ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0216.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cascading tank village system; sustainable livelihoods; resilience thinking; Sri Lanka; rural dry zone; community rural development
Online: 12 October 2020 (09:47:15 CEST)
Cascading Tank Village Systems (CTVSs) of Sri Lanka historically provided a resilient community-based social-ecological water management system in the rural dryzone of Sri Lanka . The CTVS has been described as the ‘lifeblood’ of communities in the rural dry zone  and as a globally important Agricultural Heritage System by the FAO . After being abandoned for many centuries, their restoration is now being pursued by different national and international actors as a key to climate change mitigation and sustainable livelihoods for communities . Rural livelihoods in the dry zone are at risk due to multiple factors, poor access and management of water, economic and health pressures, as well as resource limitations and degradation . Despite recent efforts to restore CTVS systems, no social-ecological approach (SES) nor sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF) focused approach to ensuring resilient and sustainable livelihood outcomes has been taken . As part of an on-going PhD project, this paper describes the background, current challenges and potential for an SES focused resilience thinking approach to CTVS combined with a focus on sustainable livelihoods for future sustainable livelihood opportunities and outcomes. The study finds current restoration efforts are at a crossroads between restoring the past (system adaptability) or transforming for the future. It introduces relevant SES and resilience thinking concepts and analyses the CTVS from this perspective. A particular contribution of this study is to point to the significant overlaps and complementarities in social-ecological (SES) resilience thinking and SLF approaches to analysis and proposals for resilient rural development. Employing resilience thinking principles it recommends strategies to create positive livelihood outcomes for communities and households. Keywords: cascading tank village system; sustainable livelihoods; resilience thinking; Sri Lanka; rural dry zone; community rural development
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban resilience, flood resilience programme, robust evaluation, subjective resilience, Senegal, Africa, BACI
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:52:35 CEST)
In the last decade, sub-Saharan African countries have taken various measures to plan for and adapt to floods in order to reduce exposure and its impacts on human health, livelihoods and infrastructure. Measuring the effects of such initiatives on social resilience is challenging as it requires to combine multiple variables and indicators that embrace thematic, spatial and temporal dimensions inherent to the resilience thinking and concept. In this research, we apply a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) evaluation to empirically measure the impacts of the “Live with Water” (LWW) project on suburban households in Dakar, Senegal. We developed a resilience index that combines anticipatory, adaptive and absorptive capacity – considered as structural dimensions – with the concept of transformative capacity – considered as a temporal reconfiguration of the first three dimensions. Our finding let us estimate that the project increased the absorptive and the anticipatory capacities by 10.61% and 4.61%, respectively. However, adaptive capacity remained unchanged. This may be explained by the fact that the programme was more successful in building drainage and physical infrastructures, rather than improving multi-level organisations and strategies to cope with existing flood events. Further flood resilience program should better combine engineering approaches with institutional change and livelihood support to poor urban dwellers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0006.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: resilience; Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; Brief Resilience Scale; depression; life satisfaction; confirmatory factor analysis
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:34:37 CET)
The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) are two widely used scales to measure resilience. Although both scales seek to assess an individual’s ability to recover from and adapt to disruptions or stressful events, they may capture different aspects of resilience. While the CD-RISC focuses on resources that can help individuals recover from and adapt to disruptions or stressful events, the BRS directly measures one’s ability to bounce back or be resilient. The aim of this study is to empirically examine the differences between the CD-RISC and the BRS. Two samples (n = 202, 246) consisting of undergraduate students from Taiwan were used. The results of confirmatory factor analysis show that the CD-RISC and the BRS are highly correlated but still distinct. The results of regression analyses show that the CD-RISC and the BRS have unique predictive effects on depression and life satisfaction. The research findings suggest that the CD-RISC and the BRS capture different aspects of resilience. For future research on resilience, researchers should pay attention to the differences between these scales and choose the one that most closely fits their research purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0139.v1
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:00:43 CEST)
Resilience is an adaptive coping mechanism needed by health workers, especially nurses who have longer working hours than other health workers to provide care to patients in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic which is a global health problem. The aim of this literature review is to identify the resilience of nurses during the covid-19 pandemic the 21 st century global nursing paradigm. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2020-2021 on search 4 databased electronic searches contain namely Scopus, ProQuest, Pubmed, and Scient Direct. This review used prisms. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form of psychological factors during the covid-19 pandemic, mental distress and influencing factors in nurses caring for patients with COVID-19, resilience nurses during the covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: The 21 st century global nursing paradigm, one of the global problems in the health sector, with the outbreak of the corona virus disease (Covid-19), the role of nurses as the front guard is needed by the community to provide health services in line with the increasing incidence of covid-19 cases. Strong nurses need an adaptive inner coping mechanism.
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:22:18 CET)
In this paper we explore how we can use catchment resilience as a unifying concept to manage and regulate catchments, using structured reviews to support our perspective. River catchments are physical boundaries which delineate where all surface water (e.g. precipitation, snow, meltwater) falling on a piece of land runs off or flows to a single point at a lower elevation, where the river meets a larger body of water (e.g. sea, lake). Catchments are complex systems with interrelated natural, social, and technical aspects. The exposure, vulnerability, and resilience of these aspects (separately and in combination) are the latent conditions which when triggered by a specific hazard, result in catchment impacts. In complex catchment systems, resilience is the ability to bounce-back, the ability to absorb, and the ability to transform. When all three abilities are accounted for, we are forced to consider the interactions of the catchment system. Six main complexity concepts can be used to frame how we approach evaluating catchment resilience. These concepts are: natural-social-technical aspects, interactions, spatial scales, time scales, multiple forms of evidence, and uncertainty. In analysing these complexity concepts we have found that there are several gaps in current practice. For example critical interactions which need further methodological study are the linkages between the natural-social-technical realms, as well as across spatial scales (e.g. households or communities) and time scales (e.g. days or years). Requirements for future methodological approaches are suggested. Central to these is (1) the study of interactions linking the short- to medium-term time scales (2) better integration of bottom-up and top-down approaches, to link local context with higher-level decision-making, and (3) developing ‘hazard-agnostic’ methods which can address the impacts of floods, droughts – even acknowledging dormant ‘socio-technical hazards’. There is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to catchment resilience. Mixed method approaches are required and their selection will depend on contextual issues identified early in the process for specific catchments. Central to any effective approach is the incorporation of a linking systems or interaction analysis, which draws together the natural-social-technical system in a meaningful way. If our approaches do not begin to acknowledge the interdependencies and interactions, we may miss substantial opportunities to enhance catchment resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0469.v1
Online: 29 September 2022 (12:22:21 CEST)
This paper seeks to explore some of the issues to be welcomed but also warned against in general but also specified from an illustrative sample of ‘smart’ projects that caused outcomes that were neither ‘smart’ nor ‘resilient’. These give pointers to a ‘thirdspace’ as a descriptor of the most advanced application of sustainability thinking regarding relational spatial development planning. This contribution examines difficulties in delivering both ‘smart’ and ‘resilient’ responses of interest or value to citizens confronted with recurring crises that derive directly or with implications for sustainability issues. Identified are constraints and issues acting as obstacles to governance, management ‘layering’ and ‘learning’ causing failures of many weak or never-delivered projects. Critiques of static, or worse ‘magical’ thinking are increasingly invoked in consequence. In the analysis of ‘live cases’ all these problems showed up ‘in real life’. The author was pleased that his mentor, the late UCLA planning theorist Ed Soja’s application of the idea of ‘Thirdspace’ received prescient vindication from the results of this adjudication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0463.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: earthquake; resilience; WhatsApp; emotional support
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
The Ranau Earthquake that struck on 5, June 2015 and follow by February 2018 and April 2021, were a new disaster in Sabah and caused many Sabahan to panic. The unpredicted disaster also caused a serious impact on all aspects of life in Sabah. The earthquake has caused severe damage to eight primary schools in the vicinity of the epicenter; although no casualties were reported. However, the disaster has passing deep psychological effects among students. In this study, we examine how the primary school teachers enabled the student to be resilient during and after the disaster. Based on the interviews of 16 primary school students it was revealed that most of the teachers used WhatsApp to support resilience during and after the earthquake. Interviews with 16 primary school teachers revealed there were two main reasons for them to communicate with students namely, delivering emotional aid and monitoring their stress. Based on student interviews, five content categories of emotional support were identified: caring, reassuring, emotion sharing, belonging, and distracting. The main contribution of this study is social media can be used as a spontaneously and proactive tool to support student's resilience during and after the earthquake trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0154.v1
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:56:46 CEST)
Background: Indonesia is one of the multicultural countries in the world. The diversity that exists in Indonesia is reflected in differences in race, ethnicity, culture, and religion. It is not surprising that Indonesia will face the threat of national disintegration due to differences. Therefore, Indonesia needs a concept in fostering diversity to create national resilience. Purpose: This study aims to explore how the role of archipelago insights in shaping national geostrategy resilience. Method: The method used in this research is literature review. The search for journals was carried out using the google scholar database with the keywords "archipelago insight" and "geostrategy" and "national resilience". Feasibility studies are assessed based on title, abstract, full text, and research methodology. Data analysis using narrative analysis based on research findings. Result: insight into the archipelago can be used as a basis in shaping a national geostrategy. The perspective in the concept of archipelago insight by fostering the diversity in Indonesia can create unity and integrity to form national geostrategic resilience. Conclusion: The concepts that exist in the archipelago perspective and national geostrategy can foster the diversity that exists in Indonesia. The creation of existing unity and integrity, understanding the perception of seeing differences, is not a threat to realizing national resilience in the Indonesian nation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0309.v1
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:14:21 CEST)
This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0191.v1
Online: 14 February 2020 (09:24:03 CET)
There is a lack of research based on in-depth theoretical and scientific knowledge to understand the visually impaired, and there has been little effort in the application of strategies for early intervention to minimize risk these people might encounter during development.. This study used semi-structured interviews from eight persons with visual impairments who had various experiences with resiliency. Three resilience processes based on life experiences were identified: 1) Experience and Adaptation: “self-awareness of disability” and “adaptation disability and the environment”; 2) Facing the Circumstances: “the exposure to concealment and abuse,” “the suppression of potential,” “denial and abandonment by family,” “poverty and disability,” “exchange and self-regulation,” and “social integration” themes; and 3) the Positive Reinforcement: “self-disclosure and jump-starting life,” “maintenance of a positive thinking,” and “socioeconomic independence.” These findings expand the understanding of the factors common to the resilience process experienced by individuals with visual impairment and highlight the importance of psychological support, family, education, and social support.
