ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Gentrification; Residential Migration; Black Middle Class; Washington, DC; PG County, MD
Online: 5 November 2018 (14:06:31 CET)
The implications of urban revitalization, gentrification, and residential migration have attracted widespread interest and ongoing debate among scholars across a range of disciplines. While a significant body of literature explores race and class interactions within urban gentrifying neighborhoods, few have examined the environments that await those displaced by this process. This study explores the social and political impact of urban gentrification and class stratification within the black community by examining responses of black middle class residents in Prince George’s County, MD to the growing in-migration of low-income and minority residents from Washington, DC. Drawing on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, a multi-neighborhood sample of ninety-five black middle class residents of Prince George’s County, and informal interviews with subject-area experts, this study explores how race and class shape residential decisions and their impact on residential mobility initiatives. Residents responded to a 26-item survey that covered demographic information, political and community engagement, and their attitudes and beliefs about the poor, changes in their community, and racial unity and responsibility. Findings from cross tabulations and binary logistic regression indicate that lower middle class residents are the most likely to resist in-migration by exiting their communities and/or voting against proposals to create affordable housing options. Core and upper middle class residents were the most likely to stay in their neighborhoods despite increases in low-income migration, to vote in support of policies to create affordable housing options and to believe their responsibility to poor blacks could include sharing residential space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV2; COVID-19; homeless people; public health; vulnerable population; Seroprevalence, cohort; residential mobility
Online: 11 January 2022 (17:20:14 CET)
Most vulnerable individuals are particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study takes place in a large city in France. The aim of this study is to describe the mobility of the homeless population at the begin-ning of the health crisis and to analyze its impact in terms of COVID-19 prevalence. From June to August 2020 and September to December 2020, 1272 homeless people were invited to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and virus in and completed questionnaires. Our data show that homeless populations are sociologically dif-ferent depending on where they live. We show that people living on the street were most likely to be relocated to emergency shelters than other inhabitants. Some neighborhoods are points of attraction for homeless peo-ple in the city while others emptied during the health crisis, which had consequences for virus circulation. People with a greater number of different dwellings reported became more infected. This first study of the mo-bility and epidemiology of homeless people in time of pandemic provides unique information about mobility mapping, sociological factors of this mobility, mobility at different scales and epidemiological consequences. We suggest that homeless policies need to be radically transformed since actual model exposes people to infection in emergency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: residential energy use; energy management; residential building costs; exponential smoothing method; ARIMA model
Online: 12 June 2019 (03:40:57 CEST)
Over the last two decades, residential buildings have accounted for nearly 50 percent of total energy use in New Zealand. In order to reduce household energy use, the factors that influence energy use should be continuously monitored and managed. Building researchers and professionals have made efforts to investigate the factors that affect energy use. However, few have concentrated on the association between household energy use and the cost of residential buildings. This study examined the correlation between household energy use and residential building cost. Analysis of the correlation between energy use data and residential building cost indicated that residential building cost in the construction phase and energy use in the operation stage were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that correct monitoring of building costs can help to identify trends in energy use. Therefore, this study proposes a time series model for forecasting residential building costs of five categories of residential building (one-story house, two-story house, townhouse, apartment, retirement village) in New Zealand. The primary contribution of this paper is the identification of the close correlation between household energy use and residential building costs and provide a new area for optimize energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: residential relocation distance; residential movement; machine learning; decision tree regression; Seoul metropolitan region
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:03:10 CEST)
This study aimed to ascertain the applicability of a machine learning approach to the description of residential mobility patterns of households in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR). The spatial range and temporal scope of the empirical study were set to 2015 to review the most recent residential mobility patterns in the SMR. The analysis data used in this study involve the microdata of Internal Migration Statistics provided by the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea. We analysed the residential relocation distance of households in the SMR by using machine learning techniques such as ordinary least squares regression and decision tree regression. The results of this study showed that a decision tree model can be more advantageous than ordinary least squares regression in terms of the explanatory power and estimation of moving distance. A large number of residential movements are mainly related to the accessibility to employment markets and some household characteristics. The shortest movements occur when households with two or more members move into densely populated districts. In contrast, job-based residential movements have relatively longer distance. Furthermore, we derived knowledge on residential relocation distance, which can provide significant information on the urban management of metropolitan residential districts and the construction of reasonable housing policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: dispersed urbanism; residential strategies; residential mobility; economic crisis; Barcelona Metropolitan Region; social crisis; land squandering
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:14:10 CEST)
The development of dispersed urbanism in Spain ran parallel to the real estate boom and consolidated a new model of city sprawl based on the expansion of suburban areas. This process, which started in the mid 1980s, came to a halt with the onset of the economic crisis in 2007. With it, construction stopped, mobility fell and urban growth came to a standstill. The purpose of this article is to carry out an analysis of the recent evolution and chronology of the expansion of dispersed urbanism in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) in order to gain an insight into some of the explanatory factors of such expansion and to deal with the future prospects of middle-term development of dispersed urbanism in the BMR and in Spain. To do this, we examine the trends in the housing market, in residential mobility and we take stock of the impact of business cycles. The conclusion is that dispersed areas retain their appeal in the stages of creation and expansion of households. For this reason, an effective economic recovery and a renewed rise in the price of housing in denser cities may contribute to an upturn in the popularity of the dispersed residential model, which nowadays could be considered to be in a ‘lethargic’ stage, waiting for certain factors to coincide and re-activate its expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0537.v1
Online: 28 December 2022 (09:57:37 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to develop an index system for measuring the compliance of high-rise residential buildings with fire requirements and also to develop an index system for measuring the fire response efficiency, which is linked to the index of compliance with fire requirements. The higher the compliance rate, the greater the chance of a successful response. The two systems de-pend on the automation of the firefighting system management processes using the techniques of the fourth industrial revolution and developed based on the consultation of subject matter experts in the field. The main elements of the indexes were identified, which were based mainly on several variables, including the fire administrative system, the firefighting system, the residents, the loca-tion of the high-rise residential buildings from the fire extinguishing station, and the height of the high-rise residential building. The two systems can contribute to improving emergency prepared-ness in high-rise residential buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah and are also considered as a measurement index for compliance with fire requirements in the Emirate of Sharjah.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: residential complexes; social interactions; economic approach
Online: 20 April 2021 (17:45:42 CEST)
