BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ARISE; research funding; early-career research support; African research; research for development
Online: 23 February 2023 (11:18:22 CET)
Through an ambitious development blueprint called Agenda 2063, Africa is on a mission to creating the ‘Africa We Want’ by the year 2063, centred on science, technology, and innovation. While the 2063 development agenda portends attainment of socio-economic development and prosperity in Africa, it brings with it an enormous need for strategic investment in research to ensure that no one is left behind. This paper presents insights from the African Research Initiative for Scientific Excellence (ARISE) programme on inclusive research capacity strengthening investment in Africa. The insights are drawn from a comprehensive candidate selection process for ARISE, from which 45 researchers (from a pool of 929 applicants) are recruited for ARISE Fellowships. The 45 early-to-mid-career researchers, 37% of which are women, are hosted in 45 institutions of higher learning located in 38 countries across Africa, conducting 5-year research fellowships with grants of up to €500,000 each. The insights from the ARISE programme contribute to the debate on effective approaches to programme scoping, design, and delivery, underscoring the need for consideration of scientific excellence in the context of diversity in research support capacity and investments across Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: smart site; research hotspots; research trend
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:55:12 CEST)
With the development of information technology and the wide application of building information modelling technology, the construction industry continues to make digital changes. Managers are trying to apply smart construction site management to promote the upgrading of production modes. We used CiteSpace software to analyze 1707 articles from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science and Scopus to understand the current research hotspots of global scholars in this field. Results show that: (1) The number of studies on smart construction sites increases rapidly by year. Researchers from China, America and the UK have the most influential studies. (2) The cooperation between researchers and institutions is not close enough. In addition, the directions of research in the field are still scattered; (3) Chinese scholars are good at building intelligent platforms and evaluating intelligent systems from multiple perspectives. International scholars are willing to pursue technological innovation, allowing the continuous development of intelligent construction technology. (4) The applications in this field have not been popularized despite relatively perfect technology and typical cases. Future scholars should gradually improve the theoretical basis and industry standards of smart construction sites, promote the development of intelligent construction technology and establish the evaluation standards of qualified smart sites. This study will provide scholars in this field with the theoretical basis and research directions for further in-depth research, help construction companies to understand the development status and trend of smart construction sites and accelerate the intelligent transformation of construction companies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: early-career research; institutional capacity strengthening; research; funding; research capacity strengthening; SSHA
Online: 22 February 2023 (02:46:29 CET)
Global and human development and freedoms increasingly thrive on robust and policy-oriented research and related activities. Yet, the African research landscape faces a myriad of challenges, resulting in a very unequal continent in terms of research and research capacity. The prevailing research inequities and challenges in Africa are even more pronounced in the social sciences, humanities, arts, and related fields (SSHA). Here, the strengths and impact of scholarship in SSHA fields are often overshadowed by deficits and apparent preferential investment in research in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related fields. In response, the African Academy of Sciences commissioned a study in 2020 to generate evidence on the SSHA research support landscape in Africa. This paper summarizes findings from the literature review, key informant interviews, a bibliometric analysis, a survey with a sample of 670 respondents from SSHA communities in Africa, and a series of focus group discussions. We highlight key messages and make recommendations focussing on lessons learnt opportunities, and priorities for intervention to enhance significant SSHA research leadership capacity strengthening and, ultimately, minimize research inequalities in Africa.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: improve citations; research tools; research visibility; research impact; documents publishing; highly cited
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:20:47 CEST)
Researchers, journals, and universities want to receive more citations for their scholarly publications. However, a paper citations depend on its quality, visibility and author’s online profile. Research support documents (unpublished papers, white papers, project reports, datasets, software, posters, online resources and teaching materials) can be additional source for increasing the author’s visibility. To enhance research visibility and impact, the full range of scholarly output should be available online on the open access platform. With open access platform, key research findings are made accessible immediately to the scientific community. Therefore, the publicly available research support documents may result in receiving more citations in addition to the published papers. In this paper we conducted a simplified three stages study on the benefits of research support documents publications on open access platform. We also elaborated on approaches of improving your research visibility and impact through these document.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: night; night science; night research; interdisciplinary research
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:25:27 CET)
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers, and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, research into social issues such as inequality, demographic changes, and the transition to a sustainable economy will be compromised if night is not considered. Recent years, however, have seen a surge in research into the night. We argue that “night studies” is on the cusp of coming into its own as an interdisciplinary field, and when it does, the field will consider questions that disciplinary researchers haven’t yet thought to ask.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research project production; Research Publication; Academic-staffs’ research culture; Conference paper presentation; Ethiopian Universities, Research fund; Sustainable holistic development
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:29:25 CET)
The study was aimed at examining the status of research productivity and exploring the factors behind the identified status in Ethiopian universities from SDT and RBVT perspectives. In phase I, a null hypothesis was tested using a one-sample t-test at 0.05 alphas while in phase II one RQ was solved using qualitative analysis. The sample involved 531 academics, of whom 13 were interviewed. The mixed-methods research approach and explanatory sequential design guided this research. The status of research project production, indexed publication, and conference presentation performances in Ethiopian universities demonstrated statistically significant mean differences below the institutional, national, and world average cut-off points (performing at least one research project, one indexed journal, and one conference paper presentation per year per academic staff). Furthermore, we explored scarcity of funds, low research capacity, weak research culture, lack of productive institutional leadership, and political instability in the country as major causes of the low research productivity status. The researchers felt that the study would contribute to both promoting academic staff's research productivity and enriching the higher education research literature. MOE, university presidents, and deans should intervene in causes to improve academics’ research productivity status towards the desired local and global standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0598.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement Learning; Simulation; Health Services Research; Operational Research
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:45:33 CEST)
Background and motivation: Combining Deep Reinforcement Learning (Deep RL) and Health Systems Simulations has significant potential, for both research into improving Deep RL performance and safety, and in operational practice. While individual toolkits exist for Deep RL and Health Systems Simulations, no framework to integrate the two has been established. Aim: Provide a framework for integrating Deep RL Networks with Health System Simulations, and to ensure this framework is compatible with Deep RL agents that have been developed and tested using OpenAI Gym. Methods: We developed our framework based on the OpenAI Gym framework, and demonstrate its use on a simple hospital bed capacity model. We built the Deep RL agents using PyTorch, and the Hospital Simulation using SimPy. Results: We demonstrate example models using a Double Deep Q Network or a Duelling Double Deep Q Network as the Deep RL agent. Conclusion: SimPy may be used to create Health System Simulations that are compatible with agents developed and tested on OpenAI Gym environments. GitHub repository of code: https://github.com/MichaelAllen1966/learninghospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open research practices; digital humanities; scholarly communication; publication formats; infrastructure; research methodology; research tools
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:50:52 CET)
The digital transformation has initiated a paradigm shift in research and scholarly communication practices towards a more open scholarly culture. Although this transformation is slowly happening in the Digital Humanities field, open is not yet default. The article introduces the OpenMethods metablog, a community platform that highlights open research methods, tools, and practices within the context of the Digital Humanities by republishing open access content around methods and tools in various formats and languages. It also describes the platform’s technical infrastructure based on its requirements and main functionalities, and especially the collaborative content sourcing and editorial workflows. The article concludes with a discussion of the potentials of the OpenMethods metablog to overcome barriers towards open practices by focusing on inclusive, community sourced information based around opening up research processes and the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve its goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0667.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Global health; human subjects research; international health; medical racism; research ethics; research neocolonialism; tropical medicine
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:40:31 CEST)
Best practices in global health training prioritize leadership and engagement from investigators from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), along with more conscientious community consultation and research that benefits local participants and autochthonous communities. However, well into the 20th century, international research and clinical care were rife with paternalism, extractive practices, and racist ideation, with race presumed to explain both vulnerability or protection from various diseases despite scientific evidence for more precise mechanisms for infectious disease. We highlight experiences in global research on health and illness among indigenous populations in LMICs, seeking to clarify what is both scientifically essential and ethically desirable in research with human subjects; we apply a critical view towards race and racism as historically distorting elements that must be acknowledged and overcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Health research policy; National health research system; COVID-19; Biomedical Research; Latin America and Caribbean
Online: 13 November 2020 (07:09:52 CET)
Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is one of the worst-hit regions globally by COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, scarce literature exists that examines the research strategy of LAC in facing COVID-19. The present study aims to quantify and assess the production of COVID-19 publications in thirty-two countries in LAC during the first half of 2020. A Scopus/PubMed/LILACS search was performed to retrieve research articles related to COVID-19 published from January 1 to July 31, 2020. Subgroup analysis including only original publications was used to better ascertain the contribution of LAC countries, and standardization measures were applied to comparisons of country-specific contributions. We identified 1291 publications across the region. Overall, most articles in the region were non-original (81.6%), and the most productive countries were Brazil (43.9%), Mexico (9.14%), and Colombia (7.98%). This trend shifted to Chile after the standardization. Among original studies, the most common study design was cross-sectional (25.8%). LAC countries generate articles primarily pertaining to diagnosis and treatment (27.4%). In the subgroup analysis, however, epidemiology and surveillance was the most prevalent research focus (24.1%). LAC countries should perform more research with a higher level of evidence to inform health policy making to ease the burden of COVID-19 in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1331.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: inclusive park; disabilities; research-based design; research through designing
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:13:53 CEST)
Public parks are a community resource with an important role in improving liveability, physical, and mental wellbeing. However, exercise facilities that are suitable for people with disabilities typically have been neglected in public park design. As such, people with disabilities often are unable to independently or safely use the park. To address this shortcoming, the objective of this paper was to employ a pragmatic research through designing process in developing the design for an inclusive park. We used a mixed-methods approach in the research that included review of previous studies, semi-structured interviews, and questionnaire surveys with stakeholders were applied as design integration. Persons with disabilities specifically were consulted to express their views on all matters of inclusive park design.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ion; channels; regeneration; cancer; treatment; translational research; experimental research
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:38:37 CEST)
Preclinical evidence suggests that voltage gradients can act as a kind of top-down master regulator during embryogenesis and orchestrate downstream molecular-genetic pathways during organ regeneration or repair. Moreover, electrical stimulation shifts response to injury towards regeneration instead of healing or scarring. Cancer and embryogenesis not only share common phenotypical features, but also commonly upregulated molecular pathways. Ion channel activity is directly or indirectly linked to the pathogenesis of cancer hallmarks, while experimental and clinical studies suggest that their modulation may exert antitumor effects. A large recent clinical trial served as a proof-of-principle for the benefit of preoperative use of topical sodium channel blockade as a potential anticancer strategy against early human breast cancers. Apart from the obvious importance in perioperative medicine, it calls for the planning of further carefully designed clinical trials to expand on the concept of ion channels as tumor drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: research-based training; methodological characteristics; development of research skills.