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:06:20 CET)
Up to forty percent of dairy cows develop metritis or endometritis when pathogenic bacteria infect the uterus after parturition. However, resilient cows remain healthy even when exposed to the same pathogens. Here, we provide a perspective on the mechanisms that dairy cows use to prevent postpartum uterine disease. We suggest that resilient cows prevent the development of uterine disease using the three complimentary defensive strategies of avoiding, tolerating and resisting infection with pathogenic bacteria. Avoidance maintains health by limiting the exposure to pathogens. Avoidance mechanisms include intrinsic behaviors to reduce the risk of infection by avoiding pathogens or infected animals, perhaps signaled by the fetid odor of uterine disease. Tolerance improves health by limiting the tissue damage caused by the pathogens. Tolerance mechanisms include neutralizing bacterial toxins, protecting cells against damage, enhancing tissue repair, and reprogramming metabolism. Resistance improves health by limiting the pathogen burden. Resistance mechanisms include inflammation driven by innate immunity and adaptive immunity, with the aim of killing and eliminating pathogenic bacteria. Farmers can also help cows prevent the development of postpartum uterine disease by avoiding trauma to the genital tract, reducing stress, and feeding animals appropriately during the transition period. Understanding the mechanisms of avoidance, tolerance and resistance to pathogens will inform strategies to generate resilient animals and prevent uterine disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0658.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:51:35 CET)
This study explores the impact of financial inclusions on financial resilience. In doing so, we utilize the World Bank’s data on global financial inclusions. Our study confirms that the respondents with financial accounts are more resilient than those without accounts. The chances of being financially resilient are around 1.4 times higher for the account holders than their counterparts. We find a significant relationship between gender and financial resilience; males are 1.4 times more resilient than females when other covariates are considered in the regression model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0188.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: resilience; participation; planning; food systems
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:55:45 CET)
Resilience has emerged as a buzzword among researchers and practitioners. However, despite its popularity, there has been little progress in moving it from an elaborate metaphor describing an idyllic state of the system to a tool for planning and managing adaptation. While case study research is rich with examples of systems that have proven to be resilient or are striving to develop resilience, there is no defined approach that operationalises concepts described in the literature into the planning process. This paper helps close this gap by illustrating how facilitated modelling can be used for resilience planning in socio-ecological systems. The paper summarizes our experience using facilitated system dynamics to inform a model-based discussion of food security resilience to climate change in Guatemala. We identify at least three positive outcomes from the intervention, which a) helped to build consensus about the meaning of resilience, b) improved stakeholders understanding of adaptation and c) outlined potential policies to enhance resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban resilience; regional resilience; sustainability; cities; multi-level approach; complex systems; panarchy; adaptive cycles
Online: 19 October 2018 (04:16:55 CEST)
This study aims to understand the current state of research in urban resilience and to open a discussion about multi-level perspectives for this concept. Starting with the history of the concept of resilience, we identify three main stages in resilience concept’s evolution: conceptualization, contextualization and operationalization. Confusion occurs between sustainability and resilience, therefore we clearly separate these two concepts by creating conceptual maps. Such maps also underline the specificities of urban and regional resilience discourses. We illustrate that urban resilience research, operating within intra-urban processes, is oriented towards natural disasters, while regional resilience research, operating mostly within inter-urban processes, is oriented towards economic shocks. We show that these two approaches to resilience – urban and regional – are complementary, and we propose to integrate them into a multi-level perspective. By combining these two discourses, we propose a multi-level approach to urban resilience that takes into account both top-down and bottom-up resistance processes. In the discussion section, we propose to take the panarchy perspective as a theoretical framework for multi-level urban resilience, that explains the interactions between different levels through adaptive cycles, relationships between which can help to explain urban resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0176.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: resilience; climate change; urban planning; adaptation
Online: 9 December 2022 (10:01:53 CET)
The paper provides a critical synthesis of analysis and evaluation of some case studies in the Italian national context, which allowed, through an inductive method, to assess, in terms of integration and coherence, the process of transposition of climate change adaptation contents, possibly already contained within a regional urban framework (Regional Urban Laws) or specific Regional Adaptation Strategies or Local Adaptation Plans, within the territorial and urban planning tools of metropolitan or local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0343.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: resilience; communication; systemic risk; systemic recovery
Online: 25 March 2022 (09:02:49 CET)
This work reviews three frameworks for responding to economic disruption: risk mitigation, systemic recovery, and economic resilience. Specifically, by reviewing extant literature in economics, communication, and other disciplines, we argue that current approaches to understanding resilience in economics largely fail to address ongoing and emergent disruptions to the economic and social world. In response to these issues, we work to synthesize economic frameworks and the communication theory of resilience to forward a new way of examining the overlapping questions of economic resilience related to metatheoretical commitments, analytic contexts, and implications for theory, method, and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0077.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: European Energetic Law; Development; Resilience; Sustainability
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:24:19 CEST)
The paper will examine in detail (a) the norms that can be featured under the category "Green Deal" connected to the European Commission, (b) their application to Spain and (c) the different patterns of action and development models that have been shaped by this framework over the last 20 years. These patterns are particularly relevant currently, as the Covid crisis has highlighted the importance of advancing towards new patterns of local sustainability endowed with higher resilience. The notion of cognitive sustainability will be one of the added value to current reflections on sustainability in general and energetic sustainability in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0048.v1
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:29:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 outbreak and its economic, social and financial fallouts have generated a renewed interest in finding adequate policies and means to strengthen economic resilience to future shocks, particularly in developing countries. The latter are usually disproportionately affected by adverse shocks (compared to developed countries) and lack the adequate resources to weather these shocks. Strengthening economic resilience is now at the heart of the policy discussion both at the national and international levels. The present paper aims to contribute to this debate by investigating the effect of productive capacities on economic resilience in a panel dataset of 118 developing countries over the period 2000-2018. It constructs a regression-based economic resilience indicator, and makes use of the indicator of productive capacities recently developed by the UNCTAD. Results are quite interesting, including from a policy perspective. The development of productive capacities is associated with greater economic resilience. This is particularly the case for countries with greater trade openness, greater capital account openness, and those that promote a stable macroeconomic environment. Interestingly, development aid appears to matter for the effect of productive capacities on economic resilience. On the one hand, the magnitude of the positive economic resilience effect of productive capacities increases as countries receive higher Aid for Trade (AfT) flows. On the other hand, NonAfT flows (i.e., other development aid flows that AfT flows) hinder the possible positive contribution of productive capacities to economic resilience. These findings have important policy implications that are discussed in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: children; resilience; disaster; behavior; school; factor
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:10:04 CET)
Annually, millions of people (including children) across the world face minor to severe impact from natural or human-induced disasters. Diverse models have been conceptualized and adopted at global scale to increase resiliency of children from disasters focusing on preparedness, response and recover. As children spend most of their lives at school or at home, this paper discusses on factors contributing towards improving or degrading resiliency of children from disasters. Giving low priority to institutional resilience, this paper highlights the behavioral aspects of children which becomes their strength on demonstrating appropriate practices to mitigate disaster risks on self at school, home and community. While doing so, attributes from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior has been linked with the components of resilience to explain the causative factors. Adopting desk review, this paper describes behavioral attributes of children and emphasizes on need of having multi-dimensional framework to enhance resiliency of children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0487.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Planning; resilience; territory; Smart City; Sustainability
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:15:39 CET)
Urban planning is recognized as an interaction between the state and society, which aims to articulate public policies in the territory, facilitating their administration in favor of greater development and well-being of society. However, this interaction becomes complex because consumption demands increase, and the needs of the community exceed the capacity of the urban ecosystem to supply them, hindering its sustainable functionality. With this panorama, it becomes relevant to study urban planning from a sustainable environmental planning perspective, based on four topics: urban planning, sustainability, resilience and smart cities. The methodology used is based on a bibliometric study through a PRISMA adjustment to 87 articles, supported by VOSviewer® to construct and visualize the co-occurrence networks of important terms extracted from a body of scientific literature. The main result is to consider cities with a complex systems approach that works like a gear, that is, there is a connective element between inter- and intra-urban processes. This relationship is the key factor that allows understanding their synchronization, stating that the deepening of each of these topics is crucial to the ideal of a territorial administration through time scales, by means of adaptive cycles, allowing to provide new tools to concepts such as carrying capacity and the measurement of the environmental footprint.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: toxicology; microbiota; symbiosis; contaminants; resilience; environment
Online: 8 August 2020 (05:01:26 CEST)
Over the last 15 years, the advent of high-throughput ‘omics’ techniques has revealed the multiple roles and interactions occurring among hosts, their microbial partners and their environment. This microbiome revolution has radically changed our views of biology, evolution and individuality. Sitting at the interface between a host and its environment, the microbiome is a relevant yet understudied compartment for ecotoxicology research. Various recent works confirm that the microbiome reacts to and interacts with contaminants, with consequences for hosts and ecosystems. In this paper, we thus advocate for the development of a “microbiome-aware ecotoxicology” of organisms. We emphasize its relevance and discuss important conceptual and technical pitfalls associated with study design and interpretation. We identify topics such as functionality, quantification, temporality, resilience, interactions and prediction as major challenges and promising venues for microbiome research applied to ecotoxicology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0471.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: algaecides; dirt; humidity; resilience; temperature; time
Online: 25 September 2018 (03:45:11 CEST)
Algaecides are chemicals that cause serious health problems. Conventional paints contain algaecides to improve the algae resistance on the paint film. Present research has suggested an environmental friendly paint formulation that focuses on developing algae resistance without having algaecides. In this research, Algae growth on newly developed paint is modeled by incorporating dirt resistance of paint and natural phenomena including humidity, temperature and time respectively. The fitted Model revealed explained variation of 59.65% in the average algae growth, of which, Dirt Resistance, Humidity and temperature and some of their interactions play significant role in this variation. Model suggests that the proposed newly developed paint without algaecides is more resilient to algae growth and significantly decreased the average algae growth rate by 0.53% as compared to conventional paints. Keeping the effect of all other factors constant, if dirt resistance of paint (Dc value) increases by one percent, average algae growth decreases by 12.98%; when temperature increases by 1oC, average algae growth decreases by 22.4%; a positive unit change in the joint linear effect dirt resistance, temperature and humidity caused a decrease in average algae growth by 0.0031%. It was also observed that the individual effect of humidity variable was inversely related with average algae growth. However the combination of humidity and temperature, humidity and dirt resistance, humidity and time, and the quadratic effect of humidity were found to increase the average algae growth rate. The cubic effect of temperature variable by one degree centigrade resulted in decrease of average algae growth by 0.000907%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0066.v1
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:28:14 CET)
Insecurity, corruption, and rising unemployment have resulted in a mass exodus of young adult Afghans seeking asylum in western nations. This has depleted Afghanistan of generations of young people which are critical to rebuild the country. This study aimed to examine the characteristics of young adult Afghans with no immediate intentions of seeking international asylum; that is, individuals who intend to stay in Afghanistan. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Kabul, we surveyed 232 young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Surveys included measures assessing standard socio-demographic and -economic factors, as well as health and psychological factors. Univariate logistic regression analyses suggest that participants with an intent to stay in Afghanistan are more likely to be financially stable, possess higher health-related quality of life, lower psychological distress, and higher levels of hope and optimism, as well as higher resilience. When controlling for all other variables in the model, only hope, optimism, and higher resilience remained as significant correlates of intending to stay. Our findings suggest that young people who intend to stay in their country look forward to a better future, which provides strong evidence for the need to strengthen the social contract by fostering resilience, hope and optimism in war-affected communities, in order to prevent a generation of talented young people from seeking asylum in western nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: crop diversification; resilience; water management; water efficiency
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:54:43 CEST)
The specialisation and intensification in agriculture have increased the productivity but have also led to the spread of monocultural systems, simplifying production and reducing genetic diversity. The purpose of this study was to propose crop diversification as a tool to increase biodiversity and achieve sustainable and resilient intensive agriculture, particularly in areas with water scarcity. In this paper, a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) was applied to evaluate the environmental and economic sustainability of a differentiated system of cultivation (pomegranate, almond and olive), according to modern intensive and superintensive cropping systems. Based upon the results obtained, it is deduced that pomegranate cultivation generated the highest environmental load, followed by almond and olive. From the financial analysis, it emerged that almond is the most profitable, followed by pomegranate and olive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Social Capital; Japan; Iwate Prefecture; Resilience; Sustainability
Online: 18 April 2022 (03:46:52 CEST)
This paper investigates experiences of how local cultural norms and social capital influenced the disaster relief process following the 2011 GEJET disaster. To underline social capital’s multiple‐influence aspects, this paper draws from field research that focuses on collective and individual social capital in disaster relief to systematise the findings according to the social capital framework. The paper uncovers new effects of individual social capital and collective capital in a mega-disaster context, thus contributing to pushing the research agenda toward a more critical appraisal of individual social capital and collective capital. We contribute to the nascent but growing literature that clarifies the relationship between social capital and disaster resilience. A qualitative study was conducted to capture the essence of their shared experiences. Findings revealed three main themes capturing the essence of the research participants’ disaster experiences. First, disaster response relied mostly on locally driven relief due to a clear understanding of the local culture. Second, there was an urgency to establish a sense of normalcy by providing quality supplies that would help survivors. Third, Japanese gender roles and expectations were reflected in the disaster relief process. The themes establish a wide array of lived experiences that are important to reflect on the role social capital plays in the policy-making and needs assessment processes in post-disaster relief and response efforts. The findings provide insights for integrating social dimensions into a humanitarian aid culture as citizens work towards a sense of normalcy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0376.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: flood damage methodology; hydraulic infrastructure; resilience; indicators
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:27:21 CET)
Critical infrastructures are those that are essential. For this type of infrastructure, it is necessary to implement analytical methodologies that will allow us to quickly obtain the susceptibility or resilience and possible damage generated in extreme precipitation episodes, through a holistic perspective in which the factors linked to hydrological risk intervene. In particular, urban hydraulic infrastructures are analyzed considering the degree of criticality, defined as the number of interactions on the different activities of the population. For this purpose, a hydrological risk analysis methodology is required. This methodology is focused on an integral approach of the system indicators to be analyzed and linked to the hydrological threat. This work proposes to delimit and analyze those factors that involve risk using an analytical expression. This model will estimate the damage to these infrastructures breaking down the factors involved in the risk equation and analyzing their variability according to the intrinsic characteristics linked to them as well as the interaction with external factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: risk; resilience; pandemic; prioritization; risk management; Arctic
Online: 4 June 2021 (10:40:38 CEST)