The quality of the environment affects human behavior, the micro-communities of human beings need creative thinking and ideas. Social environments have a significant impact on collective behaviors and social interactions. Nowadays achieving social indicators in housing with a sustainable approach is one of the goals that have been considered. The most important issue in the field of research is recognizing and examining the value of spaces in residential environments to achieve social life, in which it leads human to be social in public residential spaces. Paying attention to social relations with neighbors and people to create Social relationships are proportionate to the presence of individuals in their realm of life. The concept of neighborhood is being responsible for creating social relationships, influencing people living in the complex and community-based life. In this research, by satisfying the human need to communicate and interact with others, creating collective spaces in different scales such as commercial and recreational spaces in residential complexes, the presence of people in these spaces leads to the socialization of collective space and the factor in which the space achieves success. By explaining and identifying the components of socialization in the collective spaces of residential complexes, such spaces can be prepared for the presence of people in the space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0058.v1
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:37:42 CEST)
House is the haven that keeps people from natural and human conditions, it gives them trust, safety, and steadiness. It is one of the most basic human needs this became a serious function which cities offer, and became one of the most important aspects which caught urban researchers interest, they take into consideration a wide range of architectural, social, and economic indicators. The study aims to provide an overall conception of Rwandz residential functions, using a collection of parameters and some GIS and statistical techniques, to help establish plans and future projects to improve the growth of this city and other towns and cities in that area. The study found that the old parts of Rwandz city which are located in the core, differ from the outer parts which are relatively newer in many properties, generally, the core is more densely populated than the outer, bigger family size, more illiteracy, and unemployment, few incomes, older houses, smaller houses, in the opposite of the outer parts. Besides, the study tested the correlation coefficient between the criteria; it found some strong statistical relationships between them, which reflected some real-life properties of the residential function. Lastly, the study designed a regression model to predict the main residential function criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0595.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Residential Fire; Linked Data; Health Economics; Epidemiology
Online: 24 June 2021 (08:52:39 CEST)
The rate of fires, and particularly residential-fires, is a serious concern in industrialized countries. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the reported numbers of residential-fire incidents as official figures are based on fires reported to fire response agencies only. This population-based study aims to quantify the total number of residential-fire incidents regardless of reporting status. The cohort comprised linked person-level data from Fire and Rescue New South Wales (FRNSW) and health system and death records. It includes all persons residing at a residential address in New South Wales, Australia, that experienced a fire between 1 January 2005 – 31 December 2014. Capture-Recapture method was used to estimate the underreporting number of residential fire-related incidents. Over the study period, 43,707 residential-fire incidents were reported to FRNSW and there were 2,795 residential fire-related health service utilization of which 2,380 were not reported. Using Capture-Recapture method, the total number of residential-fire incidents was estimated at 267,815 to 319,719 which is more than six times the official records. This study found that 15% of residential-fire incidents that were identified in health administrative dataset were reported. The residential-fire incidents that were not reported occurred mainly in socio-economically disadvantaged areas among the males and adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: earth buildings; residential construction; awareness; education; New Zealand
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:48:48 CEST)
The construction of earth buildings, both throughout history and in the current day, is well-established worldwide. Despite New Zealand's pre- and post-colonial history of earth construction, earth buildings as residential homes have not been well-received or popularised throughout present-day New Zealand. This research aims to identify the reasons for this lack of awareness and to determine methods that promote earth buildings in New Zealand. This research is based on data collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with subject matter experts and via an online questionnaire completed by members of the Earth Building Association New Zealand (EBANZ). The data collected revealed the experiences and perceptions of all participants regarding the advantages, challenges and promotion of earth buildings specific to New Zealand. Upon analysing these responses, key reoccurring themes were identified and compared. Regarding New Zealand's lack of awareness of earth buildings, interview and questionnaire participants responded that this shortcoming was due to earth construction being a very niche market and lacking commercial marketing. Education was the most frequently reoccurring theme raised by all participants as the top promotional tool for raising awareness of earth buildings. The results of this research can be applied to future work regarding obstacles that limit the growth of New Zealand's earth building industry, as well as research on the role of New Zealand's education system in exposing the next generation of builders, designers, and consumers to earth construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Egrets and herons; MaxEnt; potential habitat; residential district
Online: 3 August 2018 (11:59:19 CEST)
Potential breeding habitat of egrets and herons was evaluated using the Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt). Model output can help guide management of nuisance egret and heron rookeries in urban forests of Daejeon Metropolitan City, Korea. This study examined 126 locations regarded as breeding sites of egrets and herons at the nationwide census conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research between 2011 and 2012. In addition, 252 randomly selected locations were used to identify the significant variables among a total of 15 environmental variables within 4 factors (topography, natural environment, distance and climate). Twelve variables were significantly different between the breeding and randomly selected points. The final 10 variables were selected through Pearson’s correlation analysis. Using MaxEnt, breeding area was estimated using the 10 selected variables in Daejeon. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.950, which was the average value through 10-fold cross-validation to estimate the model reliability. The potential breeding habitat for egrets and herons was estimated to be 106.69 km2 (19.76% of the total area) in Daejeon. Within the estimated potential habitat, 11.82 km2 (12.46%) were less than 50 m from the residential district while 79.85 km2 (88.92%) were more than 50m from the residential district. Discriminative management strategies considering the breeding location of egrets and herons should be applied not only to minimize conflicts with residents, but also to maintain stable egret and heron breeding sites in Daejeon, Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: respiratory symptoms; PM exposure; residential location; Namibia; Windhoek
Online: 10 October 2016 (09:59:29 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to assess respiratory health risks associated with Particulate Matter (PM) exposure among the residents of Windhoek, Namibia. Objectives: To measure particulate pollution concentration in Windhoek through monitoring of particulate matter concentration and to identify any associations between particulate pollution, individual location and respiratory health among the Windhoek resident’s. Methods: an adapted standardized self-administered questionnaire was used to collect respiratory health related data as well as previous exposure, while PM monitoring was done using ASTM D1739 reference method. Results: A high prevalence was observed for cough (43%), breathlessness (25%), and Asthma (11.2%). PM was found to be a significant risk factor for episode of cough and phlegm, while high PM exposure category had increased odds ratio for episode of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 0.8-8.0). No association was observed between location and respiratory health outcomes. Conclusion: The study found high levels of PM concentration across all Windhoek suburbs which were above the German, American and EPA. Enactment of legislation relating to the control and monitoring of PM related emissions at point of generation is required at country and city level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0186.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Legionella spp.; residential buildings; waterborne pathogens, water safety plan.
