REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: smart site; research hotspots; research trend
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:55:12 CEST)
With the development of information technology and the wide application of building information modelling technology, the construction industry continues to make digital changes. Managers are trying to apply smart construction site management to promote the upgrading of production modes. We used CiteSpace software to analyze 1707 articles from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science and Scopus to understand the current research hotspots of global scholars in this field. Results show that: (1) The number of studies on smart construction sites increases rapidly by year. Researchers from China, America and the UK have the most influential studies. (2) The cooperation between researchers and institutions is not close enough. In addition, the directions of research in the field are still scattered; (3) Chinese scholars are good at building intelligent platforms and evaluating intelligent systems from multiple perspectives. International scholars are willing to pursue technological innovation, allowing the continuous development of intelligent construction technology. (4) The applications in this field have not been popularized despite relatively perfect technology and typical cases. Future scholars should gradually improve the theoretical basis and industry standards of smart construction sites, promote the development of intelligent construction technology and establish the evaluation standards of qualified smart sites. This study will provide scholars in this field with the theoretical basis and research directions for further in-depth research, help construction companies to understand the development status and trend of smart construction sites and accelerate the intelligent transformation of construction companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research project production; Research Publication; Academic-staffs’ research culture; Conference paper presentation; Ethiopian Universities, Research fund; Sustainable holistic development
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:29:25 CET)
The study was aimed at examining the status of research productivity and exploring the factors behind the identified status in Ethiopian universities from SDT and RBVT perspectives. In phase I, a null hypothesis was tested using a one-sample t-test at 0.05 alphas while in phase II one RQ was solved using qualitative analysis. The sample involved 531 academics, of whom 13 were interviewed. The mixed-methods research approach and explanatory sequential design guided this research. The status of research project production, indexed publication, and conference presentation performances in Ethiopian universities demonstrated statistically significant mean differences below the institutional, national, and world average cut-off points (performing at least one research project, one indexed journal, and one conference paper presentation per year per academic staff). Furthermore, we explored scarcity of funds, low research capacity, weak research culture, lack of productive institutional leadership, and political instability in the country as major causes of the low research productivity status. The researchers felt that the study would contribute to both promoting academic staff's research productivity and enriching the higher education research literature. MOE, university presidents, and deans should intervene in causes to improve academics’ research productivity status towards the desired local and global standards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0756.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 3D in vitro models; eye research; in silico analysis; eye anatomy
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:45:00 CET)
Human eye is a specialized organ with complex anatomy and physiology, because it is characterized by different cell types with specific physiological functions. Given the complexity of the eye, ocular tissues are finely organized and orchestrated. In the last few years many in vitro models have been developed, in order to meet the 3Rs principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) for eye toxicity testing. This procedure is highly necessary to ensure that the risks associated with ophthalmic products meet appropriate safety criteria. In vitro preclinical testing is now a well-established practice of significant importance for evaluating the efficacy and safety of cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical products. Along with in vitro testing, also computational procedures, herein described, for evaluating the pharmacological profile of potential ocular drug candidates including their toxicity, are in rapid expansion. In this review the ocular cell types and functionality are described providing an overview about the scientific challenge for the development of three-dimensional in vitro models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0574.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: SLM; Research status; Application field; Defect analysis
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:23:24 CEST)
With the development of industrialization, traditional manufacturing technologies are no longer able to meet the production needs of modern society. Additive manufacturing has successfully solved the problems existing in traditional manufacturing technology. Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder bed melting technology that produces metal parts by selectively melting metal powders on a platform using a laser beam. It is widely used in additive manufacturing. This article introduces the characteristics and current development status of SLM technology, summarizes the main application fields and common defects of SLM, and finally explores and prospects the future development trend of SLM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: demand driven research; biomass; innovation; Ghana
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:09:35 CEST)
The case for demand-driven research and development has received important considerations among governments, donors and programme implementing partners in development planning and implementation. Addressing demand is believed to be a bottom-top approach for designing and responding to development priorities and is good for achieving development outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the concept and application of demand driven research for development (DDRD) in Africa. We use evidence of six projects implemented under the BiomassWeb Project in Africa. We focus on parameters on level of engagement of stakeholders - whose demand is being articulated, the processes for demand articulation, capacity building and implementation processes, innovativeness of the project, reporting and sustainability of the project. We find that the nature of the institutions involved in articulation and implementation of demand-driven research and development projects and their partnerships influence the impact and reporting of demand-driven projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open research practices; digital humanities; scholarly communication; publication formats; infrastructure; research methodology; research tools
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:50:52 CET)
The digital transformation has initiated a paradigm shift in research and scholarly communication practices towards a more open scholarly culture. Although this transformation is slowly happening in the Digital Humanities field, open is not yet default. The article introduces the OpenMethods metablog, a community platform that highlights open research methods, tools, and practices within the context of the Digital Humanities by republishing open access content around methods and tools in various formats and languages. It also describes the platform’s technical infrastructure based on its requirements and main functionalities, and especially the collaborative content sourcing and editorial workflows. The article concludes with a discussion of the potentials of the OpenMethods metablog to overcome barriers towards open practices by focusing on inclusive, community sourced information based around opening up research processes and the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve its goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0013.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; thematic analysis; Outcomes assessment; Qualitative Research; Patient reported outcome measures
Online: 3 January 2017 (11:32:52 CET)
Background. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. Methods. Forty persons with RA were purposefully recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were then analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. Conclusions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nicotine products; tobacco harm reduction; people living with mental illness; qualitative research; consumer preferences
Online: 17 October 2016 (10:49:07 CEST)
Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed, however preferences for nicotine products were idiosyncratic and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusion: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0079.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Systems Management, Biomedical Research Policy, Organizational Development, Quality Management
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:42:47 CET)
There has been a growing call for reform of the U.S. biomedical community in recent years. As a community, we face a growing list of issues including excessive waste, reproducibility, bias, inadequate training, and the absence of sustainable long-term planning that detract from the overall goal of advancing human health. In response to this debate, biomedical stakeholders have taken positive steps forward to remedy these issues. However, we must continually improve upon these steps to promote the long-term stability of the biomedical enterprise. Given the widespread interest of the scientific community in addressing these issues, there exists a unique opportunity to come together and create a new era of biomedical discovery. The completion of this exciting task requires reflection on our view and management of the system, and what the best route to sustainable change may be. Importantly, a coordinated approach that considers the collective make-up of the biomedical system and how processes and people influence collective output and create value for patients is needed. Here, these three areas and the concepts of systems theory, total quality management, and organizational development and their contribution to the management and effectiveness of biomedical discovery are discussed. Importantly recommendations are made concerning overall management strategy, process efficiency and quality research, administrative tasks, organizational cultural challenges, individual and team development, and funding strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1457.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Critical Success Factors (CSFs),; Impacts of research projects; Management Model; Research projects
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:19:54 CEST)
This article aims at presenting the results that were found in the design and implementation of a new management model of Critical Success Factors for improving the effects of research projects. The model was based on the theory of structural equations derived from factor analyses and multiple linear regression models. For achieving the purpose, the authors developed an empirical evidence analysis founded on a literature review in the knowledge area of project management. Afterwards, the process of identification of the CSFs was carried out for a group of research projects launched in Colombia as a result of the application and measurement of an instrument. They were the basis for the development of a structural relationship modeling. Also, this contributed to determine the CSFs that explain the generation of effects of research projects, and the project management execution process from which it can be carried out based on said measurement indicators.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ARISE; research funding; early-career research support; African research; research for development
Online: 23 February 2023 (11:18:22 CET)
Through an ambitious development blueprint called Agenda 2063, Africa is on a mission to creating the ‘Africa We Want’ by the year 2063, centred on science, technology, and innovation. While the 2063 development agenda portends attainment of socio-economic development and prosperity in Africa, it brings with it an enormous need for strategic investment in research to ensure that no one is left behind. This paper presents insights from the African Research Initiative for Scientific Excellence (ARISE) programme on inclusive research capacity strengthening investment in Africa. The insights are drawn from a comprehensive candidate selection process for ARISE, from which 45 researchers (from a pool of 929 applicants) are recruited for ARISE Fellowships. The 45 early-to-mid-career researchers, 37% of which are women, are hosted in 45 institutions of higher learning located in 38 countries across Africa, conducting 5-year research fellowships with grants of up to €500,000 each. The insights from the ARISE programme contribute to the debate on effective approaches to programme scoping, design, and delivery, underscoring the need for consideration of scientific excellence in the context of diversity in research support capacity and investments across Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0003.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: project management; sustainable development; projects; competences; sustained success; sustainability; research university; sustainable university
Online: 1 April 2018 (12:45:02 CEST)
The paradigm that assumes the autonomous management of universities involves them in the redefinition of their policies and processes and the training of their staff, designing new formulas that allow them to adapt to a changing environment. In this context, research and sustainable universities can link with society to solve its problems and influence a responsible and sustainable development. Through a Delphi panel, importance to acquire and improve project management (PM) competences by teaching and research staff (TRS) into innovating education and research projects is measured, from the standard of individual competences (ICB4) of the International Project Management Association (IPMA). Also, internal data sources from the flexible structures of two Spanish universities (the University of Cadiz (UCA) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)), are investigated, in order to analyze how they are organized. Thanks to the study of cases, an increasing tendency to work by projects is observed, empowering teams, managing properly stakeholders and facilitating their functions towards society. Likewise, after two rounds of experts’ consultation, consensus is reached with an acceptable and stable level of responses, resulting in confirmation that there is alignment between IPMA competences and TRS’ needs for sustained success in education and research, contributing to universities’ development, improvement and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university business collaboration; critical thinking; curriculum co-design, development and delivery; employability; research project; labour market; higher education; soft skills
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
University-Business partnership for collaborative curriculum design, development and delivery is possibly the less explored dimension of University Business Collaboration (UBC). Even if some models for curricular design and development might be available, scarce information exists on how the partnership is constructed, the new curricula are designed, developed and how they are implemented. This article intends to present and discuss the experience obtained during a three-year European funded Project, namely Think4Jobs. This project exemplifies the significance and benefits of UBC in the design, development and delivery of curricula that meet the evolving demands of the labour market while promoting Critical Thinking (CT) as a foundational 21st century skill to contribute to graduates' employability. Think4Jobs project brought together a multidisciplinary team of researchers and business organisations from five European countries (Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal and Romania) with interests in promoting and developing CT and mitigating eventual competence gaps. The project's success was attributed to key practices, including defining a common conceptualization of CT, employing participatory co-design, and providing common training for university and business partners. Clear objectives, explicit roles, effective communication, and ongoing evaluation further enhanced the collaboration. Experiential learning, real-work problems, and case studies reinforced the curricula, bridging the gap between academia and the labour market. By embracing these insights, future UBC initiatives can empower graduates with the necessary skills to stand out in an ever-changing labour market, contributing to enhanced education and successful careers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: sedation; anesthesia; pig; research models, protocols
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:26:35 CEST)
