionnaire survey gathered information on homeowners’ experiences and levels of satisfaction with living in an SCA. The results indicate that designated SCA properties have higher average values than non-designated properties and homeowners are overwhelmingly satisfied with living in a SCA. The main benefits are a sense of community and having certainty around the look and feel of their neighbourhood into the future. The main issue identified by respondents is the requirement for Resource Consent. The majority of people who had gone through the process found it to be a negative experience because of the high cost in terms of time and money. A historic urban landscape approach to the development of management plans and design guidelines is recommended to improve the implementation of the Special Character Areas in Auckland and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sharing economy; sharing workers; human resource management practices; service performance; work engagement
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:39:44 CEST)
Based on the Organizational Support Theory, this study examines the relationship between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers by demonstrating the mediation role of work engagement. We tested this theoretical model using an in-person interview questionnaire survey of 318 downwind drivers. Results showed that: (1) the main effect of human resource management practices of sharing workers on service performance was significant; (2) work engagement played a prominent mediation role between human resource management practices and service performance of sharing workers; (3) the mediation role of employee vigor between the platform incentives and the performance of employee services was significant; (4) employee dedication had an obvious and indirectly positive mediating effect between sharing workers' dimensions of human resource management practice and their service performance; (5) employee absorption on the mediation role between the various dimensions of the sharing human resources management practices (platform support, platform incentives and platform constraints) and employee service performance was significant. This study has important value for the study on human resource management practices in the context of sharing economy, and provides practical enlightenment for employee management of the sharing economy platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0514.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Irrigation systems; common-pool resource management; environmental variability; collective action; institutional robustness
Online: 22 September 2020 (09:33:26 CEST)
Extreme environmental variations (EV), as a phenomenon deriving from climate change (CC), led to an exacerbated uncertainty on water availability and increased the likelihood of conflicts regarding water-dependent activities such as agriculture. In this paper, we investigate the role of conflict resolution mechanisms -one of Ostrom’s acclaimed Design Principles (DPs)- when social-ecological systems (SESs) are exposed to physical external disturbances. The theoretical propositions predict that SESs with conflict-resolution-mechanisms will perform better than those without them. We tested this proposition through a framed-field-experiment that mimicked an irrigation system. In this asymmetric setting, farmers were exposed to two (2) dilemmas: (i) how much to invest in the communal irrigation system’s (CIS) maintenance and (ii) how much water to extract. The setting added a layer of complexity: water availability did not only depend on the investment but also on the environmental variability. Our findings largely confirmed the theoretical proposition: groups with stronger institutional robustness are able to cope with EV better than those with weaker robustness. However, we also found that some groups, despite lacking conflict-resolution-mechanisms, were also able to address EV. We explored potential explanatory variables to these unexpected results. We found that subjects’ and groups’ attributes might address uncertainty and avert conflict. Thus, SESs’ capacity to respond to external disturbances, such as EV, might not only be a question of DPs. Instead, it might also be strongly related to group members' attributes and group dynamics. Our results pave the way for further research, hinting that some groups might be better equipped for mitigation measures, while others might be better equipped for adaptation measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed generation; energy resource management; optimization; mixed-binary linear programming; smart buildings
Online: 23 February 2020 (15:30:01 CET)
Efficient alternatives in energy production and consumption are constantly investigated by increasingly strict policies. In this way, the pollutant emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect reduce and sustainability of the electricity sector increase. With more than a third of the world's energy consumption, buildings have great potential to contribute these sustainability goals. Additionally, with growing incentives in the Distributed Generation (DG) and Electric Vehicle (EV) industry, it is believed that Smart Buildings (SBs) can be a key in the field of residential energy sustainability in the future. In this work, an energy management system in SBs are developed to reduce the power demanded of a residential building. In order to balance the demand and power provided by the grid, microgrids such as Battery Energy Storage System (BESS), EVs and Photovoltaic Generation panels (PV) are used. Here, a Mixed Binary Linear Programming formulation (MBLP) is proposed to optimize the charge and discharge scheduling of EVs and also BESS. In order to show the efficiency of the model, a case study involving three scenarios and an economic analysis is considered. The results point a 65% reduction in peak load consumption supplied by grid and a 28.4% reduction in electricity consumption costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: resource potential; point center quarter methods; Acacia seyal structure; species composition; diversity