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:36:57 CEST)
Literature data on Legionella spp. presence in houses water networks have been increasing during the last years, but epidemiological reports assert a high incidence of Legionnaires’ disease infection in Italy. Updating our previously published data, we report a five-year survey on Legionella spp. colonization in 235 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 82 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 58 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). In all the 375 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in hot and cold water samples and microbiological potability standards of cold water were evaluated. Legionella spp. was detected in 27% of the water networks, mostly in CB and TB. We detected correlations between the presence of bacteria and some physical-chemical parameters (low chlorine level and optimal temperature for Legionella spp. growth). Cold water resulted free from microbiological hazards, except for coliform bacteria isolated in three separate cases, and Legionella spp., detected when cold water temperature was about 20°C. After a five-year survey we confirm the presence of a Legionnaires’ disease risk and the need of training programs for all the workers involved in residential water systems management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0586.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Indoor, classrooms, residential rooms, air detector, PM, TVOC, EPA
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:24:49 CET)
Air quality has been a major concern throughout the world, Nigeria inclusive. The monitoring of air quality involves indoor and outdoor air quality. In this study, our concern was on indoor air quality. The aim of this study was to assess the air quality of residential homes (17), classrooms (3), hospitals (2), offices (5), Shops (2), and laboratories (5) in Akure, Nigeria in terms of formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compound (TVOC), Particulate matter (PM1.0; PM2.5, and PM10). A Multifunction Air Detector was used for the assessment using the manufacturers’ procedures and the locations were identified using a Mini GPS. The results revealed as follows: HCHO (0.001-0.030 mg/m3), TVOC (0.003-362 mg/m3), PM1.0 (004-014 µg/m3), PM2.5 (006-020 µg/m3), and PM10 (006-022 µg/m3). The results obtained were below the 24 h pollution recommended standards (0.1 mg/m3- HCHO; TVOC; 10-20 μ/m3 PM) of EPA and WHO. Statistically, there were correlations within the pollutants and weather. The Indoor air quality (IAQ) depicted the areas as ‘good,’ and toxicity potential (TP) were below unity. Although the locations looked safe, it is recommended that constant monitoring of the indoors should be ensured and proper ventilation should be provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: demand management; European Supergrid; peak loads; residential electricity demand
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:41:25 CET)
The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances) to different levels of peak demand risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0084.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: light pollution; monitoring approach; spatial distribution; residential zone; Beijing
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:23:18 CET)
Outdoor lighting is becoming increasingly widespread, and residents are suffering from serious light pollution as a result. Residents’ awareness of their rights to protection has gradually increased. However, due to the sometimes-inaccessible nature of residential vertical light incidence intensity data and the high cost of obtaining specific measurements, there is no appropriate hierarchic compensation for residents suffering from different degrees of light pollution. It is therefore important to measure light pollution levels and their damage at the neighborhood scale to provide residents with basic materials for proper protection and to create more politically suitable solutions. This article presents a light pollution assessment method that is easy to perform, is low-cost, and has a short data-processing cycle. This method can be used to monitor residential zone light pollution in other cities. We chose three open areas to test the spatial variation pattern of light intensity. The results are in accordance with spatial interpolation patterns and can be fit, with high precision, using the IDW method. This approach can also be used in 3 dimensions to quantitatively evaluate the distribution of light intensity distribution. We use a mixed-use zone in Beijing known as The Place as our case study area. The vertical illumination at the windows of residential buildings ranges from 2 lux to 23 lux; the illumination in some areas is far higher than the value recommended by CIE. Such severe light pollution can seriously interfere with people's daily lives and has a serious influence on their rest and health. The results of this survey will serve as an important database to assess whether the planning of night-time lighting is scientific and whether it provides residents with a basis for the protection of their rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Koseze area; Mostec residential neighborhood (MRN); terraced residential neighborhood (TRN); urban heat island (UHI); urban cover; urban fabric; urban structure; urban metabolism
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:50:54 CET)
The study conducted in this paper is focused on a predominantly residential area of the City of Ljubljana – Koseze, which is characterized by generally favorable (bio)climatic conditions. Nonetheless, thermal satellite imaging showed that residential neighborhoods within the Koseze district display unexpected variations in summer temperatures. This observation called into question the benefits of existing bioclimatic features and indicated the need to investigate and compare two neighborhoods with similar urban parameters, with the aim to identify morphological differential characteristics impacting urban heat island (UHI) intensity. By applying the study methodology based on a literature review, surveys of key precedents, detailed mapping in two Koseze locations, in situ measurements, observations and recordings, thermal imaging and the analyses of statistical data, as well as by defining the four main categories of morphological urban parameters – structure, cover, fabric and metabolism, it was concluded that both neighborhoods have common morphological elements mitigating the UHI effect. Additionally, it was found that the neighborhood with higher UHI intensity has several less favorable features, such as busier roads, larger surface of parking corridors, and the existence of underground parking space. The traffic as an element of urban morphology hence represents the main cause of differences among UHI levels in the two Koseze neighborhoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0215.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: U-value; Thermal insulation; Energy efficiency; Residential building; Embodied Energy
Online: 24 April 2022 (09:39:55 CEST)