Online: 26 September 2017 (08:10:13 CEST)
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using of teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on the focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have been put into basis of analysis of educational programs for the purpose of determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of research skills of students. The study used a method of focus group. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training system among people who are competent, have experience in this field. After that, the method of "theoretical sampling" was used, which enabled to formulate generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence of students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Reproducibility, Mathematical Modeling, Multiscale Modeling, Translational Research, Biomedical Research, Experimental Biology, Clinical Research Article Type: Essay
Online: 23 May 2018 (16:18:52 CEST)
The “Crisis of Reproducibility” has received considerable attention both within the scientific community and without. While factors associated with scientific culture and practical practice are most often invoked, I propose that the Crisis of Reproducibility is ultimately a failure of generalization with a fundamental scientific basis in the methods used for biomedical research. The Denominator Problem describes how limitations intrinsic to the two primary approaches of biomedical research, clinical studies and pre-clinical experimental biology, lead to an inability to effectively characterize the full extent of biological heterogeneity, which compromises the task of generalizing acquired knowledge. Drawing on the example of the unifying role of theory in the physical sciences, I propose that multi-scale mathematical and dynamic computational models, when mapped to the modular structure of biological systems, can serve a unifying role as formal representations of what is conserved and similar from one biological context to another. This ability to explicitly describe the generation of heterogeneity from similarity addresses the Denominator Problem and provides a scientific response to the Crisis of Reproducibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0216.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Mozambique; dairy; research
Online: 13 August 2018 (06:27:29 CEST)
The Mozambican dairy industry landscape is not well known because the research about it presents numerous inconsistencies. These inconsistencies are possibly due to miscommunication between scholars, entrepreneurs, the government and other actors, besides major events such as the civil war and policy changes and overall lack of coordination. This study aimed to catalog and relate the major studies and findings in the Mozambican dairy research, contextualize them historically, analyze the implications and provide hints for future researchers. Dairy research seemed intimately related to the industry’s development, and it has been dependent on the country’s sociopolitical changes and opportunities. Social and economic studies are more abundant, perhaps because the dairy industry is emerging, thriving to stand out in a very competitive environment, but there are also studies in applied sciences, especially microbiology and chemistry. There are promising directions to follow such as the improvement of herding techniques (e.g. feeding, disease control), multidisciplinary synergies or exploration of traditional dairy products such as masse. Also, it would be important for institutions to share their research through electronic platforms, even the information published prior to the existence of the worldwide web.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0531.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: PageRank; gender inequality; citation impact; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:02:12 CEST)
The article's purpose is a citation analysis of the impact of scientific publications by authors of different gender compositions. The PageRank method was chosen to calculate the citation impact of scientific publications, and the citation has also estimated the impact of scientific publications based on the number of citations. The normalized citation impact of scientific publications is calculated according to nine subsets of scientific publications that correspond to patterns of different gender compositions of authors. Also, these estimates were calculated for each country with which the authors of the publications are affiliated. The Citation database was chosen for the scientometric analysis Network Dataset ( ver . 13). The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. The main subject areas of scientific publications in this database are computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, engineering, etc. The results indicate that articles with a predominantly male composition are cited more than articles with a mixed or female composition of authors in this direction. Analysis of advantages in dynamics indicates that in the last decade for developed countries, there has been a decrease in the connection between the citation impact of scientific publications and the gender composition of their authors. However, the obtained results still confirm the presence of gender inequality in science, which may be related to socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, natural homophily, and other factors that contribute to the appearance of gender gaps. An essential consequence of overcoming these gaps, including in science, is ensuring the rights of people in all their diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0457.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: affective prosody; bibliometric analysis; research impact; research trend; thematic hotspots
Online: 27 February 2023 (07:58:35 CET)
Affective prosody is an indispensable cognitive cue that moderates social activities, and has become a prevailing research topic in psychology-related disciplines. The present study conducts the first bibliometrics-based visualization analysis concerning affective prosody to evaluate the influential cases, including countries/regions, institutions, publication venues, academic articles, and disciplinary contributions, and the diachronic changes of publication trends and research hotspots. With the combination of statistical results and a qualitative literature inspection, limitations of extant studies and promising research directions were also proposed. The present study extracted the bibliographic data of 1,624 articles retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection, which were published over the past 25 years (1997-2021). Statistical results revealed four leading powers (the U.S., Germany, England, and Canada) and four emerging fronts (China, France, Netherlands, and Switzerland), and identified three primary research themes in this field, including clinical implication, measurable index, and modality-specific issues. Literature inspection demonstrated current limitations in individual characteristics control and experiment-related influential factors, and proposed two prosperous research directions. Findings of the present study could facilitate academic retrieval of affective prosody research, help concerned researchers identify thematic hotspots and seek appropriate collaboration, and provide convenience for research policy and management in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0066.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: applied health services research; competing organizational roles; high quality research
Online: 4 March 2020 (11:16:43 CET)
(1) Background: Applied health services research (AHSR) relies upon coordination across multiple organizational boundaries. Our aim was to understand how competing organizational and professional goals enhance or impede the conduct of high quality AHSR. (2) Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in two local health care systems in the UK, linked to a feasibility trial of a clinic-based intervention in secondary care. Data collection involved 24 semi-structured interviews with research managers, clinical research staff, health professionals, and patients. (3) Results: This study required a dynamic network of interactions between heterogeneous health and social care stakeholders, each characterized by differing ways of organizing activities which constitute their core functions; cultures of collaboration and interaction and understanding of what research involves and how it contributes to patient care. These interrelated factors compounded the occupational and organizational boundaries that hindered communication and coordination. (4) Conclusions: Despite the strategic development of multiple organizations to foster inter-professional collaboration, the competing goals of research and clinical practice can impede the conduct of high quality AHSR. To remedy this requires the alignment and streamlining of organizational goals, so that all agencies involved in AHSR develop a shared understanding and mutual respect for the progress of evidence-based medicine and the complex and often nuanced environments in which it is created and practiced.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0250.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Fashion research; Sustainable fashion design; Fashion research methods; Sustainable design; ChatGPT
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:34:17 CEST)
The need of research is often a complex issue. The standardization of methodologies, deeply rooted in the scientific method, has allowed humanity to progress. Since the fashion industry represents one of the most problematic industries globally, it is paramount to investigate the handicaps of fashion research practice. The goal of this systematic review is to outline the most used methodologies in the fashion research field that are being explored to achieve sustainability goals. The findings highlight the fragmentation of the literature in fashion research methodologies in relation to sustainability. Interviews and case studies are the most used methods while other less conventional, like Social Life Cycle Assessment, have been also tried. Finally, it is tested how ChatGPT can discuss and inform future routes to incorporate the findings. Together, this work reveals the handicaps of the fashion research methodologies and show an example on how ChatGPT can be assessed to help the fashion practitioners define research plans to achieve sustainable goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0978.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: city biodiversity; bibliometric analysis; bibliometrix; research development; research trend; science mapping
Online: 26 April 2023 (10:55:37 CEST)
The biodiversity loss in urban areas has attracted public concern, which is one of the urgent global environmental issues. This study used bibliometric methods to analyze 3351 publications from 1995-2021 that retrieved from the Web of Science and visually represented the state-of-the-art of researches in city biodiversity field. The prolific authors, journals(sources), institutions, and countries are clearly identified. The most cited and influential paper proposed a conceptual framework of associations between urban green space, and ecosystem and human health, and then concluded that green infrastructure could physically and psychologically benefits people by ecosystem services it provides, and make a better socio-economic benefit. The theme hotspots are urbanization, urban ecology, ecosystem services, urban planning, green infrastructure, urban forest and urban park et al. Ingo Kowarik is the most productive author in terms of number of publications. Michael L. McKinney is the most cited authors by the publications in analyzed corpus, who identified how urbanization harms native ecosystems, however, a well ecologically educated population could greatly enhance species richness in all ecosystems. Urban park, garden, fragmented green spaces and green corridor networks could help enhance city biodiversity. In general, the city biodiversity research presents a trend that involves intensive global cooperation, and become more comprehensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-Cov-2; geographical regions; research interests and findings; collaborative research
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:22:44 CET)
The emergence of COVID-19 has prompted an unprecedented scientic publication with the aim of better understanding this new disease. This study assessed the scientic impact and disciplinary priorities of the published papers on the pandemic by comparing epidemiological (EP) and social sciences (SS) research interests. Papers were identified via keywords searching using Google Scholar and Scopus databases. From an initial 1720 papers, we identified 597 relevant articles, of which 347 were for EP researches and 250 for SS studies. We extracted information, such as authors' countries, and research thematic related to EP and SS. The results revealed that most papers were authored by Asian (37.5%), European (30.5%) and American (19.6%) scientists. Only 10.1% and 2.3% of authors were aliated with African and Oceanian institutions, respectively, indicating that the regions most affected by the pandemic mainly contributed to the scientic publications. In total, 26 research themes were recorded from both EP and SS studies. There was a high signicant dierence among themes in both research fields (Chi-square = 1204.3, df = 1, p-value < 0.001). EP papers mostly dealt with clinical trials (54.5%) and diagnosis (53.3%). These papers assessed the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of the disease (incubation period, symptomatic period, recovering or death), testing tests developed, drugs and vaccines used. SS papers were mainly concerned with the sociocultural analyses (78%) and economic impact (55.6%) of the pandemic. They mainly focused on behavioral changes induced by the pandemic and strategies developed to mitigate its impacts. This study highlights the difference between regions and gaps between scientific disciplines concerning the proposed responses to control the pandemic. It is important to promote collaborative and interdisciplinary studies for health emergencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: graduate programs; higher education; interdisciplinary research; STEM; transdisciplinary research; urban sustainability
Online: 3 December 2020 (14:30:23 CET)
Urban settings are increasingly faced with challenges across natural and engineered environmental systems, threatening the sustainability of urban centers where >50% of the world's population resides. The pressures of aging infrastructure, water and air pollution, and environmental justice exemplify the growing need for urban professionals to employ complex scientific reasoning across disciplines where they can effectively address the multi-faceted issues of urban sustainability. Here we present an innovative model for preparing the next generation of public, private, and academic leaders to address complex problems in urban sustainability. Specifically, we outline the design and implementation of an integrated, adaptable graduate training program, with the goals of science leadership, curriculum relevancy, community impact, broader applicability, recruitment into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs and careers, and program sustainability. This program addresses human-ecosystem challenges using a transdisciplinary approach to produce scientific products in partnership with local communities, businesses, industries, scientists, and policy makers, while providing a mechanism to understand and overcome contemporary societal challenges. Students receive rigorous training in their home disciplines, coupled with training across disciplinary lines and developmental experiences, to prepare them to communicate, collaborate, and innovate in a variety of contexts. Training success is evaluated across measurable competency domains including problem definition, research methods, communication, collaboration, and problem-solving. After three years the program expanded relationships across fields and professions, successfully established 18 internship opportunities with community partners, created a new dual-title PhD program open to students in 5 academic departments, and facilitated the co-production of knowledge with external partners. This model bridges the gaps between research, education, and application, providing an integrated, rigorous graduate training program that fosters collaborative problem-solving between STEM graduate students and the broader community of professionals conducting sustainability work in a post-industrial urban setting.
