ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: jealousy; partner retention strategies; romantic relationship; age; relationship length
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:06:42 CEST)
Jealousy and mate retention have received attention in the research over the last decades. Despite this, most of the research examined male jealousy and male mate retention, emphasizing cost-inflicting behavior due to its role in relationship and domestic violence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between jealousy and all mate retention strategies in romantic relationship among women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 772 Croatian women aged 19 to 40 who were in a heterosexual relationship at the time. The study was conducted online, and the participants completed the Multidimensional jealousy scale and Mate Retention Inventory. The results showed that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral jealousy are positively correlated with all mate retention strategies which indicate that a stronger experience of jealousy can be expected to result in more frequent use of all partner retention strategies. We also found that all three dimensions of jealousy and relationship length positively predicted both cost-inflicting and benefit-provisioning mate retention behavior, whereas age was a negative predictor of benefit-provisioning behavior only. Findings of this study suggest that although jealousy can substantially explain interpersonally risky and damaging behavior in relationships, it can also explain affectionate and attentive behavior to some extent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; gut; microbiome; relationship
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:05:19 CEST)
There is a bidirectional relationship between the heart and the gut. Gut microbiome is an excellent gut-homeostasis keeper since controls the growth of potentially harmful bacteria and protects the microbiota environment. There is evidence suggesting that diet rich in fatty acid can be metabolized and converted by gut microbiome and hepatic enzymes to trimethyl-amine N-oxide (TMAO) a product that is associated with atherogenesis, platelet dysfunction, thrombotic events, coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure and ultimately death. Heart failure, by inducing gut ischemia and congestion and consequently gut barrier dysfunction promote an intestinal leak of microbes or even of their products, facilitating their entrance into the circulation and thus stimulating the low-grade inflammation and hence the immune response. Drugs used for heart failure may alter the gut microbiome, and conversely gut microbiome may modify the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs. Modification of lifestyle based mainly on exercise and Mediterranean diet along with the use of pre- or probiotics may be beneficial to some extent for the gut microbiome environment. The potential role of gut microbiome in heart failure development and outcomes is a fruitful area of future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0212.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Graph Neural Network; Recommendation; Social Relationship
Online: 14 September 2022 (16:09:15 CEST)
There is a considerable amount of research in online social networks, most of which focuses on the structural analysis of social graphs. The interpersonal relationships of social networks, especially friend circle, can solve the cold start and sparsity problems, and through the relationship between social networks can effectively recommend users' favorite items (items), such as music , videos, brands/products, preferred tags, location, services, etc. User relationships in social networks are diverse and there are many different perspectives on different social networks. Associations among users can form multi-layered composite networks, and multi-layered social networks present new challenges and opportunities. Different relationships can influence users' preferences to different degrees, which in turn affects their behavior. Therefore, fusing multiple social networks is an effective way to improve recommendation. Although some studies have started to address multiple social network recommendations, simple linear superposition cannot reflect the coupling and nonlinear association between multiple social networks. In this paper, we propose a graph neural network recommendation model under social relationships based on this background. We first propose to compute the 2nd order collaborative signals and their intensities directly from the neighboring matrix for updating the node embedding of the graph convolution layer. Secondly by embedding historical evaluations, various social networks constituting different dimensions, the attention integration of user preferences by different social networks is achieved, and its effectiveness and scalability are demonstrated in theoretical derivation and experimental validation. The theoretical derivation and experimental validation demonstrate its effectiveness and scalability.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Corruption; bribery; personal values; corrupt relationship
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:15:10 CET)
Corruption is a legal and moral contravention that generates great concern among nations due to its erosive effects on economic growth, democracy, governance, social equity and the integrity of culture. Therefore, it is necessary to know more about the multiple variables that produce and maintain this phenomenon. This article reports the results of an experimental investigation that sought to provide elements of judgment on the influence of the structure of personal values on the willingness to bribe. For this, 12 couples of young university students of both sexes interacted through a game that simulated a relationship between a corrupter and a corruptible agent, with the help of a real-time communication system, mediated by an online platform, which allowed instant and bidirectional interaction. The couples were randomly constituted and played with each other under double blind. However, the interacting members of the dyad could share values or vary in their axiological structure in such a way that, while one of them could manifest anti-corruption principles, the other's commitment was not so obvious. The results confirm the importance of the axiological structure of people in the facilitation or containment of the corrupt behavior. This article also reflects on the theoretical connotations of the relationships shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0022.v1
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:36:45 CEST)
The study of values at European and global level has gained momentum along with the theory of values launched by Schwartz. Values are dormant, hidden, unobservable and impossible to measure directly. They exist somewhere within the human being, manifested by different attitudes, depending on their degree of generality. The paradigm of basic human values implies shared universal values that are encountered in cultures all over the world. The theory of values designed by Schwartz has refined the pool of 19 basic individual values representing principles in individuals and group, further describing the dynamic relationships among them. This study presents practical evidence of the dynamics between individual values, the dynamics theorized by Schwartz in 2012. Following the development of an online questionnaire made up of 46 items with online responses options on a Lickert scale from 1 to 6, where 1 represents less important and 6 represent very important, 220 young people from Western Romania voluntarily responded. By testing the hypothesis assuming the dynamic relationship between the two values through multiple regression analysis, the results demonstrate that in Model 1, which involves a linear relationship, health explains 42% of the variance in security with a F =161,215 significant at p <.01. In Model 2, which involves a curvilinear relationship, health explains 50% of the variance in security version with a F = 35,336 significant at p <.01. The incremental prediction optimization of 8% added by including the squared security accounts for the curve in the regression line, indicating the existence of a curvilinear relationship between security and health. The dynamic relationship demonstrates that upper limit and lower limit aspects of security, significantly influence the health value in a negative way. Normal levels of security trigger a high level of prioritization of health value. The implications of this type of relationship are discussed in explaining the value phenomenon at individual level. The study shows limits due to the selected sample, focusing exclusively on young people with higher education from the Western region of Romania. This sample was the target group of "The National Identity of Romanian Youth" project which designed this research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0543.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Pathogenic relationship; Symbiotic relationship; LUCA; Horizontal gene transfer; Recombination; Transposition; Disease pathogenesis; CRISPR-Cas & Anti-CRISPR system
Online: 20 April 2021 (12:56:45 CEST)
Mutual survival among different species of living organisms is quite common in our living world. That mutual survival can produce symbiotic or parasitic relationship among different living organisms. But at the same time, some relationships are harmful to the living organisms creating pathogenic relationships. Why some mutual survivals are beneficial, whereas some relationships are harmful creating different diseases in the living world? That harmful or pathological relationship producing different diseases in both the animal and plant kingdom has been extensively studied by the scientific community several times under the heading of ‘Host-pathogen interaction’ and ‘Disease pathogenesis’. But it is still not clear why some mutual survivals are beneficial or non-harmful, whereas some co-survivals are harmful producing different disease conditions in the living world mainly due to different immune mediated reactions or direct toxic effect of substances produced by an organism. To find the answer to this question, we have to search retrospectively to the evolutionary pattern of our diverse living world. If it is assumed that we have originated from Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) by different cumulative mutations, horizontal gene transfer, mobile genetic elements (MGE), transposition and natural selection, then it would be quite pragmatic to consider that two things were moving side by side in our ancient living world. On one hand it’s purpose was to create the diversification of both unicellular and multi-cellular living world and on the other hand it’s another purpose was to maintain the specific identity of the living organisms. It is the second purpose or the maintenance of specific identity that ultimately led to the development of Immune system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0294.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Fertility Desire; Parasocial Relationship; Education Simulation Game
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:31:53 CET)
Abstract: The population issue has been increasingly urgent in China in recent years. Fertility desire is an essential component of fertility research. Studies on fertility desire mainly contain two aspects: socio-economic structure and individual family. The psychological structure of individuals in individual families is the primary factor of fertility desire. Based on the parasocial relationship theory, this study analyzed the changes in real behavioral intention achieved by players through the identification and attachment to avatars while constructing parasocial relationships. The results indicate that character attachment can significantly enhance the variables of game concentration and player self-identity, actively mediates parasocial emotions and parasocial cognition, and ultimately increases fertility desire. As a theoretical contribution, this study provides a comprehensive interpretation of the psychology of Chinese players in a Simulation Game and explores the theoretical connections among role attachment, role identity, and parasocial relationships in virtual game players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: overimitation; dogs; affiliation; relationship; dog-human interaction