The Arctic is a remote region that has become increasingly globalised yet remains extremely vulnerable to many risks. The COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges to the region. Using the Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis (SALSA) approach to conduct a meta-synthesis of the academic and grey literature on the impacts of the pandemic, an assessment is conducted of the types of risks that have been presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the scales, and the national response strategies for mitigating the risks. Two case studies are explored, Iceland and Greenland, island nations that exemplify the extremes of the Arctic and reliance on tourism, a sector that was nearly entirely suspended by the pandemic. An evaluative matrix is employed which combines five different scales of risk – nano, micro, meso, macro and cosmic – with a sustainability categorisation of impacts. The risks of the pandemic cut across the respective scale and categories, with the potential for macro-scale events (systemic risk) to unfold linked to economic spillover effects driven by the curtailment of tourism and various supply chain delays. Both Iceland and Greenland have exemplified risk mitigation strategies which prioritise health over wealth, very strictly in the case of the latter. Strict border controls and domestic restrictions have enabled Iceland and Greenland to have much lower case and death numbers than most nations. In addition, Iceland has led the way, globally, in terms of testing and accumulating scientific knowledge concerning the genetic sequencing of the virus. The academic contribution of the paper concerns its broadening of understanding concerning systemic risk, which extends beyond financial implications to includes sustainability dimensions. For policymakers and practitioners, the paper highlights successful risk mitigation and science-based measures that will be useful for any nation tackling a future pandemic, regardless of whether they are island states, Arctic nations or another country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0300.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: charcoal fuel; deforestation; electricity; livelihood; resilience; vulnerability
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:40:09 CEST)
Kampala is the capital city of Uganda. Over the years the population growth in the city has more than doubled, and this has increased the demand for energy. However, electricity and gas are not only limited in supply but are also expensive for the majority of the households hence the use of charcoal remains the main source of energy. There is little known about the energy situation in big cities of Africa, and Kampala is not an exception. Therefore, we examine the urban nexus amidst energy poverty, vulnerability, and resilience with a focus on; the role of charcoal in the urban Nexus in Kampala Uganda. Literature review and content analysis of scientific materials such as journal articles and reports were done. Charcoal fuel in Kampala and surrounding urban areas does not only facilitate cooking meals and boing water for over 95% of households but also a source of livelihood for many women in the nexus. This process impacts not only on energy use but also the entire water, energy, and food system in the urban nexus. Even though charcoal fuel doubles as a source of household income, it is greatly responsible for most deforestation. Furthermore, charcoal production also accounts for prolonged droughts hence impacting on water and food supply in the nation. Therefore, we propose subsidizing alternatives such as gas and electricity to reduce the complete reliance on charcoal.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: rational decisions; resilience; coping strategies; annual flood
Online: 20 May 2019 (12:10:26 CEST)
A rational decision is a systematic and logical way of making a resolution. It is needed in critical situation, especially the unavoidable ones such as annual floods. People affected by this natural disaster, continue living their lives if good rational decisions are made. The current research consists of two studies. The first identifies rational decisions based on age, education, socio-economic and gender, while the second is based on decisions associated with resilience, coping strategies and age. A total number of 354 participants from various cities in East Java were used as participants of the study. The results in the first study, 58% of the people made good rational decisions, with the remaining 42% making low decisions. Furthermore, education was found to significantly influence the decision making process. The second study found a significant relationship between the resilience, coping strategies, age with the rational decisions. Conclusion of the study will be used make better decisions for the community in order to minimize physical and psychological impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: resilience, land management, wildfire, Mediterranean dry forest
Online: 27 July 2016 (10:01:44 CEST)
Wildfires have always been a part of the history of Mediterranean forests. However, forest regeneration after a wildfire is not certain. It depends on many factors, some of which may be influenced by land management activities. Failure of regeneration will cause a regime shift in the ecosystem, reducing the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately leading to desertification. How can we increase Mediterranean forests’ resilience to fire? To answer this question, we did a literature review, investigating chains of processes that allow forests to regenerate (which we label “regeneration mechanisms”), and assessed the impact of selected management practices documented in the WOCAT database on the regeneration mechanisms. We identified three distinct regeneration mechanisms that enable Mediterranean forests to recover, as well as the time frame before and after a fire in which they are at work, and factors that can hinder or support resilience. The three regeneration mechanisms enabling a forest to regenerate after a fire consist of regeneration (1) from a seed bank; (2) from resprouting individuals; and (3) from unburned plants that escaped the fire. Management practices were grouped into four categories: (1) fuel breaks, (2) fuel management, (3) afforestation, and (4) mulching. We assessed how and under what conditions land management modifies the ecosystem’s resilience. The results show that land management influences resilience by interacting with resilience mechanisms before and after the fire, and not just by modifying the fire regime. Our analysis demonstrates a need for adaptive – i.e. context- and time-specific – management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Urban resilience; Physical elements of a city; Indicator groups; Linear programming; Maximum resilience profit; Optimal investment; Opportunity costs
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:03:39 CEST)
This paper reviews the low-resilience problem in many cities, poor designs of cities to cope with disasters, and the need for tolerance of urban constructions. It explores answers concerning the question of how shall we build cities resiliently? The method of this applied research is a multiphase process that considers all physical and socioeconomic elements of a city. It introduces six indicator groups of urban management (M), economy (E), built environments (U), Infrastructures (I), natural environments (N), and health protection (H). The groups include 55 indicators as variables in the mathematical calculations in this paper. This paper builds a mathematical model to maximize the profitability of resilient buildings by optimizing investments in the required projects. The projects will upgrade the firmness and tolerance of cities against nature-based and human-made dangers and risks. There is a linear programming in 55 variables to select optimal solutions from fifty-five factorial alternatives. Then, the programming will develop into non-linear programming. The unique innovation of this paper is its linear programming interpretation by non-linear to give optimal solutions for the problem. Applying the Lagrange function in the Kuhn-Tucker conditions proves the accuracy of the hypothesis that post-COVID urbanization requires maximum resilience. Only in this way, the urban economies will be free of risks. Outcomes in this paper will assist in the pre-planning, design, and building of built environments everywhere resilient and sustainable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: stress; resilience; mindfulness; psychological well-being; university students
Online: 23 December 2022 (06:10:38 CET)
Purpose: Using an identical experimental structure with both Thai and Singaporean undergraduates, we investigated relationships (interactions) among social support, stress, resilience, mindfulness, and self-efficacy on psychological well-being (PWB). Stress indicated a negative influence on PWB, but mindfulness, resilience, self-efficacy, and social support indicated positive influences. Methods: A cross-sectional predictive design was used with 966 Thai and 673 Singaporean university students. After calculating an adequate sample size and performing convenience sampling, we administered the following six standard scales: the Perceived Stress Scale, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, the Mindfulness Awareness Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Psychological Well-being Scale—along with a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed for participants’ PWB. Results: Mindfulness had significant effects for both factors of PWB, including autonomy and growth, and cognitive triad, across two samples. In the Thai sample, resilience most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and perceived stress did so the cognitive triad, whereas in the Singaporean sample, perceived control most strongly predicted autonomy and growth and support from friends did so the cognitive triad. Conclusion: These findings provide specific knowledge toward enhancing psychosocial interventions and toward promoting PWB to strengthen mindfulness, resilience, perceived control of stress, and social support. stress, resilience, mindfulness, psychological well-being, university students
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0143.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Family Resilience; Caregiving; Elderly; Religious Coping; Nursing Philosophy
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:38:34 CEST)
This article presents an overview of the philosophical and theoretical foundations of the Family Resilience, The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, the Adjustment, and Adaptation Model in families caring for the elderly, The Concept of Religious Coping and its application in order to strengthen family resilience. It is based on the phenomenon the increasing elderly population worldwide has become a global problem, along with the fact that the extension of life expectancy in a person is also accompanied by a decrease in function due to degenerative processes, that require complex health care services. So far, the family is still the primary care setting of choice in the care of the elderly. However, as an informal caregiver, the family also has many limitations that cause the burden of caring for the elderly to become a source of stress in itself. Hence, it impacts the quality of care and the quality of life of the elderly themselves. Meanwhile, from various sources, it is known that religious coping is one of the sources of overcoming stress. So that a strategy is needed to strengthen family resilience in accepting the responsibility of health care for the elderly with a religious coping approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: vegetable extract; seaweed extract; agrosystems; resilience; Apulia (Italy)
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:53:25 CET)
To meet the United Nations sustainable development goals (UN-SDGs) and the European Green Deal, plant biostimulants have become a necessity in agriculture. In particular, seaweed-based biostimulants have received a greater acceptance for their several benefits in crop growth and yield. This study evaluates the effects foliar applications based on vegetables and brown algae extract (Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol., on grapes and olive yield in two field experiments in the Apulia region known for its modern agricultural sector. In particular, grape-growing and olive production. At harvest, the yield performances were determined. The results highlighted that the crop responses differed in grape and olive orchards. The biostimulant application determined significant increases in bunch development (+ 9.5%) and bunch weight (+10%) compared to untreated control. In the olive orchard, the yield was not significantly influenced by biostimulant application, whereas we observed quality improvement in olive oil in treated plants compared with the control. To better understand the mechanisms behind this difference, the research concludes by suggesting pursuing in-depth studies and high scientific and technical proficiency to determine and optimise the rates and timing of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0199.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; stress; coping; older adults; resilience
Online: 10 November 2021 (09:00:20 CET)
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing measures were put into place to flatten the pandemic curve. It was projected older adults were at increased risk for poor psychological and health outcomes resulting from increased social isolation and loneliness. However, little re-search has supported this projection among community-dwelling older adults. While growing body of research has examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults, there is a paucity of qualitative research that captures the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults. The current study aimed to better understand the lived experience of community-dwelling older adults during the first six months of the pandemic. Semi-structured one on one interviews were conducting with independent living older adults aged 65 years and older. After achieving saturation, 22 interview were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Following a recursive process, two overarching themes emerged from the data: perceived threat and challenges of the pandemic and coping with the pandemic. Specifically, participants reflected on the threat of contracting the virus and challenges associated with living arrangement, social isolation, and financial insecurity. Participants shared their coping strategies to maintain health and wellbeing, including behavioral strategies, emotion-focused strategies, and social support. Overall, this re-search highlights resilience among older adults during the first six months of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0580.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:24:29 CEST)
Covid-19 restrictions impacted many people’s daily lives through infection, fear of infection and the implementation of restrictions on movement. Restrictions and fear of contamination impacted physical activity patterns activity and increased mental health issues globally across a variety of ages. This re-issue of a questionnaire sought to examine the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on frequency of physical activity, participation in sports, wellbeing and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Irish adolescents. 3,021 adolescents from 61 post-primary schools in the Republic of Ireland completed questionnaires. Consistent with a previous issue of the questionnaire, a minority of adolescents were found to meet the WHO’s physical activity guidelines (11.6% of males and 5.2% of females) although there were large decreases in 1st year males and females. Adolescents reporting elevated symptoms of depression increased from 39% to 46% with almost 3 in 5 females reporting symptoms of depression ranging from mild to extreme. Highest levels of wellbeing were found in adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports, although there was an 8% reduction in the amount of adolescents who participated in 3 or more sports. There were no changes in physical activity levels overall, despite changes within sub-groups and patterns of physical activity. There was a clear increase in symptoms of depression, with females impacted more than males. Previously active individuals were more likely to increase activity and therefore report higher levels of mental health while those who were less active were more likely to decrease activity and report lower mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0225.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Development Aid; Productive capacities; Export resilience; Developing countries
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:01:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic, like previous major crises, such as the 2008 financial crisis, has had a severe negative impact on international trade flows. International institutions are now exploring ways to help their member states recover from the health crisis, and foster the resilience of their economies to future crises. As far as trade is concerned, institutions that deal primarily with trade matters are making effort to help their member states foster the resilience of their trade performance to future shocks. In this context, the World Trade Organization (WTO), which is the only international organization that deals with the global rules of trade between nations, has organized a series of events since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It has now planned to hold in September 2021 the 2021 WTO Public Forum whose theme is "Trade Beyond COVID-19: Building Resilience". The present paper aims to contribute to this debate by examining the effect of development aid, i.e., the so-called official development aid, in particular its Aid for Trade (AfT) component, on export resilience. The resilience of exports refers to the capacity of countries' aggregate exports to resist to shocks, whether environmental or external shocks. The core argument of the analysis is that development aid would affect export resilience through its effect on productive capacities. The analysis covers 93 developing countries over the period 2002-2018. The findings indicate that total development aid flows, including both AfT flows and NonAfT flows exert a positive effect on export resilience. Among AfT components, AfT for productive capacities appears to exert a higher positive effect on export resilience than AfT for economic infrastructure and AfT for trade policy and regulation. In addition, development aid (whatever the aid variable considered) exerts the highest positive effect on export resilience in countries (such as Least developed countries - LDCs) that have the lowest level of productive capacities. These findings highlight the need for donor-countries to supply higher development aid flows, in particular AfT flows to countries such as LDCs that have low levels of productive capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: coastal resilience; climate change; indicators; social-ecological system
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:18:36 CEST)
Accompanied by increasing population growth and urban sprawl, most coastal cities are unprecedentedly vulnerable to climate change and its impacts, such as sea level rise, increasing extreme storm events, and coastal flooding. Coastal resilience and sustainable development are antidotes to vulnerability; they aim to enhance the adaptive capability of absorbing disturbances and resisting uncertainty. This study explores building a quantitative assessment framework to measure resilience and provide an objective and comparable method to understand the strengths and weaknesses in a given region. The proposed 25 resilience indicators incorporate the aspects of essential livelihood protection, infrastructure and natural resource maintenance, emergency facilities and institutions, floodplain management regulations, and adaptive planning process. Each indicator is assigned the resilience quality that includes robustness, resourcefulness, redundancy, and rapidity. The aggregated resilience quality scoring reflects the systematic performance of the city to cope with the coastal hazards. The innovative part of this framework is combining hazard mitigation measures, climate adaptation strategies, and sustainable development goals together to achieve a comprehensive assessment method. In the case of New Haven, the resilience assessment is taken as a practical monitoring tool and decision-making support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Covid-19; Radiation Oncology; Operation; Survey; Adaptability; Resilience
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:30:40 CEST)
Background: A comprehensive response to the unprecedented SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) chal-lenges for public health and its impact on radiation oncology patients and personnel for resilience and adaptability is presented. Methods: The general recommendations included working remote-ly when feasible, implementation of screening/safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) guidelines, social distancing, regular cleaning of treatment environment, and testing for high-risk patients/procedures. All teaching conferences, tumor boards, and weekly chart rounds were con-ducted using a virtual platform. Additionally, specific recommendations were given to each sec-tion to ensure proper patient treatments. The impact of these measures, especially adaptability and resilience, were evaluated through specific questionnaire surveys. Results: These comprehen-sive COVID-19 related measures resulted in most staff expressing a consistent level of satisfaction in regards to personal safety, maintaining a safe work environment, continuing quality patient care and continuing educational activities during the pandemic. There was a significant reduction in patient treatments and on-site patient visits with an appeciable increase in the number of tele-medicine e-visits. Conclusions: Survey results demonstrated substantial adaptability and resili-ence, including in the rapid recovery of departmental activities during the reactivation phase. In the event of a future public health emergency, the measures implemented may be adopted with good outcomes by radiation oncology departments across the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fit-for-purpose land administration; climate; resilience; pandemic.