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:46:40 CEST)
Objectives: Data sharing has become a requirement of many funding bodies and is becoming a scientific standard in many disciplines. In medical research, however, data sharing can conflict with clinicians’ obligation to protect patients’ privacy. General recommendations on data sharing exist also for clinical research, but so far lack practical and Swiss-specific aspects. The objective of this document is to provide practical recommendations for all relevant aspects of data sharing in agreement with legislation in Switzerland. Methods: This document was written by members of the Swiss CTU Network, a network of academic clinical trial units. The process did not follow a formalized Delphi process. After an internal consensus round, this report is now published as pre-print for external review. A second version will incorporate external comments. We plan to publish this document as a text in progress, as we expect relevant changes in related fields such as the development of further dedicated medical repositories or methodological advances in anonymization techniques. Results: We developed principles and practical recommendations with respect to informed consent, data management plan, anonymization, data structure and format, coding of variables, metadata and documentation, version control, selection of repository, requesting and use of data. We also provide a summary of legal aspects relevant for the Swiss context. Conclusions: The intension to share data has an impact not only after a clinical trial or an observational study is completed, but also during the planning period, the conduct and the analysis phase. Clinical researchers need to be aware at the beginning of a study on how to inform patients and at least the amount of work related to preparing data for sharing, metadata, and any further documentation. This report provides details of aspects to be considered, suggests decision criteria, and provides examples and checklists, in order to support data sharing in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0305.v1
Online: 25 December 2018 (12:04:24 CET)
Postgraduate students in South Africa and other parts of the world, particularly in developing nations struggle to complete the research component of their studies. According to the National Development Plan ( 2013) it has become a requirement for South African institutions to play a pivotal role in knowledge production so as to transform South Africa from a resource-based economy towards a knowledge-based economy. In pursuit of meeting this requirement and further to increase subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), South African institutions of higher learning have been on the drive for recruiting postgraduate students en masse. One of the main problems facing South African institutions is that the number of students enrolled does not correspond to those who graduate at the end of the postgraduate programme study period. This study is a systematic review of literature on challenges in postgraduate supervision and further proposes a possible solution. Five South African institutions of higher learning’s postgraduate throughput data is carefully studied and substantiated by previous research on postgraduate supervision challenges on these particular institutions. Study findings present challenges related to research capacity development and burden of supervision at these institutions. Collaborative methods of supervision such as the C.O.S.T.A model are hereby proposed as possible solutions to the current throughput problem in South Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: aflatoxin, history, research, Mozambique
Online: 7 June 2018 (10:23:53 CEST)
In Mozambique, the aflatoxin research started in 1960’s and has been carried through apparently unrelated efforts according to opportunities. However, there was a major trend divided in early epidemiological studies and recent agricultural research. Early investigators found strong correlation between aflatoxin contamination and primary liver cancer. Since then, there have been efforts to analyze the extent of contamination, especially in groundnuts and maize. More recent investigation and intervention aimed mostly to reduce the level of contamination enough to allow such commodities to gain acceptance in the international market. The current status of knowledge is still marginal but the increasing involvement of local authorities, academia and international organizations seems promising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1457.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Critical Success Factors (CSFs),; Impacts of research projects; Management Model; Research projects
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:19:54 CEST)
This article aims at presenting the results that were found in the design and implementation of a new management model of Critical Success Factors for improving the effects of research projects. The model was based on the theory of structural equations derived from factor analyses and multiple linear regression models. For achieving the purpose, the authors developed an empirical evidence analysis founded on a literature review in the knowledge area of project management. Afterwards, the process of identification of the CSFs was carried out for a group of research projects launched in Colombia as a result of the application and measurement of an instrument. They were the basis for the development of a structural relationship modeling. Also, this contributed to determine the CSFs that explain the generation of effects of research projects, and the project management execution process from which it can be carried out based on said measurement indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Metallothionein (MT); Scientific discovery; Scientific pursuit; Research strategies; upward looking research; Exploratory research; Protein function; Compensation; Moonlighting; multifunctional proteins; Vestiges
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:39:39 CET)
In the mid-1950s, Bert L. Vallee and his colleague Marvin Margoshes discovered a molecule known today as metallothionein (MT). Meanwhile MTs have been shown to be common in many biological organisms. Despite their prevalence, however, it remains unclear to date what exactly MTs do and how they contribute to the biological function of an organism or organ. Honoring Dr. Vallee’s sometimes innovative approach to research, this contribution sets out to show how philosophy of science can help us gain a clearer picture of biochemical research. We shall look into both the discovery of as well as recent research on Dr. Vallee’s beloved family of MT proteins to illustrate (i) how exploratory and upward-looking research play important roles in biochemical discoveries although they do not fit the paradigmatic approach of decomposition and struc-ture-function mapping. Besides, we shall suggest (ii) that while other biochemical molecules ex-hibit a clearly identifiable function, other research hypotheses might be worthy of pursuit in the case of MTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: management in government; public sector reforms; improvements in government; field research; qualitative research
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:28:31 CEST)
Purpose: When it comes to improving citizen service delivery standard and processes, or broadly, management in government (MIG), many reform programs and improvement efforts are ongoing across different ministries, departments, and agencies. This paper is part of a larger empirical research where we are interested to know what those programs and projects are, and how they are doing, and what the gaps are. Design/methodology/approach: Analyzing the publicly available data on the government portal and donors’ website, this article provides an overall idea of current reforms in various places of government. In parallel, field research was conducted through visiting agency offices, observing office environment and mechanisms, and interviewing public managers who are working at district and sub-district level offices of directorates or agencies.Findings: As a trend, state-led development process and the traditional mode of administration have moved to New Public Management based quality and performance approach. All donors have their own strategy framework document like ‘Country Assistance strategy’, ‘Country Operations and Business Plan’, Logical Framework Document, Focus or Priority Streams, etc. Many of the projects are sectoral and agency or ministry specific and have an inherent limitations, due to ‘cadre’ based organizational structural arrangement. So, it is common ‘not to own the projects’, rather ‘using the fund as much as possible anyway within the given project duration’. When the fund ends, implementing units, either government or NGOs, abandon the projects. That is why many projects are actually half done without significant and sustained direction.Originality/value: We can conclude that the typical ‘top-down’ or ‘trickle down’ conception is still dominant in design and implementation of reforms programs and service quality efforts. So, how to reach systemically at the bottom where public managers provide services to citizens, needs even more deliberation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0129.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: PageRank; Time-Weighted PageRank; collective subjects; citation intensity; scientific research; research productivity; scientometrics
Online: 10 October 2022 (14:04:52 CEST)
This study aims to estimate the scientific productivity of collective subjects. The objective is to build a method for evaluating scientific productivity that allows calculating productivity, including for new collective subjects with a small citation network—the paper purposes the Time-Weighted PageRank method with citation intensity (TWPR-CI). The Citation Network Dataset (ver. 13) has been analyzed to verify the method. The dataset includes more than 5 million scientific publications and 48 million citations. There have been allocated four classes of collective subjects (more than 27,000 collective subjects in total). For each class, scientific productivity estimates from 2000 to 2021 were calculated using the PageRank, Time-Weighted PageRank, and TWPR-CI methods. It is shown that the advantage of the TWPR-CI method is the higher sensitivity of the scientific productivity estimates for new collective subjects on average during the first ten years of observation. At the same time, the assessment of scientific productivity for other collective subjects according to this method is stable. However, the small citation network of the new collective subjects does not allow an adequate assessment of scientific productivity during the first years of its operation. Therefore, the TWPR-CI method can be used to assess the scientific productivity of collective subjects, in particular the productivity of new ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Ayurveda research; good research; hypothesis generation; hypothesis testing; managing bias and sample size
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:45:11 CEST)
Ayurveda as a healthcare system has survived for thousands of years but continues to be dogged by reported lack of efficacy of the treatments in clinical trials. The reported lack of efficacy could be due to a real lack of efficacy (which then contradicts the survival of Ayurveda as a functional medical system enjoying considerable public patronage) or could be attributed to inadequacies in the efforts towards evidence generation or in a larger context the overall scientific conduct of research in Ayurveda. In an effort towards better evidence generation, there is an immediate need for standardizing the design, conduct and reporting of clinical trials of Ayurveda but it is a daunting task. For this effort to benefit the scientific endeavors of Ayurveda researchers, it should allow the researchers to be able to apply Ayurveda’s multi-component, individualized and inherently holistic approach. Statistical principles can benefit this effort. Statistical hypothesis testing (SHT) is central to these statistical principles and also aligns well with conventional scientific principles of evidence generation. Although there are challenges with SHT, good practitioners engaged in it do much more than just apply the mathematical theory behind it. As a particular example, lot of time in clinical trial designing is spent in addressing biases and designing trials prudently by minimizing the effect of such biases. SHT can benefit such an effort objectively. There is a need for Ayurveda researchers to engage deeply and mindfully about biases in study design in order to gain scientific validity and acceptability. The article highlights issues that arise in Ayurveda research, and discusses few ways of dealing with these issues using statistical principles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bibliometric analysis; Pubmed; rubella virus; research output; research collaboration; Biblioshiny; Bibliometrix; R-package
Online: 31 March 2022 (07:37:09 CEST)
Background: This work aimed to undertake a bibliometric analysis of the Rubella virus. Medical studies were conducted between 2000 and 2022 to discover trends, dynamics, and research outputs in the industry. Methods:A bibliometric study was performed using R software to determine research characteristics indexed worldwide and published in Rubella research in medical studies. The Rubella virus was chosen as the subject in the PUBMED database, and 374 papers from the previous two decades were reviewed. Results: There was an increase in the number of publications after 2003. The United States was the most essential countryamong all which had the most contributions on Rubella Virus. Conclusion:Rubella research has increased in the medical profession over the previous decade, with the United States leading to publications in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: child; deafness; parents; qualitative research.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:29:25 CEST)
This study was carried out in a qualitative research type and phenomenological design since it was aimed to determine the life experiences of the parents of deaf children. The study sample consisted of 20 parents of deaf children registered in a special education and rehabilitation center who spoke Turkish and were literate and did not have hearing loss. The data were collected through in-depth interviews in Istanbul between December and January 2022. Colaizzi's phenomenological interpretation method was used in qualitative data analysis. It was determined that parents of deaf children experienced anxiety, sadness, and happiness during diagnosis. They lacked information at first, but then they gained knowledge in the process, and it was not easy to accept this process. They stated that having a deaf child requires more time, responsibility, and effort than other children, this situation affects their social life, and they experience interpersonal conflicts. When parents were asked how they coped, they said they did it through prayer, social support, or time to themselves. It can be recommended to apply psychosocial intervention programs to the parents of deaf children, especially their mothers, from the first diagnosis process.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Fungi; Mycology; Canada; Research; Community
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:45:17 CEST)
Fungi critically impact the health and function of global ecosystems and economies. In Canada, fungal researchers often work within silos defined by sub-discipline and institutional type, complicating the collaborations necessary to understand the impacts fungi have on the environment, economy, and plant and animal health. Here, we announce the establishment of the Canadian Fungal Research Network (CanFunNet, https://fungalresearch.ca) whose mission is to strengthen and promote fungal research in Canada by facilitating dialogue among scientists. We summarize the challenges and opportunities for Canadian fungal research that were discussed at CanFunNet’s inaugural meeting in 2019, and identify four priorities for our community: 1) increasing collaboration among scientists; 2) studying diversity in the context of ecological disturbance; 3) preserving culture collections in the absence of sustained funding; and 4) leveraging diverse expertise to attract trainees. We have gathered additional information to support our recommendations, including a survey identifying underrepresentation of fungal-related courses at Canadian universities, a list of Canadian fungaria and culture collections, and a case study of a human fungal pathogen outbreak. We anticipate that these discussions will help prioritize fungal research in Canada, and we welcome all researchers to join this nationwide effort to enhance knowledge dissemination and funding advocacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Neonate; qualitative research; Southeast Asia
Online: 29 September 2016 (11:17:06 CEST)
Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: sedation; anesthesia; pig; research models, protocols
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:26:35 CEST)
Anesthesia ensures the welfare of the animal, enables safe and effective procedures, and allows accurate data collection . In clinical veterinary practice, proper training and expertise in anesthesia administration and monitoring are essential. Pigs are commonly used in medical and scientific research as models for studying various aspects of human health, physiology, and disease due to their physiological and anatomical similarities to humans [2–4]. Pigs are suitable experimental animals for many surgery techniques because they are similar in size to humans and have a short reproductive cycle. This makes them ideal for research concerning organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, and other procedures that require a large animal model. Pigs also have a similar anatomy to humans, which makes them a good choice for studying diseases and developing new treatments . Sedation and premedication should be administered at the lowest dose to be effective with predictable results and reduced adverse effects, to ensure the safety of both the animal and the team involved in the procedure, with a fast onset and optimizing the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. The goal of induction is to achieve a safe and effective level of anesthesia that ensures the patient's safety and facilitates the research. Most of the time, inhalation anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is the ideal choice for maintenance., allowing efficient anesthetic management. The difficulties related to the endotracheal intubation of pigs can be overcome by knowing the anatomical peculiarities related to the species and the multiple methods cited in the literature. Effective analgesia tailored to the specific procedure, the pig's condition, and individual responses to medications should complete the maintenance and recovery protocols, reducing perioperative complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1693.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research methodology, Teaching, Undergraduate, Psychology, Students
