ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0169.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Plumes; dynamics; resistivity; contamination; groundwater
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:28:20 CET)
The contamination of areas around solid urban waste dumps is a global challenge for the maintenance of environmental quality in large urban centres in developing countries. This study applied geophysical methods (electrical resistivity) to identify leachate contamina-tion plumes in the subsoil and groundwater, as well as to describe their temporal (2020 and 2021) dynamics in the lithology and groundwater around the Hulene - B waste dump, Maputo, Mozambique. Geophysical methods (electrical resistivity) were applied to identify possible groundwater contamination plumes, their dynamics, mechanisms of their enrichment and dispersion. Eight 400 m electrical resistivity profiles were performed, four profiles in January 2020 and four profiles in May 2021, overlapped, and the data were inverted with RES2D software. The electrical resistivity models indicate an E - W move-ment of large contamination plumes that dilute superficially into the natural surface wa-ter receiving basin and groundwater, creating zones of resistive anomalies. The thickness of the plumes in the subsurface environment was shown to be extensive in summer for profiles 1a and 2b and we associate it with the higher leachate production and migration mechanisms, which are intense in the hot and rainy season. Profile 4b showed the prop-agation of anomalous surface and subsurface areas, which was associated with higher leachate production and migration process in the new deposition zone (west). The spatial distribution of contamination plumes at both stations reduced significantly as we moved further away from the waste deposit, revealing the attenuating effect of groundwater and lithological substrate (Profile 3 a, b, and fig.7).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0360.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: perovskite; manganite; resistivity; strain; grains; tilt angle
Online: 19 October 2020 (08:09:37 CEST)
The effects of an external strain tensor on the electrical resistivity of a manganite granular system are investigated using a simple approach describing the induced deformation in terms of the tilt angle between adjacent grains. The results obtained assuming the resistivity of each grain as given by a metallic part, coming from the inner grain, and a surface related tunnel contribution, allow to estimate appreciable resistivity variations even in the case of small deformation angles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0567.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Silicone Rubber; Surface Resistance; Surface Resistivity; Surface Charging
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:29:32 CEST)
Silicone rubber formulations in the form of thin discs have been studied under room ambient conditions for their surface characteristics. The samples were silicone rubber manufactured in laboratory and those industrially manufactured. The measurements were done using an electrometer high resistance meter, applying dc voltage under normal room ambient conditions. The results show that the silicone rubber samples show higher values of surface resistivity when the dc voltage was applied. Silicone rubber samples manufactured in laboratory seem to exhibit erratic behaviour unlike their corresponding silicone rubbers manufactured in industry; this could be due to manufacturing shortcomings in laboratory and the irregularities in the way the silicone rubber adhered to the concentric ring electrodes. The empirical current traversing the surface of the silicone rubbers does not decay exponentially but rather it decays as an exponential power of the energization time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0669.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: porosity prediction; pore-water prediction; gravity; resistivity; combined inversion
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:16:28 CEST)
This work describes a method to carry out 2-D inversion of gravity data in terms of porosity and matrix density distribution using previous DC resistivity inversion results to constraint the fractional pore-water content in the rocks. The inversion is carried out using a controlled random search (CRS) algorithm for global optimization. The method was tested on synthetic data generated from a model representing a graben, and the results show that it can estimate accurate values of contrast-density and porosity. The method was also applied to gravity and dc experimental data collected in NE Portugal, showing results that agree quite well with the known geological information.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: chloride penetration; pore water; electrical resistivity; service life; concrete durability
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:11:10 CET)
Since electrical resistivity of concrete can be measured in a more rapid and simple way than chloride diffusivity, it should be primarily regular quality control of the electrical resistivity of concrete which provides the basis for indirect of quality control of concrete durability during the concrete construction. If this is realized, the electrical resistivity of concrete can be a crucial parameter to establish maintenance strategy for marine concrete structures. Electrical resistivity of concrete is important to estimate two processes involved in corrosion of reinforcement: initiation (chloride penetration) and propagation (corrosion rate). The resistivity of concrete structure exposed to chloride indicates the risk of early corrosion damage, because a low resistivity is related to rapid chloride penetration and to high corrosion rate. Concrete resistivity is a geometry-independent material property that describes the electrical resistance, which is the ratio between applied voltage and resulting current in a unit cell. The current is carried by ions dissolved in the pore liquid. While some data exist on the relationship between moisture content on electrical resistivity of concrete, very little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of chloride on the conduction of electricity through concrete. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the effect of pore water and chloride content on surface electrical resistivity measurement of concrete. It was obvious that chloride content had influenced the resistivity of concrete and the relationship showed a linear function. That is, concrete with chloride ions had a comparatively lower resistivity. Chloride can lead to underestimate the electrical resistivity of concrete. Conclusively, this paper suggested the quantitative solution to depict the electrical resistivity of concrete with various chloride contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Plants-Microbial Fuel Cells; clean energy; electric potential; power output; resistivity