Online: 6 April 2021 (13:34:53 CEST)
The major global pressures of rapid urbanization and urban growth are compounded by climate impacts resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers, with these vulnerabilities exacerbated during COVID-19. Much of this is concentrated in urban and peri-urban areas where urban development spreads into hazard-prone areas. Often this development is dominated by poor quality homes in informal settlements or slums with poor tenure security. Lessons from a current resilience-building project shows that the fit-for-purpose (FFP) approach to land administration can provide a solution to increase the number of households with security of tenure and improve resilience outcomes as informal settlements grow. This paper discusses the influence of FFP land administration on vulnerabilities to multiple shocks related to climate change and COVID-19. This paper proposes ways the growth of human settlements can be better managed through responsible governance of land tenure rights, and effective land-use planning to improve resilience to different shocks and stresses and provide adequate access to safe land and shelter. Land administration systems can support improved resilience to the multiple stressors of climate and pandemics through improving tenure security and enhancing land use planning controls. Climate change adaptation and risk management need to be better mainstreamed into two major elements of land governance: (i) securing and safeguarding of land rights, and (ii) planning and control of land-use.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Governance; Livelihoods; Natural Resources; Resilience; Traditional Systems; Pastoralism
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:15:35 CET)
Kenya’s natural resource base has dwindled over years. The existence of many natural resource policies, some that are incompatible, has resulted in complex rangeland management regimes, giving rise to fragmented interventions and inadequate natural resource policies in relation to pastoralism. The majority of pastoral land resources held under a controlled access system by the national government that regulates management and utilization of resources. Pastoralists in Kenya have become among the most marginalized and disadvantaged minority groups. This is due to limited or under investment by government and other actors, and access to, or ownership of land, water and other resources, which are fundamental for pastoralism. This study examines significant obstacles for the establishment of a more inclusive ‘governance’ approach to natural resource management in northern Kenya, that characterize the customary Boran knowledge such as Deedha’s (traditional grazing unit) and formal institutions and seeks to address the tension between them through a legal framework that accommodates both. The results of the study established existence of the traditional structures and institutions in governance of natural resources within the pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. These institutions have evolved to cope with changing dynamics brought about by formalization of the natural resources governance. The resulted showed that various formal institutions from national government agencies to county government department were involved in management of the natural resources. However, the study established various operational divergence and links between informal and formal institutions involved in natural resources management. The study concluded that both informal institution such as Deedha and formal institutions constituted by national and county government did governance of natural resources among pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. The communities however have more trust in the informal structures and institutions because of their flexibility and inclusiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0557.v1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:42:21 CET)
The Tsunami disaster was the first and the biggest in Banten Province. However, in response to the health crisis, the preparedness was still lacking, even though in an emergency response situation, the management of disaster management carried out was quite good. The method of research is based on data reports that include quantitative and qualitative methods. Analyzing health facilities and the impacts that occurred in the field during the tsunami period is the basis for this article and, at the same time, a discussion of describing problems that can be anticipated in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Anthropocene; resilience; social-ecological systems; sustainability; transitions; wilderness
Online: 6 August 2019 (03:36:20 CEST)
Since the late 1980s the idea of sustainable development has been gaining widespread recognition as a guiding framework for policies on development and the environment. However, the concept of sustainable development has received a number of criticisms, including its over-emphasis on meeting human needs through economic growth, as well as its failure to recognize dynamic human-environment interactions. In response to these shortfalls, the concepts of resilience and adaptive governance have emerged as alternative perspectives for pursuing sustainable development. Resilience in social-ecological systems emphasizes the capacity of coupled human-environment systems to deal with change while continuing to develop. Adaptive governance relies on diverse and nested institutional mechanisms for connecting actors across multiple scales to manage conflicts and uncertainties in ecosystem management processes. However, the ethical dimensions of resilience and adaptive governance have not received enough attention. A promising ethical perspective for guiding policies on human-environment interactions is the philosophy of deep ecology which highlights the need for recognition of the intrinsic values of all living things, as well as the nurturing of ecological and cultural diversity. We argue that an integration of the principles of deep ecology and adaptive governance provides a complementary set of ethical principles and institutional attributes that offers better prospects for pursuing sustainable development in the era of the Anthropocene. The implications of this integrative agenda include: adoption of a holistic conception of dynamic human-environment interactions; recognition of diverse knowledge systems through an anti-reductionist approach to knowledge; promotion of long term sustainability through respect for ecological and cultural diversity; and embracing decentralization and local autonomy. We further illustrate this integrative agenda using the management of protected areas as a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0359.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Adaptation; climate change; composite indices; resilience; livelihoods; adaptation
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:43:50 CEST)
The missing link between cross-sectoral resource utilisation and management, and full-scale adoption of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus has been lack of analytical tools to support policy and decision-making. This paper defined WEF nexus sustainability indicators and developed a methodology to calculate composite indices to facilitate WEF nexus performance, monitoring and evaluation. WEF nexus indicators were integrated through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). Data were normalised to determine composite indices. The method established quantitative relationships among WEF nexus sectors to indicate resource utilisation and performance over time, using South Africa as a case study. A spider graph of normalised indices was used to illustrate WEF nexus indicator performance and inter-relationships, providing a synopsis of the level of interactions and inter-connectedness of WEF nexus sectors. The shape of the spider graph is determined by the level of the interdependencies and interactions among the WEF nexus sectors, whose management is viewed either as sustainable or unsustainable depending on the classification of the developed integrated index. The spider graph produced for South Africa shows an over emphasis on food self-sufficiency and water productivity at the expense of other sectors, which results from the sectoral approach in resource management. Although the calculated integrated index of 0.203 for South Africa is classified as lowly sustainable, the emphasis is on the quantitative relationships among the indicators and on how to improve them to achieve sustainability. The developed method provides evidence to decision makers, indicating priority areas for intervention. The analytical model is another niche area for the WEF nexus, as it is now capable to evaluate synergies and trade-offs in a holistic way to improve efficiency and productivity in resource use and management for sustainable development.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: substance use; emotional intelligence; resilience; family functioning; adolescents
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:48:50 CEST)
The use of alcohol and tobacco is related to several variables which act as risk or protective factors, depending on the circumstances. The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence, resilience and family functioning in adolescent use of alcohol and tobacco and to find emotional profiles for their use considering self-concept. The sample was made up of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 who filled out the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, the APGAR Scale, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire - Adolescents and the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire. The results revealed that emotional intelligence and resilience, specifically, stress management and family cohesion were significant in the group of nonusers. Family functioning acts as a predictor factor for onset of use of tobacco and alcohol. Positive expectancies about drinking alcohol were found to be a risk factor and the intrapersonal factor to be protective. Both stress management and family cohesion were protective factors against smoking. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed emotional profiles for users of both substances based on self-concept. Finally, the importance of the direction of the relationship between the variables studied for intervention in this problem should be mentioned. Responsible use by improving adolescent decision-making is one of the results expected from this type of intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0528.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Resilience, Climate-change, Social-capital and Resident-empowerment.
Online: 21 November 2018 (14:01:33 CET)
The Wester coastal Delta zone of the Netherlands, the relatively more crowded area of the country hosting ten out of seventeen heading to twenty million people, asks for a growing alertness on the topic of resiliency the light of climate-change, like many coastal urban areas do. Approaches of resiliency are often pre-dominated by governmental rescue planning and mobilization of technology innovative solutions. By comparing the float disasters of the 2015 Katrina and 2012 Sandy thunder-storms that hit respectively New Orleans and New York we can learn that the behaviour of people can make the difference in overcoming climate change impact disasters. Post-PhD research with focus on the Dutch Zaanstreek-Waterland area north of the city of Amsterdam, where in 1916 a severe flood took place, proved such. The outcome from focus group sessions is that the alertness and availability of the people to act in case of disaster urgency makes a positive difference, if the memory of the area residents to previous disaster handling is kept alert. This Zaanstreek-Waterland research showed that the disaster from 100 year before still kept the residents alert into resiliency. With that result the defi-nition of resilience should be improved by adding: ‘the interplay in a triangular relationship of civil servants, technicians and residents’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water-resilience; climate-change; action-learning; resident-empowerment
Online: 16 November 2018 (09:07:23 CET)
The Wester coastal Delta zone of the Netherlands is the relatively more crowded area of the country where ten of the seventeen million people live. The governmental prognosis is that this number of people will increase steadily in the coming decennia, unless the threat of climate-change seawater level rising. This is the picture in more Delta zones globally what makes the topic of resiliency for these delta-areas of importance. Approaches of resiliency are often dominated by governmental rescue planning and believe in technology solutions, while in the process the behaviour of people can make the difference in overcoming climate-change impact disasters. In the struggle against high water storming and flooding, the Dutch people prove this by developing societal resilient behaviour in a broad spectrum of activities. Post-PhD research on Dutch resilient behaviour in the in 1016-flooded Zaanstreek-Waterland area near the city of Amsterdam confirms that. Recently research by questionnaire among citizens in this region shows that people have favour for shared responsibility with government and related professional organizations. The Dutch examples of societal resiliency carried by people also show a action-learning perspective intertwined with governmental contingency planning. Therewith the Dutch practice shows a positive cross-fertilization of practice and knowledge development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0568.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: cancer, pediatrics, psycho-oncology, family, COVID-19, risk, resilience
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:49:26 CET)
Previous literature highlights the impact of COVID-19 on family functioning. Less is known about the impact of the pandemic on families of pediatric cancer patients. In order to determine universal and unique risk and resilience factors of these families during the pandemic, a qualitative analysis was conducted on families currently receiving cancer treatment at a midwestern hospital. Results of the data analysis depict ways in which these families have been impacted by and have adapted to COVID-19. These findings suggest that families of pediatric cancer patients have unique experiences in the context of COVID-19, in addition to universal experiences outlined in previous literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: klotho; estrogen; hippocampus; chronic stress; sex difference; stress resilience
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:09:36 CET)
Klotho (KL) is a glycosyl hydrolase and aging-suppressor gene. Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety that are highly comorbid with each other. The aim of this study was to determine KL is regulated by estrogen and plays an important role in sex differences in stress resilience. Our results showed that KL was regulated by estrogen in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro and was essential for estrogen-mediated increase in the number of presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (Vglut1) positive clusters on the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. The role of KL in sex differences in stress responses was examined in rats using three-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS produced a deficit in spatial learning and memory, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male but not female rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in KL protein levels in the hippocampus of male, but not female rats. This demonstrated the resilience of female rats to CUMS. Interestingly, knockdown of KL protein levels in the rat hippocampus of both sexes caused a decrease in stress resilience in both sexes, especially in female rats. These results suggest that regulation of KL by estrogen plays an important role in estrogen-mediated synapse formation, and KL plays a critical role in the sex differences in cognitive deficit, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats, highlighting an important role of KL in sex differences in stress resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Eritrean refugees; mental wellbeing; social resilience; Germany; ADAPT model
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Mental health and social resilience play a significant role in refugees’ adaptation during the resettlement process in the host country. Maintaining good mental wellbeing helps the refugees to respond to stressful experiences with healthy life choices. This study aimed to explore the mental wellbeing and social resilience of Eritrean refugees living in Germany and to identify social conditions and enablers to foster adaptation. This study employs a qualitative approach with a semi-structured, in-depth interview data collection method. Informants were identified among mostly young adult refugees living in Heidelberg, Germany, with a migration history of 3-6 years. In total, 15 informants were recruited through snowball sampling. Data were sorted and analyzed using the five pillars of the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The findings suggest that Eritrean refugees experience psychological distress after resettlement in Germany, however with time, their mental health has improved. The study revealed conditions that were experienced as hindrances, as well as ones that were considered to be resources of positive mental wellbeing and social resilience for resettled refugees. Challenges described were the language barrier, discrimination, unemployment, insecure residence status, loss of family and friends, conflict within the diaspora community, and isolation. The main sources of mental wellbeing and social resilience include the feeling of being welcomed by local communities, access to social services, adopting new relationships, and educational opportunities. These experiences encouraged refugees to have a favorable view of their lives and futures as well as also found to facilitate better integration and adaptation. Understanding refugee mental wellbeing and social resilience require a multidimensional perspective. Eritrean refugees living in Germany have experienced and still are experiencing resettlement challenges, as for example loss of family and friends, negative perception of the German system, loss of past achievements, or unemployment. But they have developed adaptive and resilience mechanisms, too, such as seeing an opportunity for a better life, adopting new roles, and accepting Germany as a “second home”. In addressing those by the refugees as hindrances reported issues, these could be turned into sources of mental well-being and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable Energy; Resilience; Hybrid Energy Systems; Life Cycle Analysis
Online: 26 May 2022 (10:24:39 CEST)