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:27:50 CEST)
The study was conducted in north wollo, south wollo and orimiya zone, in Eastern Amhara with an aim to assess the resource potential of Acacia seyal in the selected sites. The data from the selected sites were collected using point center quarter method. A total of 90 quadrates from nine study areas with plot size 50m*50m, (22.5ha) were systematically located along each transect, 100 m apart, and was spatially captured with the aid of GPS. At every sampling point, four quadrants (90 degrees) were created, using the transect line and a line perpendicular to it. Species composition Acacia seyal structure and its regeneration status, at points along transects were taken to analyze diversity and target species structure of the sites. The highest and least density of Acacia seyal ha-1 were attained by Mehale mecharie (148) and Alene sefer (52). The highest shannon weiner diversity and species richness was observed in Alene sefer(Kemessie). Acacia seyal structure in all study sites showed an inverted J shape except lastie gerdao (Gubalafeto). Therefore, Acacia seyal deserves immediate conservation and appropriate management measures in order to get sustainable product and services from the species. Based on the results, awareness creation on the values and management of Acacia seyal, study on the management options of Acacia seyal for firewood, fuel wood, charcoal production and also investigation of gum production techniques of Acacia seyal for the sustainable use of the resource are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0451.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: sustainable management control; performance evaluation system; resource-based theory; sustainable balanced scorecard.
Online: 24 July 2018 (09:31:34 CEST)
In this article, management control has been studied from the perspective of intention towards sustainable development of companies. The main idea focuses on the analysis of relations between sustainable management control and the system of performance appraisal using as a reference the resource-based theory. These relations have been assessed both theoretically by reviewing literature in the field, and empirically based on data collected in a questionnaire from top management, as well as data from Annual Reports from the main segment of Bucharest Stock Exchange. The authors have shown that financial performance has a significant influence on management control, and the return on capital employed is one of the most recommended indicators. The sustainable nature attributed to management control is the result of institutional theory evolution, provisions of Directive 2014/95/EU and Guide of Global Management Accounting Principles (2015) using stewardship. Consequently, profits are not the main element any more in the assessment of financial „health” of a company. To ensure the sustainable success, sustainable balanced scorecard is one of real measures for managing financial and non-financial performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: circular economy; platinum recycling; greenhouse gas emission reduction; resource saving; life cycle assessment
Online: 22 November 2023 (02:28:07 CET)
When disposing of waste metal resources in landfills, environmental issues such as soil contamination may arise. Recycling these resources not only recovers valuable metals but also mitigates environmental pollution. Platinum (Pt), a valuable metal used in fuel cells for its high water production activity, will see increased future demand as a fossil fuel alternative. This study analyzes the environmental and resource reduction effects of recycled Pt, considering the growing emphasis on its recycling for stable supply and demand of Pt. The environmental impact and resource consumption of recycled Pt with primary Pt (from natural mines) were compared and analyzed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique. Results revealed that resource consumption for primary Pt was 8.25E+01 kg Sb-eq./kg, significantly more than the 5.45E+00 kg Sb-eq./kg for recycled Pt. This represents an environmental reduction effect of approximately 93%. In the case of greenhouse gas emissions, primary Pt emitted 1.35E+04 kg CO2-eq./kg, while recycled Pt emitted 6.94E+02 kg CO2-eq./kg, resulting in an environmental reduction effect of approximately 95%. In conclusion, recycling Pt, compared to primary extraction, offers substantial environmental and resource reduction benefits. This study underscores the significance of recycling and highlights the potential environmental improvements achievable through sustainable practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/land cover; remote sensing and GIS; water allocation; water resource management
Online: 7 November 2023 (16:22:20 CET)
Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and human settlement areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. In sub-Saharan Africa, policies are implemented without critical consideration e.g., agricultural expansions impair ecosystem services of the several river basins. The current study has studied landuse/cover and associated rate of change for four-time epochs i.e., 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2021. This employed remote sensing and GIS techniques for LULC analysis while future projection was modelled using cellular automata and Markov chain. The Kappa coefficient statistics were used to assess the accuracy of final classified image while reference images for accuracy assessment were developed based on ground truthing. Overall change results between 1991 and 2021, showed that major percentage loss in area were experienced by water, forest, woodland and wetland which decreased by 8,222Ha (44.11%), 426,161Ha (35.72%), 399,584Ha (35.01%) and 105,186Ha (34.82%). On the other hand, percentage increase in area during the same period were experienced in cultivated land, built up areas and grasslands which increased by 659,346Ha (205.28%), 11,894Ha (159.93%) and 33,547Ha (98.47%). However, even with the expanding thirsty sectors water discharged out of the catchment is on increment at a rate of 498.6 m3/s/year. For dualistic benefits, agroforest practices are recommended along with participatory law enforcement and capacity building of local communities through their institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1636.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions; Atypical resource allocation; Listening effort; Pupillometry; Speech-in-noise recognition
Online: 26 September 2023 (03:10:24 CEST)
Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) often experience difficulties in speech-in-noise (SiN) perception, leading to increased listening effort that impacts their well-being and academic performance. This study aimed to investigate the SiN processing challenges faced by Mandarin-speaking children with ASC and its impact on their listening effort. Methods: Participants completed sentence recognition tests in both quiet and noisy conditions, with a steady-state noise masker presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio in the noisy condition. We compared recognition accuracy and task-evoked pupil responses from 23 Mandarin-speaking children with ASC to 19 age-matched neurotypical (NT) counterparts to gauge their behavioral performance and listening effort during these auditory tasks. Results: The ASC group demonstrated notably decreased accuracy in noise compared to their NT peers, suggesting poorer SiN perception. Pupillometric data further revealed significantly larger peak dilations in the ASC group than in the NT group under comparable conditions. Importantly, the ASC group's peak dilation in quiet mirrored the NT group's in noise. However, the ASC group exhibited shorter peak latencies and reduced mean dilations than the NT group in similar conditions. Such patterns indicate the ASC group might initially experience a heightened cognitive load but utilize fewer cognitive resources as the task continued, indicating an atypical allocation of cognitive resources and a potential tendency towards relatively superficial and automated auditory processing. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the unique SiN processing challenges children with ASC face, underscoring the importance of a nuanced, individual-centric approach for interventions and support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0447.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: waste-as-resource; zeolite-precursor; sorption; surface-modified zeolites; ammonium; phosphate; reuse; regeneration
Online: 7 September 2023 (05:03:31 CEST)
The feasibility of using zeolites, synthesized from components found in municipal solid waste fly ash (MSW-FA), as sorbents for the recovery of nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) and heavy metals is critically assessed in this review. The inherent drawbacks of utilising a highly contaminated, variable, and relatively Al- and Si-dilute source such as MSW-FA to synthesize zeolites are discussed, and different methods to extract and decontaminate zeolite precursor materials from MSW-FA are considered. Ways to synthesize tailored zeolites and how their properties as well as the operational conditions impact the adsorption of cations such as ammonium and heavy metals are summarized. The use of surface-modified zeolites to adsorb nitrate and phosphate is also reviewed. And subsequently, approaches to utilise directly or recover for reuse the adsorbed compounds are considered, discussing potential challenges and mitigating measures related to leaching of unwanted compounds from the zeolites. Moreover, the possibility to regenerate the adsorption capacity of the zeolites for multiple adsorption cycles is considered. In the final chapter of the review a more general discussion of the main challenges and existing research gaps is provided, giving directions for recommended studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: prequalification; distribution system operator; distributed energy resource aggregator; distribution constraints; wholesale market participation
Online: 31 August 2023 (04:06:30 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to summarize and share the field experiment results of KEPCO's project consortium to create a TSO-DSO-DERA interaction scheme. The field experiment was conducted based on the prequalification algorithm proposed in the previous research from the same consortium and was designed to verify the validity of the algorithm under realistic grid conditions. In addition, during the course of the field experiment, it was found that points that were missed or not given much importance in the existing prequalification algorithm could affect the completeness of the overall system, and then practical improvements were made to improve it. The demonstration results confirm that the proposed algorithm is effective in real-world grid environments and can help DSOs ensure the reliability of the distribution system while supporting DERA's participation in the wholesale market using the proposed prequalification scheme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0203.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: MSWI fly ash; cold sintering process; heavy metal solidification; resource utilization; Taguchi method