Anesthesia ensures the welfare of the animal, enables safe and effective procedures, and allows accurate data collection . In clinical veterinary practice, proper training and expertise in anesthesia administration and monitoring are essential. Pigs are commonly used in medical and scientific research as models for studying various aspects of human health, physiology, and disease due to their physiological and anatomical similarities to humans [2–4]. Pigs are suitable experimental animals for many surgery techniques because they are similar in size to humans and have a short reproductive cycle. This makes them ideal for research concerning organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, and other procedures that require a large animal model. Pigs also have a similar anatomy to humans, which makes them a good choice for studying diseases and developing new treatments . Sedation and premedication should be administered at the lowest dose to be effective with predictable results and reduced adverse effects, to ensure the safety of both the animal and the team involved in the procedure, with a fast onset and optimizing the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. The goal of induction is to achieve a safe and effective level of anesthesia that ensures the patient's safety and facilitates the research. Most of the time, inhalation anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is the ideal choice for maintenance., allowing efficient anesthetic management. The difficulties related to the endotracheal intubation of pigs can be overcome by knowing the anatomical peculiarities related to the species and the multiple methods cited in the literature. Effective analgesia tailored to the specific procedure, the pig's condition, and individual responses to medications should complete the maintenance and recovery protocols, reducing perioperative complications.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroecology; participatory research; web application; traceability
Online: 17 December 2021 (15:07:16 CET)
Agroecology, defined as the ecological science of food production is also as practical approach to design food production systems based on local concerted solutions that aim to promote synergy among the diversity of human and non human food systems elements. These two facets makes agroecology a good candidate for participatory research. Information technology should help using this information for the production of structured scientific knowledge. In this respect, there is a need for information technology that is adaptive to encompass the diversity of within and between systems and that provide benefit to farmers that feed it with data. We present MiCampoApp, a webapp that aims to join participatory research and certification in agroecology, with two roles, the farmer and the administrator. The idea to join participatory research for decision support with certification for market differentiation in single system is that much of the certification data harbors information for scientific research, and this incentivize data collection for the interest of the farmer and the community. The administrator create a model for data collection in order to solve a research question of interest for a communities or to produce traceability information to feed participatory guarantee system in a community. The farmer collects information using simple icons and produces traceability pages for research or certification purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0175.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: sexually transmitted infection (STI); HIV; viral hepatitis; transgender persons; in-depth interviews (IDIs); formative research
Online: 12 October 2022 (14:57:14 CEST)
Background: Sexualized substance use (SSU) is the practice of psychotropic substance usage, before or during sexual intercourse in order to increase sexual pleasure and arousal. It has a strong association with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study aimed to assess the knowledge gaps regarding SSUs among the community health mobilizers by interviewing them regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and practices through qualitative approach. Methodology: In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with a total of nineteen community health mobilizers engaged in counselling of sexualized substance users. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire with socio-demographic information and probes related to SSU was administered. Informed consent was taken from each participant prior to data collection. Results: Gender-wise distribution indicated that 47% of the community mobilizers are men, followed by transgender persons (32%), and women (21%). Responses of participants highlighted that alcohol consumption was the most observed form of SSU. The findings indicated that drug administration through injection was most common, followed by sniffing and swallowing. Sources of drug pro-curement enlisted by participants included peddlers, peer groups, sexual parties, medical and liquor stores. Only 63% of participants had fair knowledge about STIs such as HIV, viral hepatitis, syphilis, and gonorrhoea. All were familiar with the administration of naloxone injections and the locations of nearby hospitals where patients could be transported in the event of an overdose. Conclusions: The in-depth interviews among the study participants reflected substantial know-ledge gaps related to various areas associated with SSU, which highlights the need for periodic workshops and training for upgradation of existing knowledge and practices among community health mobilizers. This will help to broaden their knowledge of different types of SSUs, the latest substances of abuse, the diseases caused by high-risk sexual practices, and additional health and psychological issues associated with SSUs, which would ultimately help in better counseling and management of sexualized substance users. It may also play a crucial role in the strengthening of capacity-building systems and engagements at the community level. This study may be used as formative research by researchers and policy makers to develop study protocols for multi-centric community-based studies among community health mobilizers and sexualized substance users across the country for further validation and exploration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Participatory Action Research; FOSS; Change implementation
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:16:27 CEST)
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is an established method to implement change in organizations. However, it cannot be applied in the open source (FOSS) communities, without adaptation to their particularities, especially to the specific control mechanisms developed in FOSS. FOSS communities are self-managed, and rely on consensus to reach decisions. This study proposes a PAR framework specifically tailored to FOSS communities. We successfully applied the framework to implement a set of quality assurance interventions in the Robot Operating System community. The framework we proposed is composed of three components, interventions design, democratization, and execution. We believe that this process will work for other FOSS communities too. We have learned that changing a particular aspect of a FOSS community is arduous. To achieve success the change must rally the community around it for support and attract motivated volunteers to implement the interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: research data management; FAIR; file structure; file system
Online: 3 April 2020 (15:56:22 CEST)
Storing scientific data on the file system in a meaningful and transparent way is no trivial task. In particular when the data have to be accessed after their originator has left the lab the importance of a standardized file structure cannot be underestimated. It is desirable to have a structure that allows for the unique categorization of all kinds of data from experimental results to publications. It has to be accessible to a broad variety of workflows, e.g., via graphical user interface as well as via command line, in order to find widespread acceptance. Furthermore, the inclusion of already existing data has to be as simple as possible. We propose a three-level structure to organize and store scientific data that incorporates the full chain of scientific data management from data acquisition to analysis to publications. Metadata are saved in a standardized way and connect original data to analyses and publication as well as to their originators. A simple software tool to check a file structure for compliance with the proposed structure is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Neonate; qualitative research; Southeast Asia
Online: 29 September 2016 (11:17:06 CEST)
Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0511.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: review; misinformation; online education; research; discipline
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:26:50 CEST)
Misinformation research has grown to become a critical topic in all disciplines. Since the expanding of online media, misinformation has been spreading rapidly across the globe through social media and other information systems. Paralleling the rise of academic interest in misinformation, is the emergence of online education scholarship. Interest in the online educational implications of misinformation and its impact attracts an increase in scholarship on misinformation. This article presents the results of a review of 1172 publications with “Misinformation” across disciplines and a subset of 174 misinformation literature in online education that were published between 2009 and 2021. This review answers three questions: (1) What is the overall distribution of publication activity with "misinformation" publications? (2) What methodologies have scholars used to investigate misinformation involving online education? (3) What have scholars reported about the results of studies involving misinformation in online education? The review reveals that various methodologies were used in literature focusing on misinformation online education with leading numbers of content analysis and quantitative studies. This systematic review is particularly relevant to those online educators in various disciplines who are interested in learning what scholars from their own academic disciplines are writing about misinformation.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: A.C.A.I.D; framework; methodology; postgraduate; research praxis
Online: 31 October 2019 (10:09:54 CET)
This presentation is based on the article I wrote ((Lebese, 2018) where the A.C.A.I.D system was confirmed as directing human behavior in all situations. The A.C.A.I.D concept is an acronym. A stands for Attention, C for Consideration, A for Action, I for Internalisation and D for duplication. I developed the system over a period of twenty years as an impirical study, to answer a question: Why do I do what I do when I do what I do? Every behavior I exhibited followed specific steps from idea through to duplication. Once completed, I unobtrusively checked if other human beings behaved similarly. Without fail I observed that the A.C.A.I.D is a system that all humans knowingly and unknowingly follow. Through the system I could easily predict how the learners I was teaching could behave in particular situations. Also, I could assist learners who wanted change in their behaviors to know at what stage in the system that change was possible.The postgraduate scholar behaves in a predetermined manner in the research activity. Those behaviors follow an accepted protocol which invariably goes through all the stages of the A.C.A.I.D system. It starts with an idea through to the duplication step which I call “The idea on legs”. When it gets to this stage, it goes back to the beginning and sold as an idea. The system is cyclical.The A.C.A.I.D system as a framework helps the postgraduate researcher to follow an acceptable research praxis from idea interrogation through all the stages. This helps the researcher to follow acceptable predictable methodologis through research.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: early-career research; institutional capacity strengthening; research; funding; research capacity strengthening; SSHA
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:46:29 CET)
Global and human development and freedoms increasingly thrive on robust and policy-oriented research and related activities. Yet, the African research landscape faces a myriad of challenges, resulting in a very unequal continent in terms of research and research capacity. The prevailing research inequities and challenges in Africa are even more pronounced in the social sciences, humanities, arts, and related fields (SSHA). Here, the strengths and impact of scholarship in SSHA fields are often overshadowed by deficits and apparent preferential investment in research in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related fields. In response, the African Academy of Sciences commissioned a study in 2020 to generate evidence on the SSHA research support landscape in Africa. This paper summarizes findings from the literature review, key informant interviews, a bibliometric analysis, a survey with a sample of 670 respondents from SSHA communities in Africa, and a series of focus group discussions. We highlight key messages and make recommendations focussing on lessons learnt opportunities, and priorities for intervention to enhance significant SSHA research leadership capacity strengthening and, ultimately, minimize research inequalities in Africa.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: improve citations; research tools; research visibility; research impact; documents publishing; highly cited
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:20:47 CEST)
Researchers, journals, and universities want to receive more citations for their scholarly publications. However, a paper citations depend on its quality, visibility and author’s online profile. Research support documents (unpublished papers, white papers, project reports, datasets, software, posters, online resources and teaching materials) can be additional source for increasing the author’s visibility. To enhance research visibility and impact, the full range of scholarly output should be available online on the open access platform. With open access platform, key research findings are made accessible immediately to the scientific community. Therefore, the publicly available research support documents may result in receiving more citations in addition to the published papers. In this paper we conducted a simplified three stages study on the benefits of research support documents publications on open access platform. We also elaborated on approaches of improving your research visibility and impact through these document.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: night; night science; night research; interdisciplinary research
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:25:27 CET)
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers, and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, research into social issues such as inequality, demographic changes, and the transition to a sustainable economy will be compromised if night is not considered. Recent years, however, have seen a surge in research into the night. We argue that “night studies” is on the cusp of coming into its own as an interdisciplinary field, and when it does, the field will consider questions that disciplinary researchers haven’t yet thought to ask.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2065.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: food system; peer research; cocreation; lifestyle; healthy diet; healthy eating behavior; noncommunicable diseases; prevention; adolescents; school students
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:30:03 CET)
The Food Boost Challenge (FBC) was developed using a participatory action research approach to enhance healthy eating behaviors, here vegetable and fruit products (V&F-products) among adolescents, particularly those with lower education levels. FBC is a quadruple helix innovation process, involving adolescents, (peer)researchers, and food system partners of non-governmental and commercial organizations. In 2021-2022, 34 partners provided both cash and in-kind contributions to join the FBC-community. Phase 1 involved 200 students identifying barriers and drivers for consumption of F&V-products among 1000 pre-vocational adolescents, aged 12-20 years. In phase 2, student teams submitted innovative ideas, resulting in 25 concepts fitting into ≥1 of 4 routes: I) innovative technology for a healthy diet, II) new food products/concepts for adolescents, III) hotspots improving F&V-product experience, and IV) new routes to market. In phase 3 consortia of adolescents, students and partners were formed to develop 10 selected concepts into prototypes, and phase 4 offered teams a national platform. Results show FBC resonates with all stakeholders, generating valuable insights to increase F&V-intake. Prototypes in all 4 routes have been developed, with some already in the implementation stage. Additionally, other regions in the Netherlands have adopted the FBC approach. Overall, FBC is an approach that transforms ideas into actionable measures and shows potential to be adapted to promote various healthy eating behaviors among school students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0564.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: orthographic literacy; questionnaire research; Croatian orthography; (de)standardisation
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:05:51 CEST)