Energy poverty, defined as a lack of access to reliable electricity and reliance on traditional biomass resources for cooking, affects over a billion people daily. The World Health Organization estimates that household air pollution from inefficient stoves causes more premature deaths than malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS). Increasing demand for energy has led to dramatic increases in carbon emissions. The need for reliable electricity and limiting carbon emissions drives research on Resil-ient Hybrid Energy Systems (RHES) that provide low-carbon energy through combined wind, so-lar, and biomass energy with traditional fossil energy, increasing production efficiency and relia-bility, and reducing generating costs and carbon emissions. Microgrids have been shown as an ef-ficient means of implementing RHES, with some focused mainly on reducing the environmental impact of electric power generation. The technical challenges of designing, implementing and ap-plying microgrids involve conducting a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate these systems' environmental and economic performance under diverse operating conditions to evaluate resiliency. A sample RHES has been developed and used to demonstrate implementation in rural applications. This system can provide reliable electricity for heating, cooling, lighting, and pumping clean water. This paper's primary focus is the challenges of using resilient energy sys-tems in the Middle East.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0556.v1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:40:54 CET)
There has been very widespread contagion of covid-19 in Kichwa indigenous communities in Ecuadorian Amazonia, but the peak of contagion has already passed, and total mortality has been remarkably low. The Kichwa people themselves typically attribute this to the widespread use of medicinal plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0405.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Systematic Review; Sustainable Agriculture; Climate Change; Resilience; Agro-Systems
Online: 27 February 2020 (12:23:04 CET)
In the last few decades, a lot has been written on the use of sustainable agriculture to improve ecosystem services for resilience to climate change. However, no tangible and systematic evidence exists on how this would participate in alleviating impacts on vulnerable rural communities. This paper provides a narrative systematic review (SR) integrated with a bibliometric analysis and a concept network analysis to understand how, in a changing climate, sustainable agriculture builds the resilience of agro-systems. The search was set from the date of the first relevant article until the end of 2018. Results generated have demonstrated that: a. Only single practices and methods have been studied to assess impacts on single ecosystem services. b. Soil quality and health are considered a key indicator of sustainable agriculture. c. Albeit the assessed practices and methods have shown to improve the biodiversity of agro-systems, which makes them more resilient to extreme climate events, we are still far from reaching interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional agriculture which integrates all management aspects and generates a full range of ecosystem services. In conclusion, the study addressed the following recommendations for the scientific community and for decision-makers to orient future research strategies and efforts: a. Integration of all agro-systems services into sustainable management using an ecosystem-based approach on a life-cycle basis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method; b. Improving the scientific understanding of traditional knowledge for higher synergies and for further integration; c. Unification of assessment methods and indicators for the quantification of impacts; d. Creation of a platform to share, monitor, screen, and approve assessments and evaluations of sustainable agriculture by region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0264.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; military context; proactive personality; resilience
Online: 23 September 2019 (07:40:31 CEST)
Although prior research has extensively examined the association of emotional intelligence (EI) with various job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), the empirical and systematic investigation of this link within military institutions has captured considerably less research attention. The present research analyzed the relationship between EI, teamwork communication, and job satisfaction among Spanish military cadets. We tested the potential unique contribution of EI to job satisfaction over and above demographics (i.e., gender and age), proactive personality, and resilience. Moreover, we also examined whether EI indirectly affects job satisfaction via its relationship with teamwork communication. A sample of 363 cadet officers of the Spanish General Military Academy completed questionnaires assessing EI, teamwork communication, proactive personality, resilience, and job satisfaction. Our results revealed that EI exhibited incremental variance in predicting job satisfaction even after accounting for demographics, proactive personality, and resilience. Additionally, we found that the effect of EI on job satisfaction was partially driven by enhanced teamwork communication. This research provides empirical evidence suggesting a pathway (i.e., effective teamwork communication) through which EI helps military cadets to experience higher job satisfaction. Implications for future academic programs including EI and teamwork communication to promote positive job attitudes among military personnel are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0272.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptive capacity; climate change vulnerability; exposure; resilience; sensitivity; vegetation
Online: 22 May 2019 (09:55:45 CEST)
We applied a framework to assess climate change vulnerability of 52 major vegetation types in the western United States to provide spatially-explicit input to adaptive management decisions. The framework addressed climate exposure and ecosystem resilience; the latter derived from analyses of ecosystem sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Measures of climate change exposure used observed climate change (1981-2014) and then climate projections for the mid-21st century (2040-2069 RCP 4.5). Measures of resilience included (under ecosystem sensitivity) landscape intactness, invasive species, fire regime alteration, and forest insect & disease risk, and (under adaptive capacity), measures for topo-climate variability, diversity with functional species groups, and vulnerability of any keystone species. Outputs are generated per 100km2 hexagonal area for each type. As of 2014, moderate climate change vulnerability was indicated for >50% of the area of 50 of 52 types. By the mid-21st century, all but 19 types face high or very high vulnerability with >50% of the area scoring in these categories. Measures for resilience explain most components of vulnerability as of 2014, with most targeted vegetation scoring low in adaptive capacity measures and variably for specific sensitivity measures. Elevated climate exposure explains increases in vulnerability between the current and mid-century time periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: smartphone dependency; aggression; ego-resilience; parenting behavior; peer attachment
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:45:15 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine the moderating and mediating effect of ego - resilience, parenting attitude, and peer attachment in the relation between smartphone dependency and aggression. Participants were 1,863 youths using a smartphone among the first middle school students responded in the 7th Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, a correlation, and a hierarchical regression analysis. First, ego-resilience showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency, aggression and significant moderating effects were revealed. Second, parenting behavior showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. Third, peer attachment had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. The research suggested the mental health and growth of students could be improved by applying various nursing and health care programs to improve ego-resilience, parenting behavior and peer attachment as they grow into adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0304.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: climate change; econometric analysis; insurance; resilience; risk; tropical cyclones
Online: 30 January 2019 (07:10:54 CET)
Having sustained, over the course of more than two decades, record-breaking natural catastrophe losses, American insurers and reinsurers are justifiably questioning the potential linkage between anthropogenic climate change and extreme weather. Here, we explore issues pertaining to this linkage, looking at both the likely short-term implications for the insurance industry, as well as potential longer-term impacts on financial performance and corporate resilience. We begin our discussion with an overview of the implications that climate change is likely to have on the industry, especially as it relates to how catastrophic risks are construed, assessed, and managed. We then present the rudiments of an econometric analysis that explores the financial resilience of the property/casualty (P/C) industry in the face of both natural and man-made catastrophes. In this analysis, we explore the profitability consequences of several illustrative scenarios involving large-scale losses from extreme weather—specifically, a sequence of storms like those striking the U.S. in 2004—and a scenario that explores the prospect of a Katrina-scale storm in combination with a mass terror attack on the scale of 9/11. At systemic levels of aggregation, our analysis suggests a high degree of macro-resilience for the insurance industry. Moreover, we find that insurer resilience is higher for larger impacts, considering both the speed of recovery, as well as the inverse of the area under the unaffected system profile. We conclude with a summary of our findings and a closing commentary that explores the potential implications of these results for P/C insurers moving forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0077.v1
Subject: Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; forests; nature-based solutions; policy; resilience
Online: 6 December 2018 (07:39:13 CET)
The current focus on afforestation in climate policy runs the risk of compromising both longterm carbon storage and human adaptation. It also works against efforts to stem the tide of biodiversity loss. We outline why an emphasis on diverse, intact natural ecosystems—as opposed to tree plantations with fast-growing exotic species—will help nations deliver the goals of the Paris Agreement and much more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0457.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: disadvantages; living conditions; longitudinal; resilience; self-rated health; youth
Online: 28 June 2018 (05:10:36 CEST)
Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. Yet, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time, were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n=908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Somali; conflict; health system; resilience; fragile; access; government; NGO
Online: 12 June 2017 (06:26:20 CEST)
Background: Human Immnodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people with worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people living with diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu and their resilience in access to care and social support. Method: Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in Somali in May 2013 among patients who were receiving Antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the HIV clinic in Mogadishu. Participants were recruited through drug dispensers at the HIV clinic in Benader Hospital. These were tape recorded, transcribed and translated for content analysis. Results: Three women and four men who were living with HIV shared the following narratives. Their perception was that they had either got HIV from their spouces or through health care contamination. They were very knowledgable about the realities of HIV, how the medication works, nutritional requirements and drug adherence. They were always willing to go an extra mile to secure a good life for themselves. However the external HIV stigma impacted their access to care. They faced challenges in their homes and at work which compelled them to seek support from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) or close family members. This stigma often affected their disclosure to the wider community due to the uncertainity of the repercussions, leading to a life of extreme loneliness and financial difficulties. The participants’ coping mechansms included living together and starting their own NGO for support with very strong optimism about their prognosis. Conclusions: The people living with diagnosed HIV in Mogadishu are highly knowledgeable about HIV transmission, the realities of living with diagnosed HIV infection and efficacy of HIV treatment. Our small sample suggests adequate access to ART through NGOs. However, widespread HIV stigma limits HIV status disclosure to the families and communities which creates a risk of self isolation and ill health. But affected individuals have developed resilient mechanisms of managing the risks. They strive to remain employed for economic security, adhere to HIV treatment, engage in support groups and maintain utmost optimism about their prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: resilience; nurse; ICU; nursing care; Health Care System; Covid-19
Online: 14 December 2022 (03:03:34 CET)
Introduction. The outbreak of the COVID pandemic was a period of uncer-tainty and tension for healthcare managers, resulting from the lack of knowledge, i.e. about the transmission of the virus, but also from the lack of uniform organisational and treatment procedures. It was the period where the ability to prepare to a crisis situation, to adapt to the existing conditions and to draw conclusion from the situa-tion were critical to keep ICUs operating. The aim of this study was to show the prep-aration of an ICU in Poland to ensure resilience, and also the methods of reacting dur-ing the COVID-19 pandemic on both central and local level. Methods. Based on the EC and WHO guidelines on resilience a matrix of 6 elements and 13 standards as-signed to them was created, with a series of questions from a survey questionnaire. Results. Good management in resilient systems is free access to any resource. A free and transparent flow of information and also well motivated human resources in an appropriate number. Conclusion. Appropriate preparation, adaptation to the existing situation and effective management of crisis situations is an important element of ICU resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Covid-19; SARs-CoV-2; burnout; stress; resilience; medical students
Online: 11 January 2022 (16:57:30 CET)
Following the WHO's declaration of a public health emergency due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the subsequent quarantine and confinement measures that were adopted, including distance learning measures, were shown to have caused a significant deterioration in the mental health of medical students. The goal of this study was to explore the mediating role of resilience and life satisfac-tion in the relationship between perceived stress and burnout among medical students in the con-text of COVID-19. A transversal assessment was performed using an online questionnaire, to which 462 students responded. The instruments applied were the Perceived Stress Scale-10, the Resilience Scale-25 items, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Burnout Scale (Olden-burg Inventory). A regression model was estimated for each dimension of burnout. The results revealed that resilience and life satisfaction play a mediating role in the association between stress and the dimensions of burnout. This suggests that measures of promoting mental health based on resilience and improving perceptions of life should be implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Mixed farming; Household resilience; livelihood insecurity; Diversification; structural equation model
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:51:04 CET)
Poor households are more likely less resilient under climate change, risks of productive assets, social-related shocks, and decline of land productivity. The ability to deal with household resilience against poverty under the uncertain condition of risk is limited in the highlands of Ethiopia. The study aims to identify determinants of household resilience to livelihood insecurity under the crop-livestock mixed farming systems in Goncha district, Northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Primary data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews among 280 households using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test and structural equation modeling were used to analyse the data. The results disclosed that sustainable management of the farming systems, cultivation of more fertile farmland, saving performance, diversification of income-earning activities, intensification of livestock husbandry practices, access to irrigation, and familiarity with practical technologies were found to be significant determinants at p<0.001 to household resilience of smallholder farmers. Social network development and tree plantation were explained household resilience to livelihood insecurity at P<0.01 and P<0.1 significant levels, respectively. The study concluded that scaling up sustainable management of the farming system and practical technologies, enhancing saving behavior, promoting income diversification, and intensifying agroforestry are significant for household resilience to livelihood insecurity of smallholders across agro-ecologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Strategic alliance; Supply chain resilience; Resilient supply chain; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 4 November 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Resilience is a particularly important quality for supply chains in this turbulent environment. Resilience in supply chain is the ability to retain, resume, and recover operations after an intense destructive incident. One of the strategic solutions for managing supply chain disruptions is to establish collaboration and strategic alliances in order to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, given the increasing publication of articles in areas of strategic alliances and supply chain resilience, it is a good opportunity to review these articles, identify gaps in the current literature, demonstrate links between the two areas, and provide suggestions for future research. For these purposes, a bibliometric analysis has been performed on literature available on the Web of Science database. The distribution of articles based on year and country, influential journals, research areas, authors, affiliations, keywords, citations, and reference co-citation analysis are discussed. Results indicate that studies about strategic alliances, meant to increase resilience, are growing in areas such as “Management”, “Operations research”, “Management science”, and “Business”. Furthermore, the sources could be categorized in five clusters; namely “From knowledge concept to value creation”, “Internal and external relationships”, “Logistics and supply chain performance”, “Intellectual capital and strategic management”, and “Critical success factors and alliances”. This article can be useful for both practitioners and academics who explore the topic of strategic alliances and resilience in supply chain and also offers managers the opportunity to overcome supply chain disruptions and negative consequences of risks by becoming familiar with the key concepts of resilience. The persistence of businesses and supply chains is guaranteed through communicating with partners and even competitors in the light of alliance according to the findings of this research. Managers can pay attention to the integration of the supply chain to improve resilience and increase collaboration between suppliers and customers. Given the research results, strategic alliances can be noted in expanding organizational entrepreneurship, and shaping strategic collaboration networks in light of strategic alliances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0700.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Community resilience; risk reduction; disaster response; preparedness; seasonality in emergency