In Europe, the recent application of regulations oriented to zero-energy buildings and climate neutrality in 2050 has led to a reduction in energy consumption for heating and cooling in the construction sector. The thermal insulation of the building envelope plays a key role in this process and the requirements about the maximum allowable thermal transmittance are defined by country-specific guidelines. Typically, high insulation values provide low energy consumption for heating, however, they may paradoxically imply the risk of overheating in summer period and thus negatively affect the overall performance of the building. In addition, the embodied energy and related emissions caused by the manufacturing and transportation processes of thermal insulation cannot be further neglected in the evaluation of the best optimal solution. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the influence in terms of embodied and operational energy of various walls’ thermal insulation thicknesses on residential buildings in Europe. To this end, the EnergyPlus engine was used for the energy simulation within Ladybug & Honeybee tools, by parametrically conducting multiple iterations; 53 variations of external wall U-value, considering high and low thermal mass scenarios, were simulated for 100 reference cities of the European context, using a representative multifamily building as a reference. The results demonstrate that massive walls generally perform better than lightweight structures and, of course, the best solution in terms of energy varies according to each climate. The optimal values are graphically reported on the map of Europe according to specific climatic features, providing a guidance for new constructions and building retrofit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0165.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: HIV/TB co-infected Mortality; Residential Variations; Multilevel Logistic Regression
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:34:06 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect the mortality among adult HIV/TB co-infected patients and to see the nutritional difference among mortality in residence level. Retrospective cohort studies of 417 patients which fulfill our criteria were included. Multilevel logistic regression models were used. MLwiN and SPSS software are used to estimate the parameter. The variance of the random factor in the empty model was significant which indicates that there were residential differences in TB-HIV co-infected mortality and it shows multilevel analysis was an appropriate approach for further analysis. The prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected patients' death was 12.9% in study time. Functional status, age of patients, WHO clinical stages, nutritional status, CD4 counts, regimen, and BMI were found to be significant determinants of HIV/TB co-infected mortality. In our study, patients with the bedridden category of functional status, the fourth stages of WHO clinical stages (stage IV), patients with higher age, patients whose treatments were second-line regimen and low CD4 cell counts were more at risk of death. The study also revealed that; poor nutritional status increased the risk of mortality among HIV/TB co-infected patients and it varies among the residence of the patients (rural area were more at risk).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hydrogen; residential buildings; heat supply; renovation; price sensitivity; bottom-up
Online: 1 September 2021 (11:48:40 CEST)
As fossil-fueled heating in the building sector is responsible for 16 % of Germanys total CO2 emissions, it is of great importance to use climate-neutral alternatives for the decarbonization of this sector. Options for the climate-neutral heating of buildings include electricity or hydrogen as energy carriers, both explicitly considered by German policy. In this paper, bottom-up studies are conducted to investigate the role of hydrogen for the climate-neutral energy supply of ten selected residential buildings in comparison to electricity-based systems. Based on a selection of as different typical buildings as possible for single- (SFH) and multi-family houses (MFH) of different construction years, demand profiles are simulated for each building and the respective cost-optimal supply system is determined. For the construction of this system, the electricity-based technologies available are electric heater and heat pump as well as the hydrogen-based technologies hydrogen boiler and fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system. Based on the results of the optimization, sensitivity analyses are performed. These analyses aim to identify threshold values of the hydrogen price for the use of hydrogen in building energy systems as well as to make the quantities of hydrogen consumed visible.The identified threshold values show the significant role of hydrogen-operated CHP in MFH if the hydrogen price reaches 0.17 €/kWhH2 in 2050 at an electricity price of 0.31 €/kWhel. So, hydrogen-based energy systems represent an economically viable alternative to electricity-based systems with heat pumps. We identify electricity to hydrogen price ratios for the economically viable use of hydrogen in the examined buildings that range from 1.67 to 2.82. According to these ratios, the economically reasonable use of hydrogen in buildings can be derived. For the individual building groups for the year 2050, a ratio of 2.5 can be determined for SFH and 1.8 for MFH, that is favored by the use of CHP which also supplies electricity to the buildings. However, the role hydrogen will finally play in German residential buildings in the future depends to a large extent on political decisions on distribution issues and price signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential high-rise building; critical success to sustainability; KMITL PROCESS
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:49:51 CEST)
Sustainability is very important in business. The residential high-rise building all firms wanted to successful and sustainability in business. There is need the construction to completed low time, low cost and high quality in construction work. Therefore, real estate developers must find various strategies to use in construction projects to achieve goals and success of the firm. The purpose of this study was to indicate the very importance of knowledge management can lead to sustainability in business. Analyze 14 critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building projects, collected questions from literature review, and survey in deep interview senior managers of 15 projects real estate development firms listed on the stock market of Thailand. Budget building more than 1000 million baht per project. From conceptual frame work five foundations integrated to knowledge management of critical success (KMITL PROCESS) used made tool survey in deep interview the critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project from project managers. Used IBM SPSS evaluated the critical success to sustainability. Found was one very important of critical success to sustainability, which was quality of products x̄ = 4.83. All 14 critical success to sustainability was found can applied made the knowledge management of critical success to sustainability in residential high-rise building project in firm. Especially in the field of construction managements project can used improve of all construction projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: residential house; deconstruction; resource harvesting; whole house reuse; circular economy
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:49:34 CEST)