This paper discusses the impact of orthographic manuals on the state of literacy, i.e. the relation of orthographic literacy and orthographic standardisation. The established hypothesis claims that frequent changes of orthographic rules during the pupils’ primary and secondary education do not have any considerable impact on their orthographic habits. In other words, the quantity of orthographic mistakes observed during a longer period of time and in conditions of changed orthographic rules would not show significant oscillations in their spelling. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a questionnaire was conducted encompassing 41 tests among 526 students of a technical study programme during four consecutive academic years, pursuant to whose results a writing uniformity index and a categorisation of orthographic controversy into six classes is established. The Croatian language has been selected for the observation due to multiple orthographic changes in the last 30 years in the three major orthographic points: writing of the covered r, writing of d and t in front of c and č in declination of words ending in -tak, -tac, -dak and -dac, and the issue of compound or separate spelling of the negation particle and the auxiliary biti (to be). Moreover, the paper methodologically and quantitatively establishes criteria according to which the second established hypothesis on evolutionary orthographic literacy can be confirmed. The conclusions are expected to be able to contribute to the better understanding of orthographic planning and application of orthographic norms in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0598.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement Learning; Simulation; Health Services Research; Operational Research
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:45:33 CEST)
Background and motivation: Combining Deep Reinforcement Learning (Deep RL) and Health Systems Simulations has significant potential, for both research into improving Deep RL performance and safety, and in operational practice. While individual toolkits exist for Deep RL and Health Systems Simulations, no framework to integrate the two has been established. Aim: Provide a framework for integrating Deep RL Networks with Health System Simulations, and to ensure this framework is compatible with Deep RL agents that have been developed and tested using OpenAI Gym. Methods: We developed our framework based on the OpenAI Gym framework, and demonstrate its use on a simple hospital bed capacity model. We built the Deep RL agents using PyTorch, and the Hospital Simulation using SimPy. Results: We demonstrate example models using a Double Deep Q Network or a Duelling Double Deep Q Network as the Deep RL agent. Conclusion: SimPy may be used to create Health System Simulations that are compatible with agents developed and tested on OpenAI Gym environments. GitHub repository of code: https://github.com/MichaelAllen1966/learninghospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0667.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Global health; human subjects research; international health; medical racism; research ethics; research neocolonialism; tropical medicine
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:40:31 CEST)
Best practices in global health training prioritize leadership and engagement from investigators from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), along with more conscientious community consultation and research that benefits local participants and autochthonous communities. However, well into the 20th century, international research and clinical care were rife with paternalism, extractive practices, and racist ideation, with race presumed to explain both vulnerability or protection from various diseases despite scientific evidence for more precise mechanisms for infectious disease. We highlight experiences in global research on health and illness among indigenous populations in LMICs, seeking to clarify what is both scientifically essential and ethically desirable in research with human subjects; we apply a critical view towards race and racism as historically distorting elements that must be acknowledged and overcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Health research policy; National health research system; COVID-19; Biomedical Research; Latin America and Caribbean
Online: 13 November 2020 (07:09:52 CET)
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is one of the worst-hit regions globally by COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, scarce literature exists that examines the research strategy of LAC in facing COVID-19. The present study aims to quantify and assess the production of COVID-19 publications in thirty-two countries in LAC during the first half of 2020. A Scopus/PubMed/LILACS search was performed to retrieve research articles related to COVID-19 published from January 1 to July 31, 2020. Subgroup analysis including only original publications was used to better ascertain the contribution of LAC countries, and standardization measures were applied to comparisons of country-specific contributions. We identified 1291 publications across the region. Overall, most articles in the region were non-original (81.6%), and the most productive countries were Brazil (43.9%), Mexico (9.14%), and Colombia (7.98%). This trend shifted to Chile after the standardization. Among original studies, the most common study design was cross-sectional (25.8%). LAC countries generate articles primarily pertaining to diagnosis and treatment (27.4%). In the subgroup analysis, however, epidemiology and surveillance was the most prevalent research focus (24.1%). LAC countries should perform more research with a higher level of evidence to inform health policy making to ease the burden of COVID-19 in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health data science; clinical trials; research participant reporting; personal health data diary; personal private webserver; research data integrity
Online: 6 June 2018 (09:40:35 CEST)
We describe how clinical researchers can exploit the Android cell phone as an economic platform for the gathering of data from clinical trial participants. The aim was to provide a solution with the shortest possible learning curve for researchers who are comfortable with setting up web pages. The additional requirement is that they extend their skills to the installation of a local webserver on the cell phone and then use four simple PHP templates to construct the clinical research data collection and processing forms. Data so collected is automatically written to local csv files on the cell phone. These csv phones can be retrieved from the device by the researcher simply by plugging the cell phone into their desktop PC and accessing the cell phone memory in just the same way as they would a USB memory stick. The results are presented as a list of recommended Android Apps along with settings that have proved to provide a stable combination likely to be easily used by clinical research participants. We have made a limited ‘user trial’ of this approach with satisfactory feedback received. We have concluded that this approach will reward researchers with a solution that is user friendly, will provide transcription free data and that is more than cost competitive with the conventional error prone/poor compliance ‘paper based participant form – researcher transcription’ cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0419.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: study participation; communication; survey; general research results
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:48:49 CEST)
There is a need for multimodal strategies to keep research participants informed about study results. Our aim was to characterize preferences of genomic research participants from two institutions along four dimensions of general research result updates: content, timing, mechanism, and frequency. Methods: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional survey that was administered from 6-25-2018 to 12-5-2018. Results: 397 participants completed the survey, most of whom (96%) expressed a desire to receive research updates. Preferences with high endorsement included: update content (brief descriptions of major findings, descriptions of purpose and goals, and educational material); update timing (when the research is completed, when findings are reviewed, when findings are published, and when the study status changes); update mechanism (email with updates, and email newsletter); and update frequency (every three months). Hierarchical cluster analyses based on the four update preferences identified four profiles of participants with similar preference patterns. Very few participants in the largest profile were comfortable with budgeting less money for research activities so that researchers have money to set up services to send research result updates to study participants. Conclusion: This work provides evidence of a need for funders to incentivize researchers to communicate results to participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Childhood experiences; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership de-velopment; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
This research paper aimed to explore the impact of childhood and adolescent experiences on the leadership development of Emirati women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using a qualitative research methodology, the study utilized in-depth narrative semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and diary writing to understand the complex issue of leadership development. Findings indicate that childhood and adolescent experiences, including family upbringing, education, culture, and societal expectations, have significant impacts on the leadership development of Emirati women. Specifically, family upbringing and cultural values shape Emirati women's leadership aspirations and behaviors, while education and societal expectations provide opportunities and barriers for women's leadership development. The implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote women's leadership development in the UAE are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1331.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: inclusive park; disabilities; research-based design; research through designing
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:13:53 CEST)
Public parks are a community resource with an important role in improving liveability, physical, and mental wellbeing. However, exercise facilities that are suitable for people with disabilities typically have been neglected in public park design. As such, people with disabilities often are unable to independently or safely use the park. To address this shortcoming, the objective of this paper was to employ a pragmatic research through designing process in developing the design for an inclusive park. We used a mixed-methods approach in the research that included review of previous studies, semi-structured interviews, and questionnaire surveys with stakeholders were applied as design integration. Persons with disabilities specifically were consulted to express their views on all matters of inclusive park design.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ion; channels; regeneration; cancer; treatment; translational research; experimental research
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:38:37 CEST)
Preclinical evidence suggests that voltage gradients can act as a kind of top-down master regulator during embryogenesis and orchestrate downstream molecular-genetic pathways during organ regeneration or repair. Moreover, electrical stimulation shifts response to injury towards regeneration instead of healing or scarring. Cancer and embryogenesis not only share common phenotypical features, but also commonly upregulated molecular pathways. Ion channel activity is directly or indirectly linked to the pathogenesis of cancer hallmarks, while experimental and clinical studies suggest that their modulation may exert antitumor effects. A large recent clinical trial served as a proof-of-principle for the benefit of preoperative use of topical sodium channel blockade as a potential anticancer strategy against early human breast cancers. Apart from the obvious importance in perioperative medicine, it calls for the planning of further carefully designed clinical trials to expand on the concept of ion channels as tumor drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: research-based training; methodological characteristics; development of research skills.
Online: 26 September 2017 (08:10:13 CEST)
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using of teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on the focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have been put into basis of analysis of educational programs for the purpose of determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of research skills of students. The study used a method of focus group. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training system among people who are competent, have experience in this field. After that, the method of "theoretical sampling" was used, which enabled to formulate generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence of students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0803.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational concept; green business school; new green deal; interdisciplinary capacity and movement building; green failure; young generation collaboration network; prevent big ideas from failure, theory U, science and action-based research, design thinking
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:44:11 CET)
This article addresses the question why initiatives in the field of green business and sustainable development often fail. Therefore, it dismantles some typical patterns of failure and shows – as a case study – how these patterns can be challenged through an innovative educational concept: the green business and sustainable development school. The applied methodology is a real-life project that is designed through blended, interdisciplinary elements from business model canvas, Theory U, participation and design thinking. The results of the school initiative are discussed and evaluated by four distinctive stakeholder groups and outline the school’s supporting potential to overcome typical patterns of failure by the younger generation in the future. This article concludes with ideas to enhance the school concept reaching out to even more stakeholder-groups to increase its reliability and viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Token; Recognition; Reward; Peer Review; Research Management; NIHR
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:41:28 CEST)
Here we present a blockchain-backed token recognition system to reward the contributions that academics make to the scientific ecosystem. Recognition is important in science but current methods, systems and incentives are limited. Specifically, the traditional focus on narrow publication metrics means diverse contributions are not captured, while bias toward senior, established scientists is common. To tackle this challenge, we explore the potential of harnessing blockchain’s collaborative, decentralised and trust-brokering properties to develop a token reward system for use by research funders. Academics would be awarded tokens for undertaking common but vital tasks such as peer review, sitting on funding committees and submitting reports. These tokens would not be tradable or specifically monetisable but would serve as a validated record of scientific contribution. They would have value in professional recruitment and job placement, support grant and award applications, and inform performance appraisals and file reviews. Coordination and cooperation across multiple funding agencies in developing the platform would provide an opportunity to aggregate and standardise recognition, given academics often work with several funders. This system’s goals are to expand recognition metrics, promote efficiencies, improve the robustness of professional assessments and enable cross-funder collaboration, thereby optimising research processes and practices in a decentralised and democratised manner.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Reproducibility, Mathematical Modeling, Multiscale Modeling, Translational Research, Biomedical Research, Experimental Biology, Clinical Research Article Type: Essay
Online: 23 May 2018 (16:18:52 CEST)
The “Crisis of Reproducibility” has received considerable attention both within the scientific community and without. While factors associated with scientific culture and practical practice are most often invoked, I propose that the Crisis of Reproducibility is ultimately a failure of generalization with a fundamental scientific basis in the methods used for biomedical research. The Denominator Problem describes how limitations intrinsic to the two primary approaches of biomedical research, clinical studies and pre-clinical experimental biology, lead to an inability to effectively characterize the full extent of biological heterogeneity, which compromises the task of generalizing acquired knowledge. Drawing on the example of the unifying role of theory in the physical sciences, I propose that multi-scale mathematical and dynamic computational models, when mapped to the modular structure of biological systems, can serve a unifying role as formal representations of what is conserved and similar from one biological context to another. This ability to explicitly describe the generation of heterogeneity from similarity addresses the Denominator Problem and provides a scientific response to the Crisis of Reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Watershed; biogeographic patterns; microbial biogeography; biodiversity; spatial distribution; research unit
Online: 20 October 2021 (09:34:27 CEST)