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:11:05 CEST)
People living in areas of significant seismic risk seldom undertake sufficient preparations to safeguard their family. This is most problematic in remote communities such as those along the Dead Sea Fault, Israel, where self-reliance is a key factor in coping with disasters. To facilitate individual and familial involvement in earthquake preparedness in remote areas, we designed a tool for self-assessment of risk and preparedness. The personalized risk assessment is based on national hazard and building standards, and on personal input regarding structure characteristics. The risk and preparedness evaluations enhance awareness and provide immediate feedback to help users improve familial preparedness. Spatial analysis of the data collected is used to form high-resolution maps that expose specific challenges for emergency response. A study conducted in the town of Mitzpe Ramon exposed neighborhoods with relatively high risk of damage and low preparedness. Integrating these results with seasonal stress-factors such as peak tourism and extreme weather, provides new and important insights on the ability of the local community and emergency forces to cope with multi-hazard situations. Analysis of the heterogeneous distribution of expected hardship within a community should be implemented world-wide to improve risk mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: human reliability analysis; safety; FRAM; resilience engineering; performance variability; emergency
Online: 9 January 2020 (13:22:43 CET)
Technological innovation has led to the development of increasingly efficient and complex industrial plants. To manage this complexity, it is necessary to define an integrated vision of the socio-technological system that includes: technological, human and organizational component. Petrochemicals can be considered one of the most complex socio-technical systems that deserve special attention to high risk management, especially during the emergency conditions. Traditional safety management models only consider static systems, while new resilience engineering models evaluate the performance variability developed between different actions. One of the recent development methods is the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) that identifies the pairs between the functions. FRAM unfortunately is a qualitative model, this research integrates this model with the Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) and with the Bayesian approach to identify the performance variability of the system. The analysis aims to develop a system that improves safety analysis. The proposed model is applied in a case study of an emergency in a petrochemical company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0295.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Heat stress; durum wheat; yield; tolerance; fertility; climate change; resilience
Online: 28 June 2019 (11:51:31 CEST)
Heat stress occurring during the reproductive stage of wheat has a detrimental effect on productivity. A durum wheat core set was exposed to simulated terminal heat stress by applying plastic tunnels at the time of flowering over two seasons. Mean grain yield was reduced by 54% compared to control conditions, and grain number was the most critical trait for tolerance to this stress. The combined use of tolerance indices and grain yield identified five elites: Kunmiki, Berghouata1, Margherita2, IDON37-141, and Ourgh. The core set was also subjected to genome wide association study using 7,652 polymorphic SNPs markers. The most critical genomic regions were identified in association with spike fertility and tolerance indices on chromosome 1A, 5B and 6B. Haplotype analysis on a set of 208 elites confirmed that lines that carried the positive allele at all three QTLs resulted in a yield advantage of 8% when field tested under daily temperatures above 31° C. Two of the QTLs were successfully validated into KASP markers and explained >10% of the phenotypic variation for an independent elite germplasm set. These genomic regions can now be readily deployed via breeding to improve resilience to climate change and increase productivity in heat-stressed areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0054.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Groundwater; Climate resilience; Deep wells, Deep aquifers, Drought, Somali, Ethiopia
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:03:05 CEST)
Groundwater is the most extracted raw material in the world with global annual withdrawal rates of 800–1500 km3/year. In East and Southern Africa, 70 % of the population are reliant on shallow groundwater as their primary drinking water source. With increased population growth, intensification of agriculture and industrialization, conflicting demands on groundwater present a challenge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (6,3,11,12,15). Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina and the Indian Ocean Diopole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in long periods of low rainfall, low recharge and high evapotranspiration. As a result, shallow aquifers in alluvial deposits of Somali region have low yields and produce brackish and saline water. That situation prompted humanitarian water professionals to finance the transportation of water from selected locations with high groundwater potential through water trucks to areas facing groundwater depletion and drought. To address this challenge, UNICEF explored alternative, sustainable deeper groundwater sources that could be extracted using solar water pumping technology for multi water use. This paper describes a three-phase methodology of deep groundwater development of wells in the Ogaden Jesoma sandstone aquifers of the Somali region of the Horn of Africa to a depth of 600 meters below ground level. The results concluded that the deep sandstone aquifer of Jesoma can provide fresh water with yields of 15 l/s to the local population of Somali region. to the study provided insights into deep groundwater identification and development as well as adaptive deep boreholes drilling as a source for climate resilient water supplies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: resilience engineering; disaster management; assessment model; capacity diagnosis; infectious disease
Online: 30 September 2018 (11:17:41 CEST)
Safety management assessment systems for national level units’ in South Korea focus on responding capacity to cope with impending accident occurrence and danger occurrence. Since the four stage systems for prevention-preparation-response-recovery, which are core elements of national disaster management, assess the capacities by item such as those of individuals, disaster management departments, institutions, and management networks, there is no assessment function for the organic operation states of the entire systems. Therefore, for efficient disaster management, systematic evaluation indices that will enable active pre-checks in departments in organizations should be developed in place of the existing simply checking methods. In this study, an assessment model that will enable active disaster management centered on practice was developed using resilience engineering techniques. This model consists of disaster management items from the viewpoint of proactive responses instead of prevention. A total of 56 items that constitute four capacities; which are prediction (13 items), monitoring (14 items), proactive response (15 items), and safety learning (14 items) capacities were adopted in this model through Delphi analysis. Institutional capacities for infectious disease disaster management were evaluated based on this model and the resultant scores were prediction 4.41, monitoring 4.63, proactive response 4.69, safety learning 4.56 out of the full score of 5.0 points with an overall average of 4.51. This is an excellent capacity management score comparable to the score 4.57 of diagnosis of similar capacities by the WHO\_JEE (The Joint External Evaluation) in 2017. In fact, in 2015, when infectious disease capacity management was poor, in case of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) infectious disease spread in South Korea, 36 patients died and 6,729 patients were isolated. However, through capacity reinforcement, in the case of MERS occurrence in South Korea in September 2018, a management capacity that prevented spread was shown as one confirmed case was completely cured in 10 days and 21 contacts were isolated and tested negative. Therefore, this capacity management assessment model is judged to be usable in enhancing disaster response and management capacities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; complex adaptative systems; ecosystem services; governance; resilience; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:06:22 CEST)
In the last decade, probably in response to global changes and environmental crisis, the use of the term “social-ecological system” (SES) in the scientific literature has been growing. This is certainly a sign of the recognition of the need and importance of transdisciplinary research. Here, we explore whether the use of the term is a buzzword, or it actually represents a key concept toward the integration of social and ecological research. We compiled a data base of publications (N = 1289) that mentioned SES in title, keywords and abstract. Subsequently, we analyzed: authors affiliations, type of work (conceptual, empirical, review), study site, prevailing human use, temporal and spatial scales of analysis, kind of variables analyzed (socioeconomic, biophysical), and the method/s used to integrate them. We detected four time spans in the use of the term (1975–1997, 1998–2006, 2007–2012, 2013–2016). Our results suggest that SES is a widely invoked concept to study the interface between social and ecological systems. Most works show some common elements such as the analysis of resilience, ecosystem services, sustainability, governance and adaptive management. However, the majority of studies does not study SES as a whole, integrating both social and ecological variables and their feedback loops. We consider that SES is still a concept in construction in order to build a necessary framework to integrate social and ecological sciences. For a robust evolution we recommend to focus on 1. a conscious, discussed and agreed effort of scientists to conduct transdisciplinary research needed to study SES; 2. developing methodological tools for the true integration of social and ecological data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: vulnerability; resilience; rice value chains; climate change; Sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:09:07 CEST)
Abstract: Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threaten to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0043.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: archaeology; resilience; sustainability; citation analysis; collapse; climate change; agriculture; natural resources
Online: 2 November 2022 (04:19:44 CET)
Archaeology is often argued to provide a unique long-term perspective on humans that can be utilised for effective policy-making, for example in discussions of resilience and sustainability. However, the specific archaeological evidence for resilient/sustainable systems is rarely explored, with these terms used simply to describe a community that survived a particular shock. In this study, a set of 74 case studies of papers discussing archaeological evidence for resilience/sustainability are identified and analysed using bibliometric methods. Variables from the papers are also quantified to assess patterns and provide a review of current knowledge. A great variety of scales of analysis, case study locations, stressors, resilient/sustainable characteristics, and archaeological evidence types are present. Climate change was the most cited stressor (n=40) and strategies relating to natural resources were common across case studies, especially subsistence adaptations (n=35), other solutions to subsistence deficiencies (n=23), and water management (n=23). Resilient/sustainable characteristics were often in direct contrast to one-another, suggesting the combination of factors is more important than each factor taken individually. Further quantification of well-defined variables within a formally-produced framework is required to extract greater value from archaeological case studies of resilience/sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Lightweight Blockchain; Drone Security; assurance; authentication; resilience
Online: 1 November 2022 (04:07:30 CET)
Rapid advancements in the fifth generation (5G) communication technology and mobile edge computing (MEC) paradigm lead to the proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in urban air mobility (UAM) networks, which provide intelligent services for diversified smart city scenarios. Meanwhile, the widely deployed internet of drones (IoD) in smart cities also brings up new concerns on performance, security, and privacy. The centralized framework adopted by conventional UAM networks is not adequate to handle high mobility and dynamicity. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure device authentication, data integrity, and privacy preservation in UAM networks. Thanks to characteristics of decentralization, traceability, and unalterability, Blockchain is recognized as a promising technology to enhance security and privacy for UAM networks. In this paper, we introduce LightMAN, a lightweight microchained fabric for data assurance and resilience-oriented UAM networks. LightMAN is tailored for small-scale permissioned UAV networks, in which a microchain acts as a lightweight distributed ledger for security guarantees. Thus, participants are enabled to authenticate drones and verify the genuineness of data that is sent to/from drones without relying on a third-party agency. In addition, a hybrid on-chain and off-chain storage strategy is adopted that not only improves performance (e.g,.latency and throughput) but also ensures privacy preservation for sensitive information in UAM networks. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tested on a Micro Air Vehicle Link (MAVLink) simulator. The experimental evaluation validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LightMAN solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); atheltic performance; Dewan Sport Inventory; Sports resilience
Online: 31 August 2022 (14:33:54 CEST)
The mental and emotional health of an athlete is crucial for their performance and well-being. Sports-related stress can significantly impair that mental health. Yoga of Immortals (YOI) is a unique combination of specific yogic postures, breathing exercises, sound therapy & meditation, which has demonstrated benefit in improving measures of mental health. This study used the Sports Mind Inventory (SMI) to examine whether YOI can improve the resilience of athletes to sports-related stress. Participants were a diverse set of athletes based in Mauritius who routinely engage in a wide range of athletic activities. Participants were randomly assigned to receive four weeks of YOI or no intervention. Both groups completed the SMI questionarie at baseline and again after four weeks. The YOI intervention significantly increased the total mean SMI scores by 14%, indicating improved sports resilience and psychological health. No improvement was observed in the control group. This study demonstrates that YOI is a promising intervention in improving sports related stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0732.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: climate change; vulnerability; resilience; mental maladjustment; emergent behaviour; mass effect phenomena
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:40:56 CEST)
Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of our times. Its impact on human populations is not yet completely understood. Many studies have focused on single aspects with contradictory observations. However, climate change is a complex phoenomenon that cannot be adequately addressed from a single discipline's perspective. Hence, we propose a comprehensive conceptual framework on the relationships between climate change and human responses. This framework includes biological, psychological and behavioural aspects, and provides a multidisciplinary overview and critical information for focused interventions. The role of tipping points and regime shifts is explored, and a historical perspective is presented to describe the relationship between climate evolution and socio-cultural crisis. Vulnerability, resilience and adaptation are analyzed from an individual and a community point of view. Finally, emergent behaviours and mass effect phenomena are examined that account for mental maladjustment and conflicts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Boom bust economy; Resilience; Single industry; Social ecological system; Sustainable development
Online: 17 September 2020 (03:29:07 CEST)
This paper reports on the changing dynamics of a small town’s social-ecological system (SES) concerning oil and gas industry boom-bust economic cycles and both the vulnerability and resilience of the town over the past 30 years. With the goal to understand how resource-based single industry impact social-ecological systems, we developed indicators of human and environmental well-being and assessed them. Seven indicators include labor force distribution, education, oil price, household income, water quality, air quality, and land cover land use. Over this period, Drayton Valley, Canada quadrupled in size, with more than 20% of the population working in the oil and gas sector. Median income rose to 42% above the national average despite the population lagging national benchmarks for educational attainment. There have also been dramatic fluctuations in levels of fluoride, phosphorus, and other chemicals in water quality samples, implying a correlation with fossil fuel extractive activities over this period. Land cover land use change analysis shows a decreased area of water bodies, wetland, and forests, and increased built capital and agricultural land. While economic boom cycles have led to cash inflows, an exclusive focus on the benefits of the oil and gas industry may leave those dependent on the industry vulnerable to social and environmental risk factors during bust cycles that are beyond their control in the everchanging global oil economy. This phenomenon which has been referred to as the “resource curse” suggests the need to anticipate cyclical (or more sustained) periods of low levels of oil and gas production. These results suggest that single boom-bust economies impact every aspect of social-ecological systems. Therefore, a sustainable development plan that comprehensively considers not only economic growth, but also diversification, environment protection, and strategic land use planning is indispensable to ensure the long-term development of communities that depend upon extractive industries.