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:27:07 CEST)
Objective. To examine the relationship between experience and knowledge acquired in research methodology (RM) courses and attitudes toward research in a sample of undergraduate psychology students from a public university in Mexico City. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 261 students. A 10-unit analog scale to assess perceived experience in RM courses and two measures of attitudes toward research were used. Between the two attitude scales, four attitude dimensions were identified: positive appraisal, negative appraisal, meaningless and boring. Four multivariate models were estimated, one for each attitude dimension. Results. A positive correlation was found between learning experiences in RM courses and positive appraisal of research (p < 0.01). Negative associations were also found between RM course experience and two of the three negative research attitudes (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Results highlight the significance of teaching in the knowledge and attitude development of students' research competencies. An approach to teaching RM at the undergraduate level that places more emphasis on encouraging evidence-based practice than on developing and carrying out research projects seems to be a promising subject for study, with implications for changing teaching methods and contents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1827.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: One Health; Comparative Research; Reverse Translation
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:29:17 CEST)
According to data from the U.S FDA, the likelihood of a new drug progressing from Phase I clinical trials to market approval is only 8% (DiMasi et al., 2016). Furthermore, a significant attrition rate of 35% occurs during Phase II studies due to the failure to demonstrate clinical efficacy (Arrowsmith, 2011). These statistics underscore the urgent need to reassess the current research and development (R&D) paradigm. To address this challenge, a promising approach called reverse translational pharmacology (RTP) has emerged, aiming to enhance the predictive value of preclinical models used in biomedical research by leveraging animal models that spontaneously develop analogous diseases to humans (Schneider et al., 2018). The rationale behind RTP is that knowledge gained from clinical trials in canines can subsequently inform and guide human clinical trials, leading to improved outcomes for both species. Additionally, this approach capitalizes on the opportunity to stimulate veterinary drug development by leveraging pharmacokinetic (PK), efficacy, and safety data obtained from human clinical studies (Schneider et al., 2018). The application of reverse translational pharmacology holds immense potential for expediting drug development and advancing medical knowledge. By employing animal models that naturally develop diseases akin to those found in humans, researchers can enhance the predictive capacity of preclinical models, thereby mitigating the high attrition rates encountered in later stages of clinical trials. Moreover, the exchange of knowledge and data between human and veterinary medicine engenders a synergistic relationship, fostering progress in both domains (Schneider et al., 2018). As this innovative approach gains momentum, fostering collaborations between basic and clinician scientists, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary professionals becomes increasingly imperative. By sharing resources, expertise, and findings, we can pave the way for groundbreaking discoveries and the development of safe and efficacious treatments for diverse diseases. Embracing reverse translational pharmacology offers an avenue to redefine the R&D paradigm, bringing us closer to a future where a higher proportion of drugs successfully traverse the arduous path from the laboratory to market approval, ultimately benefiting patients across species. In this brief commentary, we highlight four examples of diseases where reverse translational modeling has been used to support pharmaceutical research, including some applications developed in our research laboratory (SMART Pharmacology) at the Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. In doing so, this report also seeks to provide a brief overview of the heuristic value of computational approaches in comparative research. To further illustrate the value of these in silico approaches, we deliberately chose to employ some features of ChatGPT to produce the present summary (OpenAI. (2023). GPT-3.5 [ChatGPT]. Retrieved from https://openai.com).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0321.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: biomedical research; electroretinography; electroretinogram; ERG; electrophysiology
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:16:55 CEST)
Background: The electroretinogram is a clinical test used to assess the function of the photoreceptors and retinal circuits of various cells in the eye, with the recorded waveform being the result of the summated response of neural generators across the retina. Methods: The present investigation involved an analysis of the electroretinogram waveform in both the time and time-frequency domain through the utilization of the discrete wavelet transform and continuous wavelet transform techniques. The primary aim of this study was to monitor and evaluate the effects of treatment in a New Zealand rabbit model of endophthalmitis via electroretinogram waveform analysis and to compare these with normal human electroretinograms Results: The wavelet scalograms were analyzed using various mother wavelets, including the Daubechies, Ricker, Wavelet Biorthogonal 3.1 (bior3.1), Morlet, Haar, and Gaussian wavelets. Distinctive variances were identified in the wavelet scalograms between rabbit and human electroretinograms. The wavelet scalograms in the rabbit model of endophthalmitis showed recovery with treatment in parallel with the time -domain features. Conclusions: The study compared Adult, Child, and Rabbit electroretinogram responses using DWT and CWT, finding that Adult signals had higher power than Child signals, and Rabbit signals showed differences in a-wave and b-wave depending on the type of response tested, while Haar Wavelet was found to be superior in visualizing frequency components in electrophysiological signals in following the treatment of endophthalmitis and may give additional outcome measures for the management of retinal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Morphology; insects; biodiversity research; ontology development
Online: 18 January 2022 (11:49:54 CET)
The spectacular radiation of insects has produced a stunning diversity of phenotypes. During the last 250 years, research on insect systematics has generated hundreds of terms for naming and comparing those phenotypes. In its current form, this terminological diversity is presented in natural language and lacks formalization, which prohibits computer-assisted comparison using semantic web technologies. Here we propose a Model for Describing Insect Anatomical Structures (MoDIAS) which incorporates structural properties and positional relationships for standardized, consistent, and reproducible descriptions of insect phenotypes. We applied the MoDIAS framework in creating the ontology for the Anatomy of the Insect Skeleto-Muscular system (AISM). The AISM is the first general insect ontology that aims to cover all taxa by providing generalized, fully logical, and queryable, definitions for each term. It was built using the Ontology Development Kit (ODK), which maximizes interoperability with Uberon (Uberon multi-species anatomy ontology) and other basic ontologies, enhancing the integration of insect anatomy into the broader biological sciences. A template system for adding new terms, extending and linking the AISM to additional anatomical, phenotypic, genetic, and chemical ontologies is also introduced. The AISM is proposed as the backbone for taxon-specific insect ontologies and has potential applications spanning systematic biology and biodiversity informatics, allowing users to (1) use controlled vocabularies and create semi-automated computer-parsable insect morphological descriptions; (2) integrate insect morphology into broader fields of research, including ontology-informed phylogenetic methods, logical homology hypothesis testing, evo-devo studies, and genotype to phenotype mapping; and (3) automate the extraction of morphological data from the literature, enabling the generation of large-scale phenomic data, by facilitating the production and testing of informatic tools able to extract, link, annotate, and process morphological data. This system will allow for clear and semantically interoperable integration of insect phenotypes in biodiversity studies.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroecology; participatory research; web application; traceability
Online: 17 December 2021 (15:07:16 CET)
Agroecology, defined as the ecological science of food production is also as practical approach to design food production systems based on local concerted solutions that aim to promote synergy among the diversity of human and non human food systems elements. These two facets makes agroecology a good candidate for participatory research. Information technology should help using this information for the production of structured scientific knowledge. In this respect, there is a need for information technology that is adaptive to encompass the diversity of within and between systems and that provide benefit to farmers that feed it with data. We present MiCampoApp, a webapp that aims to join participatory research and certification in agroecology, with two roles, the farmer and the administrator. The idea to join participatory research for decision support with certification for market differentiation in single system is that much of the certification data harbors information for scientific research, and this incentivize data collection for the interest of the farmer and the community. The administrator create a model for data collection in order to solve a research question of interest for a communities or to produce traceability information to feed participatory guarantee system in a community. The farmer collects information using simple icons and produces traceability pages for research or certification purposes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0511.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: review; misinformation; online education; research; discipline
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:26:50 CEST)
Misinformation research has grown to become a critical topic in all disciplines. Since the expanding of online media, misinformation has been spreading rapidly across the globe through social media and other information systems. Paralleling the rise of academic interest in misinformation, is the emergence of online education scholarship. Interest in the online educational implications of misinformation and its impact attracts an increase in scholarship on misinformation. This article presents the results of a review of 1172 publications with “Misinformation” across disciplines and a subset of 174 misinformation literature in online education that were published between 2009 and 2021. This review answers three questions: (1) What is the overall distribution of publication activity with "misinformation" publications? (2) What methodologies have scholars used to investigate misinformation involving online education? (3) What have scholars reported about the results of studies involving misinformation in online education? The review reveals that various methodologies were used in literature focusing on misinformation online education with leading numbers of content analysis and quantitative studies. This systematic review is particularly relevant to those online educators in various disciplines who are interested in learning what scholars from their own academic disciplines are writing about misinformation.
Online: 10 July 2020 (15:59:53 CEST)
On the 30thanniversary of the Karolinska Institutet Summer Research School for High School students an evaluation was carried out of the school’s activities. The evaluation was performed by questionnaire sent to 533 former students and also by searching the KI course registration database for all former students who went on to register in under- or postgraduate education at KI. Approximately half of all former Summer School students performed their undergraduate studies at KI, predominantly in the medical program. Those were far more likely to choose a research-oriented education than their peers. KI Medical students who previously attended the Summer School were also more likely to later register for PhD education than their peers who did not attend the summer school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Participatory Action Research; FOSS; Change implementation
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:16:27 CEST)
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is an established method to implement change in organizations. However, it cannot be applied in the open source (FOSS) communities, without adaptation to their particularities, especially to the specific control mechanisms developed in FOSS. FOSS communities are self-managed, and rely on consensus to reach decisions. This study proposes a PAR framework specifically tailored to FOSS communities. We successfully applied the framework to implement a set of quality assurance interventions in the Robot Operating System community. The framework we proposed is composed of three components, interventions design, democratization, and execution. We believe that this process will work for other FOSS communities too. We have learned that changing a particular aspect of a FOSS community is arduous. To achieve success the change must rally the community around it for support and attract motivated volunteers to implement the interventions.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: A.C.A.I.D; framework; methodology; postgraduate; research praxis
Online: 31 October 2019 (10:09:54 CET)
This presentation is based on the article I wrote ((Lebese, 2018) where the A.C.A.I.D system was confirmed as directing human behavior in all situations. The A.C.A.I.D concept is an acronym. A stands for Attention, C for Consideration, A for Action, I for Internalisation and D for duplication. I developed the system over a period of twenty years as an impirical study, to answer a question: Why do I do what I do when I do what I do? Every behavior I exhibited followed specific steps from idea through to duplication. Once completed, I unobtrusively checked if other human beings behaved similarly. Without fail I observed that the A.C.A.I.D is a system that all humans knowingly and unknowingly follow. Through the system I could easily predict how the learners I was teaching could behave in particular situations. Also, I could assist learners who wanted change in their behaviors to know at what stage in the system that change was possible.The postgraduate scholar behaves in a predetermined manner in the research activity. Those behaviors follow an accepted protocol which invariably goes through all the stages of the A.C.A.I.D system. It starts with an idea through to the duplication step which I call “The idea on legs”. When it gets to this stage, it goes back to the beginning and sold as an idea. The system is cyclical.The A.C.A.I.D system as a framework helps the postgraduate researcher to follow an acceptable research praxis from idea interrogation through all the stages. This helps the researcher to follow acceptable predictable methodologis through research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Fraud, Allegations, Ethics, Research Misconduct, Philosophy
Online: 3 January 2019 (14:26:28 CET)
In recent decades, a number of high-profile cases involving fraud as research misconduct have been in the media and resulted in severe consequences for those convicted. According to the increased cases of allegations and coverage in the media, this reflects a heightened awareness that fraudulent actions exist. Nonetheless, the Office of Research Integrity data suggests that despite the growth in the number of the cases of allegation there has not been a commensurate increase in findings of misconduct. The purpose of this paper is to explore misconduct to better understand what it entails. An analysis of misconduct from the perspective of the definitions of allegations and fraud of is conducted and potential frameworks for understanding both are considered. The paper considers serial-positioning effects of primacy and recency on allegation phenomena, as well as supervenience theory and contextualism as a lens for understanding fraud. Discussion of the relational semantics of the core aspects of fraud and de facto grouping of forms of misconduct. It is concluded that the interrogative pronouns of “what” and “when” could be used to categorize forms of misconduct laying the foundation for the next paper that deconstructs the definition of falsification according to the Public Health Service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: demand driven research; biomass; innovation; Ghana
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:09:35 CEST)