Biogeography research is flawed by the poor understanding of microbial distributions due to the lack of a systematic research framework, especially regarding appropriate study units. By combining pure culture and molecular methods, we studied the biogeographic patterns of nematode-trapping fungi by collecting and analysing 2,250 specimens from 228 sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found typical watershed patterns at the species and genetic levels of nematode-trapping fungi. The results showed that microbial biogeography could be better understood by 1) using watersheds as research units, 2) removing the coverup of widespread species, and 3) applying good sampling efforts and strategies. We suggest that watersheds could help unify the understanding of the biogeographic patterns of animals, plants, and microbes and may also help account for the historical and contemporary factors driving species distributions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; Altmetrics; Citations; Orthopedic Research Society; Publication
Online: 22 February 2023 (01:34:43 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the main themes and insights from the Journal of Orthopedic Research (JOR)/JOR Spine Workshop during the Orthopedic Research Society 2022 Annual Meeting in Tampa Bay, Florida. This workshop, organized by JOR Editor-in-Chief Dr. Linda Sandell, focused on communication strategies (particularly using social media) to broadcast published work in orthopedic research. In this manuscript, we summarize data that support the beneficial impacts of amplifying scholarly works on social media and outline a linearized workflow for constructing a Twitter posts, which can be generalized to other social media platforms, to share academic research. Finally, we identify resources to alleviate barriers to social media use and help promote professionalism and success online in the orthopedic research community. As early career scientists in orthopedics, we see immense value in using social media, particularly Twitter, to communicate our research findings and build our scholarly networks. We hope this information will be persuasive to those in the orthopedic field and be broadly applicable to others in related scientific fields who wish to disseminate findings and engage a public audience on social media. For the orthopedic research society and journal of orthopedic research, social media can assist in accomplishing our mission of creating a world without musculoskeletal limitations via the timely dissemination of orthopedic research findings and news.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1220.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: employees; interview; physical activity; qualitative research; workplace
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:36:02 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Exercise Training at work has the potential to improve employees’ produc-tivity, health, and well-being. However, exercise interventions to healthcare workers in hospitals may be challenged by a high time pressure and the ongoing workflow with patient care. Objective: The aim was to identify barriers and facilitators for participation in exercise training during work in a hospital department. Methods: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital employees of different staff groups, who participated in 12 weeks exercise twice weekly. The data analysis was a thematic approach based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and the COM-B factors in the Behavior Change Wheel. Results: Barriers and facilitators varied between different groups. Barriers included limited structure, busyness, and a discouraging culture. Facilitators in-cluded gaining a feeling of community, psychological and physical well-being. Seven contextual subthemes were vital for successful implementation of exercise in a hospital setting. Conclusions: The informants appreciated exercise training during work and wished to participate. Inpatient departments’ informants had difficulties participating in the intervention, whilst those with more administrative tasks found it easier. This study identified barriers and facilitators vital for a successful implementation of an exercise training intervention in a hospital department to improve health, wellbeing, and productivity amongst hospital employees. It explains how future interventions can improve reach, adoption, and implementation of exercise training interventions for hospital staff.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0216.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Mozambique; dairy; research
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:27:29 CEST)
The Mozambican dairy industry landscape is not well known because the research about it presents numerous inconsistencies. These inconsistencies are possibly due to miscommunication between scholars, entrepreneurs, the government and other actors, besides major events such as the civil war and policy changes and overall lack of coordination. This study aimed to catalog and relate the major studies and findings in the Mozambican dairy research, contextualize them historically, analyze the implications and provide hints for future researchers. Dairy research seemed intimately related to the industry’s development, and it has been dependent on the country’s sociopolitical changes and opportunities. Social and economic studies are more abundant, perhaps because the dairy industry is emerging, thriving to stand out in a very competitive environment, but there are also studies in applied sciences, especially microbiology and chemistry. There are promising directions to follow such as the improvement of herding techniques (e.g. feeding, disease control), multidisciplinary synergies or exploration of traditional dairy products such as masse. Also, it would be important for institutions to share their research through electronic platforms, even the information published prior to the existence of the worldwide web.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: open health; simple rules; ethics; reproducibility; research significance; open science
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:27:26 CEST)
We are witnessing a dramatic transformation in the way we do science. In recent years, significant flaws with existing scientific methods have come to light, including lack of transparency, insufficient involvement of stakeholders, disconnection from the public, and limited reproducibility of research findings. These concerns have sparked a global movement to revolutionize scientific practice and the emergence of Open Science. This new approach to science extends principles of openness to the entire research cycle, from hypothesis generation to data collection, analysis, replication, and translation from research to practice. Open Science seeks to remove all barriers to conducting high quality, rigorous, and impactful scientific research by ensuring that the data, methods, and opportunities for collaboration are open to all. Emerging digital technologies and "big data" (see "Ten simple rules for responsible big data research") have further accelerated the Open Science movement by affording new approaches to data sharing, connecting researcher networks, and facilitating the dissemination of research findings. Open scientific practices are also having a profound impact on the health sciences and medical research, and specifically how we conduct clinical research with human participants. Human health research necessitates careful considerations for practicing science in an ethical manner. There is also a particular urgency to human health research since the goal is to help people, so doing good science takes on a different meaning than simply doing science well. It also implores the scientist to reassess the conventional view of human health research as a pursuit conducted by scientists on human subjects, and lays a greater emphasis on inclusive and ethical practices to ensure that the research takes into account the interests of those who would be most impacted by the research. Openness in the context of human health research also raises greater concerns about privacy and security and presents more opportunities for people, including participants of research studies, to contribute in every capacity. At the core of open health research, scientific discoveries are not only the product of collaboration across disciplines, but must also be owned by the community that is inclusive of researchers, health workers, and patients and their families. To guide successful open health research practices, it is essential to carefully consider and delineate its guiding principles. This editorial is aimed at individuals participating in health science in any capacity, including but not limited to people living with medical conditions, health professionals, study participants, and researchers spanning all types of disciplines. We present ten simple rules that, while not comprehensive, offer guidance for conducting health research with human participants in an open, ethical, and rigorous manner. These rules can be difficult, resource-intensive, and can conflict with one another. They are aspirational and are intended to accelerate and improve the quality of human health research. Work that fails to follow these rules is not necessarily an indication of poor quality research, especially if the reasons for breaking the rules are considered and articulated (see rule 6: document everything). While most of the responsibility of following these rules falls on researchers, anyone involved in human health research in any capacity can apply them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1074.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: data analysis; computer vision algorithms; visual data; natural language processing; scientific research
Online: 2 May 2023 (04:13:23 CEST)
The abundance of information in academic articles, reports, and studies can make it challenging for researchers to gain insights from the existing literature. To address this issue, there is a growing demand for tools that can help researchers effectively parse and analyze large volumes of data. One such tool is DataDiscoveryLab, a software system that utilizes computer vision algorithms and NLP techniques to parse academic articles into text and figures, creating three separate databases. These databases allow researchers to quickly identify articles that may be relevant to their research questions, gain a deeper understanding of the research presented, and analyze visual data. The integration of article mining and computer vision in the DataDiscoveryLab software system provides researchers with a powerful tool for navigating the vast amount of scientific literature available today. Yet, as we will discuss in the latter papers these databases’ purpose is to create a bridge between researchers’ data and practically unlimited scientific publications. Yet, in this article, we will discuss how we plan to do that, and our efforts on integrating deep learning modes. After all, unlike already existing AI models, DataDiscoveryLab can be their combination and the first Generative AI in academia that can encompass every part of the natural sciences.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0036.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: city marketing; sustainability; mega project; Nuevo Norte Madrid; research
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:40:52 CET)
Madrid Nuevo Norte (Madrid New North) is an urban redevelopment program applied in the city of Madrid in Spain. In relevance with this, the aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, the project examines if Nuevo Norte project is aligned with the principles of sustainability. Secondly, the paper investigates the impact of Nuevo Norte on the application of city marketing strategies in Madrid. For that purposes, questionnaires were distributed through Internet in 122 urban developers and planners located in the Spanish capital. The results indicated that overall, Nuevo Norte contributes in the sustainable development of Madrid; however, concerns were identified regarding the budget and the timeline of the project. In addition, NNMP provides significant opportunities to local authorities to implement sustainable city marketing strategies, aiming to improve the competitiveness and the quality of life in the city of Madrid. To this end, it seems that city marketing, through the construction of Mega projects, should sift to sustainability, ensuring a better life for local residents and communities in general. The research is expected to assist local authorities in Spain to harness the potential of mega projects, such as Nuevo Norte, in designing city marketing strategies and to promote Madrid in an international context as a city that gives emphasis in urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: PageRank; gender inequality; citation impact; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:02:12 CEST)
The article's purpose is a citation analysis of the impact of scientific publications by authors of different gender compositions. The PageRank method was chosen to calculate the citation impact of scientific publications, and the citation has also estimated the impact of scientific publications based on the number of citations. The normalized citation impact of scientific publications is calculated according to nine subsets of scientific publications that correspond to patterns of different gender compositions of authors. Also, these estimates were calculated for each country with which the authors of the publications are affiliated. The Citation database was chosen for the scientometric analysis Network Dataset ( ver . 13). The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. The main subject areas of scientific publications in this database are computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, engineering, etc. The results indicate that articles with a predominantly male composition are cited more than articles with a mixed or female composition of authors in this direction. Analysis of advantages in dynamics indicates that in the last decade for developed countries, there has been a decrease in the connection between the citation impact of scientific publications and the gender composition of their authors. However, the obtained results still confirm the presence of gender inequality in science, which may be related to socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, natural homophily, and other factors that contribute to the appearance of gender gaps. An essential consequence of overcoming these gaps, including in science, is ensuring the rights of people in all their diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0457.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: affective prosody; bibliometric analysis; research impact; research trend; thematic hotspots
Online: 27 February 2023 (07:58:35 CET)
Affective prosody is an indispensable cognitive cue that moderates social activities, and has become a prevailing research topic in psychology-related disciplines. The present study conducts the first bibliometrics-based visualization analysis concerning affective prosody to evaluate the influential cases, including countries/regions, institutions, publication venues, academic articles, and disciplinary contributions, and the diachronic changes of publication trends and research hotspots. With the combination of statistical results and a qualitative literature inspection, limitations of extant studies and promising research directions were also proposed. The present study extracted the bibliographic data of 1,624 articles retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection, which were published over the past 25 years (1997-2021). Statistical results revealed four leading powers (the U.S., Germany, England, and Canada) and four emerging fronts (China, France, Netherlands, and Switzerland), and identified three primary research themes in this field, including clinical implication, measurable index, and modality-specific issues. Literature inspection demonstrated current limitations in individual characteristics control and experiment-related influential factors, and proposed two prosperous research directions. Findings of the present study could facilitate academic retrieval of affective prosody research, help concerned researchers identify thematic hotspots and seek appropriate collaboration, and provide convenience for research policy and management in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0066.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: applied health services research; competing organizational roles; high quality research
Online: 4 March 2020 (11:16:43 CET)
(1) Background: Applied health services research (AHSR) relies upon coordination across multiple organizational boundaries. Our aim was to understand how competing organizational and professional goals enhance or impede the conduct of high quality AHSR. (2) Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in two local health care systems in the UK, linked to a feasibility trial of a clinic-based intervention in secondary care. Data collection involved 24 semi-structured interviews with research managers, clinical research staff, health professionals, and patients. (3) Results: This study required a dynamic network of interactions between heterogeneous health and social care stakeholders, each characterized by differing ways of organizing activities which constitute their core functions; cultures of collaboration and interaction and understanding of what research involves and how it contributes to patient care. These interrelated factors compounded the occupational and organizational boundaries that hindered communication and coordination. (4) Conclusions: Despite the strategic development of multiple organizations to foster inter-professional collaboration, the competing goals of research and clinical practice can impede the conduct of high quality AHSR. To remedy this requires the alignment and streamlining of organizational goals, so that all agencies involved in AHSR develop a shared understanding and mutual respect for the progress of evidence-based medicine and the complex and often nuanced environments in which it is created and practiced.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Africa Phage Forum; Phages; Research; Collaboration; Network; Capacity development