Online: 8 August 2023 (05:48:19 CEST)
Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) predominantly consists of compounds comprising elements such as calcium, aluminum, silicon, sodium, and others. Additionally, it encompasses a complex mixture of heavy metals, chlorides, sulfates, organic pollutants, and other constituents. The effective and economically viable treatment of MSWI FA poses a formidable challenge for the current stage of resource cycling. In this research report, we will adopt a novel low-temperature sintering method called "Cold Sintering Process" (CSP) as a means to immobilize heavy metals within the fly ash. By utilizing a Taguchi orthogonal array, we will adjust five control factors in the CSP, including sintering temperature, uniaxial pressure, sintering time, initial water addition, and sodium carbonate dosage. The leaching of cadmium element from the fly ash, as measured by TCLP, will serve as the quality indicator. Through the application of CSP, the MSWI FA will be transformed into structurally stable ceramic blocks, effectively immobilizing the heavy metals within the blocks. The results of the experiments showed that MSWI FA under the conditions of a temperature of 300℃, uniaxial pressure of 312 MPa, sintering time in 60 minutes, 25 wt% water addition, and 9 wt% Na2CO3 addition could effectively reduce the leaching of cadmium by 77.71%, lead by 21.14%, zinc by 42.37%, and chromium by 99.99%, as compared to the original MSWI FA TCLP results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0364.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chinese address parsing; low-resource scenarios; In-context learning; GPT; BERT; k-nearest neighbors
Online: 9 June 2023 (04:28:59 CEST)
Address parsing is a crucial task in natural language processing, particularly for Chinese addresses. The complex structure and semantic features of Chinese addresses present challenges due to their inherent ambiguity. Additionally, different task scenarios require varying levels of granularity in address components, further complicating the parsing process. To address these challenges and adapt to low-resource environments, we propose CapICL, a novel Chinese address parsing model based on the In-Context Learning (ICL) framework. CapICL leverages a sequence generator, regular expression matching, BERT semantic similarity computation, and GPT modeling to enhance parsing accuracy by incorporating contextual information. We construct the sequence generator using a small annotated dataset, capturing distribution patterns and boundary features of address types to model address structure and semantics, mitigating interference from unnecessary variations. We introduce the REB-KNN algorithm, which selects similar samples for ICL-based parsing using regular expression matching and BERT semantic similarity computation. The selected samples, raw text, and explanatory text are combined to form prompts, and inputted into the GPT model for prediction and address parsing. Experimental results demonstrate significant achievements of CapICL in low-resource environments, reducing dependency on annotated data and computational resources. Our model's effectiveness, adaptability, and broad application potential are validated, showcasing its positive impact in natural language processing and geographical information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: recovered phosphorus fertiliser (RPF); septage; onsite sanitation system; resource-oriented sanitation system; nutrients
Online: 3 May 2023 (11:19:25 CEST)
Nutrient recovery technologies have been constantly developed and optimised to address challenges in water and wastewater management, sanitation, and agri-food systems, while promoting sustainable management of resources, and circular phosphorus economy. However, these technologies have been rarely explored beyond laboratory-scale in developing countries where it is mostly needed, such as the Philippines. In this study, a nutrient recovery batch reactor system was installed at a local farm to process raw septage from an onsite sanitation system, septic tank, to recover a high-value fertiliser for local crop production. The batch reactor was used for two processes; acid hydrolysis for pre-treatment of septage and chemical precipitation to recover phosphorus fertiliser (RPF). The recovered fertiliser was then applied to produce eggplants and tomatoes, which are the common crops grown in the farm. Results show that an average of 290 g of recovered RPF was produced for every 100 L of raw septage processed. With hydrolysis, 77% of the phosphate concentration were released as phosphates from the solid component of the raw septage. About 98.5% of phosphates were recovered from the hydrolysed septage. The RPF when applied to the farm’s eggplants and tomatoes have yields comparable to that of the commercial fertilisers. This study was able to demonstrate the potential of a resource-oriented sanitation system that promotes nutrient recycling toward sustainable agriculture that further leads to meeting the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals, particularly Zero Hunger (goal 2), Clean Water and Sanitation (goal 6), Sustainable Cities and Communities (goal 11), and Responsible Consumption and Production (goal 12).