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:07:01 CET)
Overimitation, the copying of causally irrelevant or non-functional actions, is well-known from humans but completely absent in other primates. Recent studies from our lab have provided evidence for overimitation in canines. Previously, we found that half of tested pet dogs copied their human caregiver's irrelevant action, while only few did so when the action was demonstrated by an unfamiliar experimenter. Therefore, we hypothesized that dogs show overimitation as a result of socio-motivational grounds. To test this more specifically, here we investigated how the relationship with the caregiver influenced the eagerness to overimitate. Given the high variability in the tendency to overimitate their caregiver, we hypothesized that not only familiarity, but also relationship quality influences whether dogs faithfully copy their caregiver. For this purpose, we measured on the one hand the overimitation tendency (with the same test as in the two studies before) and on the other hand the relationship quality between the dogs and their caregivers. Although not significant, results revealed that dogs who overimitated seemed to show more referential and affiliative behaviours towards the owner (like gazing, synchronization and greeting) than dogs who showed less or no copying of the irrelevant action. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pica; iron deficiency anemia; Relationship; pregnant women
Online: 7 July 2021 (07:54:39 CEST)
INTRODUCTION. The most common cause of eating non-food items (pica) is specific deficiencies of minerals, such as iron. This study aimed to assess the relationship between Pica and Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. METHODS. The study was conducted in the out-patient department, antenatal Clinic at East Jeddah Hospital from July to September 2020. Design: A quantitative descriptive correlation design. Sample size: A total of 400 pregnant women, included anemic pregnant women, ≥ 18 years old, with singleton fetus and iron deficiency anemia. RESULTS. The mean age was 32.2 ± 6.6, half of the participants reported food cravings. Ice was the main item in pica followed by clay and chalk. Two-thirds had pica, more than half during the 1st trimester. There is a statistically significant relationship between pica and the history of a family member, parity, and gravidity at (P< 0,001, P <0,001, P <0,005) respectively. Hb and hematocrit in relation to pica reflected a statistically significant relationship (P< 0,001) and (P< 0,001), respectively. The symptoms attributed to iron deficiency were significantly associated with pica (P< 0,006). CONCLUSION. The pica and iron deficiency anemia had a significant association with pregnant women in EJH. RECOMMENDATION. The follow-up visits should integrate the food behavior inquiry to check if the pica existing with anemic or non-anemic pregnant women. Also, increase the awareness among midwives-nurses about the prevalence of pica and iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0454.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Interpersonal relationship; Interpersonal schema; Elderly; Structured interview
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:25:06 CET)
As a growing public interest in social health of elderly, studies focusing on social networks and interpersonal relationships of the elderly are needed. The present study was conducted to de-velop a structured interview to evaluate the interpersonal schema based on Self-Defining Memory of elderly. First, the word cues that the elderly often report on interpersonal events were con-firmed. Next, the indices and scoring rules were prepared, including Relationship frequency (RF), Conflict frequency (CF), Dominance mean (Dm), and Warmth mean (Wm). Healthy elderly peo-ple living alone (mean age = 71.81, SD = 3.95) were interviewed. Finally, the correlation between each index and Short form of Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (KIIP-SC) was analyzed for criterion validity. The inter-rater reliability was substantial (Kappa = .61 ~ .66). Based on the analysis of criterion validity, the indices of CF, Dm, and Wm indices showed an appropriate level of criterion validity. This study developed a structural interview based on a novel system of reporting autobiographical memory and established indices with appropriate validity to evaluate interpersonal relationships. The interview is expected to identify the characteristics of interpersonal relationships of the elderly and contribute to the establishment of the elderly community, accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0262.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: total synthesis; antitumor activity; structure-activity relationship
Online: 24 April 2019 (05:29:48 CEST)
(-)-Zeylenone is a promising cytotoxic agent，which is a natural product isolated from Uvaria grandiflora Roxb. Though substantial antitumor mechanism has been researched , little has focused on its enantiomer (+)-Zeylenone.This article will try to find a gram scale synthesis method of (+)-Zeylenone and explain the structure-activity relationship of this kind of compound. Total synthesis of (+)-zeylenone was completed in 13 steps with quinic acid as starting material in 8.8% overall yield. The highlight of the route was the control of the three carbon’s chirality by clever use of single step dihydroxylation under the direction of the key C-3 chirality. In addition, zeylenone derivatives were designed and synthesized and their antitumor activity were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines using the CCK8 assay. Structure-activity relationship suggested compounds with both two absolute configurations exhibited good activity. Besides, hydroxyls at C-1/2 position were crucial for the activity and esterification of C-1 hydroxyl with large groups made the activity disappeared. Hydroxyl at C-3 position was also important as proper ester substituent could increase the potency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teacher, teacher-student relationship, education, teacher dimensions
Online: 14 November 2018 (07:54:44 CET)
The current paper is based on a survey conducted on 321 engineering students studying at University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest and University POLITEHNICA of Timişoara. The research aims at outlining the profile of the teacher in technical higher education as depicted by engineering students. The results of the study highlight the importance of the student-teacher relationship and of the teacher’s roles as evaluator and examiner. Moreover, the test data show significant statistical differences between the real and ideal teacher in technical higher education from a student perspective. Regarding the dimensions of the teacher in technical higher education, based on the statistics, on a 1 to 5 scale, the results show similarities of the two models. For instance, students rank first intelligence and last elitism and competitiveness as teacher attributes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0174.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: heart rate variability; dyads; physiological synchrony; relationship; emotion
Online: 15 November 2019 (06:09:04 CET)
The mere co-presence of another person synchronizes physiological signals, but no study has systematically investigated effects of type of emotional context and type of relationship in eliciting dyadic physiological synchrony. In this study, we investigated the synchrony of pairs of strangers, companions, and romantic partners while watching a series of video clips designed to elicit different emotions. Maximal cross-correlation of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to quantify dyadic synchrony. The findings suggest that an existing social relationship might reduce the predisposition to conform one's autonomic responses to a friend or romantic partner during social situations that do not require direct interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: causal relationship model; disposing of used batteries; households
Online: 16 March 2018 (05:07:24 CET)
This research aimed to develop a causal relationship model of the behavior of a Thai rural community in disposing of used batteries. The variables studied were 1) the household latent variable (three observable variables); 2) the social latent variable (six observable variables); 3) the intention latent variable (three observable variable); and 4) the behavior latent variable (three observable variables). Six hundred households were surveyed using a questionnaire. The questionnaire developed was validated by seven experts and its reliability was established by testing it with a sample group. Results showed that the modified model do present a good overall level of fit. The House and social positively and directly influenced intention. Intention positively and directly influenced behavior. The theoretical and practical implications relating specifically to intention to the behavior in disposing of used dry batteries by households are emphasized. The modified model indicated eighty-nine percent of the variance in the behavior in disposing of used dry batteries by households was explained by the intention factors. The most direct effect on behavior was the intention factors with 0.89 of effect size. The factors with indirect effects on behavior were household and social factors with an effect size of 0.52 and 0.35.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: antimicrobial activity; molecular dynamics; membrane; peptide; structure-activity relationship
Online: 21 November 2023 (07:27:05 CET)
In our previous work, we demonstrated the potential of the amphiphilic cyclic peptide [W4R4] as a promising antimicrobial agent. The extensive data accumulated on the antimicrobial activity of this peptide and its homologs presented an opportunity to unravel the molecular mechanisms governing their action and establish crucial structure-activity relationships (SAR). To achieve this, we employed a comprehensive approach involving peptide synthesis, in vitro biological testing, and molecular modeling to systematically analyze the SAR of a series of cyclic peptides derived from the [W4R4] scaffold. Minimal modifications were introduced to the original peptide by incorporating either one aromatic hydrophobic residue (W) or one polar positively charged residue (R) while maintaining the sequential W/R arrangement. Additionally, we introduced an "intermediate" substitution by incorporating 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP), possessing both aromatic and polar properties, into the macrocycle [W4R4] between the W and R residues. Notably, this study marked the first synthesis and evaluation of the [W4R4(DKP)] peptide. Structural, dynamic, hydrophobic, and membrane-binding properties of four cyclic peptides ([W4R4], [W5R4], [W4R5], [W4R4(DKP)]) were explored using molecular dynamics simulations within a DOPC/DOPG lipid bilayer that mimics the bacterial membrane. The results obtained revealed distinct SAR profiles for all peptides, enabling the establishment of correlations between their antimicrobial activity and structural/dynamic parameters. These parameters included the degree of conformational plasticity, the depth of immersion into the bi-layer, and the population of the membrane binding mode characterized by the embedding of the hydrophobic peptide pattern into the acyl chain region of lipids. In particular, the peptide [W4R5] exhibited an optimal "activity/binding to the bacterial membrane" pattern. This work highlights the significance of our multidisciplinary approach in efficiently deciphering finely regulated SAR profiles for a series of homologous peptides with diverse activities. Furthermore, this research provides a solid foundation for the rational design of novel antimicrobial peptides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2030.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: polyhydroxyalkanoates; poly(3-hydroxybutyrate); composites; nanocomposites; structure-properties relationship