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:14:10 CET)
The problem of antimicrobial resistance has created a new need for alternative/ complementary treatments. To this end, bacteriophages offer an exciting prospect, as they can infect and kill specific bacteria without harming the host. This survey aimed to evaluate the state of applied phage research in Africa, among the members of the Africa phage Forum (APF). This was a cross-sectional survey whereby a google form was created for the members of the Africa Phage forum to fill so as to access the stage of phage research in Africa. Data was collected between June and July 2021 using a structured questionnaire form. A total of 65 out of a total of 101 forum members completed the questionnaire. The survey indicated that a majority 68% of phage researchers in Africa were at the training stages of their career. Some available participants were limited (8%). Most of the members identified funding, lack of skill set, near absence of adequate laboratory infrastructure as major hurdles for phage research. Despite these challenges, 73.3% of APF members work with the ESKAPE group with the majority of its members carrying out research in Phage in Biocontrol (80%), whereas others perform research related to human phage therapy (60%). However, it appeared this research has not yet reached the stage of commercialization. Overall, Phage research is in its infancy in Africa. Key challenges included poor laboratory infrastructure, lack of capacity building in the phage field, and lack of local awareness on the significance of phages for policymakers and governments. APF could, therefore, play a role in creating phage awareness in Africa; mobilizing resources; enhancing networks and collaborations amongst APF members and beyond, especially with more experienced phage mentors in the Western countries, to greatly reduce the gap in knowledge and enhance phage research in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Sensors; Sensor research; Research fields; Technological trajectories; Biosensors; Wearable sensors; Wireless sensor network; Evolution of science; Dynamics of science; Scientific development
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:19:44 CEST)
The fundamental question in the field of sensor research is new directions of scientific fields, which play a vital role in the progress of science and technology. This study confronts this question here by developing a bibliometric analysis, which endeavors to explain the evolution of sensor research and new technologies that are critical to science and society. The database of Scopus concerning scientific documents and patents is used for statistical and computational analyses in these topics. Results suggest that emerging technological trajectories in sensors are wireless sensor networks, wearable sensors and biosensors. Main characteristics of these growing research fields and technologies in sensors are described for fruitful implications of research and innovation policy directed to science advances and technological change in society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0250.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Fashion research; Sustainable fashion design; Fashion research methods; Sustainable design; ChatGPT
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:34:17 CEST)
The need of research is often a complex issue. The standardization of methodologies, deeply rooted in the scientific method, has allowed humanity to progress. Since the fashion industry represents one of the most problematic industries globally, it is paramount to investigate the handicaps of fashion research practice. The goal of this systematic review is to outline the most used methodologies in the fashion research field that are being explored to achieve sustainability goals. The findings highlight the fragmentation of the literature in fashion research methodologies in relation to sustainability. Interviews and case studies are the most used methods while other less conventional, like Social Life Cycle Assessment, have been also tried. Finally, it is tested how ChatGPT can discuss and inform future routes to incorporate the findings. Together, this work reveals the handicaps of the fashion research methodologies and show an example on how ChatGPT can be assessed to help the fashion practitioners define research plans to achieve sustainable goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0978.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: city biodiversity; bibliometric analysis; bibliometrix; research development; research trend; science mapping
Online: 26 April 2023 (10:55:37 CEST)
The biodiversity loss in urban areas has attracted public concern, which is one of the urgent global environmental issues. This study used bibliometric methods to analyze 3351 publications from 1995-2021 that retrieved from the Web of Science and visually represented the state-of-the-art of researches in city biodiversity field. The prolific authors, journals(sources), institutions, and countries are clearly identified. The most cited and influential paper proposed a conceptual framework of associations between urban green space, and ecosystem and human health, and then concluded that green infrastructure could physically and psychologically benefits people by ecosystem services it provides, and make a better socio-economic benefit. The theme hotspots are urbanization, urban ecology, ecosystem services, urban planning, green infrastructure, urban forest and urban park et al. Ingo Kowarik is the most productive author in terms of number of publications. Michael L. McKinney is the most cited authors by the publications in analyzed corpus, who identified how urbanization harms native ecosystems, however, a well ecologically educated population could greatly enhance species richness in all ecosystems. Urban park, garden, fragmented green spaces and green corridor networks could help enhance city biodiversity. In general, the city biodiversity research presents a trend that involves intensive global cooperation, and become more comprehensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-Cov-2; geographical regions; research interests and findings; collaborative research
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:22:44 CET)
The emergence of COVID-19 has prompted an unprecedented scientic publication with the aim of better understanding this new disease. This study assessed the scientic impact and disciplinary priorities of the published papers on the pandemic by comparing epidemiological (EP) and social sciences (SS) research interests. Papers were identified via keywords searching using Google Scholar and Scopus databases. From an initial 1720 papers, we identified 597 relevant articles, of which 347 were for EP researches and 250 for SS studies. We extracted information, such as authors' countries, and research thematic related to EP and SS. The results revealed that most papers were authored by Asian (37.5%), European (30.5%) and American (19.6%) scientists. Only 10.1% and 2.3% of authors were aliated with African and Oceanian institutions, respectively, indicating that the regions most affected by the pandemic mainly contributed to the scientic publications. In total, 26 research themes were recorded from both EP and SS studies. There was a high signicant dierence among themes in both research fields (Chi-square = 1204.3, df = 1, p-value < 0.001). EP papers mostly dealt with clinical trials (54.5%) and diagnosis (53.3%). These papers assessed the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of the disease (incubation period, symptomatic period, recovering or death), testing tests developed, drugs and vaccines used. SS papers were mainly concerned with the sociocultural analyses (78%) and economic impact (55.6%) of the pandemic. They mainly focused on behavioral changes induced by the pandemic and strategies developed to mitigate its impacts. This study highlights the difference between regions and gaps between scientific disciplines concerning the proposed responses to control the pandemic. It is important to promote collaborative and interdisciplinary studies for health emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: graduate programs; higher education; interdisciplinary research; STEM; transdisciplinary research; urban sustainability
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:30:23 CET)
Urban settings are increasingly faced with challenges across natural and engineered environmental systems, threatening the sustainability of urban centers where >50% of the world's population resides. The pressures of aging infrastructure, water and air pollution, and environmental justice exemplify the growing need for urban professionals to employ complex scientific reasoning across disciplines where they can effectively address the multi-faceted issues of urban sustainability. Here we present an innovative model for preparing the next generation of public, private, and academic leaders to address complex problems in urban sustainability. Specifically, we outline the design and implementation of an integrated, adaptable graduate training program, with the goals of science leadership, curriculum relevancy, community impact, broader applicability, recruitment into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs and careers, and program sustainability. This program addresses human-ecosystem challenges using a transdisciplinary approach to produce scientific products in partnership with local communities, businesses, industries, scientists, and policy makers, while providing a mechanism to understand and overcome contemporary societal challenges. Students receive rigorous training in their home disciplines, coupled with training across disciplinary lines and developmental experiences, to prepare them to communicate, collaborate, and innovate in a variety of contexts. Training success is evaluated across measurable competency domains including problem definition, research methods, communication, collaboration, and problem-solving. After three years the program expanded relationships across fields and professions, successfully established 18 internship opportunities with community partners, created a new dual-title PhD program open to students in 5 academic departments, and facilitated the co-production of knowledge with external partners. This model bridges the gaps between research, education, and application, providing an integrated, rigorous graduate training program that fosters collaborative problem-solving between STEM graduate students and the broader community of professionals conducting sustainability work in a post-industrial urban setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0010.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Machine learning; Scientometrics; Africa; Research community; Open science; Health informatics
Online: 3 May 2023 (14:43:44 CEST)
Machine learning has seen enormous growth in the last decade, with healthcare being a prime application for advanced diagnostics and improved patient care. The application of machine learning for healthcare is particularly pertinent in Africa, where many countries are resource-scarce. However, it is unclear how much research on this topic is arising from African institutes themselves, which is a crucial aspect for applications of machine learning to unique contexts and challenges on the continent. Here, we conduct a bibliometric study of African contributions to research publications related to machine learning for healthcare, as indexed in Scopus, between 1993 and 2022. We identified 3,772 research outputs, with most of these published since 2020. North African countries currently lead the way with 64.5% of publications for the reported period, yet Sub-Saharan Africa is rapidly increasing its output. We found that international support in the form of funding and collaborations is correlated with research output generally for the continent, with local support garnering less attention. Understanding African research contributions to machine learning for healthcare is a crucial first step in surveying the broader academic landscape, forming stronger research communities, and providing advanced and contextually aware biomedical access to Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1214.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: multiple sclerosis; therapeutic climbing; motivation; training conditions; neurorehabilitation; qualitative research
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:01:25 CET)
Background: Therapeutic climbing (TC) has emerged as a prospective rehabilitation approach for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Existing literature primarily focuses on the physical and psychological benefits of TC across diverse populations but is limited concerning its application and efficacy for patients with MS. Objectives: This study aimed to delineate the experiences, effects, and perceptions of both individuals with MS and therapists regarding TC, highlighting the potential benefits and challenges of this therapeutic approach. Methods: Using a qualitative design, structured interviews were conducted with patients living with MS (N=5) and therapists (N=7) involved in TC sessions at a rehabilitation facility. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic qualitative text analysis. Results: Our analysis resulted in the identification of five main categories: (1) motivational factors, (2) training conditions, (3) training content, (4) observed effects, and (5) safety protocols. Findings primarily centred around the motivational aspects of TC. Participants consistently reported experiencing feelings of accomplishment, success, enjoyment, and increased self-confidence. Furthermore, TC was often perceived as a comprehensive intervention, addressing endurance, strength, flexibility, neuromotor functions, cognition, and mental health while having a low-risk profile. However, due to the demanding nature of TC, careful fatigue management is crucial. This entails personalized intensity adjustments during sessions and coordinating TC with other physically demanding therapies when implementing TC within a rehabilitation environment. Conclusions: TC shows promise within MS rehabilitation and can be considered safe under certain framework conditions. This research sheds light on its potential benefits, facilitators and barriers and provides insights for practical integration into rehabilitation programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; research; knowledge society; critical thinking; educational policy
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:09:19 CEST)
In an era characterized by a move towards a “knowledge society”, universities are central in fostering “knowledgeability”, that is the reflexive understanding of knowledge in knowledge societies. The objective of “knowledgeability” can be met through creating a stronger link between education and research. Furthermore, overall student performance, for example in critical thinking and problem solving, can be improved if research-related activities are incorporated into the curriculum. The aim of this paper is to use inter-national examples to discuss the research- education nexus from four different perspectives, namely context, policy, im- plementation and quality, with case studies from higher education institutions in Singapore and Sweden. We suggest that different integrative technologies can be used to enhance the links, but it will be essential to consider the inputs of training, service and support in using new technology. Interestingly, the act of evaluating the link between edu- cation and research will increase awareness of this linkage by stakeholders involved in both education and research. In turn the link can be strengthened, contributing to increased quality in both education and research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: academy; drug development; industrial pharmacy; pharmaceutical technology; research method-ology
Online: 17 March 2022 (01:56:47 CET)
The aim of this review is to present the Quality by Design (QbD) model as a suitable methodology to perform research in the academic Costa Rican institutions that teach Pharmacy. Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were screened for original and review papers, as well as short communications published not more than 10 years ago. Publications were screened by title and abstract. Relevant references were used to develop three important themes: The University’s Research Model in Costa Rica, QbD Model, and QbD as a Research Methodology for Industrial Pharmacy in the Academy. In this sense, the QbD model is a great methodology for carrying out research projects regarding Pharmaceutical Sciences but especially for Drug Development. Academic research based on this model enables training and developing practical, scientific, and leadership skills in pharmacy students. The generated knowledge can be shared in the classrooms, which represents an ideal environment to communicate their research results and to foster collaborative work between researchers, professors, and students. The participation of all these actors allows a high level of commitment to research work, which benefits the scientific advancement of the university and society. It is important to visualize the student body as potential key actors in the research process, encouraging in them the desire to become trained scientific researchers who want to pursue a career in the academy, giving continuity to it.