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0508.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Power-to-X; Space; energy storage; in-situ resource utilisation; ammonia; circular economy;
Online: 26 November 2021 (13:07:24 CET)
Extensive in-situ resource utilisation (ISRU) will be essential to enable long-duration stays on Luna and Mars and reduce reliance on resupply from Earth. Early development of ISRU technologies has focused on standalone capabilities for specific targets related to life support and ascent propellant. An unexplored opportunity remains for greatly expanding the scope of materials that can be supplied by ISRU, and for integrating various technology platforms into a larger system. Recent advances in power-to-X technology aimed at decarbonising the global economy have made it possible to drive key chemical processes using electricity with small-scale, modular reactor. This paper proposes a vision for an integrated system of ISRU processes based on power-to-X technology to produce oxygen, hydrogen, water, methane, polymers, metal alloys, and synthetic fertilisers, using Martian regolith, atmosphere, and ice. A ‘building block’ strategy is adopted to convert raw materials into versatile intermediaries, which can then be combined to form essential products. A wider range of raw materials are available on Mars compared to Luna, suggesting greater opportunity for ISRU deployment to compensate for the greater time and cost requirements for a Mars resupply mission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0639.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: polymetallic nodules; mineral resource estimation; statistical analysis; Generalized Rayleigh Distribution; Clarion Clipperton Zone
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:00:34 CET)
An effective empirical statistical method is developed to improve the process of mineral resource estimation of seabed polymetallic nodules and is applied to analyse the abundance of seabed polymetallic nodules in the Clarion Clipperton Zone (CCZ). The newly proposed method is based on three hypotheses as the foundation for a model of “Idealized Nodules”, which was validated by analysing nodule samples collected from the seabed within the Tonga Offshore Mining Limited (TOML) exploration contract. Once validated, the “Idealized Nodule” model was used to deduce a set of empirical formulae for predicting the nodule resources, in terms of Percentage Coverage and Abundance. The formulae were then applied to analysing a total of 188 sets of nodule samples collected across the TOML areas, comprising box-core samples and towed camera images collected by one of the authors and detailed in . The analysis also relies upon detailed box-core sample measurements from other areas reported by . Numerical results for resource prediction were compared with field measurements, and reasonable agreement has been achieved. The new method has the potential to achieve more accurate mineral resource estimation with reduced sample numbers and sizes. They may also have application in improving the efficiency of design and configuration of mining equipment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0083.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Ecosystem services; Natural resource management; Natural capital; Ecosystem service provisioning; Cost-benefit ratio
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:27:39 CET)
Natural capital is the wealth of nations that give them the economic status they represent. Worldwide, vulnerable people depend on natural capital for employment, salaries, wealth, and livelihoods and, in turn, determine the developmental index of the nation to which they belong. The availability of ecological services is crucial for clean water and air, food and fodder, and agricultural development. In this short commentary, we have tried to sum up the ideas and discussions over natural capital's role in ascribing economic status to countries. We have discussed how the prosperity of humans is intertwined with the services ecosystems provide and how poor natural resource management (NRM) has adversely cost human well-being. The paper concludes that to ensure the current and future human well-being, an in-depth understanding of the services ecosystems provide, is essential.