Online: 31 October 2023 (10:03:37 CET)
Due to the growing interest in biopolymers, biosynthesizable and biodegradable polymers currently occupy a special place. Unfortunately, the properties of native biopolymers are not satisfactory, which explain that attempts are being made to modify them. The work attempts to improve the properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) using linear aliphatic polyurethane (PU) based on 1,4-butanediol and hexamethylene 1,6-diisocyanate. The conducted studies on the effect of the amount of PU used (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) showed an improvement in the thermal properties of the prepared polymer blends. There was an increase in the degradation temperature of the ob-tained blends in relation to the native P3HB by 12-57C, and the difference between the melting point and the degradation point was above 100°C for most of the obtained blends. As part of the tested mechanical properties of the new polymer blends, we noted the desired increase in the tensile strength, in the relative elongation at break and in the impact strength with a decrease in hardness, in particular with the presence of 5 wt.% PU. Therefore, for further improvement, hybrid nanobiocomposites with 5 wt.% PU and organically modified montmorillonite (MMT – Cloisite 30B) were produced. The nanoadditive was used in typical amount of 1-3 wt.%. The nanostructure of the biocomposites produced by extrusion was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and compatibility by infrared spectroscopy (FT IR). In addition, selected mechanical properties were determined and thermal properties were tested by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polyester and polyurethane chains penetrated into the interlayer spaces of organically modi-fied nanoclay – Cloisite30B and the complete delamination occurred during direct mixing in the extrusion process. FT IR spectral analysis showed the compatibility of the polymer biocomposite components by the coexistence of intermolecular interactions in the form of hydrogen bonds. The morphology studies of the produced hybrid nanobiocomposites showed an interaction of the bi-opolymer matrix with PU and Cloisite30B and the formation of easily migrating polyester-polyurethane-montmorillonite adducts, which resulted in improved mechanical properties com-pared to the properties of the native P3HB and P3HB-PU compositions. The influence of the presence of a nanofiller on the properties of the prepared nanobiocomposites was tested and it was found that, as expected, the smallest amount of nanofiller provides the best results.It was found that the obtained nanobiocomposites containing the smallest amount of nano-fillers, i.e. 1 wt.% Cloisite30B exhibited the best mechanical and thermal properties. The desired decrease in hardness by 15% and a higher value of impact strength by 15%, an increase in elonga-tion at break by 60% and an increase in thermal stability of the newly produced biocomposites compared to to the native P3HB were observed. The prepared nanobiocomposites combined the best features caused by the elasticizing effect of polyurethane and the formation of P3HB-PU-MMT adducts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0560.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Big Data Analytics; Revenue Generation; Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:33:43 CEST)
This study explores the potential of data science software solutions like Customer Relationship Management Software (CRM) for increasing the revenue generation of businesses. We focused on those businesses in Accommodation and Food Service sector across the European Union (EU). The investigation is contextualized within the rising trend of data-driven decision making, examining the potential correlation between data science application and business revenue. Employing a comprehensive evaluation of Eurostat datasets from 2014 to 2021, we used both univariate and multivariate analyses, we assessed e-commerce sales data across countries, focusing on the usage of big data and CRM tools. Big data utilization showed a clear, positive relationship with enhanced e-commerce sales. However, CRM tools exhibited a dualistic impact: while their use in marketing showed no significant effect on sales, their application in non-marketing functions had a negative correlation. These findings underscore the potential role of CRM and data science solutions in enhancing business performance in the EU's Accommodation and Food Service industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0996.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: N’-phenylhydrazide; antifungal activity; structure-activity relationship; antifungal mechanism
Online: 14 August 2023 (07:13:28 CEST)
Fifty-two kinds of N’-phenylhydrazides were successfully designed and synthesized. Their anti-fungal activity in vitro against five strains of C. alb. was evaluated. All prepared compounds owned varying degrees of activity and their MIC80, TAI, and TSI values were calculated. The in-hibitory activities of 27/52 compounds against fluconazole-resistant fungi C. alb. 4395 and C. alb. 5272 were much higher than those of fluconazole. The MIC80 values of 14/52 compounds against fluconazole-resistant fungus C. alb. 5122 were less than 4 μg/mL, so it was the most sensitive fungus (TSIB = 12.0). A11 showed the highest inhibitory activity against C. alb. SC5314, 4395, and 5272. The antifungal activities of B14 and D5 against four strains of fluconazole-resistant fungi were higher than those of fluconazole. The TAI values of A11 (2.71), B14 (2.13), and D5 (2.25) are the highest. Further exploring the antifungal mechanism revealed that the fungus treated with compound A11 produced free radicals and reactive oxygen species, and their mycelium mor-phology was damaged. In conclusion, the hydrazide scaffold showed potential in the develop-ment of antifungal lead compounds. Among them, A11, B14, and D5 demonstrated particularly promising antifungal activity and hold potential as novel antifungal agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: virtual displacement principle; deformed object; constitutive relationship; analytical mechanics
Online: 1 June 2023 (14:02:19 CEST)
Analytical mechanics is the most basic discipline. The basic principles of analytical mechanics should also be applicable to general deformed objects. However, the virtual displacement principle proposed by analytical mechanics is only applicable to particle systems and rigid body systems, but not to general deformed objects. In this paper, the generalized virtual displacement principle of general deformed objects (such as, elastic objects, plastic objects, elasto-platic objects and flexible objects etc ) is derived by the method of analytical mechanics, which is also applicable to particle systems and rigid body systems. First of all, according to the method of analytical mechanics, the external force, internal force, constraint reaction force and elastic recovery force of the deformed object system under the equilibrium state are analyzed, and the concepts of virtual displacement, ideal constraint and virtual work are introduced, and the generalized virtual displacement principle (also called generalized virtual work principle) of deformed objects is proposed; secondly, vector form, coordinate component form and generalized coordinate form of generalized virtual displacement principle of deformed object are given; thirdly, as the application of the principle, the virtual displacement principle of deformed objects in plane polar coordinate system, space cylindrical coordinate system and spherical coordinate system is given; finally, a brief conclusion is drawn. This work unifies the virtual displacement principle of elastic object, plastic, elastoplastic etc deformed object systems and rigid object systems with the basic method of analytical mechanics. It is a basic principle for dealing with the static problems of deformed objects. This work also lays a foundation for the further study of the dynamics of deformed object systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1159.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Biological materials; Multifunctionality; Multiscale structure; Bioinspiration; Structure-function relationship
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:54:48 CEST)
The modern material design aims to achieve multifunctionality by integrating structures in a diverse range, resulting in simple materials with embedded functions. Biological materials and organisms are typical examples of this concept, where complex functionalities are achieved through a limited material base. This review highlights the inspiration from multifunctional organisms and materials in nature, emphasizing their structural and functional integration. In particular, we discuss complex hierarchical architectures ranging from the nanoscale to the macroscale, to achieve multifunctional properties such as extreme pressure, impact and wear resistance, shape memory and self-healing, adhesiveness and anti-fouling, sensing-actuating and sensing-camouflage, and extreme environmental survival. These strategies of integrating structure and function are critical for promoting innovations and breakthroughs in the modern engineering materials and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bangladesh; Dhaka; climatic variables; land use; PM2.5; statistical relationship
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:28 CET)
The major industrial cities of Bangladesh are heavily experiencing air pollution-related problems due to the increased trend of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and other pollutants. This paper aimed to investigate and understand the relationship between PM2.5 and land use and climatic variables and to identify the riskiest area and population groups using a Geographic information system and regression analysis. The results show that about 41% of PM2.5 concentration increased within 19 years (2002-2021) in the study area, while the highest concentration of PM2.5 was found from 2012 to 2021. The concentrations of PM2.5 were higher over barren lands, forests, croplands, and urban areas. About 64%, 62.7%, 57%, and 55% concentrations were increased annually over barren lands, forests, cropland, and urban regions, respectively, from 2002-2021. The highest concentration level of PM2.5 (84 mg m-3) among other land use classes was found in urban areas in 2021. The regression analysis shows that air pressure (r2= - 0.26), evaporation (r2= - 0.01), humidity (r2= - 0.22), rainfall (r2= - 0.20), and water vapor (r2= - 0.03) were negatively correlated with PM2.5. On the other hand, air temperature (r2= 0.24), ground heat (r2= 0.60), and wind speed (r2= 0.34) were positively correlated with PM2.5. More than 60 Upazilas were the most polluted areas, with 1,948,029 populations (ages 0-5), 485,407 (ages 50-69), and a total population of 11,260,162 were in the high-risk/hotspot zone. The government line department may use the main results paper's key results, policymakers, stainable development practitioners, academicians, and others for integrated air pollution mitigation and management in Bangladesh and other geographical settings worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0107.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Emotion recognition; Emotion cues; Pure tone; Frequency dependent relationship
Online: 1 June 2022 (07:44:13 CEST)
The recent advances in Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence have significantly increased the importance of identifying human emotions from different sensory cues. Hence, understanding the underlying relationships between emotions and sensory cues have become a subject of study in many fields including Acoustics, Psychology, Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Biochemistry. This work is a preliminary step towards investigating cues for human emotion on a fundamental level by aiming to establish relationships between tonal frequencies of sound and emotions. For that, an online perception test is conducted, in which participants are asked to rate the perceived emotions corresponding to each tone. The results show that a crossover point for four primary emotions lies in the frequency range of 417–440 Hz, thus consolidating the hypothesis that the frequency range of 432–440 Hz is neutral from human emotion perspective. It is also observed that the frequency dependant relationships between emotion pairs Happy—Sad, and Anger—Calm are approximately mirrored symmetric in nature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0324.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: natural products; sirtuin; drug discovery; epigenetics; structure–activity relationship