The case for demand-driven research and development has received important considerations among governments, donors and programme implementing partners in development planning and implementation. Addressing demand is believed to be a bottom-top approach for designing and responding to development priorities and is good for achieving development outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the concept and application of demand driven research for development (DDRD) in Africa. We use evidence of six projects implemented under the BiomassWeb Project in Africa. We focus on parameters on level of engagement of stakeholders - whose demand is being articulated, the processes for demand articulation, capacity building and implementation processes, innovativeness of the project, reporting and sustainability of the project. We find that the nature of the institutions involved in articulation and implementation of demand-driven research and development projects and their partnerships influence the impact and reporting of demand-driven projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0226.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health care; rural health; healthcare inequalities; public health systems research; health care costs; health services research
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:06:55 CET)
A small proportion of health care users are recognised to use a significantly higher proportion of health system resources, largely due to systemic, inequitable access and disproportionate health burdens. These high-resource health system users are routinely characterised as older, with multiple comorbidities, and reduced access to adequate health care. Geographic trends also emerge, with more rural and isolated regions demonstrating higher rates of high-resource use than others. Despite known geographical discrepancies in health care access and outcomes, health policy and research initiatives remain focused on urban population centers. To alleviate mounting health system pressure from high-resource users, their characteristics must be better understood within the context in which it arises. To examine this, a scoping review was conducted to provide an overview of characteristics of high-resource users in rural and remote communities in Canada and Australia. In total, 21 papers were included in the review. Using qualitative thematic coding, primary findings characterised rural high-resource users as those of an older age; with increased comorbid conditions and condition severity; lower socioeconomic status; and elevated risk behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0129.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: the violation imperative; responsible conduct of research (RCR); research misconduct; science; definition of falsification; philosophy; ethics
Online: 14 January 2019 (09:56:48 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to critique the definition of falsification as research misconduct according to the Public Health Service (PHS) in order to better understand what it entails. In support of this purpose, the approach decided upon for analysis was philosophical including framing the issue borrowing from both mereological and epistemological perspectives. Through the consideration given to parthood relations of mereology, we gained insight from a cognitive imperfection standpoint about similarities that exist between the epistemic constraints on knowledge and the nature of violations concerning research misconduct. Findings from the examination of a case study include the significance of accuracy in representation in falsification as misconduct and the core dimensions comprising an instance of falsification, which are Deliberateness, Alteration, and Inclusion. Given that either behavior or actions must occur that violate these three aspects in order to qualify as an instance of misconduct under falsification, the author proposes that, at a minimum, any revisions made to the definition of falsification stipulate what he refers to as the Violation Imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early childhood education; play and learning; educational transitions; educational setting; research with children; visual methodologies; qualitative research
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:03:38 CET)
Based on a reflection on the tensions between play, education, and learning in early childhood, this article aims to identify and analyze the factors that limit or negatively condition the possibilities for play at school during the transition between Early Childhood Education and Primary Education in Chile. The study was conducted in four Chilean schools, with the Transition Levels of Chilean Early Childhood Education (children aged 4 and 5) and the first two levels of Primary Education (children aged 6 and 7). Based on an ethnographic approach, we combined 22 ethnographic observation days spread over two consecutive years and 59 interviews of various types with children, educators, and parents. The results show structural-material limitations on school play that mainly affect children in Primary Education. Beyond, factors associated with routines, indications, and statements governing functioning and participation in this level tend to limit or prevent play, often considered a "non-legitimate" activity. Conclusions highlight the potentialities that children's restricted or resisted play can present in terms of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Social Robot; Empirical Research; Human-Robot Interaction; Human-Computer Interaction; Ethnomethodology; Robot development; HCI; HRI; Qualitative Research
Online: 8 April 2022 (12:48:04 CEST)
This study observes, interprets, and analyses the knowledge production in the research field of Human–Robot Interaction (HRI). It intends to foreground the hidden assumptions that are often taken for granted when roboticist design and conduct their research. By doing so, this study demonstrates how these assumptions influence the result of their research. Based on data collected through sociological field observation, this study argues that the current practise in HRI research is highly anthropocentric. In short, the robots are designed to be like human instead of for human. Therefore, the human–robot relationship embodies the existing power relations between human beings. These relations generate inequality, hierarchy, and dominance, which are the opposite of the common imagination of the robotised future among roboticists. For the purpose of enabling the robotised future closer to their ideal, this study suggests that HRI researchers to go beyond the conventional methodology, to allow a human–robot relationship that realises reciprocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1741.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Impact; ChatGPT; student; learning behavior; experimental research
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:19:25 CEST)
The advent of artificial intelligence has ushered in a new era of digital tools, including chatbots and virtual assistants, for educational purposes. ChatGPT, an advanced language model, has gained popularity as an educational aid. However, concerns have emerged regarding its potential negative impact on student learning behavior. This experimental research study investigates the influence of ChatGPT on student learning behavior and offers insights into its potential drawbacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1220.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: employees; interview; physical activity; qualitative research; workplace
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:36:02 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Exercise Training at work has the potential to improve employees’ produc-tivity, health, and well-being. However, exercise interventions to healthcare workers in hospitals may be challenged by a high time pressure and the ongoing workflow with patient care. Objective: The aim was to identify barriers and facilitators for participation in exercise training during work in a hospital department. Methods: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital employees of different staff groups, who participated in 12 weeks exercise twice weekly. The data analysis was a thematic approach based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and the COM-B factors in the Behavior Change Wheel. Results: Barriers and facilitators varied between different groups. Barriers included limited structure, busyness, and a discouraging culture. Facilitators in-cluded gaining a feeling of community, psychological and physical well-being. Seven contextual subthemes were vital for successful implementation of exercise in a hospital setting. Conclusions: The informants appreciated exercise training during work and wished to participate. Inpatient departments’ informants had difficulties participating in the intervention, whilst those with more administrative tasks found it easier. This study identified barriers and facilitators vital for a successful implementation of an exercise training intervention in a hospital department to improve health, wellbeing, and productivity amongst hospital employees. It explains how future interventions can improve reach, adoption, and implementation of exercise training interventions for hospital staff.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Marxism; religion; human geography; critical research; ideologies
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:04:25 CEST)
This essay discusses the complicated relationship between ideology and faith, focusing on the importance of faith. It endeavors to enrich the critical examination of religion by providing a platform to analyze the multifaceted nature of ideologies and their profound influence on human geography. This study is particularly distinctive for its focus on the complex interplay of Marxism, religion, and modernity, deepening our understanding of how these dynamics shape contemporary societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1170.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: VR, rehabilitation; bibliometric; research focuses; development trend
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:52:37 CEST)
Objective: To sort out the research hotspots of the application of VR in rehabilitation medicine, analyse its research themes and research trends, and offer a reference for future related research in this field. Methods: This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the development process, research hotspots and research trends in the field of VR application in rehabilitation medicine research, taking the Web of Science core dataset as the source and using bibliometric analysis by CiteSpace. Results: The application of VR in rehabilitation medicine was composed of three stages, and the research topics were reviewed in five aspects: neurological rehabilitation, psychology treatment, pain distraction, cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, and visual spatial disorder. Limitations: The literature data only come from the Web of Science core dataset, and the data sample size was not comprehensive. Conclusion: Overcoming VR technology-induced vertigo and mental disorders from overuse of VR are both challenges to research on the application of VR in rehabilitation medicine. In addition, developing VR products with better experience, developing standardized guidelines, and conducting more high-quality clinical studies are all future research trends for the application of VR in rehabilitation medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1722.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Research impact; engineering; Mexico; article citation analysis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:11:55 CEST)
Engineers make things, make things work, and make things work better and easier. This kind of knowledge is crucial for innovation, and much of the explicit knowledge developed by engineers is embodied in scientific publications. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of publications and citations in Engineering in a middle-income country such as Mexico. Using a database of all Mexican publications in Web of Science from 2004 to 2017, we explore the characteristics of publications that tend to have the greatest impact; this is the highest number of citations. Among the variables studied are the type of collaboration (no collaboration, domestic, bilateral, or multilateral), the number of coauthors and countries, the language of the article, controlling for a coauthor from the USA and the affiliation institution of the Mexican author(s). Our results emphasize the overall importance of joint international efforts and suggest that publications with the highest number of citations are those with multinational collaboration (coauthors from three or more countries), written in English, and when one of the coauthors is from the USA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0574.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: SLM; Research status; Application field; Defect analysis
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:23:24 CEST)
With the development of industrialization, traditional manufacturing technologies are no longer able to meet the production needs of modern society. Additive manufacturing has successfully solved the problems existing in traditional manufacturing technology. Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder bed melting technology that produces metal parts by selectively melting metal powders on a platform using a laser beam. It is widely used in additive manufacturing. This article introduces the characteristics and current development status of SLM technology, summarizes the main application fields and common defects of SLM, and finally explores and prospects the future development trend of SLM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Rats; Biological research; Environmental conditions; Stress; Handling
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:04:49 CET)
Rat is one of the most commonly used model animals for biological research. The organs and systems of human being are somewhat similar to that of rat in structure as well as functions, making it a valuable choice for research experimentation in biological sciences. A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential risks and toxicity of different elements on the physiology and histology of rats. There is need to address certain environmental factors affecting rats condition during experimentation. Reproduction along with its pathologies is under investigation on larger scale throughout the world, being central for the existence of a species. These studies focus on the major factors that influence reproductive function. Review of literature clearly indicated the unwanted consequences of over nutrition, malnutrition, high or low temperature, non-enriched housing, improper handling, intense or poor light exposure and environmental pollution on histology and hormonal profile of reproductive system of rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0555.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Cryptocurrencies; Blockchain; Bitcoin; Scopus; VOSviewer; Bibliometrics; Research
Online: 31 August 2021 (09:48:06 CEST)
Blockchain is a path-breaking paradigm, and cryptocurrencies are one of the main application areas of Blockchain technology. Bitcoin leads the cryptocurrency markets, both in terms of market capitalization and in scientific interest. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric study of the Bitcoin-related literature. Using the Scopus database, we created a sample that comprises 4495 documents written in the 2011–2020 period. Furthermore, we provided insights about dimensions such as the change in the number of publications over the course of years, the main research areas, types of published documents, most important platforms and sources of Bitcoin publications, highly cited studies, productive authors, author’s countries, and finally main funders of Bitcoin-related research. Lastly, our bibliometric study manifests the current state and future path of Bitcoin literature from distinct perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0698.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; Integration framework; Design-based research
Online: 30 July 2021 (11:43:12 CEST)
Background: In an age where information is generally accessible, most of the interest these days has focused on how accessible and convenient technology can be. So small and personal, mobile devices can transform our perception of learning by combining both mobility and convenience. Mobile learning is part of the digital learning landscape alongside e-learning and serious games. However, knowledge about effective design of mobile learning experiences remains of interest with a focus on appropriate design models and the embodiments that can be implemented to achieve the intended educational outcomes. Exploring the instructor's perspective on mobile learning is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Moroccan instructors' perception and practice of mobile learning to inform the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Methods: Higher education Instructors (n=41) were recruited to the study. The Moroccan instructors' perception and their experiences regarding their adoption of mobile learning were collected using an online survey. The analysis focused on their mobile use, perceived IT competency, and opinions on mobile learning. Results: We described most of the instructors' considerations regarding integrating mobile technologies into their teaching activities. We found that most of the mobile learning activities defined by the respondents corresponded to relatively advanced use of mobile devices. More promising, instructors have found innovative ways to use the educational potential of mobile devices. However, the prospect of mobile devices was still to challenge. No or poor Wi-Fi connection, number of devices or limited access, sometimes fees or applications incompatibility were identified as reasons and obstacles to mobile learning usage. Conclusion: Mobile learning is mostly perceived positively among Moroccan instructors allowing many applications and usage to enhance teaching and learning. In this study, a better understanding of aspects and factors influencing the integration of mobile learning in the Moroccan educational context is exposed, helping further the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Future work on mobile learning should consider the highly paced evolution of mobile technologies, emphasizing the flexibility of integration frameworks to support instructors and learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0419.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: study participation; communication; survey; general research results