Online: 18 September 2019 (08:21:05 CEST)
Plants Microbial Fuel Cells (PMFC) is a new technology that generates electricity in a renewable, clean and sustainable way. In spite of these advantages, it still faces limitations in power generation and current density, reaching lower production values than other renewable technologies. Different studies maintain that the high resistivity of the cathode is the main limitation in the generation of energy; therefore, non-metallic materials to obtain a better performance are replacing the metallic electrodes. The implementation of these materials applied to PMFC requires a complex interdisciplinary work. Through three experimental tests using metallic electrodes for the extraction of electrons, this research study shows that the treatment of the substrate with natural materials, the volume plant roots, and substrate temperature and humidity control have a significant influence in the increase of the electric potential and the generated current.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0011.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method; polymer; carbomer; ground-electrode electrical contact enhancement; archaeology
Online: 2 August 2020 (10:58:15 CEST)
This communication reports an improvement of the quality of the electrical data obtained from the application of electrical resistivity tomography method on archaeological studies. The electrical contact between ground and electrode enhances significantly by using carbomer-based gel during the electrical resistivity tomography measurements. Not only does the gel promote the conservation of the building surface under investigation, but it also virtually eliminates the necessity of conventional spike electrodes, which in many archaeological studies are inadequate or not permitted. Results evidenced an enhancement in the quality of the electrical data obtained in the order of thousands of units compared with those without using the carbomer-based gel. The potential and capabilities of this affordable gel make it appropriate to be applied to other geoelectrical studies beyond archaeological investigations. Moreover, it might solve corrosion issues on conventional spike electrodes, and electrical multicore cables usually provoked for added saltwater attempting to improve the electrical contact.
Subject: Keywords: Tight sandstone; Low resistivity contrast oil pay; Reservoir Characteristic; Control mechanism; Longdong West area.
Online: 15 January 2021 (13:02:42 CET)
The log interpretation and evaluation of Chang 8 tight sandstone reservoir in Longdong West area, Ordos Basin, is facing great challenges due to the existence of low resistivity contrast oil pays. To better guide the exploration of oil resources in this area, the characteristics and control mechanism of low resistivity contrast oil pays were studied in this research. Firstly, according to the relative value of apparent resistivity increase rate of the target formation, the reservoir was divided into two types: low resistivity contrast oil pay (LRCP) and high resistivity oil pay (HRP). Then, the reservoir characteristics were studied by comparing and analyzing the experimental data, formation water data and logging data collected from the two reservoir types. On this basis, the control mechanism of LRCP was studied and summarized into reservoir micro factors and regional macro factors, respectively. It is found that the reservoir rock composition between LRCP and HRP is basically the same. Compared with HRP reservoir, the average porosity and permeability of LRCP reservoir are relatively better, but the pore structure is relatively poorer because of the high content of micro pores. When the filling pressure of crude oil is sufficient enough, the high oil saturation can be formed in LRCP reservoir. The high irreducible water saturation and high formation water salinity are the main micro factors reduced the reservoir resistivity. Besides, the difference of hydrocarbon expulsion capacity of source rock and the regional difference of formation water salinity are the macro factors influenced the distribution of LRCP and HRP from vertical and horizontal of the region. The formation of LRCP is controlled by the comprehensive influence of reservoir micro factors and regional macro factors. And the comprehensive consideration of the influence of micro factors and macro factors on LRCP is suggested during the log interpretation and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0269.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Niobium-titanium microalloyed steel; Electrical resistivity; Atom probe tomography; Solute niobium; Scanning transmission electron microscopy
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:15:44 CET)