This study analyses the case study of a deconstruction project called the ‘Whole House Reuse’ (WHR) which aimed, firstly, to harvest materials from a residential house, secondly, to produce new products using the recovered materials, and thirdly, to organize exhibition for the local public to promote awareness on resource conservation and sustainable deconstruction practices. The study applies characterization of recovered materials through deconstruction. In addition to the material recovery, the study assesses the embodied energy saving and greenhouse gas emission abatement of the deconstruction project. Around twelve tonnes of various construction materials were harvested through a systematic deconstruction approach, most which would otherwise be disposed to landfill in the traditional demolition approach. The study estimates that the recovered materials could potentially save around 502,158MJ of embodied energy and prevent carbon emission of around 27,029kg (CO2e). Deconstruction could eventually contribute to New Zealand’s national emission reduction targets. In addition, the project successfully engages local communities and designers to produce 400 new products using the recovered materials and exhibited to the local people. The study concludes that there is a huge prospect in regard to resource recovery, emission reduction, employment and small business opportunities using deconstruction of the old house. The socio-cultural importance of the WHR project is definitely immense; however, the greater benefits of such projects are often ignored and remain unreported to wider audiences as most of the external and environmental costs have not been considered in the traditional linear economy. It is acknowledged that under a favourable market condition and with appropriate support from local communities and authorities, deconstruction could contribute significantly to resource conservation and environmental protection despite its requirement of labour intensive efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0058.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Legionella; residential buildings; water risk; community-acquired Legionnaire’s disease cases
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:33:02 CEST)
Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires’ disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or at on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analyzed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remove remote? tap. Legionella pneumophila sg1, Legionella pneumophila sg2-16 and not-pneumophila Legionella species were detected in 26% of the hot water networks, mostly in CB and TB. In these buildings we detected correlations between the presence of Legionella and the total chlorine concentration decrease or/and the increase of the temperature. Cold water resulted free from microbiological hazards, with the exception of Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated at the exit from two different autoclaves. We observed an increase in total microbial counts at 22 and 37°C between the samples collected at the most remote taps compared to the ones collected at the inlet from the aqueduct. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible categories of population and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: residential electricity consumption; income; piecewise linear model; China; robust tests
Online: 14 October 2016 (09:53:13 CEST)
There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption during the economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—are important to the sustainable development of electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995-2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions.” Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the conservatism of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. And government should emphasize electricity conservation in industrial sector rather than in residential sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability; decision analysis; family security services; residential fire insurance; risk aversion
Online: 21 October 2020 (13:41:16 CEST)
This paper explores decision analysis on product integration of family security services and residential fire insurance in the London and Taiwan markets by using the proposed mathematical models for counting sustainable value. This paper shows the five main different results between London and Taiwan markets with ten different parameters of the family security market, to find out the optimal number of family security integrated services for each security company in London. The improvement of the risk aversion effect based on risk and financial management will enhance the market share of the private security industries in the London and Taiwan markets. The results of this research can serve as a reference for the decision-making of private security industries on product integration under sustainable value consideration. The research findings highlight the potential benefits for both the private security industry and the insurance industry in their design and negotiation for product integration to improve both of business operation and achieve corporate social responsibility goals to match the sustainability in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0207.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: land cover; Oueme basin; Oueme delta; forest areas; cultivated areas; residential areas
Online: 12 January 2023 (03:15:41 CET)
The modification of land use is a crucial factor in the dysfunction of ecosystems. It considerably influences the hydrological cycle of basins. This study focuses on the Oueme basin, which represents almost half of the total area of Benin, and describes the current and future evolution of its land cover using the maps of the Land Use Land Cover Dynamics project (1975, 2000 and 2013). A temporal analysis of the surface states was performed with QGIS and the potential land cover in 2025, 2050 and 2085 was estimated using the Markov chain algorithm in the IDRISI software. The results show that the Oueme basin is predominantly savanna (77.70% in 1975, 66.29% in 2000 and 57.10% in 2013). Forest areas, which represented the second class in 1975 with a total proportion of 13.34%, have gradually decreased to 8.66% and 6.89% respectively in 2000 and 2013. Conversely, cultivated areas more than tripled in 2000 and quadrupled in 2013. Residential areas are increasing very strongly in the southern part of the basin with an amplification in the recent period (6% between 2000-2013 against 2% between 1975-2000). The recent period is more exposed to changes in surface condition and these changes are likely to be amplified in the future (probable total disappearance of forested areas in 2085). We recommend clarifying the impacts that each land use category generates/will generate on the hydrological cycle of this basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0294.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Residential electricity distribution; PLS-SEM; CB-SEM; quality of service; customer satisfaction
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:14:14 CET)
The main objective of this study is to apply structural equation modeling with partial least squares and based on covariance to assess the satisfaction of residential electricity consumers. The methodology used compares the results of both structural equation models to indicate the model that best fits the problem of measuring the satisfaction of residential consumers of electricity concessionaires and licensees. The sample used in the survey contained questionnaire responses from 86.175 individuals considering the period from 2014 to 2018. The constructs evaluated were satisfaction, quality, value, loyalty, and trust. Confidence interval analysis shows that all weights are significant, demonstrating the importance of all the indicators that represent the constructs. The trust, quality, and value constructs can explain 74.4% of the variability of the satisfaction construct, so the explanatory capacity of this relationship is considered substantial. Finally, the evaluation of the performance of the service provided by the electric energy concessionaires/licensees, measured by customer satisfaction, allows for the continuous improvement of services and meeting, even if minimally, the expectations of its consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: solar air heater; passive ventilation; ventilation load; residential house; actual measurement; simulation