Online: 15 April 2021 (14:48:49 CEST)
There is a need for multimodal strategies to keep research participants informed about study results. Our aim was to characterize preferences of genomic research participants from two institutions along four dimensions of general research result updates: content, timing, mechanism, and frequency. Methods: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional survey that was administered from 6-25-2018 to 12-5-2018. Results: 397 participants completed the survey, most of whom (96%) expressed a desire to receive research updates. Preferences with high endorsement included: update content (brief descriptions of major findings, descriptions of purpose and goals, and educational material); update timing (when the research is completed, when findings are reviewed, when findings are published, and when the study status changes); update mechanism (email with updates, and email newsletter); and update frequency (every three months). Hierarchical cluster analyses based on the four update preferences identified four profiles of participants with similar preference patterns. Very few participants in the largest profile were comfortable with budgeting less money for research activities so that researchers have money to set up services to send research result updates to study participants. Conclusion: This work provides evidence of a need for funders to incentivize researchers to communicate results to participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Qualitative research; Regulations; Ethical issues; Sustainable production
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:21:23 CET)
Italy is the leading European producer of rice. The transition to organic farming could represent a solution for environmental protection, as well as for the economic sustainability of farms, consumer safety and as a measure of climate mitigation, but it currently displays several weaknesses in the control and certification system. The objective of the current study is to propose advice for improving the control and certification scheme in the organic rice sector. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative methodology based on participant observation at stakeholders’ meetings, focus groups, community-led workshops and deep interviews with relevant local actors. Findings show that there are some solutions to mitigate the weakness of the Italian certification scheme. The study also produces managerial implications to improve the Italian organic rice system.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: research; public health; innovation; decision making; review
Online: 21 October 2020 (11:26:17 CEST)
SIGNIFICANCE Putting worth on research and selection of studies by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Practical applications include choosing personal study topics, publication review, study grant selection, and decisions of spending or misspending billions in public health. Multiple studies raised alarm that current methods perform poorly in reproducibility, prediction of best research and objectivity. I propose using the metrics how much disease burden is reduced and calculating objective, numerical research value. The concept is that worth of medical research is not subjective but can be reproducible and numerically quantified. The method increases transparency by giving decision makers an externally accountable proof, and frees peer reviewers to check scientific integrity. Its numerical form can capture small differences important in competition between studies. ABSTRACT Finding value and selecting knowledge by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Applications include individuals designing research, funding organizations selecting grants, journals – publications, institutions – priorities in public health and health policy, and decision makers spending or misspending billions of research funds. Currently finding value of knowledge is done by peer review together with checking scientific integrity. Multiple studies raised alarm that it performs poorly in prediction of highest citations, bias, transparency and quality. The resulting problems include perception of slow medical progress and wasting funds and time. I introduce a standard, objective and numerical method for finding value of medical research. It measures disease burden prevented by new knowledge contained in a study or a publication. In its simple form, it is calculated by multiplying disease prevalence, disease burden, and efficacy of the therapy. It can be modified for risk of failure, multi-disease effect and for ethical considerations. The process is described step-by-step in terms common in medical practice. A quick estimate is often sufficient. The advantage is objectivity, since it is calculated from real world data. This gives transparency and externally accountability of decision making. The second advantage is a numerical form. This can measure small differences in research value which, in sharp competition, determine which studies are selected. A researcher can calculate the value of own future effort. Institutions might ask to provide it at submission. The method is also applicable to broad policy analysis, objective evaluation of scientific achievement and bibliometric studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0111.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: consumer preferences; coffee market; coffee; research results
Online: 6 September 2018 (05:59:23 CEST)
The article addresses the issue of consumer preferences for types of coffee in Poland (ground coffee, instant coffee, coffee beans, instant coffee mixes and instant cappuccino). The main source of the study is the results of primary research conducted using a structured interview (CAPI—Computer Assisted Personal Interview) on a nationwide sample of 800 coffee consumers. The research was conducted by Grupa IQS Sp. z o.o. from Warsaw in January 2016 for the MOKATE Group based on the assumptions and guidelines developed by the authors of the article. The main purpose of the article is to present the identified coffee consumer preferences in Poland with regard to various kinds of coffee. The results of the research which have been included in the article indicate, among others, ongoing changes in the preferences of Polish consumers regarding their coffee choices. They prove that Polish consumers are drinking ground coffee more and more often. The consumption of instant coffee is decreasing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Citizenship, Young People, Participatory Research, Political Participation
Online: 1 August 2018 (14:23:21 CEST)
This paper provides a synthesis of qualitative studies, examining youth empowerment projects and initiatives which have encouraged young people to have a voice in local, regional and national political debates. Specifically, the article examines the role of UK youth services in building the spirit of citizenship in young people against the challenging question of the changing behaviour pattern and profiles of young British electorates. To do this, the paper draws on four case studies to help rethink the critical moments for disadvantaged and vulnerable young people in their journeys towards citizenship. The article, presents the advantages and limitations of the youth sector to enrich and furnish the spirit of citizenship in today’s youth and argues for a more innovative role in the part played by the state in an era of austerity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health data science; clinical trials; research participant reporting; personal health data diary; personal private webserver; research data integrity
Online: 6 June 2018 (09:40:35 CEST)
We describe how clinical researchers can exploit the Android cell phone as an economic platform for the gathering of data from clinical trial participants. The aim was to provide a solution with the shortest possible learning curve for researchers who are comfortable with setting up web pages. The additional requirement is that they extend their skills to the installation of a local webserver on the cell phone and then use four simple PHP templates to construct the clinical research data collection and processing forms. Data so collected is automatically written to local csv files on the cell phone. These csv phones can be retrieved from the device by the researcher simply by plugging the cell phone into their desktop PC and accessing the cell phone memory in just the same way as they would a USB memory stick. The results are presented as a list of recommended Android Apps along with settings that have proved to provide a stable combination likely to be easily used by clinical research participants. We have made a limited ‘user trial’ of this approach with satisfactory feedback received. We have concluded that this approach will reward researchers with a solution that is user friendly, will provide transcription free data and that is more than cost competitive with the conventional error prone/poor compliance ‘paper based participant form – researcher transcription’ cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1966.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: forest management; sustainability; FSC; PEFC; research; market share
Online: 30 November 2023 (09:12:37 CET)
Keywords: Forest management; sustainability; FSC; PEFC; research; market share
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0960.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: fibromyalgia syndrome; sexuality; female sexual dysfunction; qualitative research
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:19:09 CEST)
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a nonarticular rheumatic syndrome which presents as chronic musculoskeletal pain, stiffness and body aches. FMS affects approximately 2.5% of the population, mostly women. FMS causes physical and psychological problems and reduces quality of life. The objective of this study is to identify qualitative evidence about experiences of women diagnosed with FMS about their sexuality. Methods: Metasynthesis of qualitative studies. The search included articles published between 2000 and June 2023 on the PubMed, WOS, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and SCIELO databases. Results: 450 articles were found through the initial search, of which, only 9 fulfilled the criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. From this analysis, three main themes emerged: (1) “I want to, but I can’t”: FMS causes a shift in feminine sexuality. (2) Resetting sex life and intimacy. (3) Taking charge of a “new sexuality.” Conclusions: Women with FMS suffer from limitations of their sexuality that affect their partner. Pain, stiffness and a loss of desire make sexual encounters difficult. Becoming aware of this and striving not to lose their sexuality is key to coping with this problem. Women and their sexual partners can change roles and encourage communication, games, foreplay or touching. The use of lubricants, physical exercise and complementary therapies, along with social, professional and partner support, are key to coping with FMS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: digital health; sports science; global research; bibliometrics; Citespace
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:21:27 CEST)
Digital health has gained widespread adoption across various disciplines. Within the field of sport science, there is growing interest in digital health, leading to a surge in research activities. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric and visualization analysis, tracing the evolutionary trajectory, identifying research hotspots, and uncovering emerging trends in digital health within the domain of sport science. By doing so, this research aims to offer scholars a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic landscape in this field. To achieve this, the Web of Science core collection was chosen as the primary database. A thorough literature search was performed, focusing on digital health and sport science, resulting in the screening of 1870 English-language documents. The findings revealed a consistent upward growth trend in the annual publication count from 2010 to 2023. Notably, the United States, specifically the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, and John B. Cronin, emerged as the most prolific contributors in terms of publications. Collaborative efforts among countries, institutions, and authors were also observed. The research hotspots identified encompassed several areas, including the evaluation of digital health technologies' effectiveness, exploration of the relationship between digital health technologies and physical activity/exercise performance, and the use of digital health technologies in assessing and rehabilitating sports injuries. Among the prominent digital health technologies employed in these studies were virtual reality, social media, and wearable devices. The predominant types of studies utilized meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and cross-sectional studies. Looking towards the future, the study identified several key research trends. These include the exploration of telemedicine, artificial intelligence-based machine learning, therapeutic interventions, and physical therapy within the realm of digital health. These emerging areas signify promising directions for future investigation and development in the field of digital health within sport science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0268.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nursing research; Structural equation modelling; bibliometric analysis; Visualization
Online: 16 January 2023 (03:47:21 CET)
ObjectivesThe present study is aimed at characterizing and identifying the important research trends of the application of structural equation modelling (SEM) in nursing research by bibliometric analysis, and further providing reference for nursing researchers to conduct SEM research.MethodsA descriptive bibliometric analysis of publications in the application of SEM in nursing research. Literatures were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) core collection database On April 30, 2022. CiteSpace 6.1.R1 and VOSviewer 16 software were used for visualization and bibliometric analysis.ResultsThe annual publication indicated an increasing trend in the future. The intellectual structures of the application of SEM in nursing researches included patient safety, cross-cultural comparison, compassion fatigue, benchmarking, patient discharge, China, psychometrics, and policy. The hotpots and development trends include job satisfaction, nursing home, and nursing student.ConclusionThe hotspots and development trends related to the application of SEM in nursing research mentioned in this study may be helpful for researchers to explore new directions in this field. The intellectual structures and development trends were found in the application of SEM in nursing researches in this study. The awareness of the clusters and bursts in this field can help nursing researchers avoid overlooking some important issues when conducting SEM, and provide nurse researchers with good practice guidelines for conducting SEM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0123.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: biomedical research; classification; machine learning; electroretinography; electroretinogram; ERG
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:11:37 CEST)
The electroretinography (ERG) is a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity of the retina in response to a light stimulus. This test has a long history and has been extensively studied among years. Dr. James Dewar recorded the first electroretinogram signal in 1873. Later he described signal analysis using 4 components, namely amplitude, and latency of a-wave and b-wave. Nowadays, the international electrophysiology community has established the standard for electroretinography in 2008. However, from the point of view of signal analysis, the major change did not happen. ERG analysis is still based on the 4 components evaluation. The article describes ERG database including the classification of signals by using advanced analysis of electroretinograms based on wavelet scalogram processing. To implement an extended analysis of the ERG, the parameters extracted from the wavelet scalogram of the signal were obtained using digital image processing and machine learning methods. The results of the study show that the proposed algorithm implements the classification of adult electroretinogram signals by 19% more accurately and pediatric signals by 20% more accurately than the classical algorithm. The promising use of ERG is differential diagnostics, which may also be used in preclinical toxicology and experimental modeling. The problem of developing methods for electrophysiological signals analysis in ophthalmology is associated with the complex morphological structure of electrophysiological signals components, due to the generation of retina cell electrical responses to light stimulus.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; Wastewater; research; surveillance
Online: 25 March 2022 (03:30:23 CET)