Microalloying of low carbon steel with niobium (Nb) and titanium (Ti) is standardly applied in high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels enabling austenite conditioning during thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP), which results in pronounced grain refinement in the finished steel. The metallurgical effects of microalloying elements are related solute drag and precipitate particle pinning, both acting on the austenite grain boundary thereby delaying or suppressing recrystallization of the deformed grain. In that respect it is important to better understand the precipitation kinetics as well as the precipitation sequence in a typical Nb-Ti-microalloyed steel. Various characterization methods have been utilized in this study for tracing microalloy precipitation after simulating different austenite TMCP conditions in a Gleeble apparatus. Atom probe tomography (APT), scanning transmission electron microscopy in a focused ion beam equipped scanning electron microscope (STEM-on-FIB) and electrical resistivity measurements provide complementary information on the precipitation status and are correlated with each other. It will be demonstrated that accurate electrical resistivity measurements can monitor the general consumption of solute microalloys (Nb) during hot working which was complemented by APT measurements of the steel matrix. On the other hand, STEM revealed that a large part of Nb-containing particles during hot working are co-precipitated with titanium during cooling from the austenitizing temperature. Precipitates that form during cooling or isothermal holding can be distinguished from strain-induced precipitates by corroborating STEM measurements with APT results. APT specifically allows obtaining detailed information about the chemical composition of precipitates as well as the distribution of elements inside the particle. Electrical resistivity measurement, on the contrary, provides macroscopic information on the progress of precipitation and can be calibrated by APT. The current paper highlights the complementarity of these methods and shows first results within the framework of a larger study on strain-induced precipitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0124.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: BiS2-based superconductor; Flux growth; Layered structure; Superconducting Properties; Magnetic susceptibility measurement; Electrical resistivity measurement
Online: 18 December 2017 (13:38:47 CET)
Antimony (Sb) Substitution less than 10 % is examined on a single crystal of a layered superconductor NdO0.7F0.3BiS2. Superconducting transition temperature of the substituted samples decreases with increasing Sb concentration. A lattice constant along the c axis showed a large decrease compared with that along the a axis. Since in-plane chemical pressure monotonically decreases with increasing Sb concentration, the suppression of the superconductivity is well described in terms of the decrease in in-plane chemical pressure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0503.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: permafrost hydrology; Russian Arctic; water tracks; hydrological connectivity; stable water isotopes; dissolved organic carbon; electrical resistivity tomography; taliks
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:15:37 CEST)
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment, north-European Arctic. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sands were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low d-excess values, from 2 to 4‰. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12 and 14‰. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5±5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected hollows, 11.8±1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous, but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and small hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions, and its supply to streams via shallow sub-surface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta R., evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric veg-etation over the elevated inter-track tundra patches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0022.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: sol-gel; Al-doped ZnO; hydrolysis; thin film; transparent conductors; resistivity; UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy; figure of merit
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:49:18 CEST)
The electrical and optical properties of sol-gel derived aluminum-doped0 zinc oxide thin films containing 2 at.% Al were investigated considering the modifying effects of 1) increasing the sol H2O content; and 2) thermal treatment procedure with high-temperature approach followed by an additional heat-treatment step under a reducing atmosphere. According to the results obtained via the TG-DTA analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and four-point probe resistivity measurement, it is argued that the sol hydrolysis, decomposition of the deposited gel and crystallization of grains result in grains of larger crystallite size and stronger c-axis preferred orientation with slightly less microstrain in the modified sample. The consequent morphology and grain-boundary characteristics turn out as improved conductivity, implying higher values of concentration and mobility of charge carriers. A detailed investigation on samples optical properties, in terms of analyzing their absorption and dispersion behaviors through the UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, support our reasoning for the increase of the mobility, and to a lesser extent, the concentration of charge carriers, while causing only a slight degradation of optical transmission. Hence, an enhanced performance as a transparent conducting film is claimed for the modified sample by comparing the figure-of-merit values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0072.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Integer quantum Hall effect; Fractional quantum Hall effect; stationary wave; nodes in stationary wave; quantization of electric charge; the plateau of quantized resistivity
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:49:01 CET)
In this paper, using the two integers that describe the stationary 2-dimensional wave and the charge quantization along with the balance between the Lorentz force and electrical force, we succeed in deriving the fractional quantum Hall effect and the integer quantum Hall effect; we find that the latter exists as a special case of the former. Moreover, using the derived expression describing the fractional quantum Hall effect, a relationship between the plateau in the resistivity of the sample and the applied magnetic field is obtained. The findings of this model agree well with experimental measurements. Because the two integers that describe the stationary 2-dimensional wave and the charge quantization along with the force balance have concrete physical meanings in this work, we could provide a clear picture of the origin of both the integer quantum Hall effect and the fractional quantum Hall effect.