Online: 27 January 2020 (09:21:29 CET)
Natural products have been used for the treatment of human diseases since ancient history. Over time, due to the lack of precise tools and techniques for the separation, purification, and structural elucidation of active constituents in natural resources there has been a decline in financial support and efforts in characterization of natural products. Advances in the design of chemical compounds and the understanding of their functions is of pharmacological importance for the biomedical field. However, natural products regained attention as sources of novel drug candidates upon recent developments and progress in technology. Natural compounds were shown to bear an inherent ability to bind to biomacromolecules and cover an unparalleled chemical space in comparison to most libraries used for high-throughput screening. Thus, natural products hold a great potential for the drug discovery of new scaffolds for therapeutic targets such as Sirtuins. Sirtuins are Class III histone deacetylases that have been linked to many diseases such as Parkinson`s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, type II diabetes, and cancer linked to aging. In this review, we examine the revitalization of interest in natural products for drug discovery and discuss natural product modulators of Sirtuins that could serve as a starting point for the development of isoform selective and highly potent drug-like compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: audit quality; previous working relationship; audit and audit cycle
Online: 11 July 2018 (03:37:49 CEST)
This study evaluates literature on the wheel of audit partners in Chinese companies and institutions by examining the impact of relationships before and after the rotation between the input and output partners. We consider the partners in the rotation before the rotation, before the work relationship. We find two different results from the previous working relationships: (a) increasing the likelihood of the outgoing partners after the cooling period, and (b) reducing the quality of the audit and lower accounting after the rotation. These findings ask whether the rotational partners are truly independent of the working relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0119.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: thiazoles; thiadiazoles; hydrazonoyl chlorides; anticancer activity; structure activity relationship
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:05:21 CEST)
A novel series of thiazole based-1,3,4-thiadiazoles were designed and prepared via the reaction of the 2-(4-methyl-2-phenylthiazole-5-carbonyl)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide with the appropriate hydrazonoyl chlorides. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Thirteen new 1,3,4-thiadiazoles have been evaluated for their anticancer activity against liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Also, their structure activity relationship (SAR) was studied. The 1,3,4-thiadiazoles 12d, 12c, 6g,18b, 6c, and 6f(IC50 = 0.82, 0.91, 1.06, 1.25, 1.29 and 1.88 µM, respectively) have promising antitumor activity against liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Social Media; WhatsApp; Education; Customer Relationship Management (CRM); Mobile Learning
Online: 17 November 2023 (09:03:36 CET)
The rapid expansion of social media and instant messaging applications, such as WhatsApp, has transformed how individuals and organizations communicate and engage. This think piece explores the potential of integrating WhatsApp as a customer relationship management (w-CRM) tool within the education sector to foster and sustain long-term relationships among students, teaching staff, and non-teaching staff. By leveraging real-time features and the widespread use of WhatsApp, educational institutions can create a more interactive and dynamic learning environment, benefiting all stakeholders involved. The literature highlights the importance of establishing clear frameworks for mutual engagement and interaction and the potential of w-CRM to improve communication between students' families and educational institutions. There are potential risks associated with the pervasive use of WhatsApp, and call for future research to explore strategies for mitigating these risks while maximizing the benefits of w-CRM in the education sector. Longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the long-term impact of w-CRM on stakeholder relationships, student outcomes, and overall institutional performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: relationship marketing; relational benefits; habit; revisit intention; personal service business
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:53:53 CEST)
The intention to repurchase is a key component in relationship marketing. However, minimal attention has been paid to how customers’ habitual behavior moderates the relationship between customers’ evaluation of benefits received from a service provider and the intention to revisit, specifically in a personal service business where customer-service provider interactions likely constitute the core of a sustainable relationship. To address this gap, the current study proposes and tests a comprehensive model to advance the theory of relationship marketing (RM) and additionally contributes to social exchange theory (SET) as well as the theory of repurchase decision-making (TRD) in the business service context. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to examine the relationships of the research model. Based on data collected from 482 customers on their perceptions of hairstylists, the empirical findings revealed that relational benefits significantly affect post-experience behavior-satisfaction, trust and relationship commitment, and subsequently boost the intention to revisit. Furthermore, habit as an unconscious factor moderates the paths between revisit intention and its determinants. Although several limitations exist, the findings practically and theoretically make a contribution to the literature on relationship marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0563.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Iran; Pan Evaporation; Genetic Algorithm; MLP Neural Network; Experimental Relationship
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:20:33 CEST)
Evaporation from surface water plays a key role in water accounting of basins, water resources management, and irrigation systems management, so simulating evaporation with high accuracy is very important. In this study, two methods for simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran were developed. In the first method, six experimental relationships (linear, quadratic, and cubic, with two input combinations) were determined for Iran’s six climate types, inspired by a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP-NN) neuron and optimized with the genetic algorithm. The best relationship of the six was selected for each climate type, and the results were presented in a three-dimensional graph. In the second method, the best overall relationship obtained in the first method was used as the basic relationship, and climatic correction coefficients were determined for other climate types using the genetic algorithm optimization model. Finally, the accuracy of the two methods was validated using data from 32 synoptic weather stations throughout Iran. For the first method, error tolerance diagrams and statistical coefficients showed that a quadratic experimental relationship performed best under all climatic conditions. To simplify the method, two graphs were created based on the quadratic relationship for the different climate types, with the axes of the graphs showing relative humidity and temperature, and with pan evaporation was drawn as contours. For the second method, the quadratic relationship for semi-dry conditions was selected as the basic relationship. The estimated climatic correction coefficients for other climate types lay between 0.8 and 1 for dry, semi-dry, semi-humid, Mediterranean climates, and between 0.4 and 0.6 for humid and very humid climates, indicating that one single relationship cannot be used to simulate pan evaporation for all climatic conditions in Iran. The validation results confirmed the accuracy of the two methods in simulating pan evaporation under different climatic conditions in Iran.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aminoglycoside resistance; structure-activity relationship; aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, acetyltransferase, Acinetobacter
Online: 14 August 2021 (14:12:06 CEST)
The aminoglycoside 6′-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6′)-Ib] is a common cause of resistance to amikacin and other aminoglycosides in Gram-negatives. Utilization of mixture-based combinatorial libraries and application of the positional scanning strategy identified an inhibitor of AAC(6′)-Ib. This inhibitor’s chemical structure consists of a pyrrolidine pentamine scaffold substituted at four locations (R1, R3, R4, and R5). The substituents are two S-phenyl (R1 and R4), an S-hydroxymethyl (R3), and a 3-phenylbutyl (R5) groups. Another location, R2, does not have a substitution, but it is named because its stereochemistry was modified in some compounds utilized in this study. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis using derivatives with different functionalities, modified stereochemistry, and truncations were carried out by assessing the effect of the addition of each compound at 8 µM to 16 µg/ml amikacin-containing media and performing checkerboard assays varying the concentrations of the inhibitor analogs and the antibiotic. The results showed that: 1) the aromatic functionalities at R1 and R4 are essential, but the stereochemistry is essential only at R4, 2) the stereochemical conformation at R2 is critical, 3) the hydroxyl moiety at R3 as well as stereoconformation are required for full inhibitory activity, 4) the phenyl functionality at R5 is not essential and can be replaced by aliphatic groups, 5) the location of the phenyl group on the butyl carbon chain at R5 is not essential, 6) the length of the aliphatic chain at R5 is not critical, 7) all truncations of the scaffold resulted in inactive compounds. Molecular docking revealed that all compounds preferentially bind to the kanamycin C binding cavity, and binding affinity correlates with the experimental data for most of the compounds evaluated. The SAR results in this study will serve as the basis for the design of new analogs in an effort to improve their ability to induce phenotypic conversion to susceptibility in amikacin-resistant pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; hydrolysable tannins; protease; molecular docking; structural-relationship activity
Online: 17 March 2020 (15:43:48 CET)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was recently appeared all over the world. The viral main protease (3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine enzyme) controls COVID-19 duplication and manages its life cycle, making it a drug discovery target. Therefore, herein, we analyzed the theoretical approaches of 10 structurally different hydrolysable tannins as natural anti-COVID-19 through binding with the main protease of 2019-nCoV using molecular docking modelling via Molecular Operating Environment (MOE v2009) software. Our results revealed that there are top three hits may serve as potential anti-COVID-19 lead molecules for further optimization and drug development to control COVID-19. Pedunculagin, tercatain, and punicalin were found to faithfully interact with the receptor binding site and catalytic dyad (Cys145 and His41) of COVID-19 main protease, showing their successfully inhibit the protease enzyme of 2019-nCoV. We anticipated that this study would pave way for tannins based novel small molecules as more efficacious and selective anti-COVID-19 therapeutic compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescent; grit; non-cognitive skills; parent–child relationship; self-control