Background: In the span of just two years, tracking the COVID-19 pandemic through wastewater surveillance has advanced from early reports of successful SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in untreated wastewater to implementation of programs in at least 60 countries. Early wastewater monitoring efforts primarily originated in research laboratories and are now transitioning into more formal surveillance programs run in commercial and public health laboratories. A major challenge in this progression has been to simultaneously optimize methods and build scientific consensus while implementing surveillance programs, particularly during the rapidly changing landscape of the pandemic. Translating wastewater surveillance results for effective use by public health agencies also remains a key objective for the field. Objectives: We examine the evolution of wastewater surveillance to identify model collaborations and effective partnerships that have created rapid and sustained success. We propose needed areas of research and key roles academic researchers can play in the framework of wastewater surveillance to aid in the transition of early monitoring efforts to more formalized programs within the public health system. Discussion: Wastewater surveillance has rapidly developed as a public health tool Clinical testing programs are ramping down and home testing is on the rise, making wastewater monitoring important for future surveillance of COVID-19. Our experience in initiating and implementing wastewater surveillance programs in the United States has allowed us to reflect on key barriers and organizational challenges and draw useful lessons. As wastewater surveillance programs are formalized, the working relationships developed between academic researchers, commercial and public health laboratories, and data users should continue and should promote knowledge co-development. While wastewater surveillance has demonstrated utility for tracking COVID-19, there remain technical challenges and open scientific questions that researchers are equipped to address, which will contribute to building robust surveillance programs that provide public health practitioners with new insights into population health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Apoptosis; preclinical research; diabetes type 2; HIPPO pathway
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:45:49 CET)
Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease of complex etiology and pathogenesis. Hyperglycemia leads to many serious complications, but also directly initiates the process of β cell apoptosis. A potential strategy for the preservation of pancreatic β cells in diabetes may be to inhibit the implementation of pro-apoptotic pathways or to enhance the action of pancreatic protective factors. The HIPPO signaling pathway is proposed and selected as a target to manipulate the activity of its core proteins in therapy - basic research. MST1 and LATS2 as major upstream signaling kinases of the Hippo pathway are considered as target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration and inhibition of apoptosis. Manipulating the activity of components of the HiPPO pathway offers a wide range of possibilities, and thus is a potential tool in the treatment of diabetes and the regeneration of β cells. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the processes involved in apoptosis in diabetic states and to fully characterize the role of this pathway in diabetes. Therapy consisting in slowing down or stopping the mechanisms of apoptosis may be an important direction of diabetes treatment shortly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Legal research; Disruption; Legal AI tools
Online: 5 October 2021 (13:04:06 CEST)
Legal research is an indispensable skill for lawyers. Therefore, it is always necessary for lawyers to engage in legal research in due course of trying to alleviate various legal problems. Although the purpose and methodology of the research may vary from lawyer to lawyer, doing research is a common activity. As a result, the quest to assess the impacts of artificial intelligence (hereinafter ‘AI’) on legal research allows one to measure the influence of AI on the legal profession in general. Moreover, with the advent of Legal AI, it is now evident that the legal profession is not immune from disruption. According to the above, this article discusses the impacts of AI on research in the legal profession in general in accomplishing various lawyerly tasks by different legal professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE); repetition; iteration
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:37:54 CET)
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students with opportunities for the same gains that apprenticed research with faculty members offer. As their popularity increases, it is important that critical elements of CUREs are supported by thoughtful design. Student experiences in CUREs can provide important insights into why CUREs are so effective. We present evidence from students who participated in CUREs at the introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels, as well as from graduate teaching assistants for an introductory lab course that included a CURE. Students and teaching assistants describe repetition as a valuable element in CUREs and other laboratory experiences. We used student work and open-ended interviews to identify which of five previously described elements of CUREs students found important. Because repetition was particularly salient, we characterized how students described repetition as they experienced it in courses that contained full-length or “micro”-CUREs. In prompted interviews, students described how repetition in CUREs provided cognitive (learning concepts) and practical (learning technical skills) value. Recent graduates who had participated in CUREs at each level of their Biology education were particularly aware that they placed value in repetition and acknowledged it as motivational in their own learning. Many students described repetition in metacognitive terms, which also suggests that as students advance through laboratory and CURE curricula, their understanding of how repetition supports their learning becomes more sophisticated. Finally, we integrated student descriptions to suggest ways in which repetition can be designed into CUREs or other laboratory courses to support scientific learning and enhance students’ sense of scientific identity.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: undergraduate, research, COVID-19, CUREs, interest, communication, identity
Online: 24 September 2020 (18:14:34 CEST)
Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) provide active and authentic scientific involvement to tens of thousands of students each year. Through this process, CUREs offer the benefits of increased learning outcomes, improved equity, and increased retention in STEM. During the COVID-19 pandemic, however, research and teaching labs have limited capacity. Some universities are closed for in-person learning altogether, and others are likely to face emergency shut-downs throughout the year. In this setting, the inability to conduct experiments limits a core aspect of CUREs. Without experimentation as a basis for student engagement, interest, and broader relevance, true course-based research this year becomes a major challenge. We suggest that this limitation provides a moment to enhance CUREs with research-enriching learning activities that are obtainable while away from the bench. In this essay we outline a variety of these student-centered activities and review their benefits in terms of student interest, learning, and equity. While useful during emergency teaching transitions during COVID-19, we make the case that these new evidence-based practices for CUREs will also be helpful for the enrichment of research-based learning beyond the current crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Scientific research; Frauds; Reliability; Distrust; Distributed Ledger Technologies
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:18:41 CEST)
Frauds and misconducts have been common in the history of science. Recent events connected to the COVID-19 pandemic have highlighted how the risks and consequences of this are no longer acceptable. Two papers, addressing the treatment of COVID-19, have been published in two of the most prestigious medical journals. In both, the authors declared to have analysed electronic records from a private corporation, which apparently collected data of tens of thousands of patients, coming from thousands of hospitals. Both papers have been retracted a few weeks later. When such events happen, the confidence of the population in scientific research is likely to be weakened. The objective of this paper is to highlight how the current system endangers not only the reliability of scientific research, but also the very foundations of the trust system on which modern healthcare is based. Having shed the light on the dangers of a system without appropriate monitoring, we propose to improve the research process using the promising aspects of the distributed ledger technology which, thanks to the characteristics of immutability, decentralization and transparency, appears among the best solutions to avoid the repetition of the mistakes linked to the recent and past history of research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: research data management; FAIR; file structure; file system
Online: 3 April 2020 (15:56:22 CEST)
Storing scientific data on the file system in a meaningful and transparent way is no trivial task. In particular when the data have to be accessed after their originator has left the lab the importance of a standardized file structure cannot be underestimated. It is desirable to have a structure that allows for the unique categorization of all kinds of data from experimental results to publications. It has to be accessible to a broad variety of workflows, e.g., via graphical user interface as well as via command line, in order to find widespread acceptance. Furthermore, the inclusion of already existing data has to be as simple as possible. We propose a three-level structure to organize and store scientific data that incorporates the full chain of scientific data management from data acquisition to analysis to publications. Metadata are saved in a standardized way and connect original data to analyses and publication as well as to their originators. A simple software tool to check a file structure for compliance with the proposed structure is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0107.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: cultural institutions; cultural services; consumer behaviour; research results
Online: 6 September 2018 (03:38:43 CEST)
This is a theoretical and empirical article. Basic issues related to consumer behaviour on the market of cultural services are presented in the first part of the article. The second part presents the brief characteristics of consumers of cultural services in Poland, as well as an analysis of their market behaviour. For this purpose, surveys were conducted on a group of 2599 consumers of the cultural offer. Research was conducted in Katowice - the largest city in the Silesia region in Poland. The article also highlights the main trends in consumer behaviour on the market of cultural services in Poland in particular: increasing mobility of the consumers of the cultural offer, growing diversity in the methods of acquiring information about cultural events and increase in the importance (purchasing power) of consumers in the retirement age in the market of cultural services. In the last part of article authors indicate on the resulting implications for sustainable cultural management in Poland - particularly marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0564.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: orthographic literacy; questionnaire research; Croatian orthography; (de)standardisation
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:05:51 CEST)
This paper discusses the impact of orthographic manuals on the state of literacy, i.e. the relation of orthographic literacy and orthographic standardisation. The established hypothesis claims that frequent changes of orthographic rules during the pupils’ primary and secondary education do not have any considerable impact on their orthographic habits. In other words, the quantity of orthographic mistakes observed during a longer period of time and in conditions of changed orthographic rules would not show significant oscillations in their spelling. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a questionnaire was conducted encompassing 41 tests among 526 students of a technical study programme during four consecutive academic years, pursuant to whose results a writing uniformity index and a categorisation of orthographic controversy into six classes is established. The Croatian language has been selected for the observation due to multiple orthographic changes in the last 30 years in the three major orthographic points: writing of the covered r, writing of d and t in front of c and č in declination of words ending in -tak, -tac, -dak and -dac, and the issue of compound or separate spelling of the negation particle and the auxiliary biti (to be). Moreover, the paper methodologically and quantitatively establishes criteria according to which the second established hypothesis on evolutionary orthographic literacy can be confirmed. The conclusions are expected to be able to contribute to the better understanding of orthographic planning and application of orthographic norms in schools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0319.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: annexins; inflammation; wound healing; drug target; translational research
Online: 23 May 2018 (08:19:42 CEST)
The vertebrate annexin superfamily (AnxA) consists of 12 calcium (Ca2+) and phospholipid binding proteins which share a high structural homology. In keeping with this hallmark feature, annexins have been implicated in the Ca2+-controlled regulation of membrane events. In this review, we discuss several themes of potential therapeutic value, namely the regulation of the immune response and the control of tissue homeostasis, that repeatedly surface in the annexin action profile. Our aim is to identify and discuss those annexin properties which might be exploited from a translational science and specifically clinical point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0133.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: quantitative musicology, biodiversity, ecology, interdisciplinary research, music analysis
Online: 20 April 2017 (10:43:40 CEST)
This paper introduces an ecological approach to quantifying diversity in musical compositions. The approach considers notations with distinct pitches and duration as equivalents of species in ecosystems, measures within a composition as equivalents of ecosystems, and the sum of measures (i.e., the entire composition) as a landscape in which ecosystems are embedded. Structural diversity can be calculated at the level of measures (“alpha diversity”) and the entire composition (“gamma diversity”). An additional metric can be derived that quantifies the structural differentiation between measures in a composition (“beta diversity”). We demonstrate the suitability of the approach in music using specifically composed examples and real songs that vary in complexity. We discuss the potential of the approach with selected examples from a potentially ample spectrum of applications within musicology research. The method seems particularly suitability for hypothesis testing to objectively identify many of the intricate phenomena in music. Because the approach extracts information present in the compositions – it lets the songs tell their structure – it can complement more complex modeling approaches used by music scholars. Combined such approaches provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research. They can help to fill knowledge gaps, stimulate further research and increase our understanding of music.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Sensors; Sensor research; Research fields; Technological trajectories; Biosensors; Wearable sensors; Wireless sensor network; Evolution of science; Dynamics of science; Scientific development
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:19:44 CEST)
The fundamental question in the field of sensor research is new directions of scientific fields, which play a vital role in the progress of science and technology. This study confronts this question here by developing a bibliometric analysis, which endeavors to explain the evolution of sensor research and new technologies that are critical to science and society. The database of Scopus concerning scientific documents and patents is used for statistical and computational analyses in these topics. Results suggest that emerging technological trajectories in sensors are wireless sensor networks, wearable sensors and biosensors. Main characteristics of these growing research fields and technologies in sensors are described for fruitful implications of research and innovation policy directed to science advances and technological change in society.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1432.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: animal welfare; 3Rs; neuroscience research; neurological disorders; transgenic models
Online: 23 November 2023 (02:31:16 CET)
Since alternative methods (AAs), such as in vitro cultures, organs in silico, or mathematical methods, are not fully able to reproduce the complexity of the human organism, particularly neu-ral processes, and brain structures, animal experimentation remains the only way in which re-search can obtain the necessary knowledge to suggest drug therapies or targeted therapeutic in-terventions. Particularly in neuroscience, transgenic animals allow us to model neurological dis-eases, study the relationship between the brain and behavior, and decipher the function of genes involved in pathological conditions. However, it should never be forgotten that animals are "sen-tient beings" capable of feeling pleasure and pain (Art. 13 of the 2007 Lisbon Treaty). For this rea-son, it is crucial to prioritize the welfare of animals involved in testing by considering their phys-ical, psychological, adaptive, and relational well-being. This is where the concept of a Culture of Care comes in, where the responsibility of care extends beyond the veterinary aspects to include everything that can safeguard the welfare of animals before, during, and after experimentation. This chapter explains the advantages of using the animal model while practicing the culture of care in neuroscience, as both animals and research outcomes benefit from this approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Early diagnosis; lung cancer; biomarkers; body fluids; research management