Subject: Keywords: indigenous peoples; local communities; resilience; cultural heritage; socio-ecological systems; networks
Online: 31 May 2020 (15:57:36 CEST)
Global environmental and societal changes threaten the cultures of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC). Despite the importance of IPLC worldviews and knowledge systems to human well-being and biodiversity, risks to these cultural resources are commonly simplified or neglected in environmental impact assessments, in part because cultural impacts are often indirect and therefore difficult to demonstrate. Here, we show that dependency of a culture on the environment can be mapped through human connections with biophysical elements in their environment. We illustrate a rich variety of cultural values that connect an indigenous Māori tribe in New Zealand with their local environment, then evaluate the resilience of this socio-environmental value system to environmental changes. Our results detail how loss of access to key environmental elements can have extensive direct and cascading impacts on multiple facets of indigenous cultural heritage. Consequently, considering only direct effects of environmental change on cultural heritage, or treating the richness of IPLC environmental relations simplistically, can severely underestimate the seriousness of environmental impacts on IPLC culture. Thus, protecting Earth’s cultural and biological diversity requires inclusion of human-environment relationships in environmental impact assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0163.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: agro-input; commercialization index; disaster; fertilizer; resilience; markets; production; seeds system
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:32:39 CEST)
Market-orientation is widely applied to understand the expected interaction of smallholder farmers with input and output markets. Commonly used interchangeably with market participation, it is fast becoming a key milestone for attaining smallholder commercialization. This study introduces the term into the disaster resilience, seed systems and livelihoods context. Using a mixed methods approach, 120 smallholder farmers in a drought-affected district of South Africa were sampled, and information collected for analysis. The result shows that most of the farmers rely on purchased seeds and fertilizers for crop production, and on average sold 62% of their farm produce. A market orientation index (MOI) of 55% was estimated, showing that the farmers were market oriented. The farm size, quantities of seeds and fertilizer purchased, value of crop produced, amount received from crop sales, distance to markets and access to credit were found significant in determining their market orientation. Policy interventions were made to improve access to irrigation, seed varieties and extension delivery in the area. The finding has implications for development efforts at rebuilding after a natural disaster, as well as sourcing food aid from local smallholder farmers by humanitarian actors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable development; system resilience; resilient and sustainable infrastructure; pandemics; COVID-19
Online: 6 April 2020 (10:14:50 CEST)
Humanity’s social and economic development has been challenged by a range of adversities over the millennia that have caused widespread and unimaginable suffering. At the same time, these challenges have forced humans to evolve more wisely, overcoming adversity through creativity and leading to advancements in science and technology, medicine, ethics and legal systems, and socio-political systems. The dynamics of risks and opportunities caused by COVID-19, in the built, cyber, social and economic environments, present opportunities for deepening our understanding of resilient and sustainable development and infrastructure. This article reflects on five lessons that COVID-19 is teaching us about what it means to develop sustainably through the lens of transportation: (1) sustainable development planning and analytical frameworks must be comprehensive, for long-term sustainability; (2) multi-modal transportation is a superior vision for sustainable development than any one particular mode; (3) tele-activities are part of an effective infrastructure sustainability strategy; (4) economic capital is critically important to sustainable development even when it is not a critical existential threat, and, (5) effective social capital is essential in global disaster resistance and recovery, and can and must be leveraged between fast-moving and slow-moving disasters. Resilient and sustainable infrastructure will continue to be critical to addressing evolving natural and man-made hazards in the 21st Century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: socio-educational resilience; protective factors; risk factors; multilevel logistic model, simce
Online: 4 December 2019 (08:00:35 CET)
Framed in a context with an emerging economy and with a high percentage of school failure, this study aimed to identify the factors that turn students with socioeconomic disadvantages into resilient students. Two questions guided the research: Can resilience be supported in students in adverse socioeconomic situations? What factors influence building resilient students? A cross-sectional study was carried out from 2011 to 2015 in Chile, using a multilevel logistic regression model with three levels, considering the hierarchical data structure. The behavior of 63100 to 76400 sampled students was analyzed. Results show five relevant factors in building resilience: self-efficacy in language, minor aggressions and violence perceived by students, norms and values of the establishment, interest in study, and self-efficacy. Some risk factors identified were an atmosphere of less respect and trust, engagement in physical education activities and good performance in carrying them out. These results could orient educational leaders interested in supporting the educational community in order to improve the academic success of disadvantaged students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: social determinants; epigenetics; exposome; public health policy; resilience; allostatic load; adaptation
Online: 31 March 2017 (11:35:57 CEST)
Globally, humans are struggling with the double threat of communicable and non-communicable diseases, which are presenting new challenges to public health. Public health problems are generally studied and addressed at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Most effective results are seen with primary interventions. Public health is becoming more aware of the importance of environment-gene interactions in the ontology of health and disease using epigenetics. Epigenetics is the study of altered gene expression without change in base pairs. Be it physical, social, behavioral, or economic factors; they all influence quality of life and health of individuals and populations. That environments are changing the human health phenotype and these changed phenotypes are heritable is of concern for the future of the human race. Knowing the causes of non-communicable human diseases using epigenetics will contribute to the development of new policies to encourage prevention using primary public health initiatives. Research and application of epigenetics shows great promise for improving population health. Continued advances in epigenetics will enhance how we understand and address the way environments are affecting the human health phenotype. For some time, health systems have been and continue to be tertiary in nature. Epigenetic changes can provide information necessary to better understand how social determinants of health can be used to build societies focused on equitable health for all people, rather than continuing to focus on treatment of diseases in the tertiary phase that leads to health disparities. Understanding mechanisms of social determinants of disease, will allow society to evolve in a health-oriented rather than a disease-oriented world. For this reason, we must enhance and apply epigenetics (physical, social, behavioral, economic) research to policy development. We will discuss how bringing social determinants together with biology can be used as new tools for public health policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0429.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Digital Twin; hazard; vulnerability; resilience; adaptive climate adaptation; groundwater; DK-model HIP
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:47:00 CET)
The paper analyses the national DK-model Hydrological Information and Prediction (HIP) system and HIP portal viewed as a ‘Digital Twin’ and how the introduction of real-time dynamic updating of the DK-model HIP simulations can give room for plug-in sub-models with real-time boundary conditions made available from a HIP portal. The possible feedback to a national real-time risk knowledge base during extreme events (flooding and drought) is also discussed. Under climate change conditions, Denmark is likely to experience more rain in winter, more evapotranspiration in summer, intensified cloudbursts, drought, and sea level rise. These challenges have been addressed as part of the Joint Governmental Digitalization Strategy 2016-2020 for better use and sharing of public data about the terrain, water, and climate to support climate adaptation, water management, and disaster risk reduction. This initiative included the development of a new web-based data portal (HIP portal) developed by the Danish Agency for Data Supply and Infrastructure (SDFI). GEUS delivered 5 terra-byte of hydrological model data to the portal with robust calibration methods and hybrid Machine Learning (ML) being key parts of the deliverables. The paper discusses the challenges and potentials of further developing the HIP Digital Twin with ‘plug-in Digital Twins’ for local river basins including feedback to the national level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: long-term care; healthcare workers; mental health; moral distress; resilience; COVID-19
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:43:46 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) faced and continue to experience significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic. Despite this, little is known about the unique experiences of LTC workers. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data were extracted from six databases from inception of the pandemic to June 2022. Among 3,808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear energy; renewable energy; fossil energy; small modular reactors; resilience; hybrid energy
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:13:28 CEST)
Small modular reactors (SMR) (<300 MW) offer a potentially attractive nuclear energy option for the middle-east region (MER). Currently, the MER uses a significant amount of fossil fuel to process heat applications such as water desalination and in petroleum refineries and chemical plants, besides generating electricity. SMR technologies represent an opportunity to meet future energy demand in the MER. This paper discusses issues related to the future development and use of SMR technology in nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems for application in the middle east. SMRs have also been examined as part of a resilient hybrid energy system that combines nuclear energy with renewable energy and traditional fossil energy to produce chemicals, fuels, and electricity. This paper presents the results of a techno-economic analysis of a Nuclear-Renewable-Conventional Hybrid Energy System. The paper concludes that SMR technology will be an essential feature of future hybrid energy systems for the MER.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0313.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: resilience; depression; anxiety; COVID-19; amygdala; hippocampus; burnout; researchers; narrative; ordering memory
Online: 23 March 2022 (08:51:08 CET)
Depression and anxiety are prevalent, persistent and difficult to treat industrialized world mental health problems. These disorders negatively modify an individual’s life perspective through brain function imbalances, notably in the amygdala and hippocampus, and are primarily treated with pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy. Nevertheless, these mental health issues have only increased in the number of individuals affected and the intensity of their suffering—especially as a result of COVID-19 restrictions and fears. An approach to alleviating depression and anxiety in relation to researchers self-identifying as experiencing burnout is promising. Enhancing resilience, the approach considers depression and anxiety as consequences of the particular method people adopt in ordering their memories, and focuses on narrative development. The method encourages accepting of different perspectives as unique and necessary in creating safe protection from research burnout. Moving from an identification of personal character to prompting plot development of memory, the method promotes resilience by encouraging thoughtful reconsideration of the negative assessments by participants of their circumstances that can lead to depression and anxiety. The method of ordering and group members’ feedback are inspected, including during the period of COVID-19 restrictions, and conclusions are offered regarding further research to encourage burnout resilience to diminish depression and anxiety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Depression; psychoimmune resilience; tricyclic antidepressants; serotonin; modulation of inflammatory response; infectious diseases
Online: 8 March 2022 (11:04:46 CET)
Brucellosis infection induces fever, chills, sweats, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, anorexia, fa-tigue, and mood disorders. In mice, it causes a rise in IL-6, TNF-, and IFN-; and reduces sero-tonin and dopamine levels in hippocampus. There is loss in muscle strength and equilibrium and increased anxiety and hopelessness. Imipramine (ImiP) is a tricyclic antidepressant that increases the capacity of macrophages to destroy intracellular microorganisms in vivo. The effect of ImiP was evaluated in Balb/c mice infected with Brucella abortus 2308. Serum levels were determined in IFN-, IL-6, TNF-, IL-12, MCP-1, and IL-10 by FACS; the bacterial count in the spleen, by CFU; the serotonin concentration in the hippocampus, by HPLC; and strength, equilibrium, and mood by behavioral tests. Our results showed that infected vs. control mice had a significant rise in lev-els of IFN-, IL-6, TNF-, and IL-12 with a low IFN-/IL-6 ratio, elevated bacterial-counts, alter-ations in serotonin concentration at hippocampus, and decreased muscular strength, equilibrium, and mood. Infected mice treated with ImiP vs. infected mice showed: 1) improved mood; 2) in-creased hippocampal serotonin availability, splenic dendritic cells, and macrophage phagocytic activity; and 3) upturn inflammation and reduced CFU ability. Our results support that ImiP fa-vors positive outcomes in subjects handling Brucella infections likely by improving psychoim-mune resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Safety Performance; Safety Culture; Resilience Culture; Paramedic; Training Institute; IPMA; PLS-SEM.