Online: 19 December 2019 (13:21:42 CET)
Background and Objectives: Non-cognitive skills (NCS) are vital components of a socially and financially successful life. They are developed through childhood education, family and school environments, and social settings. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NCS and the parent–child relationship, mental health, and lifestyle at school and at home for adolescents. Materials and Methods: An internet-based survey was conducted with 1,566 mothers and their children (aged 14) in Japan. Survey items for the children included background (i.e., sociodemographic items, school achievements, and lifestyle), NCS (i.e., grit and self-control scales), and mental health, while their mothers provided social, financial, and educational information, and information on parent–child relationships, including descriptions of the fathers and the father–child relationship. Results: Parent–child relationships were mostly good (i.e., 90.9% for mothers and 75.6% for fathers), with bad relationships being less common (1.6% for mothers and 6.7% for fathers). Adolescent lifestyle parameters and mental health were significantly associated with grit and self-control. Adolescents with good parent–child relationships had significantly higher NCS scores regardless of the gender of the parent. Higher NCS scores were significantly associated with better parent–child relationships, more favorable lifestyles, and better mental health among adolescents. Conclusions: These findings imply that good parent–child relationships may aid in the development of adolescents’ NCS, thereby facilitating positive lifestyles at school and home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyurethane; polyol; Mixture design; Design of experiment; structure-properties relationship
Online: 2 July 2018 (12:52:57 CEST)
Polyurethanes are materials with a strong structure-property relationship. The goal of this research was to study the effect of a polyol blend composition of polyurethanes on its properties using a mixture design and setting mathematic models for each property. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, contact angle, tensile stretch, hardness and modulus were studied. Additionally, Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Area under the curve was used to evaluate the effect of polyol blend composition on thermal stability and kinetics of water absorption and hydrolytic degradation. Least squares were used to calculate the regression coefficients. Models for the properties were significant, and lack of fit was not (P<0.05). Fit statistics suggest both good fitting and prediction. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation and contact angle were mediated by the hydrophilic nature of the polyols. Tensile strength, modulus and hardness could be regulated by the molecular weight and hydroxyl index of the polyols. Regression of DTG curves from thermal analysis showed improvement of thermal stability with the increase of PCL and PE. An ANOVA test of the model terms demonstrated that three component effects on bulk properties like water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, hardness, tensile strength and modulus, and the PEG*PCL interaction with the contact angle, which is a surface property. Mixture design application allowed for an understanding of the structure-property relationship through mathematic models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: river confluence; stage-discharge relationship; hydrodynamic influence; backwater; flow separation
Online: 19 October 2016 (12:31:32 CEST)
An accurate assessment of the stage-discharge relationship in open channel flows is necessary and important to the design and management of hydraulic structures and engineering in practical hydrosystems such as rivers and streams. While the flow structures and patterns at open channel junctions are interesting and have been widely studied in the literature, this paper focuses further on the effect of flow junctions on stage-discharge relationship at mountain river confluences. In this study, both the flume and physical model experiments are designed and performed carefully to test and analyze the complex flow structures and characteristics at river confluences with different configurations and hydraulic conditions. The impacts of the flow junctions on the traditional stage-discharge relationship are analyzed in this study. The results of this study are discussed in the paper for the understanding of flow structures at flow junctions and the design and management of hydraulic structures in river engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1839.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Anti-tubercular agents; DprE1 inhibitor; Structure activity relationship; in vivo activity
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:42:34 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading infectious disease with serious antibiotic resistance. The benzothiazinone (BTZ) scaffold PBTZ169, an inhibitor of the decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase (DprE1) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), showed anti-TB potential in animal model and piloted clinical tests. Although highly potent, the BTZ type DprE1 inhibitors in general shows extremely low aqueous solubility, which adversely affect the drug like property. To improve the compounds physiochemical properties, we generated a series of BTZ analogues. Several optimized compounds had MIC values against Mtb in single digit nanomolar. The representative compound 37 displayed improved solubility and bioavailability compared to the lead compound. Additionally, compound 37 shows Mtb-killing ability in an acute infection mouse model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0046.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: health care, innovation, resistance, staff behavior, employment relationship, strategy, organizational climate
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:25:12 CET)
Frequent employee resistance to innovation is one of the main barriers of change failure in a health care organization and one of the negative stimuli of employment relationships. Identifying the reasons of resistance is a topical issue for every organization, as the speed of change can affect their competitiveness. Consequently, it is helpful not only to know the causes of potential resistance but also to be ready to control any implicit opposition. The organizational climate and the attitude of the staff play an important role in understanding and accepting innovation. Purpose of the study is to develop a model, which would facilitate the choice of an appropriate strategy necessary to enable the health care organization to eliminate or at least to reduce resistance to often essential innovative changes. The article analyses the root causes of resistance and identifies strategies that help to mitigate or eliminate staff resistance for innovation. Use of suggested model can make easier reducing staff resistance to change processes and thus speed up the implementation of innovations. This methodology can be used to eliminate the reasons for staff resistance to change in health care institutions of different countries, but it was tested in Lithuania and achieved good enough results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: patient centered care; physical therapy; professional-patient relations; therapeutic relationship; environment.
Online: 9 November 2020 (10:02:48 CET)
Currently, in the scientific literature there is a great interest on the study of strategies to implement patient-centered care. One of the main tools for this is the therapeutic relationship. Some studies suggest that the perception of the environment in which the physical therapy treatment takes place can influence the perception of its quality. A qualitative study using focus groups was performed. Two researchers conducted the focus groups, using a topic guide with predetermined questions. The focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using a modified grounded theory approach. The setting was three hospitals and six public health centers located in Spain. The inclusion criteria were patients who had received a minimum of 15 physical therapy sessions and with no communication impairments. Thirty-one participants in four focus groups. Participants described a series of specific experiences relating to the environment, which they felt were influential in the establishment of therapeutic patient-centered relationships, including eight physical factors and five organizational factors. The results of this study highlight environmental factors that affect the quality of the therapeutic patient-centered relationship in physical therapy and emphasize the need for physical therapists and administrators to rethink the situation and propose strategies for improvement.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: positive-negative relationship quality; reliability; validity; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); bifactor
Online: 16 September 2019 (16:33:17 CEST)
The present study investigates the reliability and validity of the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality (PN-RQ) scale in Turkey. In order to determine the validity and reliability of the scale, two studies were performed. The first was carried out with emerging adults (university students) who were in a romantic relationship (148 females, 43 males, and 2 unkown) and had the main purpose to examine the structure validity of the measurement tool in the Turkish sample with an exploratory analysis. Study 2 was performed online with 513 married adults (359 females, 149 males, and 5 unknown); confirmatory findings and criterion validity studies were added. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that relationship quality had a two-factor structure and that there was also a negative relationship between the factors. Confirmatory factor analyses on the married sample showed that the bi-factor model provided evidence for the multidimensional nature of the scale. Both studies demonstrated high internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1914.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: knowledge graph construction; knowledge point extraction; pre-trained language model; relationship extraction
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:02:59 CET)
Based on the teaching material of "Robotics" course, this paper studied the automatic knowledge graph construction, including knowledge points extraction and knowledge point relation extraction. We proposed a new method of extracting the first-level, second-level, and third-level knowledge points as well as their prerequisite relations of knowledge points in the textbook. For the problem of insufficient knowledge of the pre-trained language model in the specific field, methods such as incremental pre-training and optimization of cost functions are employed to integrate subject knowledge into the pre-trained language model, thus improving its effectiveness. To overcome the problem that the traditional method of relationship extraction can not be applied directly to the extraction of teaching materials, a new scheme for knowledge point relationship extraction based on keyword relationship is proposed. The experimental data from textbooks shows that the F1 score of knowledge point extraction reaches 93%, considerably improved compared to the traditional model. Consequently, the knowledge point entity extraction and relationship extraction methods based on the pre-trained model can effectively extract structured information and facilitate the automatic construction of knowledge graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0708.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Parent-child perceptual discrepancies in parental phubbing; parent-child relationship; smartphone dependence.