Online: 2 November 2023 (09:32:59 CET)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The main issue is the absence of a screening test available in clinical practice; the identification of non-invasive biomarkers is thus an urgent clinical necessity. Currently, low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) demonstrates a 20% reduction of lung cancer mortality. However, it is not particularly suitable for clinical practice because of the costs, radiation, and the false positive rate. Several studies have therefore focused on research into biomarkers in body fluids. Despite the power of certain molecules to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy subjects, no biomarker has yet been shown to significantly and reliably influence clinical decisions or to be translated from the laboratory to clinical practice. We performed an overview of the peer-reviewed biomedical literature published in the last 10 years on the research regarding biomarkers for the early diagnosis of lung cancer via a comprehensive analysis of the reviews published this past year. Our main aim was to bring to light the limitations and strengths of the research already conducted. Furthermore, future prospectives have been explored, bearing in mind the management of clinical trials and their integration into clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0314.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: smart textiles; bibliometric analysis; science mapping; research trends; hotspots
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:49:08 CEST)
According to ISO/TR 23383, smart textiles reversibly interact with their environment and respond or adapt to changes in the environment. The present review and bibliometric analysis was performed on 5,810 documents (1989–2022) from the Scopus database, using VOSviewer and Bibliometrix/Biblioshiny for science mapping. The results show that the field of smart textiles is highly interdisciplinary and dynamic, with an average growth rate of 22% and exponential growth in the last 10 years. Beeby, S.P., and Torah, R.N. have published the highest number of papers, while Wang, Z.L. has the highest number of citations. The leading journals are Sensors, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, and Textile Research Journal, while Advanced Materials has the highest number of citations. China is the country with the most publications and the most extensive cooperative relationships with other countries. Research on smart textiles is largely concerned with new materials and technologies, particularly in relation to electronic textiles. Recent research focuses on energy generation (triboelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectrics, Joule heating), conductive materials (MXenes, liquid metal, silver nanoparticles), sensors (strain sensors, self-powered sensors, gait analysis), specialty products (artificial muscles, soft robotics, EMI shielding), and advanced properties of smart textiles (self-powered, self-cleaning, washable, sustainable smart textiles).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: soccer; psychology; research trends; data science; topic modeling; bibliometric
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:20:09 CEST)
This study aims to identify the knowledge structure and research trends of soccer psychology research during the last 33 years (1990–2022). Data were obtained from 1,863 papers from the Web of Science database. The data were collected through keyword text mining and data preprocessing to determine the keywords needed for analysis. Based on the keywords, latent Dirichlet allocation-based topic modeling analysis was performed to analyze the topic distribution of papers and explore research trends by topic area. The topic modeling process included four topic area and fifty topics. The “Coaching Essentials in Football” topic area had the highest frequency, but it was not statistically identified as a trend. However, coaching, including training, is expected to continue to be an important research topic, as it is a key requirement for success in the highly competitive elite football world. Interest in the research field of “Psychological Skills for Performance Development” has waned in recent years. This may be due to the predominance of other subject areas rather than a lack of interest. Various high-tech interventions and problem-solving attempts are being made in this field, providing opportunities for qualitative and quantitative expansion. “Motivation, cognition, and emotion” is a largely underrated subject area in soccer psychology. This could be because survey-based psychological evaluation attempts have decreased as the importance of rapid field application has been emphasized in recent soccer-related studies. However, measuring psychological factors contributes to the study of football psychology through a new methodology and theoretical background. Recognizing the important role of psychological factors in player performance and mental management, as well as presenting new research directions and approaches that can be directly applied to the field, will advance soccer psychology research.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social work; global issues; trends; challenges; practice; education; research
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:46:43 CEST)
This scholarly article provides an overview of the present and future issues and trends in social work on a global scale. Drawing upon recent bibliographic references and a review of the literature, this article explores the challenges faced by social workers in various regions and highlights emerging trends that are reshaping the field. The analysis incorporates insights from renowned authors and researchers to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state and anticipated future of social work practice, education, and research worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: research; oncology; Arab; Middle East; North Africa; cancer management
Online: 21 June 2023 (12:53:49 CEST)
The increasing cancer burden is a major health concern in Arab countries with variations in cancer profiles. Given the limited oncology research output and scarce data on cancer trial participation in the Arab region, this study explored the therapeutic cancer trial landscape in Arab countries over the past 20 years. A bibliometric analysis of the PubMed database was conducted on primary publications of therapeutic trials with a participating Arab center. Arab countries participated in 320 published cancer-related therapeutic trials (2000‒2021). There was a consistent increase in the number of trials, sample size, multiregional site participation, and number of randomized trials. However, most trials were small, did not receive external funding, and included a single Arab site. Compared with Arab-only trials, trials with joint non-Arab sites were larger (p = .003) and more likely to be externally funded (p < .001). Citation numbers and journal impact factors were higher in trial publications with joint non-Arab authorship than those without (p < .001, for both). Despite improving conduct and publication records of oncology trials with Arab centers, cancer trial participation remains limited in Arab countries. Concerted efforts are required to encourage sponsorship and international collaboration in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1336.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: palliative sedation; terminal care; nursing; palliative care; qualitative research
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:20:02 CEST)
Knowing the symbolizations constructed in people's consciousness, based on lived experiences, is crucial to understanding how they structure their lives. Palliative Sedation (PS) integrates treatment in terminal palliative care, with the purpose of offering support and relief of refractory symptoms that may occur at the end of life. This study aimed at interpreting psychic fantasies that permeate thoughts, as reported by a sample of nurses when administering palliative sedation to patients in the final stage of life. This is a clinical-qualitative study conducted in a large hospital in the city of São Paulo (state of São Paulo, Brazil), a national reference in oncology. The study included 11 nurses working in the care of cancer patients. For data collection, we used the technique of SDIOQD – Semi-Directed Interview with Open-ended Questions in-Depth. The treatment by CQCA - Clinical-Qualitative Content Analysis is grounded on psychodynamic concepts. The interpretation of the meaning cores found in the interviews, complemented by observation of the para-verbal and nonverbal manifestations of the interviewees, led to the construction of three categories: (1) to symbolically serve death on a tray; (2) the act of sedation and its unfortunate coincidences; (3) palliative sedation as an agent of mercy death. This study suggests that nurses face dilemmatic situations, going through periods of self-questioning and moments of the ambivalence of feelings of beneficence and maleficence. When sedating a patient, the nurses envision to be offering dignity in death. Euthanasia fantasies in the process of administering sedation are latent in consciousness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; Altmetrics; Citations; Orthopedic Research Society; Publication
Online: 22 February 2023 (01:34:43 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the main themes and insights from the Journal of Orthopedic Research (JOR)/JOR Spine Workshop during the Orthopedic Research Society 2022 Annual Meeting in Tampa Bay, Florida. This workshop, organized by JOR Editor-in-Chief Dr. Linda Sandell, focused on communication strategies (particularly using social media) to broadcast published work in orthopedic research. In this manuscript, we summarize data that support the beneficial impacts of amplifying scholarly works on social media and outline a linearized workflow for constructing a Twitter posts, which can be generalized to other social media platforms, to share academic research. Finally, we identify resources to alleviate barriers to social media use and help promote professionalism and success online in the orthopedic research community. As early career scientists in orthopedics, we see immense value in using social media, particularly Twitter, to communicate our research findings and build our scholarly networks. We hope this information will be persuasive to those in the orthopedic field and be broadly applicable to others in related scientific fields who wish to disseminate findings and engage a public audience on social media. For the orthopedic research society and journal of orthopedic research, social media can assist in accomplishing our mission of creating a world without musculoskeletal limitations via the timely dissemination of orthopedic research findings and news.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Token; Recognition; Reward; Peer Review; Research Management; NIHR
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:41:28 CEST)
Here we present a blockchain-backed token recognition system to reward the contributions that academics make to the scientific ecosystem. Recognition is important in science but current methods, systems and incentives are limited. Specifically, the traditional focus on narrow publication metrics means diverse contributions are not captured, while bias toward senior, established scientists is common. To tackle this challenge, we explore the potential of harnessing blockchain’s collaborative, decentralised and trust-brokering properties to develop a token reward system for use by research funders. Academics would be awarded tokens for undertaking common but vital tasks such as peer review, sitting on funding committees and submitting reports. These tokens would not be tradable or specifically monetisable but would serve as a validated record of scientific contribution. They would have value in professional recruitment and job placement, support grant and award applications, and inform performance appraisals and file reviews. Coordination and cooperation across multiple funding agencies in developing the platform would provide an opportunity to aggregate and standardise recognition, given academics often work with several funders. This system’s goals are to expand recognition metrics, promote efficiencies, improve the robustness of professional assessments and enable cross-funder collaboration, thereby optimising research processes and practices in a decentralised and democratised manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: thematic analysis; Indonesia; physics education research; natural language processing
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:42:09 CEST)
Emergent physics education research (PER) literatures have been disseminated through academic publications within the community. The growing body of literatures over years challenge Indonesian PER scholars to understand how the research community has been progressed and what possible future work that should be emphasized. Nevertheless, previous traditional method of thematic analysis performed serious limitation when the number of PER literatures exponentially increased. Dealing with this large volume of publications, one of the machine learning studies namely natural language processing (NLP) was employed in this study to automate our thematic analysis among Indonesian PER literatures that are still limited to be explored. One of the well-known NLP algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), has been performed to extract Indonesian PER topics and their associated development between 2014 and 2021. A total of 852 papers (~ 4 to 8 pages each) were collectively downloaded from five international conference proceedings organized by Indonesian PER researchers. Before their topics were modeled through LDA algorithm, our data corpus should be previously preprocessed through several common procedures of established NLP studies. Findings revealed that LDA has thematically quantified Indonesian PER topics and described their distinct development over certain period. The identified topics from this study demonstrated that Indonesian PER community has established robust development in eight distinctive topics to the present. They begin with initial interest in focusing research on physics laboratory and following the research based instruction in the late 2015. Indonesian PER scholars sustained to study continuous topic on 21st century skill until 2019 which gave way to a focus on developing relevant educational technology to address several forms of students’ performance including scientific literacy and problem solving. There is still lack of Indonesian PER literatures that have been attempted to address qualitative aspects of physics teaching and learning.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0345.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Africa Phage Forum; Phages; Research; Collaboration; Network; Capacity development
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:14:10 CET)
The problem of antimicrobial resistance has created a new need for alternative/ complementary treatments. To this end, bacteriophages offer an exciting prospect, as they can infect and kill specific bacteria without harming the host. This survey aimed to evaluate the state of applied phage research in Africa, among the members of the Africa phage Forum (APF). This was a cross-sectional survey whereby a google form was created for the members of the Africa Phage forum to fill so as to access the stage of phage research in Africa. Data was collected between June and July 2021 using a structured questionnaire form. A total of 65 out of a total of 101 forum members completed the questionnaire. The survey indicated that a majority 68% of phage researchers in Africa were at the training stages of their career. Some available participants were limited (8%). Most of the members identified funding, lack of skill set, near absence of adequate laboratory infrastructure as major hurdles for phage research. Despite these challenges, 73.3% of APF members work with the ESKAPE group with the majority of its members carrying out research in Phage in Biocontrol (80%), whereas others perform research related to human phage therapy (60%). However, it appeared this research has not yet reached the stage of commercialization. Overall, Phage research is in its infancy in Africa. Key challenges included poor laboratory infrastructure, lack of capacity building in the phage field, and lack of local awareness on the significance of phages for policymakers and governments. APF could, therefore, play a role in creating phage awareness in Africa; mobilizing resources; enhancing networks and collaborations amongst APF members and beyond, especially with more experienced phage mentors in the Western countries, to greatly reduce the gap in knowledge and enhance phage research in Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: virtual reality; automotive industry; marketing research; immersive car clinic
Online: 9 November 2021 (11:01:16 CET)
Virtual reality (VR) can play a key role in automotive marketing research, lowering costs and shortening the time it takes to bring a new product to market. However, there are still few VR applications that support automotive customers' experiences during the early stages of product development. Through a systematic review of literature and patents, this study aims to identify the challenges and opportunities for the application of virtual reality in car clinics, and to categorize them into attributes. We searched through the knowledge databases of PatentScout, ScienceDirect, Springer, and IEEEXplore. We found 72 patents with a high concentration in a few inventors. The United States of America presented the greatest number of records and the most common applications related to the apparatus for automatically reading respondents' reactions in a virtual environment. In terms of articles, we found 19 research papers that discussed sixteen categories identified as challenges and opportunities for automotive marketing research: 1) cost, 2) location to customers, 3) flexibility in interactions, 4) model transportation, 5) depth perception, 6) haptic perception, 7) motion, 8) movement perception/ physical collision, 9) color and texture, 10) sound feedback, 11) product interaction/manipulation, 12) visual-spatial, 13) graphic quality, 14) intuitiveness, 15) cybersecurity and 16) cybersickness. We conclude that the automotive industry can employ virtual reality for marketing research, but relevant elements such as hardware and software definition, stimulus quality, and research objectives, among others, must be considered.