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:46:40 CEST)
Objectives: Data sharing has become a requirement of many funding bodies and is becoming a scientific standard in many disciplines. In medical research, however, data sharing can conflict with clinicians’ obligation to protect patients’ privacy. General recommendations on data sharing exist also for clinical research, but so far lack practical and Swiss-specific aspects. The objective of this document is to provide practical recommendations for all relevant aspects of data sharing in agreement with legislation in Switzerland. Methods: This document was written by members of the Swiss CTU Network, a network of academic clinical trial units. The process did not follow a formalized Delphi process. After an internal consensus round, this report is now published as pre-print for external review. A second version will incorporate external comments. We plan to publish this document as a text in progress, as we expect relevant changes in related fields such as the development of further dedicated medical repositories or methodological advances in anonymization techniques. Results: We developed principles and practical recommendations with respect to informed consent, data management plan, anonymization, data structure and format, coding of variables, metadata and documentation, version control, selection of repository, requesting and use of data. We also provide a summary of legal aspects relevant for the Swiss context. Conclusions: The intension to share data has an impact not only after a clinical trial or an observational study is completed, but also during the planning period, the conduct and the analysis phase. Clinical researchers need to be aware at the beginning of a study on how to inform patients and at least the amount of work related to preparing data for sharing, metadata, and any further documentation. This report provides details of aspects to be considered, suggests decision criteria, and provides examples and checklists, in order to support data sharing in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0305.v1
Online: 25 December 2018 (12:04:24 CET)
Postgraduate students in South Africa and other parts of the world, particularly in developing nations struggle to complete the research component of their studies. According to the National Development Plan ( 2013) it has become a requirement for South African institutions to play a pivotal role in knowledge production so as to transform South Africa from a resource-based economy towards a knowledge-based economy. In pursuit of meeting this requirement and further to increase subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), South African institutions of higher learning have been on the drive for recruiting postgraduate students en masse. One of the main problems facing South African institutions is that the number of students enrolled does not correspond to those who graduate at the end of the postgraduate programme study period. This study is a systematic review of literature on challenges in postgraduate supervision and further proposes a possible solution. Five South African institutions of higher learning’s postgraduate throughput data is carefully studied and substantiated by previous research on postgraduate supervision challenges on these particular institutions. Study findings present challenges related to research capacity development and burden of supervision at these institutions. Collaborative methods of supervision such as the C.O.S.T.A model are hereby proposed as possible solutions to the current throughput problem in South Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: aflatoxin, history, research, Mozambique
Online: 7 June 2018 (10:23:53 CEST)
In Mozambique, the aflatoxin research started in 1960’s and has been carried through apparently unrelated efforts according to opportunities. However, there was a major trend divided in early epidemiological studies and recent agricultural research. Early investigators found strong correlation between aflatoxin contamination and primary liver cancer. Since then, there have been efforts to analyze the extent of contamination, especially in groundnuts and maize. More recent investigation and intervention aimed mostly to reduce the level of contamination enough to allow such commodities to gain acceptance in the international market. The current status of knowledge is still marginal but the increasing involvement of local authorities, academia and international organizations seems promising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Metallothionein (MT); Scientific discovery; Scientific pursuit; Research strategies; upward looking research; Exploratory research; Protein function; Compensation; Moonlighting; multifunctional proteins; Vestiges
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:39:39 CET)
In the mid-1950s, Bert L. Vallee and his colleague Marvin Margoshes discovered a molecule known today as metallothionein (MT). Meanwhile MTs have been shown to be common in many biological organisms. Despite their prevalence, however, it remains unclear to date what exactly MTs do and how they contribute to the biological function of an organism or organ. Honoring Dr. Vallee’s sometimes innovative approach to research, this contribution sets out to show how philosophy of science can help us gain a clearer picture of biochemical research. We shall look into both the discovery of as well as recent research on Dr. Vallee’s beloved family of MT proteins to illustrate (i) how exploratory and upward-looking research play important roles in biochemical discoveries although they do not fit the paradigmatic approach of decomposition and struc-ture-function mapping. Besides, we shall suggest (ii) that while other biochemical molecules ex-hibit a clearly identifiable function, other research hypotheses might be worthy of pursuit in the case of MTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0236.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: holography; holograms; digital animated hologram; holographic space; practice-based research
Online: 22 July 2019 (08:44:42 CEST)
A critical context is an essential aspect of practice-based research; however, a lack of structure exists to obtain and evaluate criticism from peers. This paper presents a case study of how the ‘silent student’ critique method used in Higher Education settings in the UK (Elkins, 2014) was adapted for a holographic arts research study. A ‘silent researcher’ critique session with nine experts was held in Aveiro, Portugal, June 2018 to evaluate the author’s digital holographic artwork, on display at the City Museum. The experts asked the author critical questions about the artwork while the author remained silent. The session was filmed, transcribed and processed using a general inductive approach for analysing qualitative evaluation data (Thomas, 2006). This paper outlines the benefits and drawbacks of using this new critique method for research. The benefits included; participant’s careful response to the artwork avoiding engagement of egos of critic and researcher, the drawbacks included the difficulty of evaluating against a pre-determined research question when the discussion could not be steered. This paper evaluates the artwork critiqued describing how the work contributes to the aesthetic development of the medium of holography; which used the Z-axis of holographic space to depict a chronological narrative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: parents; children; asthma; qualitative research; psychological distress; psychological adjustment
Online: 22 May 2018 (12:21:47 CEST)
Many parents have difficulty managing childhood asthma. In Hong Kong (HK), while medication is the primary form of treatment, traditional Chinese medicine is another favored option. In addition, HK follows a dual-track healthcare system, which may pose unique experiences for Chinese parents in childhood asthma management. This qualitative descriptive study aimed to explore the experiences of HK Chinese parents in caring for their children with asthma. Methods: Fourteen HK Chinese mothers of children (aged 3-10) suffering from asthma were purposively sampled to participate in individual, semi-structured interviews. A realist approach following conventional content analysis was used to interpret the interviews. Results: The mothers expressed feelings of uncertainty, fear of asthma crises, and searching for ways to cope. These feelings triggered various strategies to control their child’s asthma. As long as the child’s asthma symptoms recurred, the mothers’ distress continued. Their distress was sometimes exacerbated by self-doubt and worries about whether they would receive adequate support from their family and healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Helping parents to understand their limits may help them be more open to varied aspects of their caregiving experiences, and thus to cope better. Psychological interventions together traditional educational training may help to alleviate parents’ psychological difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Chronic Illness; ME/CFS; Management; Research
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:38:57 CEST)
We propose a framework for the understanding of the pathophysiology and management of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) that considers wider determinants of health and long-term temporal variation in pathophysiological features and disease phenotype throughout the natural history of the disease. As in other chronic diseases, ME/CFS evolves through different stages, from asymptomatic predisposition, progressing to a prodromal stage, and then to symptomatic disease. Disease incidence depends on genetic makeup and environment factors, the exposure to an insult, or repeated insults, and the nature of the host response. In people who develop ME/CFS, normal homeostatic processes in response to adverse insults may be replaced by aberrant responses leading to dysfunctional states. Thus, the predominantly neuro-immune and autonomic manifestations, underlined by a hyper-metabolic state, that characterise early disease, may be followed by various processes leading to multi-systemic related symptoms. This abnormal metabolic state and the effects of a range of mediators such as products of oxidative and nitrosamine stress, may lead to progressive cell and metabolic dysfunction culminating in a hypometabolic state with low energy production. These processes do not seem to happen uniformly; although a spiralling of progressive inter-related and self-sustaining abnormalities may ensue, reversion to states of milder abnormalities is possible if the host is able to restate responses to improve homeostatic equilibrium. Disease management and research efforts should seek to identify and apply strategies targeted at the different pathophysiological dysfunctions that characterise different disease stages. As disease presentation varies over time, no single case description, set of diagnostic criteria, or molecular feature is currently diagnostic for all patients at all times. While acknowledging its limitations due to the incomplete research evidence, we suggest the proposed framework may improve research design and health care interventions for people with ME/CFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: research topics; materials science; energy; Scopus; bibliometric analysis; trends; keyword clustering
Online: 5 July 2021 (15:53:03 CEST)
The objective of this article: analysis of research trends on the topic "Materials Science for Energy Engineering" for the period 2012-2021. Materials and methods: bibliometric analysis of data from the Scopus abstract database.Results. It is shown that this topic is developing faster than the general energy topics.The key feature of the research trends is a significant increase in work on the development of materials for renewable energy and a decrease in the number of publications related to nuclear power.The primary goal of many studies is to increase the efficiency of renewable energy production through the use of new materials.The importance of the topic is evidenced by the emergence of new journals that quickly entered the first quartile of the abstract databases Scopus and Web of Science, for example: ACS Applied Energy Materials.There has been a significant increase of interest in perovskite solar cells, layered semiconductors, triboelectric nanogenerators, cobalt compounds, sulfur compounds, and oxygen and hydrogen evolution reaction during Electrolysis.Publications on electric batteries are well represented in all time intervals. The focus is on electrode materials and battery efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: management in government; public sector reforms; improvements in government; field research; qualitative research
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:28:31 CEST)
Purpose: When it comes to improving citizen service delivery standard and processes, or broadly, management in government (MIG), many reform programs and improvement efforts are ongoing across different ministries, departments, and agencies. This paper is part of a larger empirical research where we are interested to know what those programs and projects are, and how they are doing, and what the gaps are. Design/methodology/approach: Analyzing the publicly available data on the government portal and donors’ website, this article provides an overall idea of current reforms in various places of government. In parallel, field research was conducted through visiting agency offices, observing office environment and mechanisms, and interviewing public managers who are working at district and sub-district level offices of directorates or agencies.Findings: As a trend, state-led development process and the traditional mode of administration have moved to New Public Management based quality and performance approach. All donors have their own strategy framework document like ‘Country Assistance strategy’, ‘Country Operations and Business Plan’, Logical Framework Document, Focus or Priority Streams, etc. Many of the projects are sectoral and agency or ministry specific and have an inherent limitations, due to ‘cadre’ based organizational structural arrangement. So, it is common ‘not to own the projects’, rather ‘using the fund as much as possible anyway within the given project duration’. When the fund ends, implementing units, either government or NGOs, abandon the projects. That is why many projects are actually half done without significant and sustained direction.Originality/value: We can conclude that the typical ‘top-down’ or ‘trickle down’ conception is still dominant in design and implementation of reforms programs and service quality efforts. So, how to reach systemically at the bottom where public managers provide services to citizens, needs even more deliberation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0129.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: PageRank; Time-Weighted PageRank; collective subjects; citation intensity; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 10 October 2022 (14:04:52 CEST)
This study aims to estimate the scientific productivity of collective subjects. The objective is to build a method for evaluating scientific productivity that allows calculating productivity, including for new collective subjects with a small citation network—the paper purposes the Time-Weighted PageRank method with citation intensity (TWPR-CI). The Citation Network Dataset (ver. 13) has been analyzed to verify the method. The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. There have been allocated four classes of collective subjects (more than 27,000 collective subjects in total). For each class, scientific productivity estimates from 2000 to 2021 were calculated using the PageRank, Time-Weighted PageRank, and TWPR-CI methods. It is shown that the advantage of the TWPR-CI method is the higher sensitivity of the scientific productivity estimates for new collective subjects on average during the first ten years of observation. At the same time, the assessment of scientific productivity for other collective subjects according to this method is stable. However, the small citation network of the new collective subjects does not allow an adequate assessment of scientific productivity during the first years of its operation. Therefore, the TWPR-CI method can be used to assess the scientific productivity of collective subjects, in particular the productivity of new ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Ayurveda research; good research; hypothesis generation; hypothesis testing; managing bias and sample size
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:45:11 CEST)
Ayurveda as a healthcare system has survived for thousands of years but continues to be dogged by reported lack of efficacy of the treatments in clinical trials. The reported lack of efficacy could be due to a real lack of efficacy (which then contradicts the survival of Ayurveda as a functional medical system enjoying considerable public patronage) or could be attributed to inadequacies in the efforts towards evidence generation or in a larger context the overall scientific conduct of research in Ayurveda. In an effort towards better evidence generation, there is an immediate need for standardizing the design, conduct and reporting of clinical trials of Ayurveda but it is a daunting task. For this effort to benefit the scientific endeavors of Ayurveda researchers, it should allow the researchers to be able to apply Ayurveda’s multi-component, individualized and inherently holistic approach. Statistical principles can benefit this effort. Statistical hypothesis testing (SHT) is central to these statistical principles and also aligns well with conventional scientific principles of evidence generation. Although there are challenges with SHT, good practitioners engaged in it do much more than just apply the mathematical theory behind it. As a particular example, lot of time in clinical trial designing is spent in addressing biases and designing trials prudently by minimizing the effect of such biases. SHT can benefit such an effort objectively. There is a need for Ayurveda researchers to engage deeply and mindfully about biases in study design in order to gain scientific validity and acceptability. The article highlights issues that arise in Ayurveda research, and discusses few ways of dealing with these issues using statistical principles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bibliometric analysis; Pubmed; rubella virus; research output; research collaboration; Biblioshiny; Bibliometrix; R-package
Online: 31 March 2022 (07:37:09 CEST)
Background: This work aimed to undertake a bibliometric analysis of the Rubella virus. Medical studies were conducted between 2000 and 2022 to discover trends, dynamics, and research outputs in the industry. Methods:A bibliometric study was performed using R software to determine research characteristics indexed worldwide and published in Rubella research in medical studies. The Rubella virus was chosen as the subject in the PUBMED database, and 374 papers from the previous two decades were reviewed. Results: There was an increase in the number of publications after 2003. The United States was the most essential countryamong all which had the most contributions on Rubella Virus. Conclusion:Rubella research has increased in the medical profession over the previous decade, with the United States leading to publications in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Roy's Adaptation Model; Nursing Research; Nursing Clinical Practice; Nursing Theory