Online: 9 November 2021 (15:12:24 CET)
This paper, we examined the technology to maximize the use of renewable energy. The passive ventilation system is expected to reduce the energy consumption of the fan power and the maintenance burden. In addition, the wall-mounted solar air heater can supply thermal energy without using any energy at all. Therefore, we propose a "passive ventilation system with a solar air heater" that combines a passive ventilation system with solar air heater to preheat the air supply and reduce the ventilation load. To evaluate the solar air heater performance in a real environment, we developed a simulation for calculating the heat collection capacity of the solar air heater, and then implemented the system in a real building for verification. Based on the measurement results, the effects of heating load reduction and prediction methods are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0145.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: biomass burning; residential wood combustion; aerosol mass spectrometry; potassium; chemical transport model
Online: 13 November 2019 (11:34:33 CET)
Alkali-containing submicron particles were measured continuously during three months, including late winter and spring seasons in Gothenburg, Sweden. The overall aims were to characterize the ambient concentrations of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for the atmospheric concentrations in the urban background environment. K and Na concentrations in the PM1 size range were measured by an alkali aerosol mass spectrometer (Alkali-AMS) and a cluster analysis was conducted. Local meteorological conditions and some other data sets were obtained, and back trajectory analyses and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations were included for the evaluation. The Alkali-AMS cluster analysis indicated three major clusters: 1) biomass burning origin, 2) mixture of other combustion sources, and 3) marine origin. Low temperatures and low wind speed conditions correlated with high concentrations of K-containing particles, mainly due to regional emissions from residential biomass combustion; transport of air masses from continental Europe also contribute to cluster 1. The CTM results indicate that open biomass burning in the eastern parts of Europe may have contributed substantially to high PM2.5 concentrations (and to cluster 1) during an episode in late March. According to the CTM results the mixed cluster (2) is likely to include particles emitted from different source types and no single geographical source region seems to dominate for this cluster. The back trajectory analysis and meteorological conditions indicated that the marine origin cluster was correlated with westerly winds and high wind speed; this cluster had high concentrations of Na-containing particles, as expected for sea salt particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0388.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: agricultural pesticides; residential proximity; adverse birth outcomes; preterm birth; low birthweight; pregnancy
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:44:14 CEST)
Findings from studies of prenatal exposure to pesticides and adverse birth outcomes have been equivocal so far. We examined prenatal exposure to agricultural pesticides in relation to preterm birth and term low birthweight, respectively, in children born between 1998 and 2010 randomly selected from California birth records. We estimated residential exposures to agriculturally applied pesticides within 2 km of residential addresses at birth by pregnancy trimester for 17 individual pesticides and 3 chemical classes (organophosphates, pyrethroids, and carbamates). Among maternal addresses located within 2 km of any agricultural pesticide application, we identified 24,693 preterm and 220,297 term births, and 4,412 term low birthweight and 194,732 term normal birthweight infants. First or second trimester exposures to individual pesticides (e.g., glyphosates, paraquat, imidacloprid) or exposures to 2+ pesticides in the three chemical classes were associated with small increases (3-7%) in risk for preterm birth; associations were stronger for female offspring. We did not find associations between term low birthweight and exposures to pesticides other than for myclobutanil (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04-1.20) and possibly pyrethroids as a class. Our improved exposure assessment revealed that first and second trimester exposures to pesticides were associated with preterm delivery but few affected term low birthweight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0311.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: residential wood combustion; emission modelling; MetVed model; cabin heating; cabin development; mountain areas
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:54:16 CET)
Emissions from wood burning for heating in secondary homes or cabins is an important aspect for the development of high-resolution emission inventories in specific areas. Norway is used as case study as the national wood consumption for heating in cabins is around 20% of the total. Our study shows first a method to estimate emissions from cabins based on traffic data to derive cabin occupancy, which combined with heating need allows for the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions. The combination of residential (RWC) and cabin wood combustion (CWC) emissions shows large spatial and temporal differences, and a temporally “cabin population” can in areas be orders of magnitude larger than the registered population. While RWC emissions have been steadily reduced, CWC have kept relatively constant or even increased, which results on an increase in the cabin share to total heating emissions up to 25-35%. When comparing with regional emissions inventories, our study shows that the gradient between rural and urban areas is not well represented in regional emissions inventories, which resembles a population-based distribution and does not allocate emissions in cabin municipalities. At last, our study shows that CWC emissions may become an increasing environmental concern as higher densification trends in mountain areas are observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0147.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Dehumanisation; dementia care; healthcare education; residential aged care facilities; positive dehumanisation; negative dehumanisation
Online: 8 January 2021 (11:23:42 CET)
The term dehumanisation refers to the ways in which a person is perceived to be less than human or treated as if they are less than human. It involves treating a person as if they are a child or infant, like an animal or non-living object, or as if they are dead, or any other way in which someone fails to be treated like a human being with an adult identity. Dehumanisation is widespread in dementia care; it is a major obstacle to person-centred care and has poor outcomes for people with dementia. This article proposes a new model of dehumanisation. The New Model presents a new way of describing dehumanisation that has been synthesised from current understanding about the phenomenon and reflects what is presently known about the subject. The model aims to summarise existing theories and models of dehumanisation and make dehumanisation theory accessible to students and trainees in healthcare. This article describes the new model, discusses existing models and theories in the literature, and explores the potential role of the new model in solutions for reducing dehumanisation in dementia care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: residential electricity distribution networks; renewable generation sources; energy storage; optimization; multipurpose algorithm; genetic algorithms