Online: 11 September 2023 (14:56:58 CEST)
Parental phubbing behavior is a significant factor in predicting adolescent smartphone dependence, but prior research has predominantly focused on a unidirectional perspective from the child's viewpoint, overlooking potential perceptual differences between parents and their children regarding parental phubbing. Therefore, are there differences in the perceptions of parental phubbing between parents and their children? Based on the "Discrepancy-Maladaptive" hypothesis, the presence of perceptual discrepancies in family factors can lead to adverse developmental outcomes in children. Does the parent-child perceptual discrepancy in parental phubbing influence adolescent smartphone dependence? And what role does parent-child relationship play in this context? This study selected 728 families from a middle school in Wuhan, and surveys were administered to both children and parents. The findings reveal: (1) There exist significant parent-child perceptual discrepancies in parental phubbing. (2) Parent-child perceptual discrepancies in parental phubbing significantly positively predict adolescent smartphone dependence and negatively predict parent-child relationships, while parent-child relationships significantly negatively predict adolescent smartphone dependence. (3) The parent-child relationship plays a mediating role between parent-child perceptual differences in parental phubbing behavior and adolescent smartphone dependence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1545.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Au-supported catalyst, structure-activity-relationship; H-borrowing catalysis; Alkylation of amine
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:27:24 CEST)
Using the colloidal method, Au NP’s were deposited onto 6 different supports (TiO2, and -Al2O3, HFeO2, CeO2, and C), and their catalytic activity and selectivity were compared in the alkylation of aniline by benzyl alcohol. Correlations were made between the nature of the support, the Au NP size and H-binding energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1146.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Depression; engineering undergraduates; romantic relationship; self-esteem; interpersonal difficulty; social skill; neuroticism
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:24:00 CEST)
Background: Depression is a common mental health problem that can affect everyone at different stages of development. Though the prevalence rate of depression among university students is rising, exploration among engineering students is limited. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors of among engineering students in Thailand. Methods: 346students participated in this study. All completed the outcome inventory-depression subscale (OI-D) to evaluate the level and prevalence of depression. Other variables assessed included social skill, learning styles, relationship satisfaction, interpersonal difficulty, alcohol use, internet addiction, and neuroticism. Correlation and regression analysis were applied to test the association between sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and depression. Results. Of 346 students with the mean age was 20.25 (SD, 1.33), 52.31% was male. Based on the OI-D, 35.3% of participants exhibited symptoms indicative of major depression. Multiple regression showed that only neuroticism, interpersonal difficulties, social skills, and self-esteem appeared to be the significant predictors of depression. Conclusion: the prevalence of depression among engineering students is unexpectedly high. Intra and interpersonal factors were found to be associated with depression. Further study on identifying these risk factors should be encouraged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0818.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: artificial intelligence; artificial neural network; height-diameter relationship; nonlinear mixed effect modeling
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:34:02 CEST)
The total tree height (h) and diameter at breast height (dbh) relationship is an essential tool in forest management and planning. The height—diameter (h-dbh) relationship had been studied with several approaches and for several species worldwide. The nonlinear mixed effect modeling (NLMEM) has been extensively used and lately the resilient backpropagation artificial neural network (RBPANN) approach has been a trend topic for modeling this relationship. The artificial neural network (ANN) is a computing system based in artificial intelligence and inspired in biological neural network for supervised learning. In this study the NLMEN and RBPANN approaches were used for modeling the h—dbh relationship for Durango pine species (Pinus durangensis Martínez) in mixed-species forest from Mexico. The total dataset considered 1,000 (11,472 measured trees) randomly selected from 14,390 temporary forest inventory plots and the dataset was randomly divided into two parts; 50% for training and 50% for testing. An unsupervised clustering analysis was used to grouped the dataset into 10 clusters based on k-means clustering method and plot-variables like density, basal area, mean dbh, mean h, quadratic mean diameter, altitude and aspect. The RBPANN was performed for tangent hyperbolicus (RBPANN-tanh), softplus (RBPANN-softplus), and logistic (RBPANN-logistic) activation functions for functions in cross product of the covariate or neurons and the weights for the ANN analysis. For both training and testing, 10 classical statistics (e.g., RMSE, R2, AIC, BIC, logLik) were computed for the residual values and assess the approaches for h—dbh relationship. For training and testing, the ANNs approach outperformed the NLMEM approach, and the RBPANN-tanh has the best performance in both training and testing phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0087.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: public sports service; new urbanization; development dynamic relationship; interaction mechanism; optimal path
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:19:08 CEST)
In the new period, the state has made every effort to promote the new urbanization of public sports service. Entropy method, coupled coordination model, cold hot spot analysis is used to explore the dynamic relationship between public sports services and the development of new urbanization in China from 2008 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The development of the internal subsystem of public sports service is not balanced, the sports financial investment system grows rapidly, but the development of professional sports talent team is slow. (2) The imbalance of regional development cannot be ignored, and the public sports service level shows a decreasing gradient from east to west. (3) The regional development features are different. The eastern region is dominated by the coordinated development of sports public service and urbanization, while the central region is mainly in the type of public sports service lag, while the western region has multiple complex characteristics of low-level coordination and public sports service lag. Therefore, it is proposed that the construction of modern public sports service system should be investigated in the context of the development of new urbanization. It should be promoted from the following aspects: promoting the extension of public sports service to rural areas, engendering the "citizen's right" of sports health to the migrant population, conforming to the trend of mass sports intelligence, developing green sports and revitalizing idle sports assets in cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Apis mellifera; host–parasite relationship; natural selection; resistance; selective breeding; Varroa destructor
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:53:56 CET)
Despite the implementation of control strategies, the invasive parasitic mite Varroa destructor remains one of the principal causes of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony losses in numerous countries. For this reason, the parasite represents a serious threat to beekeeping and to agro-ecosystems that benefit from the pollination services provided by honey bees. Numerous selection programmes have been initiated over the last three decades with the aim of promoting the establishment of balance in the host–parasite relationship and, thus, helping European honey bees to survive in the presence of the parasite without the need for acaricide treatments. Such programmes have focused on either selective breeding for putative resistance traits or natural selection. To date, no clear overview of these attempts has been available, which has prevented building on past successes or failures and, therefore, hindered the development of a sustainable strategy for solving the V. destructor problem. In the present study, we review past and current selection strategies, report on their outcomes and discuss their limitations. Based on this state-of-the-art knowledge, we propose a strategy for increasing response to selection and colony survival against V. destructor infestations. Developing in-depth knowledge regarding the selected traits, optimising selection programmes and communicating their outcomes are all crucial to our efforts to establish a balanced relationship between the invasive parasite and its new host.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: gross domestic product; medical expenditures; Wavelet analysis; co-movement relationship; health insurance
Online: 7 November 2019 (04:09:11 CET)
The universal health insurance system in Taiwan was formed with good intentions to help vulnerable groups. However, the possibility of bankrupting the system due to wasted medical resources. In this study, using the medical expenditures of the Taiwanese Government and gross domestic product (GDP) as variables, the wavelet analysis method was used to empirically study the correlations and leading-lagging relationships in quarterly data in the period from 1996 to 2016. In addition, the dependent population of the insured was used as the control variable. This population had no income and had high medical demands. Results: After the dependent population was included as a control variable, there was a period of low-frequency (one to four years short-term) linkage correlation, as well as a period of high-frequency (four to eight years long-term) linkage correlation. In addition, for more than eight years, there was also a high degree of linkage correlation, indicating that the linkage between medical expenditures and GDP occurred over the long term. Moreover, since medical expenditures positively affected GDP, one-way causality was observed. However, after 2008, regardless of whether a long or short term was examined, there was almost no linkage correlation. Before 2008, the medical expenditures of the government were positively correlated with economic growth; i.e., they enhanced economic growth. But, after 2008, this effect had already disappeared. The universal health insurance system has long been denounced as a waste of medical resources, and the waste must be immediately stopped. The government urgently needs to find a new solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; parenting; contextual (context-specific); sport; academic; hierarchical model
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:19:06 CET)
Bowlby’s (1969/1982) attachment theory has been employed as a broad and integrative framework to explore human wellness across a range of disciplines. Attachment theory has even been labelled one of the last surviving “grand theories” not to have been completely dismissed, replaced, or extensively reworked (e.g., Carr, 2012; Mercer, 2011). However, despite the ubiquitous nature of some of the theory’s fundamental tenets, there are always possibilities for new conceptual development, extension, and revision. In this paper, we critically explore the idea of “context-specific” attachment within parent-child relationships. We briefly outline critical assumptions and key areas of attachment and articulate potential rationale, conceptualisation, and relevance of contextual attachment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0475.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: quantitative structure-activity relationship; hybrid intelligence; artificial neural network; particle swarm optimization
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:42:38 CEST)
Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is adopted to study the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of various substances and the structure. Through QSAR studies, the internal relationship between the invisible structure and the activity can be obtained. In this paper, a novel chaos-enhanced accelerate particle swarm algorithm (CAPSO) is proposed, which is used to molecular descriptors screening and optimization of the weights of back propagation artificial neural network (BP ANN). Then, the QSAR model based on CAPSO and BP ANN is put forward, hereinafter referred to as CAPSO BP ANN model. The prediction experiment showed that the CAPSO algorithm is a reliable method for screening molecular descriptors and the five molecular descriptors obtained by CAPSO algorithm could well characterize the molecular structure of each compound in pKa prediction. The experimental results also showed the CAPSO BP ANN model has a good performance in predicting the pKa values of various compounds, the absolute mean relative error, root mean square error, and square correlation coefficient are respectively 0.5364, 0.0632, and 0.9438, indicating the higher prediction accuracy and correlation. The proposed hybrid intelligent model can be applied in all kinds of engineering design, prediction of physical and chemical properties and intelligent calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0952.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: E-commerce environment; agricultural system; human-land relationship; tele-coupling; dy-namic mechanism
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:02:18 CEST)
This investigation delves into the profound interplay between the e-commerce environment and the agricultural system, while scrutinizing the intricate human-land coupling dynamics engen-dered by transformations within the agricultural domain. Focusing on the expansion of orchards in Pinghe County, a pivotal epicenter for Chinese sweet pomelo production, this study eluci-dates the reverberations of Rural E-commerce Environment Development on Orchard Expansion through the lens of Tele-coupling. In doing so, it unveils the nuanced tapestry of the human-land coupling associations latent within the evolutionary trajectory of the agricultural system amidst the blossoming information society. The findings underscore a symbiotic relationship between the augmentation of orchard acreage and the burgeoning rural e-commerce landscape, effec-tively propelling the economic prosperity of the agricultural system. Moreover, a tele-coupling phenomenon has emerged, underscoring the intricate web of interconnections binding the mat-uration of the rural e-commerce ecosystem with the proliferation of orchards. The research illu-minates that the transformation of land utilization, imbricated within the agricultural system, manifests as a distinctive form of tele-coupling intricately woven into the fabric of urbanization and information technology advancements. Consequently, adopting a comprehensive theoreti-cal perspective, amalgamating disparate domains across distinct geographic realms, becomes imperative for discerning the intricate nuances of the human-land coupling nexus within these multifaceted, open systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0848.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: gibel carp; growth indicators; weight-length relationship; condition factor；growth stage; feed formulation
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:50:05 CEST)
ccurate recording of growth indicators for aquaculture species at different stages is essential for evaluating aquaculture production effectiveness and the rationality of feed formulations. Due to their convenience and non-invasiveness, weight, length, and condition factor are commonly used to assess the growth of aquaculture species . However, fish growth indicators, can vary significantly with age structure and feed components(nutrition), and relying on a single indicator may lead to misjudgments . In this study we investigated the growth indicators of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio var. CAS V) at different growth stages (juvenile and adult) and different feed formulations. Meanwhile, fish weight-length relationship () was used to assess the growth indicators. The results showed that the weight-length relationship of gibel carp varied significantly with age and feed formulations. Additionally, the condition factor calculated depended on the weight-length relationship was more consistent with weight/length changes than measured. Weight analysis indicated that both weight, length, height, back thickness, and carcass ration had higher weights in analyzing fish growth. Therefore, during aquaculture production, fish growth evaluating requires considering diverse indicators such as weight, length,body height, back thickness, carcass ration,as well as condition factor to avoid misjudging the actual growth situation. Meanwhile, the use of the condition factor should consider the sufficient amount of data and whether the assumptions (such as being in a isometric growth period) are met.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0184.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: text-mining; self-attention models; biological literature mining; relationship extraction; natural language processing
Online: 12 October 2021 (14:17:46 CEST)
For any molecule, network, or process of interest, to keep up with new publications on these, is becoming increasingly difficult. For many cellular processes, molecules and their interactions that need to be considered can be very large. Automated mining of publications can support large scale molecular interaction maps and database curation. Text mining and Natural Language Processing (NLP)-based techniques are finding their applications in mining the biological literature, handling problems such as Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Relationship Extraction (RE). Both rule-based and machine learning (ML)-based NLP approaches have been popular in this context, with multiple research and review articles examining the scope of such models in Biological Literature Mining (BLM). In this review article, we explore self-attention based models, a special type of neural network (NN)-based architectures that have recently revitalized the field of NLP, applied to biological texts. We cover self-attention models operating either at a sentence level or an abstract level, in the context of molecular interaction extraction, published from 2019 onwards. We conduct a comparative study of the models in terms of their architecture. Moreover, we also discuss some limitations in the field of BLM that identifies opportunities for the extraction of molecular interactions from biological text.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0222.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Chestnut; climate thermal fluctuations; Cynipidae; Dryocosmus kuriphilus; Eupelmus spp.; fitness; host-parasitoid relationship
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:18:52 CEST)
Thermal variations affect tri-trophic interactions involving plants, herbivores, and parasitoids, causing a mismatch between their phenological cycles. In the current environmental context of climate change, climatic factors can undergo profound and sudden changes, such as sudden hot or cold snaps. Here we show that episodes of short but sustained low temperatures have increased, mainly in the month of May, in the last two decades. We subjected galls induced by Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW) Dryocosmus kuriphilus to cold stress to assess if and how the pest and its parasitoids were affected. Over the course of two years seasonal parasitism, parasitism rates, the relative abundance of each parasitoid species, and mortality of ACGW were calculated. We found that the cold treatment affected both pest and parasitoids, resulting in a reduction in emerging ACGWs and differing ratios of species within the parasitoid community. The striking example was the change in the relative frequency of three species of Eupelmus spp. and of Mesopolobus tibialis, which doubled in thermally-stressed galls in all chestnut fields. The thermal effects on the development of the host and the direct effects of cold temperatures on the surface of galls (i.e., humidity or hardness of the galls) warrant further research in this direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: trait-based approach; diachronic study; abundance-occupancy relationship; weeds; Zea mays; specialist-generalist
Online: 7 December 2019 (16:45:16 CET)
Invasion ecology has a long tradition of searching for traits distinguishing alien invasive and non-invasive plants. Surprisingly, this approach has been so far poorly used to understand why some arable weeds are abundant and widespread while others are rare and narrowly distributed. In the present study, we focused on the characteristics of successful weeds occurring in maize fields, one of the most import crop worldwide. Two national weed surveys conducted in France were used to identify increasing and decreasing species based on 175 and 484 surveyed fields in the 1970s and the 2000s, respectively. Weed trait values related to regional frequency, local abundance and specialization to maize were identified with Phylogenetic Generalized Least-Squares (PGLS). We found a positive relationship between regional frequency and local abundance, i.e. the most widespread weeds were also locally more abundant. We highlighted that weeds with the C4 photosynthetic pathway and summer emergence were more abundant, more frequent and more specialized to maize crops. More generally, we highlighted two successful strategies: on the one hand, traits related to a general weediness syndrome with rapid resource acquisition (high SLA and Ellenberg-N) and high colonization capacity (seed longevity, fecundity and wind dispersal), on the other hand, traits related to specific adaptation to spring cultivation (thermophilous species with summer emergence, late flowering and C4 photosynthetic pathway). Deviations from the abundancy-frequency relationships also indicated that species of the Panicoideae sub-family, species with Triazine-resistant populations and neophyte species were more abundant than expected by their regional frequency. To some extent, it is therefore possible to predict which species can be troublesome in maize crops and use this information in weed risk assessment tools to prevent new introductions or favor early detection and eradication. This study showed how tools developed in functional and macro-ecology can be used to improve our understanding of weed ecology and to develop more preventive management strategies.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Global warming; projections; climate-fire relationship; FWI; burnt areas; forest fuels; Mediterranean forests.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:35:28 CEST)
Wildfire is the main disturbance in forested ecosystems of southern Europe and is due to complex interactions between climate-weather, fuels and people. Warmer and drier conditions projected in this region are expected to profoundly affect wildfires, which will impact ecosystems and humans. We review the scientific literature addressing the assessment of climate change impacts on wildfires in southern Europe, with a twofold objective: (i) report the trends in wildfire danger and activity projected under warming climate in southern Europe and (ii) discuss the limitations of wildfire projections under the specific biogeographical context of southern Europe.We identified 22 projection studies that examined future wildfire danger or wildfire activity at local, regional or continental scale. Under the scenario with the highest greenhouse gas emissions, we found that projections studies estimate an increase in future fire danger and burnt areas varying, on average, from 2 to 4 % and from 15 to 25 % per decade, respectively. Fire-prone area expansion to the north and to Mediterranean mountains is a concern, while climate-induced burnt area increase might be limited by fuel availability in the most arid areas. While all studies agreed on the direction of changes, further comparisons on the magnitude of increase remained challenging because of heterogeneous methodological choices between projections studies (climate models, projection period, spatial scale and fire metrics). We then described three main sources of uncertainty that may affect the reliability of wildfire projections: climate projections, climate-fire models, and the influences of fuel load/structure and human related factors on the climate-fire relationships. We finally suggest research directions to address some of these issues for the purpose of refining fire danger and fire activity projections in southern Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0483.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: continuum rolling contact; geometry relationship; pressure distribution; stress behavior; rolling die and slab
Online: 23 October 2018 (05:51:12 CEST)