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:44:47 CEST)
Background: One way to demonstrate the existence of nursing is to develop a nursing theory model through nursing research which can ultimately be implemented in nursing practice. RAM is one of the most frequently used models in guiding nursing research. Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM) is one of the most useful conceptual frameworks that guide nursing practice, direct research, and influence education. Theory-guided nursing practice is fundamental in providing the framework for developing superior and quality nursing care.Objectives: This systematic review aims to critically analyze recent studies using RAM as a conceptual framework to identify the effectiveness of this model in guiding nursing research.Methods: A literature search was conducted on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. There were no population boundaries and diagnoses involved in the study. The study is a quantitative design focused on publication between 2015-2021. The methodological quality of applying the Cochrane and JBI bias tools. The analysis uses narrative synthesis.Results: 20 studies were found out of 1,315 studies. The research population found is very diverse. The given intervention follows the conceptual framework of RAM. RAM-based interventions effectively overcome the problems experienced by patients and reduce the perceived symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.Conclusion: The conceptual use of RAM theory in nursing research has been widely reported. RAM-based interventions have a significant impact and have strong evidence-based practice in improving patient health status.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0620.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: mobile health; healthcare; mobile apps; tinnitus therapy; cbt; self help; tinnitus research
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:42 CEST)
Tinnitus is a complex and heterogeneous psycho-physiological disorder responsible for causing a phantom ringing or buzzing sound albeit the absence of an external sound source. It has a direct influence on affecting the quality of life of its sufferers. Despite being around for a while, there hasn’t been a cure for tinnitus, and the usual course of action for its treatment involves use of tinnitus retaining and sound therapy, or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). One positive aspect about these therapies is that they can be administered face-to-face as well as delivered via internet or smartphone. Smartphones are especially helpful as they are highly personalized devices, and offer a well-established ecosystem of apps, accessible via respective marketplaces of differing mobile platforms. Note that current therapeutic treatments such as CBT have shown to be effective in suppressing the tinnitus symptoms when administered face-to-face, their effectiveness when being delivered using smartphones is not known so far. A quick search on the prominent market places of popular mobile platforms (Android and iOS) yielded roughly 250 smartphone apps offering tinnitus-related therapies and tinnitus management. As this number is expected to steadily increase due to high interest in smartphone app development, a contemporary review of such apps is crucial. In this paper, we aim to review scientific studies validating the smartphone apps, particularly to test their effectiveness in tinnitus management and treatment. We use the PRISMA guidelines for systematic identification of studies on major scientific literature sources and delineate the outcomes of identified studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ChatGPT; educational technology; research; programming education; large language model; GPT-3; artificial intelligence
Online: 28 March 2023 (04:14:47 CEST)
In recent years, the rise of advanced artificial intelligence technologies has had a profound impact on many fields, including education and research. One such technology is ChatGPT, a powerful large language model developed by OpenAI. This technology offers exciting opportunities for students and educators, including personalized feedback, increased accessibility, interactive conversations, lesson preparation, evaluation, and new ways to teach complex concepts. However, ChatGPT poses different threats to the traditional education and research system, including the possibility of cheating on online exams, human-like text generation, diminished critical thinking skills, and difficulties in evaluating information generated by ChatGPT. This study explores potential opportunities and threats that ChatGPT poses to overall education from the perspective of students and educators. Furthermore, for programming learning, we explore how ChatGPT helps students improve their programming skills. To demonstrate this, we conducted different coding-related experiments with ChatGPT, including code generation from problem descriptions, pseudocode generation of algorithms from texts, and code correction. We also verified the generated codes with an online judge system to evaluate their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: child; deafness; parents; qualitative research.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:29:25 CEST)
This study was carried out in a qualitative research type and phenomenological design since it was aimed to determine the life experiences of the parents of deaf children. The study sample consisted of 20 parents of deaf children registered in a special education and rehabilitation center who spoke Turkish and were literate and did not have hearing loss. The data were collected through in-depth interviews in Istanbul between December and January 2022. Colaizzi's phenomenological interpretation method was used in qualitative data analysis. It was determined that parents of deaf children experienced anxiety, sadness, and happiness during diagnosis. They lacked information at first, but then they gained knowledge in the process, and it was not easy to accept this process. They stated that having a deaf child requires more time, responsibility, and effort than other children, this situation affects their social life, and they experience interpersonal conflicts. When parents were asked how they coped, they said they did it through prayer, social support, or time to themselves. It can be recommended to apply psychosocial intervention programs to the parents of deaf children, especially their mothers, from the first diagnosis process.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Fungi; Mycology; Canada; Research; Community
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:45:17 CEST)
Fungi critically impact the health and function of global ecosystems and economies. In Canada, fungal researchers often work within silos defined by sub-discipline and institutional type, complicating the collaborations necessary to understand the impacts fungi have on the environment, economy, and plant and animal health. Here, we announce the establishment of the Canadian Fungal Research Network (CanFunNet, https://fungalresearch.ca) whose mission is to strengthen and promote fungal research in Canada by facilitating dialogue among scientists. We summarize the challenges and opportunities for Canadian fungal research that were discussed at CanFunNet’s inaugural meeting in 2019, and identify four priorities for our community: 1) increasing collaboration among scientists; 2) studying diversity in the context of ecological disturbance; 3) preserving culture collections in the absence of sustained funding; and 4) leveraging diverse expertise to attract trainees. We have gathered additional information to support our recommendations, including a survey identifying underrepresentation of fungal-related courses at Canadian universities, a list of Canadian fungaria and culture collections, and a case study of a human fungal pathogen outbreak. We anticipate that these discussions will help prioritize fungal research in Canada, and we welcome all researchers to join this nationwide effort to enhance knowledge dissemination and funding advocacy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide prevention; e-mental health; implementation; fundamental research; ecological momentary assessment; experience sampling; network analysis
Online: 18 April 2017 (03:24:13 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour remains difficult to predict and prevent, even for experienced mental health care professionals. The known distal risk factors for suicidal behaviour are not sufficiently specific to fully understand the complex dynamic processes that precede a suicide attempt. Real-time mobile monitoring data can be used to analyse proximal risk mechanisms within the suicidal process. At the same time smartphone-based safety planning and self-monitoring may enhance a patient’s self-management skills thereby increasing their capacity to respond to a suicidal crisis and to become more aware of crisis symptoms. The current paper describes the theoretical and conceptual rationale for the CASPAR study which applies an innovative approach to the study of suicidal processes. It uses basic science approaches to inform the implementation of an innovative suicide prevention intervention. We aim to develop and implement mobile safety plan in conjunction with real-time monitoring in order to both directly implement suicide prevention interventions and to study the ongoing dynamics of individual suicidal behaviour by applying network analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1170.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: research data management; FAIR; file structure; file crawler; semantic data model
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:05:47 CEST)
Although other methods exist to store and manage data in modern information technology, the standard solution are file systems. Therefore keeping well-organized file structures and file system layouts can be key to a sustainable research data management infrastructure. However, file structures alone are lacking several important capabilities for FAIR data management: The two most striking are insufficient visualization of data and inadequate possibilities for searching and getting an overview. Research data management systems (RDMS) can fill this gap, but many do not support the simultaneous use of the file system and the RDMS. This simultaneous use can have many benefits, but keeping data in the RDMS in synchrony with the file structure is challenging. Here, we present concepts that allow to keep file structures and semantic data models (in RDMS) synchronous. Furthermore, we propose a specification in yaml-format that allows for a structured and extensible declaration and implementation of a mapping between the file system and data models used in semantic research data management. Implementing these concepts will facilitate the re-use of specifications for multiple use cases. Furthermore, the specification can serve as a machine-readable and, at the same time, human-readable documentation of specific file system structures. We demonstrate our work using the Open Source RDMS CaosDB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1104.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Climate change; Policymaking; Foresight; Sustainable Development Goals; Research priorities; Delphi study
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:48:54 CEST)
The main purpose of this article is to identify key areas of research on climate change in the context of the SDGs, focusing on the potential development impacts on Bolivia and Paraguay. Application of the Delphi technique with the involvement of a panel of experts allowed the consolidation of different perspectives and knowledge on climate change, focusing on those that experts considered to have the greatest potential impact on the regions. The results of this study constitute a valuable guide for decision-makers and funding bodies, highlighting research areas that could have a significant impact at the national and regional levels, as well as for researchers, identifying specific research areas crucial for regional development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: resource efficiency; zero waste; resource recovery from waste; low-carbon economy; circular economy infrastructure; clean growth; resource productivity; sustainable development goals; transdisciplinary research; participatory action research
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:27:02 CET)
The UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices, depleting finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk and economic instability. This over-consumption produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on the wellbeing of people in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW) promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in the transition process. RRfW collaborates with academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach to realise such a transition. Reflecting insights from RRfW’s government engagement, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society. It envisions a long-term future for waste and resource management that maximises the value of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Four themes and an approach are proposed, including recommendations for regulatory instruments and a stable policy framework. It recommends further collaborative research to capitalise on opportunities for economic growth, innovation and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare in all four UK nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: design; clinical decision support systems; intelligent systems; expert systems; Machine Learning; decision-making; medical algorithm; design science research.; obstructive sleep apnea
Online: 28 March 2023 (03:18:38 CEST)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is nowadays one of the respiratory pathologies with a higher in-cidence globally in developed countries. This situation led to an increase in the demand for medical appointments and diagnostic studies related to that condition, especially those based on poly-somnographies and cardiorespiratory polygraphies. These studies are limited in resources, causing long waiting lists with the subsequent impact on the patients’ health. Furthermore, it is necessary to mention that OSA’s symptomatology is not very specific, and it is typically present in the general population (excessive sleepiness, snore, etc.). In this regard, this paper proposes a novel intelligent clinical decision support system for the diagnosis of OSA which could be used to help medical teams, both in primary care settings and in units specialized in respiratory pathologies. The aim of the proposed system is to help discriminate the patients suspected of suffering from the pathology from those who are not. To this end, two types of information sets of heterogeneous nature are consid-ered. The first one encompasses objective data, related to the patient's health profile with infor-mation usually available in electronic health records. The second type comprises subjective data, referred to the symptomatology reported by the patient in a previous interview. To process the first group of information, a Machine Learning classification algorithm is used, Bagged Trees in this case. For processing the second information set, related with the symptomatology of the patient, a col-lection of expert systems based on fuzzy inferential systems arranged in cascade are employed. As a result, the system is able to determine two risk indicators related to the patient's risk of suffering from OSA: the Statistical Risk and the Symbolic Risk respectively. Subsequently, by interpreting both risk indicators mentioned it will be possible to determine the severity of the patients’ health, proposing a preliminary evaluation on their condition. For the initial tests of the system, a software artifact has been built using a dataset with 4,978 selected patients, suspected of suffering from OSA, from the Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital in Vigo. The results obtained are promising, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this type of tools in medical diagnosis. Once the system has been validated with new data from clinical environments, it is considered as possible to obtain a relevant improvement in the quality of the healthcare services, and a reduction in the associated costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0894.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: invasive fungal infection; fungus; candida; aspergillus; spondylodiscitis; osteomyelitis; mortality; chang gung research database
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:24:43 CET)
Objectives. Invasive fungal spondylodiscitis (IFSD) is rare and could be lethal in certain circumstances. Previous literature revealed limited data concerning the outcomes. This study aimed to establish a risk-scoring system. Methods. A total of 53 patients were included in the study from a multi-centered database in Taiwan. All the clinicopathological and laboratory data were retrospectively analyzed. Variables strongly related to 1-year mortality were identified using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to express the performance of our IFSD scoring model. Results. Five strong predictors were included in the IFSD score: predisposing immunocompromised state, the initial presentation of either radiculopathy or myelopathy, initial laboratory findings of WBC > 12.0 or < 0.4 103/uL, hemoglobin < 8 g/dL, and evidence of candidemia. 1-year mortality rates for patients with IFSD Scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0%, 16.7%, 56.3%, 72.7%, and 100%, respectively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.823. Conclusions. We developed a practical scoring model with easily obtained demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters to predict the probability of 1-year mortality in patients with IFSD. However, more large-scale and international validations would be necessary before this scoring model is commonly used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0264.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: price-setting newsvendor, one-shot decision theory, innovative product, scenario, behavioral operations research
Online: 26 August 2019 (12:30:03 CEST)
In this paper, we consider a manufacturer who produces and sells a kind of innovative product in the monopoly market environment. Because the life cycle of innovative product is usually shorter than its procurement lead time, one unique demand quantity (scenario) will occur in the selling season, thus there is only one chance for the manufacturer to determine both optimal production quantity and optimal sale price. Considering this one-time feature of such a decision problem, a price-setting newsvendor model for innovative products is proposed. Different to the existing price-setting newsvendor models, the proposed models determine the optimal production quantity and sale price based on some specific state (scenario) which is most applicable for the manufacturer. The theoretical analysis provides managerial insights into the manufacturers’ behaviors in a monopoly market of an innovative product and several phenomena in the luxury goods market are well explained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0375.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: biomedical research; electroretinography; electroretinogram; ERG; classification; deep learning; cnn; transformer; wavelet; scalogram