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:10:22 CEST)
The global climate change mitigation efforts have increased the efforts of national government to incentivize local households in adopting individual renewable energy as a mean to help reduce the usage of electricity generated using fossil fuels and to gain independence from the grid. Since the majority of residential generation is made by PV panels that generate electricity at off-peak hours, the optimal management of such installations often considers local storage that can defer the use of locally generated electricity at later times. On the other hand, the presence of distributed generation can affect negatively the operating conditions of low-voltage distribution networks. The energy stored in batteries located in optimal places in the network can be used by the utility to improve the operation of the network. This paper proposes a metaheuristic approach based on a Genetic Algorithm that considers three different scenarios of using energy storage for reducing the losses in the network. Prosumer and network operator priorities can be considered in different scenarios inside the same algorithm, to provide a comparative study of different priorities in storage placement. A case study performed on a real distribution network provides insightful results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy use; demand-controlled ventilation; hybrid ventilation; humidity; multi-unit residential building; simulation; CONTAM
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:16:41 CET)
A humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation system is known for many years. It has been developed and commonly applied in regions with an oceanic climate. Some attempts were made to introduce this solution in Poland in a much severe continental climate. The article evaluates this system's performance and energy consumption applied in an 8-floor multi-unit residential building, virtual reference building described by the National Energy Conservation Agency NAPE, Poland. The simulations using the computer program CONTAM were performed for the whole hating season for Warsaw's climate. Besides passive stack ventilation that worked as a reference, two versions of humidity-sensitive demand-controlled ventilation were checked. The difference between them lies in applying the additional roof fans that convert the system to hybrid. The study confirmed that the application of demand-controlled ventilation in multi-unit residential buildings in a continental climate with warm summer (Dfb) leads to significant energy savings. However, the efforts to ensure acceptable indoor air quality require hybrid ventilation, which reduces the energy benefits. It is especially visible when primary energy use is analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: prefabricated footing system; residential structures; reactive soils; modular construction; design for manufacture and assembly
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:45:06 CEST)
The consistently positive Australian economic environment and stable population increase have led to a higher demand for new houses in recent years. Prefabrication is a promising method to help alleviate the issues related to housing shortage and affordability due to reduced material wastage, construction delays due to weather conditions, unexpected costs, shortage in labour and onsite risks. With the advancements in automation and manufacturing methods such as Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA), the quality and precision of prefabricated materials is tightly controlled, and the fabrication and assembly period are reduced. However, the full potential of prefabricated construction is yet to be realised in part due to most of developments being focused on its superstructure. A review of the current available options suitable for houses is necessary to understand the present state of the residential footing industry, which will help evaluate the necessary innovations for the growth of the Australian construction industry considering the local reactive soil conditions. This paper presents a summary of existing footing systems and potential prefabricated footing solutions for low-rise residential structures with one storey to two storeys. This paper also reviews the benefits and challenges of designing, manufacturing, transporting, handling and installing of prefabricated footings on site, which have great influence on the acceptance of these innovative footing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child maltreatment; child abuse, social costs of child abuse; residential care for children with disabilities; Japan
Online: 24 November 2022 (07:32:25 CET)
We sought to calculate the extra social costs resulting from child abuse in residential care facilities (RCFs) for children with disabilities (CWD) in Japan. We distributed a survey to 260 residential facilities for CWD in 2020 and obtained responses from 91 facilities. Among the children admitted to these facilities, 23–67% were affected by child abuse. We estimated the extra costs to be an average of USD 647.7 million. This study is meaningful in that there are no existing official statistics or research findings on the extra costs of residential care due to child abuse in Japan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0204.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sponge City; Residential Community; SWMM (Storm Water Management Model); Ecosystem Services; Low Impact Development (LID); China
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:40:28 CEST)
Stormwater management is a key urban issue in the world, in line with the global issues of urban sprawl and climate change. It is urgent to investigate the effectiveness in managing stormwater with different strategies for maintain urban resilience. A method based on a storm water management model (SWMM) was developed for assessing the control of stormwater runoff volume and the percentage removal of suspended solids by implementing a Sponge City strategy. An interdisciplinary approach was adopted incorporating Low Impact Development (LID) with urban Green Infrastructure and Gray Infrastructure paradigms in a typical old residential community in Suzhou, China. Four types of sponge facilities for reducing stormwater runoff were bio-retention cells, permeable pavements, grassed pitches, and stormwater gardens. The simulation results indicate that the stormwater pipe system can meet the management standard for storms with a five-year recurrence interval. The volume capture ratio of annual runoff is 91% and the reduction rate of suspended solids is 56%. This study demonstrates that Sponge City strategy is an effective approach for managing stormwater, particularly in old and densely populated urban areas. Implementing spongy facilities with a LID strategy for stormwater management can significantly enhance urban water resilience and increase ecosystem services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0104.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: HEMS; Reinforcement Learning; Deep Neural Network; Q-Value; Policy Gradient; Natural Gradient; Actor-Critic; Residential, Commercial, Academic.