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:44:19 CEST)
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors' impact on safety performance is unclear, especially at the public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is on the continuing progress. Hence, this study's contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. IPMA (importance-performance map analysis) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA's empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining the safety performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0584.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: seismic risk; WebGIS; seismic resilience; HVNSR; fundamental frequency; DSM; soil-building resonance
Online: 21 April 2021 (14:52:36 CEST)
In the context of seismic risk, studying the characteristics of urban soils and of the built environment means adopting a holistic vision of the city taking a step forward compared to the current microzonation approach. Based on this principle, CLARA WebGIS aims to collect, organise, and disseminate the available information on soils and buildings in the urban area of Matera. The geodatabase is populated with i) 488 downloadable geological, geotechnical, geophysical, surveys; ii) geological, geomorphological, and seismic homogeneous microzones maps and iii) a new Digital Surface Model. The CLARA WebGIS (https://smartcities-matera-clara.imaa.cnr.it/) is the first publicly available database reporting for the whole urban area the spatial distribution of the fundamental frequencies for soils and the overlying 4043 buildings, along with probability levels of soil-building resonance. The WebGIS is addressed to a broad target of end users (local government, engineers, and geologists, etc.) as a support to the implementation of seismic risk mitigation strategies in terms of urban planning, seismic retrofitting, and management of post-earthquake crises. We recommend that the database be managed by local administrators, who would also have the task of deciding on future developments and continuous updating as new data becomes available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0201.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; greenness; mental health; societal change; social isolation; psychological factors; resilience
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:37:50 CET)
International data suggests that exposure for nature is beneficial for mental health and well-being. The restrictions related to Covid-19 pandemic have created a setting that allows us to investigate the importance of greenness exposure on mental health during a period of increased isolation and worry. Based on 2060 responses from an online survey in the Stockholm County, Sweden, we investigated: 1) weather the Covid-19 pandemic changed peoples’ life-style and nature-related habits, and 2) if peoples’ mental health differed depending on their exposure to greenness. Neighbourhood greenness levels were quantified by using the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 50m, 100m, 300m, and 500m buffers surrounding the participant’s place of residence. We found that the number of individuals that reported that they visited natural areas “often” was significantly higher during the pandemic than before the pandemic. Higher levels of greenness surrounding one’s location of residence were in general associated with higher mental health/wellbeing and vitality scores, and less symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived and cognitive stress, after adjustments for demographic variables and walkability. In conclusion, the results from the present study provided support to the suggestion that contact with nature may be important for mental health in extreme circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0550.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Basmati rice; QTL introgression; near isogenic lines; yield under drought; climate resilience
Online: 20 November 2020 (20:45:02 CET)
Drought stress at the reproductive stage in rice is one of the most important cause for yield reduction, affecting both productivity and quality. All Basmati rice varieties, including the popular cultivar ‘Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1)’ is highly sensitive to reproductive stage drought stress (RSDS). We report for the first time, improvement of a Basmati cultivar for RSDS tolerance, with the introgression of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), ‘qDTY1.1’ into PB1. The QTL donor was sourced from an aus variety, Nagina 22 (N22). A QTL linked microsatellite (SSR) marker ‘RM 431’ was employed for foreground selection for qDTY1.1 in the marker assisted backcross breeding process. A set of 113 SSR markers polymorphic between N22 and PB1 were utilized for background selection to ensure higher genome recovery. After three backcrosses followed by five generations of selfing, eighteen near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, through combinatory selection for agro-morphological, grain and cooking superiority traits. The NILs were evaluated for three consecutive Kharif seasons, 2017, 2018 and 2019 under well-watered and drought stress conditions. RSDS tolerance and yield stability indicated that NIL3, NIL5, NIL6, NIL7, NIL12, NIL15 and NIL17 were best in terms of overall agronomic and grain quality under RSDS. Additionally, NILs exhibited high yield potential under normal condition as well. The RSDS tolerant Basmati NILs with high resilience to water stress, is a valuable resource for sustaining Basmati rice production under water limiting production environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0164.v2
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: drought; climate variability; resilience; resistance; estuary; fish; extreme events; Delta Smelt; Chinook Salmon; Largemouth Bass
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:30:03 CEST)
Many estuarine ecosystems and the fish communities that inhabit them have undergone substantial changes in the past several decades, largely due to multiple interacting stressors that are often of anthropogenic origin. Few are more impactful than droughts, which are predicted to increase in both frequency and severity with climate change. In this study, we examined over five decades of fish monitoring data from the San Francisco Estuary, California, U.S.A, to evaluate the resistance and resilience of fish communities to disturbance from prolonged drought events. High resistance was defined by the lack of decline in species occurrence from a wet to a subsequent drought period, while high resilience was defined by the increase in species occurrence from a drought to a subsequent wet period. We found some unifying themes connecting the multiple drought events over the fifty-year period. Pelagic fishes consistently declined during droughts (low resistance), but exhibit a considerable amount of resiliency and often rebound in the subsequent wet years. However, full recovery does not occur in all wet years following droughts, leading to permanently lower baseline numbers for some pelagic fishes over time. In contrast, littoral fishes seem to be more resistant to drought and may even increase in occurrence during dry years. Based on the consistent detrimental effects of drought on pelagic fishes within the San Francisco Estuary and the inability of these fish populations to recover in some years, we conclude that freshwater flow remains a crucial but not sufficient management tool for the conservation of estuarine biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: chilling requirement; chlorophyll fluorescence; non-photochemical quenching; PAM; photoprotection; stress resilience; winter dormancy
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:01:44 CEST)
Dormancy is a physiological state that confers winter hardiness to and orchestrates phenological phase progression in temperate perennial plants. Weather fluctuations caused by climate change increasingly disturb dormancy onset and release in many plant species including tree crops leading to aberrant growth, flowering, and fruiting. Currently, research in this field is impeded by the lack of affordable non-invasive methods for on-line monitoring of dormancy. We report on an automatic framework for low-cost, long-term, and scalable dormancy studies in deciduous plants. The proposed method is based on continuous near-field sensing of the photosynthetic activity of shoots via pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence sensors connected remotely to a data processing system. The resulting high-resolution time series of JIP-test parameters indicative of the responsiveness of the photosynthetic apparatus to environmental stimuli are subjected to frequency-domain analysis. The proposed approach allows to overcome the variance coming from diurnal changes of insolation and to derive estimations on the depth of dormancy. Our approach was validated over three seasons in an experimental apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchard by collating the non-invasive estimations with the results of traditional methods (growing of the cuttings obtained from the tress at different phases of dormancy) and the output of commonly used chilling requirement models. We discuss the advantages of the proposed monitoring framework such as prompt detection of freeze damages along with its potential limitations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0506.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: multi-objective; evolutionary algorithms; Pareto optimality; Wasserstein distance; network vulnerability; resilience; sensor placement.
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:01:51 CET)
This paper is focused on two topics very relevant in water distribution networks (WDNs): vulnerability assessment and the optimal placement of water quality sensors. The main novelty element of this paper is to represent the data of the problem, in this case all objects in a graph underlying a water distribution network, as discrete probability distributions. For vulnerability (and the related issue of re-silience) the metrics from network theory, widely studied and largely adopted in the water research community, reflect connectivity expressed as closeness centrality or, betweenness centrality based on the average values of shortest paths between all pairs of nodes. Also network efficiency and the related vulnerability measures are related to average of inverse distances. In this paper we propose a different approach based on the discrete probability distribution, for each node, of the node-to-node distances. For the optimal sensor placement, the elements to be represented as dis-crete probability distributions are sub-graphs given by the locations of water quality sensors. The objective functions, detection time and its variance as a proxy of risk, are accordingly represented as a discrete e probability distribution over contamination events. This problem is usually dealt with by EA algorithm. We’ll show that a probabilistic distance, specifically the Wasserstein (WST) distance, can naturally allow an effective formulation of genetic operators. Usually, each node is associated to a scalar real number, in the optimal sensor placement considered in the literature, average detection time, but in many applications, node labels are more naturally expressed as histograms or probability distributions: the water demand at each node is naturally seen as a histogram over the 24 hours cycle. The main aim of this paper is twofold: first to show how different problems in WDNs can take advantage of the representational flexibility inherent in WST spaces. Second how this flexibility translates into computational procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0184.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: urban planning; COVID-19; urban mobility; sustainability; smart cities; smart growth; pandemic; resilience
Online: 10 May 2021 (12:31:01 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has put lifestyles in question, changed daily routines and limited citizen freedoms that seemed inalienable before. A human activity that was greatly affected since the beginning of the health crisis is mobility. Focusing on mobility, we aim to discuss the transformational impact that the pandemic brought on this specific urban domain, especially with regards to the promotion of the smart growth agenda and the acceleration towards the smart city paradigm. We collect 60 initial policy responses related to urban mobility from 86 cities around the world and analyse them based on the challenge they aim to address, the exact principles of smart growth and sustainable mobility that they encapsulate and the level of ICT penetration. Our findings suggest that emerging strategies, although mainly temporary, are transformational, in line with the principles of smart growth. As a result the pandemic becomes an opportunity for shifting towards more sustainable urban planning and mobility practices. However, most policy responses adopted during the first months of the pandemic fail to leverage advancements made in the field of smart cities, and to adopt off-the-shelf solutions such as in monitoring, alerting and operations management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; construction project; risk management; use of technology; recovery and resilience
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:12:17 CEST)
The global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created a whole new set of risks in construction industries generating unprecedented delays, disruptions, and uncertainty on construction projects, and has forced the industries in adopting more sophisticated technologies while combating the reduced workforce on job sites. Further, the post-pandemic era of construction is expected to be a lot different as the industries will embrace the technology as the augmentation and collaboration strategy. Thus, it will be extremely hard to sustain for construction industries in the absence of effective risk management. The existing risk plans need to be inspected for their capability of handling new risks arising from COVID-19 and the project managers will need to make the necessary revisions as needed. This paper discusses on past (NORM), present (NEW NORM), and future (Post COVID-19 NORM) of the construction industry and highlights key strategies for managing projects and construction risks during and post COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0746.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Resilience; Social Progress; Enviromental Performance; Sustainable Development Goals; Governance; World Risks; Vulnerability; Susceptibility
Online: 30 December 2020 (08:58:20 CET)
Building Country Resilience is a long-term process particularly in the hyper connected world we are living today; and depends on good governance and appropriate equilibrium of respect for people, planet and profits as well as avoiding depleting natural resources that end up affecting the biosphere. Hence represent a most needed Learning ability that may be seeing to be related to the process of Sustainable Development. So, this paper seeks to find best practices and a Ranking of Countries that may help as guides to foster Country Resilience. For this purpose, it was developed a World Resilience Index - WRI based on a Statistical Analysis with updated data from 108 Countries divided into 3 Groups: American Countries – AMER (20 Countries), Advanced Economies - AVECO (22 Countries) mostly from Europe and OTHER (66 Countries); and using a set of Synthetic Variables like the Social Progress Index – SPI, the Environmental Performance Index – EPI, and the Sustainable Development Goals Index – SDGI, besides some related to Governance and the World Risk Index – WRI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0218.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: palynology; Pyrenees; Middle Ages; forest dynamics; forest management; resilience; deforestation; land use; climatic change
Online: 14 October 2021 (13:04:11 CEST)
This paper compares the Medieval (ca. 400–1500 CE) dynamics of forests from low-mountain (Montcortès; ca. 1000 m a.s.l.) and high-mountain (Sant Maurici; 1900 m a.s.l.) areas of the Iberian Pyrenees, both of which experienced similar climatic forcing but different anthropogenic pressures. The main aim is to identify forest changes over time and associate them with the corresponding climatic and anthropogenic drivers (or synergies among them) to test how different forests at different elevations respond to external forcings. This could be useful to evaluate the hypothesis of general Pyrenean deforestation during the Middle Ages leading to present-day landscapes and to improve the background for forest conservation. The study uses palynological analysis of lake sediments, historical documents and paleoecological reconstructions based on pollen-independent proxies. The two sites studied showed different forest trajectories. The Montcortès area was subjected to intense human pressure during regional deforestation up to a maximum of ca. 1000 CE. Further forest recovery took place until the end of the Middle Ages due to a change in forest management, including the abandonment of slash-and-burn practices. Climatic shifts indirectly influenced forest trends by regulating human migrations and the resulting shifts in the type and intensity of forest exploitation. The highland Sant Maurici forests exhibited a remarkably long-standing constancy and an exceptional resilience to climatic shifts, which were unable to affect forest extension and composition, and to local human pressure, from which they rapidly recovered. The Montcortès and Sant Maurici records did not follow the rule of an irreversible forest clearing during the Middle Ages leading to present-day landscapes. The present Montcortès landscape was shaped after a Medieval forest recovery, a new Modern-Age deforestation and a further forest recovery during the last centuries. The Sant Maurici forests remained apparently untouched since the Bronze Age and were never cleared during the Middle Ages. The relevance of these findings for forest conservation is briefly addressed, and the need for the development of more high-resolution studies on Pyrenean forest dynamics is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0204.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: resilience; control; sector-coupled; district energy system; optimisation; deduction; classification; linear discriminant analysis; emissions
Online: 13 September 2021 (11:16:11 CEST)
We present a method to turn results of model-based optimisations into resilient and comprehensible control strategies. Our approach is to define priority lists for all available technologies in a district energy system. Using linear discriminant analysis and the results of the optimisations, these are then assigned to discrete time steps using a set of possible steering parameters. In contrast to the model-based optimisations, the deduced control strategies do not need perfect foresight but solely rely on data about the present. Our result indicate that the results of the control strategies obtained using the proposed method are comparable to the results of the linear optimisations, in our case in terms of emissions and prices.