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:56:00 CEST)
The continuous advancements in healthcare technology have empowered the discovery, diagnosis, and prediction of diseases, revolutionizing the field. Artificial intelligence (AI) is expected to play a pivotal role in achieving the goals of precision medicine, particularly in disease prevention, detection, and personalized treatment. This study aims to determine the optimal combination of the mother wavelet and AI model for the analysis of pediatric electroretinogram (ERG) signals. The dataset, consisting of signals and corresponding diagnoses, undergoes Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) using commonly used wavelets to obtain a time-frequency representation. Wavelet images were used for the training of five widely used deep learning models: VGG-11, ResNet-50, DensNet-121, ResNext-50, and Vision Transformer, to evaluate their accuracy in classifying healthy and unhealthy patients. The findings demonstrate that the combination of Ricker Wavelet and Vision Transformer consistently yields the highest median accuracy values for ERG analysis, as evidenced by the upper and lower quartile values. The median balanced accuracy of the obtained combination of the three considered types of ERG signals in the article are 0.83, 0.85, and 0.88. However, other wavelet types also achieved high accuracy levels, indicating the importance of carefully selecting the mother wavelet for accurate classification. The study provides valuable insights into the effectiveness of different combinations of wavelets and models in classifying ERG wavelet scalograms.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: organic rice; agricultural research; participation; public funding; scientists; monitoring and evaluation
Online: 18 March 2021 (15:57:32 CET)
This paper reports on the conception and implementation of a participatory approach within an agricultural research project aimed at fostering the transition towards organic in the Italian rice district. We investigate the relationships among scientists and stakeholders, exploring researchers’ attitudes, barriers, and potential in relation to participatory research. We use participant observation, in-depth interviews, and systematic cataloguing of communication documents, from the beginning to two years into project implementation, for a total period of three years. The results of the analysis show that, despite a high level of authoritative commitment to participation, scientists reveal a scarcity of knowledge and skills, and poor attitudes that come from a negative perception of participatory research. They engage in various forms of collaboration with stakeholders, as long as decision-making remains essentially in their hands. With the deep analysis of a case study, the paper contributes to the ongoing discussion on the quality of participatory agricultural research, in particular presenting evidence on the key role of researchers and their attitudes. The paper also contributes to the development of a culture of learning by doing, through honest monitoring and evaluation, and the capacity to learn from failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: bibliometric analysis, IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Controlled Terms, keywords co-occurrence, research trends, Scopus
Online: 9 August 2021 (12:53:01 CEST)
The article is aimed at a brief comparison and analysis of the results of queries to IEEE Xplore and the leading abstract databases Scopus and Web of Science to identify research trends. Some errors in the Author Keywords in Web of Science have been revealed. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was conducted by comparing different types of key terms for IEEE Xplore and Scopus platforms only. I used IEEE Access journal metadata as indexed on both platforms. The sample match for IEEE Xplore and Scopus was achieved by comparing DOI. The IEEE Xplore metadata contains more types of key terms, which provides an advantage in analyzing research trends. Using NSPEC Controlled Terms from expert-compiled vocabulary provides a more stable data, which gives an advantage when considering the change of terms over time. Apriori, an algorithm for finding association rules, has been used to compare co-occurrence of terms for a more detailed description of sample subjects on both platforms. VOSviewer was used to analyze trends in scientific research based on IEEE Xplore data. The 2011-2021 ten-year period was divided into two sub-intervals for comparing the occurrence of Author Keywords, IEEE Terms, and NSPEC Controlled Terms. Using the IEEE conference proceedings bibliometric data, I illustrated the importance of context in estimating the rate of growth of publishing activity on a topic of interest.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0744.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Data Collection Standardisation, Research Guidelines, Europe
Online: 30 September 2020 (12:24:58 CEST)
The European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) was established after a successful grant application to the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST). This network aimed to assess the existing knowledge and/or experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in the European countries and worldwide, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. The EUROMENE proposal, was based on the establishment of interrelated working groups (WGs), where the participants contributed with specific knowledge and viewpoints according to their specialties and/or areas of interest. In this paper we outline the work of a multidisciplinary team of researchers, including epidemiologists, clinicians, statisticians, biomedical scientist and heath economists, who set out their recommendations to guide data acquisition for ME/CFS research, aiming to standardise data collection and improve epidemiological research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: micro/nano-structured alloy; mechanical properties; in-situ tensile; deformation mechanism; research progress
Online: 27 December 2017 (06:39:22 CET)
Metal and alloy toughening was the core and long-term research direction in materials filed. As grain size had bimodal distribution, micro/nano-structured alloys presented excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, and this had become one of the research hotspots and developing trends in the field of nanotechnology. In-situ tensile test was a direct and effective method to study the deformation mechanism of materials, which revealed the multiple mechanisms responding to feature grain sizes and provided reliable experimental means and research technique. Research on development of in-situ technique and its applications in mechanical properties was reviewed in this paper according to the recent advances on the modern mechanical properties for high strength and high plasticity alloy at home and abroad. The disadvantages of the present study of preparation methods and investigation techniques for high-performance alloy had been concluded. Finally, the development prospects of high strength and high plasticity alloy materials were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1904.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: internet-delivered therapy; depression; anxiety; cultural adaptation; patient-oriented research; digital health
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:46:55 CEST)
There has been limited research on improving Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (ICBT) in routine online therapy clinics that serve people from diverse ethnocultural groups (PDEGs). This article describes a patient-oriented adaptation approach used to address this gap in research. A working group consisting of people with lived experience, community stakeholders, ICBT clinicians, managers, and researchers, was formed. The working group examined archival feedback on ICBT from past clients who self-identified as being from diverse ethnocultural back-grounds (N=278) and results of interviews with current patients (N=16), community stakeholders (N=6), and clinicians (N=3). The archival data and interviews revealed the majority of the pa-tients reported being satisfied with and benefitting from ICBT. Suggestions for improvement were not related to the cognitive-behavioural model and techniques, but rather to making treatment materials more inclusive. Consequently, the ICBT adaptation focused on adding content related to cultural influences on mental health, addressing stigma, diversifying case stories, examples and imagery, adding audiovisual introductions, and replacing English idioms with more descriptive language. Moreover, further training was offered to clinicians and efforts were made to improve community outreach. This study demonstrates a process for using patient-oriented research to improve ICBT within routine care serving patients of diverse backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: digital industry; promising research issues; bibliometric metadata; high-cited publications; Scopus; VOSviewer
Online: 5 October 2022 (14:00:07 CEST)
The article is devoted to identifying promising research issues on the topic of Digital Industry based on the analysis of bibliometric data from Scopus platform for 2018–2022. The definition of promising issues derived from the titles, additionally abstracts, of highly cited works by authors with high publication activity. Authors' Scopus profiles were used to determine their affiliations, which are important for in-depth analysis of selected promising Digital Industry tasks. Metadata filtering to identify highly cited papers on particular issues was performed by keywords, Subject Areas, affiliations with countries and sponsoring organizations. Additionally, bibliometric metadata were clustered based on the co-occurrence of terms using VOSviewer. Within these clusters, articles of interest were identified for the formulation of promising research issues on the topic of Digital Industry, which will be subjected to in-depth analysis in separate papers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1693.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research methodology, Teaching, Undergraduate, Psychology, Students
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:27:07 CEST)
Objective. To examine the relationship between experience and knowledge acquired in research methodology (RM) courses and attitudes toward research in a sample of undergraduate psychology students from a public university in Mexico City. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 261 students. A 10-unit analog scale to assess perceived experience in RM courses and two measures of attitudes toward research were used. Between the two attitude scales, four attitude dimensions were identified: positive appraisal, negative appraisal, meaningless and boring. Four multivariate models were estimated, one for each attitude dimension. Results. A positive correlation was found between learning experiences in RM courses and positive appraisal of research (p < 0.01). Negative associations were also found between RM course experience and two of the three negative research attitudes (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Results highlight the significance of teaching in the knowledge and attitude development of students' research competencies. An approach to teaching RM at the undergraduate level that places more emphasis on encouraging evidence-based practice than on developing and carrying out research projects seems to be a promising subject for study, with implications for changing teaching methods and contents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1827.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: One Health; Comparative Research; Reverse Translation
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:29:17 CEST)
According to data from the U.S FDA, the likelihood of a new drug progressing from Phase I clinical trials to market approval is only 8% (DiMasi et al., 2016). Furthermore, a significant attrition rate of 35% occurs during Phase II studies due to the failure to demonstrate clinical efficacy (Arrowsmith, 2011). These statistics underscore the urgent need to reassess the current research and development (R&D) paradigm. To address this challenge, a promising approach called reverse translational pharmacology (RTP) has emerged, aiming to enhance the predictive value of preclinical models used in biomedical research by leveraging animal models that spontaneously develop analogous diseases to humans (Schneider et al., 2018). The rationale behind RTP is that knowledge gained from clinical trials in canines can subsequently inform and guide human clinical trials, leading to improved outcomes for both species. Additionally, this approach capitalizes on the opportunity to stimulate veterinary drug development by leveraging pharmacokinetic (PK), efficacy, and safety data obtained from human clinical studies (Schneider et al., 2018). The application of reverse translational pharmacology holds immense potential for expediting drug development and advancing medical knowledge. By employing animal models that naturally develop diseases akin to those found in humans, researchers can enhance the predictive capacity of preclinical models, thereby mitigating the high attrition rates encountered in later stages of clinical trials. Moreover, the exchange of knowledge and data between human and veterinary medicine engenders a synergistic relationship, fostering progress in both domains (Schneider et al., 2018). As this innovative approach gains momentum, fostering collaborations between basic and clinician scientists, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary professionals becomes increasingly imperative. By sharing resources, expertise, and findings, we can pave the way for groundbreaking discoveries and the development of safe and efficacious treatments for diverse diseases. Embracing reverse translational pharmacology offers an avenue to redefine the R&D paradigm, bringing us closer to a future where a higher proportion of drugs successfully traverse the arduous path from the laboratory to market approval, ultimately benefiting patients across species. In this brief commentary, we highlight four examples of diseases where reverse translational modeling has been used to support pharmaceutical research, including some applications developed in our research laboratory (SMART Pharmacology) at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. In doing so, this report also seeks to provide a brief overview of the heuristic value of computational approaches in comparative research. To further illustrate the value of these in silico approaches, we deliberately chose to employ some features of ChatGPT to produce the present summary (OpenAI. (2023). GPT-3.5 [ChatGPT]. Retrieved from https://openai.com).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0321.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: biomedical research; electroretinography; electroretinogram; ERG; electrophysiology
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:16:55 CEST)
Background: The electroretinogram is a clinical test used to assess the function of the photoreceptors and retinal circuits of various cells in the eye, with the recorded waveform being the result of the summated response of neural generators across the retina. Methods: The present investigation involved an analysis of the electroretinogram waveform in both the time and time-frequency domain through the utilization of the discrete wavelet transform and continuous wavelet transform techniques. The primary aim of this study was to monitor and evaluate the effects of treatment in a New Zealand rabbit model of endophthalmitis via electroretinogram waveform analysis and to compare these with normal human electroretinograms Results: The wavelet scalograms were analyzed using various mother wavelets, including the Daubechies, Ricker, Wavelet Biorthogonal 3.1 (bior3.1), Morlet, Haar, and Gaussian wavelets. Distinctive variances were identified in the wavelet scalograms between rabbit and human electroretinograms. The wavelet scalograms in the rabbit model of endophthalmitis showed recovery with treatment in parallel with the time -domain features. Conclusions: The study compared Adult, Child, and Rabbit electroretinogram responses using DWT and CWT, finding that Adult signals had higher power than Child signals, and Rabbit signals showed differences in a-wave and b-wave depending on the type of response tested, while Haar Wavelet was found to be superior in visualizing frequency components in electrophysiological signals in following the treatment of endophthalmitis and may give additional outcome measures for the management of retinal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Morphology; insects; biodiversity research; ontology development
Online: 18 January 2022 (11:49:54 CET)
The spectacular radiation of insects has produced a stunning diversity of phenotypes. During the last 250 years, research on insect systematics has generated hundreds of terms for naming and comparing those phenotypes. In its current form, this terminological diversity is presented in natural language and lacks formalization, which prohibits computer-assisted comparison using semantic web technologies. Here we propose a Model for Describing Insect Anatomical Structures (MoDIAS) which incorporates structural properties and positional relationships for standardized, consistent, and reproducible descriptions of insect phenotypes. We applied the MoDIAS framework in creating the ontology for the Anatomy of the Insect Skeleto-Muscular system (AISM). The AISM is the first general insect ontology that aims to cover all taxa by providing generalized, fully logical, and queryable, definitions for each term. It was built using the Ontology Development Kit (ODK), which maximizes interoperability with Uberon (Uberon multi-species anatomy ontology) and other basic ontologies, enhancing the integration of insect anatomy into the broader biological sciences. A template system for adding new terms, extending and linking the AISM to additional anatomical, phenotypic, genetic, and chemical ontologies is also introduced. The AISM is proposed as the backbone for taxon-specific insect ontologies and has potential applications spanning systematic biology and biodiversity informatics, allowing users to (1) use controlled vocabularies and create semi-automated computer-parsable insect morphological descriptions; (2) integrate insect morphology into broader fields of research, including ontology-informed phylogenetic methods, logical homology hypothesis testing, evo-devo studies, and genotype to phenotype mapping; and (3) automate the extraction of morphological data from the literature, enabling the generation of large-scale phenomic data, by facilitating the production and testing of informatic tools able to extract, link, annotate, and process morphological data. This system will allow for clear and semantically interoperable integration of insect phenotypes in biodiversity studies.