Online: 1 September 2022 (04:27:12 CEST)
The steep rise in reinforcement learning (RL) in various applications in energy as well as the penetration of home automation in recent years are the motivation for this article. It surveys the use of RL in various home energy management system (HEMS) applications. There is a focus on deep neural network (DNN) models in RL. The article provides an overview of reinforcement learning. This is followed with discussions on state-of-the-art methods for value, policy, and actor–critic methods in deep reinforcement learning (DRL). In order to make the published literature in reinforcement learning more accessible to the HEMS community, verbal descriptions are accompanied with explanatory figures as well as mathematical expressions using standard machine learning terminology. Next, a detailed survey of how reinforcement learning is used in different HEMS domains is described. The survey also considers what kind of reinforcement learning algorithms are used in each HEMS application. It suggests that research in this direction is still in its infancy. Lastly, the article proposes four performance metrics to evaluate RL methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0697.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: heating degree-day (HDD), cooling degree-day (CDD), climate change, projections, energy demand of residential buildings, Portugal
Online: 26 April 2021 (21:18:06 CEST)
Climate change is expected to influence cooling and heating energy demand of residential buildings and affect overall thermal comfort. Towards this end, the heating degree-day (HDD), the cooling degree-day (CDD) and the HDD+CDD were computed from an ensemble of 7 high-resolution bias-corrected simulations attained from EURO-CORDEX under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. These three indicators were analyzed for 1971-2000 (from E-OBS) and 2011-2040 and 2041-2070, under both RCPs. Results show that the overall spatial distribution of HDD trends for the 3 time-periods points out an increase of energy demand to heat internal environments in Portugal's northern-eastern regions, most significant under RCP8.5. It is projected an increase of CDD values for both scenarios; however, statistically significant linear trends were only found for 2041-2070 under RCP4.5. The need for cooling is almost negligible for the remaining periods, though linear trend values are still considerably higher for 2041-2070 under RCP8.5. By the end of 2070, higher amplitudes for all indicators are depicted for southern Algarve and Alentejo regions, mainly under RCP8.5. For 2041-2070 the Centre and Alentejo (North and Centre) regions present major positive differences for HDD(CDD) under RCP4.5(RCP8.5), within the 5 NUTS II regions predicting higher heating(cooling) requirements for some locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0073.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optimization schedule; transactive energy; DC residential distributed system; living homes, DC droop control; Centralized energy management system, electrical price
Online: 16 June 2017 (04:33:36 CEST)
DC residential distribution system (RDS) consisted by DC living home will be a significant integral part in the future green transmission. Meanwhile, the increasing number of distributed resources and intelligent devices will change the power flow between main grid and demand sides. The utilization of distributed generations (DGs) requires an economic operation, stability, environmentally friendly in the whole DC system. This paper not only presents an optimization schedule and transactive energy (TE) approach through centralized energy management system (CEMS), but a control approach to implement and ensure DG output voltages to various DC buses in DC RDS. Based on data collection, prediction and a certain objection, the expert system in CEMS can work out the optimization schedule, after this, the voltage droop control for steady voltage is aligned with the command of unit power schedule. In this work, a DC RDS is as a case study to demonstrate the process, the RDS is associated with unit economic models, cost minimization objective is proposed to achieve based on real-time electrical price. The results show that the proposed framework and methods will help the targeted DC residential system to reduce the total cost and reach stability and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0030.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010); nearly zero energy standard; non-residential buildings; highly technically installed buildings; energy balance
Online: 9 January 2017 (10:35:18 CET)
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a Nearly Zero Energy Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research and laboratory buildings). The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building and property-related energy generation including off-site renewables. If the future Nearly Zero Energy Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be useful to instead individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; building automatic control; energy use under field conditions; two-stage construction process; cost-benefit evaluation; deep retrofit of residential buildings
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:55:24 CEST)
Only now, four decades after passive houses were designed in the US and built in Canada, the authors are able to discuss the next generation of new and retrofitted buildings in the same way. This paper presents a universal system for different types of buildings and climates that includes construction experience and is reinforcing multi-disciplinary synergies. A next generation of technology uses adaptable indoor climate, integrates HVAC and building structure; applies field monitoring of energy and indoor environment and develops a performance model that is based on artificial neutral network. This approach, includes: 1. The self-learning ANN as a part of the building management system, 2. This management system guides energy optimization in a post-construction stage 3. A two-stage construction process for new and retrofits. The first stage prescribes investment level and optimizes performance; opposite in the second stage. This paper highlights that some elements of the proposed methodology have already been applied in the practice. It also underlines that this integrated multi-disciplinary system can be applied with a different combination of technological elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: restraint; restrictive practice; chemical restraint; physical restraint; psychotropic; residential aged care; long term aged care; community aged care; nursing home; home care; day care.
Online: 24 August 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Restraint use in Australian residential aged care has been highlighted by the media, and investigated by researchers, government and advocacy bodies. In 2018, the Royal Commission into Aged Care selected ‘Restraint’ as a key focus of inquiry. Subsequently, Federal legislation was passed to ensure restraint is only used in residential aged care services as the ‘last resort’. To inform and develop Government educational resources, we conducted qualitative research to gain greater understanding of the experiences and attitudes of aged care stakeholders around restraint practice. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 participants, comprising nurses, care staff, doctors, physiotherapists, pharmacists and relatives. Two focus groups were also conducted to ascertain the views of residential and community aged care senior management staff. Data were thematically analyzed using a pragmatic approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. Five themes were identified during the study: 1. Understanding of restraint; 2. Support for Legislation; 3. Restraint-free environments are not possible; 4. Low-level restraint, and 5. Restraint in the community is uncharted. Although most staff, health practitioners and relatives have a basic understanding of restraint, more education is needed at a conceptual level to enable them to identify and avoid restraint practice, particularly ‘low-level’ forms and chemical restraint. There was strong support for the new restraint regulations, but most interviewees admitted they were unsure what the legislation entailed. With regards to resources, stakeholders wanted recognition that there were times when restraint was necessary and advice on what to do in these situations, as opposed to unrealistic aspirations for restraint-free care. Stakeholders reported greater oversight of restraint in residential aged care but stated that community restraint use was largely unknown. Research is needed to investigate the extent and types of restraint practice in community aged care.