In the world industry plant, solid and solid metals are always in contact even their motions not independent. Modeling of rolling die contact with slab primarily needs to describe the Tribology of contact phenomena. Consideration of continuum theory of rolling contact how a contact region is formed between rolling die and slab, and how the tangential force is distributed over the contact area with coefficient of friction is important. The central concern of numerical model is used in this work to indicate a set of equations, derived from the contact principle, that transfer the physical event into the mathematical equations including the laws of nature, such as newton’s laws, boundary conditions, state of stresses and their derivatives at particular time and locations. In this paper the elasticity stress behavior of rolling die contact with slab for number of cyclic loads is modeled. The model is including new proposed constitutive equations for discontinuity of the velocity, pressure distribution in rolling contact from the enter side to exit side of the neutral point. To verify the model, finite element simulation and experimental data from the literature are considered. The results show good agreement with finite element simulation and experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: urban catchment; radar reflectivity; rainfall rate; Z-R relationship; SWMM model; flow simulation
Online: 1 June 2018 (07:46:00 CEST)
In this study, regression analyses were used to find a relationship between the rain gauge rainfall rate R and radar reflectivity Z for the urban catchment of the Służewiecki Stream in Warsaw, Poland. Rainfall totals for 18 events which were measured at two rainfall stations were used for these analyses. Various methods for determining calculational values of radar reflectivity in reference to specific rainfall cells with 1-km resolution within an event duration were applied. The influence of each of these methods on the Z-R relationship was analyzed. The correction coefficient for data from the SRI (Surface Rainfall Intensity) product was established, in which the values of rainfall rate are calculated based on parameters a and b determined by Marshall and Palmer. Relatively good agreement between measured and estimated rainfall totals for the analyzed events was obtained using the Z-R relationships as well as the correction coefficient determined in this study. Rainfall depths estimated from radar data for two selected events were used to simulate flow hydrographs in the catchment using the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) hydrodynamic model. Different scenarios were applied to investigate the stream response to changes in rainfall depths, in which the data both for 2 existing as well as 64 virtual rain gauges assigned to appropriate rainfall cells in the catchment were included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0373.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Maraging steel; Microstructure; Martensite structure; Orientation relationship; electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD)
Online: 25 May 2018 (15:26:43 CEST)
This study characterizes the microstructure and its associated crystallographic features of bulk maraging steels fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) combined with a powder bed technique. The fabricated sample exhibited characteristic melt pools in which the regions had locally melted and rapidly solidified. A major part of these melt pools corresponded with the ferrite (alpha) matrix, which exhibited a lath martensite structure with a high density of dislocations. A number of fine retained austenite (gamma) with a <001> orientation along the build direction was often localized around the melt pool boundaries. The orientation relationship of these fine gamma grains with respect to the adjacent alpha grains in the martensite structure was (111) gamma // (011) alpha and [-101] gamma // [-1-11] apha (Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship). Using the obtained results, we inferred the microstructure development of maraging steels during the SLM process. The results depict that new and diverse high-strength materials can be used to develop industrial molds and dies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1933.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Fagus sylvatica; Quercus petraea; Allometric growth relationship; Adaptation to drought; Luxury nutrition with phosphorus
Online: 31 October 2023 (05:14:49 CET)
The negative impact of drought on plant growth may be modified by different availability of mineral nutrients and by their adaptation to different local habitat conditions. In this study, we examine the impact of drought, fertilization with phosphorus and provenance, as well as their interactions, on the growth and allometric growth relationships between belowground and aboveground organs of common beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea). The research was conducted on saplings originating from two mature mixed stands (dry and wet provenances) dominated by these species. In the common garden experiment, saplings were exposed to regular watering and drought in interaction with moderate and high phosphorus concentrations in the growing substrate (achieved by phosphorus fertilization). Obtained results indicate negative impact of drought and phosphorus fertilization on the growth of both species. In common beech, phosphorus fertilization had a negative impact on its adaptive capacity to drought, because of the unfavourable ratios between fine root mass and mass of other organs. The sessile oak provenances under the impact of drought showed a different root collar diameter/stem height increment ratio, which indicates its different phenotypic plasticity as a consequence of adaptation to different frequencies of dry periods in their natural habitats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0399.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Online Cause-related Advertising; Consumer-Brand Relationship; Brand Attachment; Brand Affinity; Ethical Consumption Propensity
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:00:55 CEST)
Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) has emerged as a new concept that links CSR activities to marketing, enabling corporations to pursue both building company-consumer partnership and gaining sustainable mutual benefits that are elicited from the partnership. Among various cause-related marketing activities, on-line cause-related advertising is the most commonly used one. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of on-line cause-related advertising and moderating role of ethical consumption propensity. In particular, this study intends to contribute to successful development of on-line cause-related advertising strategy by focusing on the relationship between the four factors: customers' perception of on-line cause-related advertising, brand-consumer relationship, brand attachment and loyalty. The results of this study are as follows: First, customers' perception of on-line cause-related advertising was related positively to consumer-brand- relationship. Second, brand-consumer relationship was related positively to brand attachment and customer loyalty. Third, brand attachment was related positively to customer loyalty. Furthermore, from the consumer’s psychological viewpoint, ethical consumption propensity had a significant moderating effect to between customers' perception of cause-related advertising and brand-consumer relationship as well as brand attachment. The results of this study may contribute to the existing literature as an new empirical attempt to examine the effect of the on-line cause-related advertising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0180.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: ion-exchange membrane; electric conductivity; diffusion permeability; permselectivity; structure–properties relationship; modification; microheterogeneous model
Online: 12 January 2022 (17:53:23 CET)
Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are widely used in desalination, waste water treatment, food, energy production and other applications. There is a strong demand for cost-effective IEMs characterized by high selective transport of ions of a certain sign of charge. In this paper, we simulate the experimental results of V. Sarapulova et al. (IJMS 2021) on the modification of an inexpensive anion-exchange membrane (CJMA-7, Hefei Chemjoy Polymer Materials Co. Ltd., China) with a perfluorosulfonated ionomer (PFSI). The modification was made in several stages including keeping the membrane at a low temperature, applying a PFSI solution on its surface, and subsequent drying it at an elevated temperature. We apply the known microheterogeneous model with some new amendments to simulate each stage of the membrane modification. It has been shown that the PFSI film formed on the membrane-substrate does not affect significantly its properties due to the small thickness of the film (4 m) and similar properties of the film and substrate. The main effect is caused by the fact that PFSI material “clogs” the macropores of the CJMA-7 membrane, thereby blocking the transport of coions through the membrane. In this case, the membrane microporous gel phase, which has a high selectivity to counterions, remains the primary pathway for both counterions and coions. Due to the above modification of the CJMA-7 membrane, the coion (Na+) transport number in the membrane equilibrated with 1 M NaCl solution decreased from 0.11 to 0.03. Thus, the modified membrane becomes comparable in its transport characteristics with more expensive IEMs available on the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Meprin B; Meprin beta; metalloproteinase; astacin; hydroxamate; SAR (structure activity relationship); MWT-S-270
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:27:53 CET)
The astacin protease Meprin β represents an emerging target for drug development due to its potential involvement in disorders such as acute and chronic kidney injury and fibrosis. Here, we elaborate on the structural basis of inhibition by a specific Meprin β inhibitor. Our analysis of the crystal structure suggests different binding modes of the inhibitor to the active site. This flexibility is caused, at least in part, by movement of the C-terminal region of the protease domain (CTD). The CTD movement narrows the active site cleft upon inhibitor binding. Compared with other astacin proteases, among those the highly homologous isoenzyme Meprin α, differences in the subsites account for the unique selectivity of the inhibitor. Although the inhibitor shows substantial flexibility in the orientation within the active site, the structural data as well as binding analyses including molecular dynamics simulations support a contribution of electrostatic interactions, presumably by arginine residues, to binding and specificity. Collectively, the results presented here and previously support an induced fit and substantial movement of the CTD upon ligand binding and, possibly, during catalysis. To the best of our knowledge, we here present the first structure of a Meprin β holoenzyme containing a zinc ion and a specific inhibitor bound to the active site. The structural data will guide rational drug design and the discovery of highly potent Meprin inhibitors.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0078.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: information entropy, information theoretics, macroecology, metabolic theory, scaling, species abundance distribution, species-area relationship
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:24:30 CEST)
The Maximum Entropy Theory of Ecology, or METE, is a theoretical framework of macroecology that makes a variety of realistic ecological predictions about how species richness, abundance of species, metabolic rate distributions, and spatial aggregation of species interrelate in a given region. In the METE framework, "ecological state variables" (representing total area, total species richness, total abundance, and total metabolic energy) describe macroecological properties of an ecosystem. METE incorporates these state variables into constraints on underlying probability distributions. The method of Lagrange multipliers and maximization of information entropy (MaxEnt) lead to predicted functional forms of distributions of interest. We demonstrate how information entropy is maximized for the general case of a distribution, which has empirical information that provides constraints on the overall predictions. We then show how METE’s two core functions are derived. These functions, called the "Spatial Structure Function" and the "Ecosystem Structure Function" are the core pieces of the theory, from which all the predictions of METE follow (including the Species Area Distribution, the Species Abundance Distribution, and various metabolic distributions). Primarily, we consider the discrete distributions predicted by METE.We also explore the parameter space defined by the METE’s state variables and Lagrange multipliers. We aim to provide a comprehensive resource for ecologists who want to understand the derivations and assumptions of basic mathematical structure of METE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Fuzzy forecasting, fuzzy-fluctuation trend, particle swarm optimization, fuzzy time series, fuzzy logical relationship
Online: 4 July 2017 (16:35:22 CEST)
Most of existing fuzzy forecasting models partition historical training time series into fuzzy time series and build fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups to generate forecasting rules. The determination process of intervals is complex and uncertainty. In this paper, we present a novel fuzzy forecasting model based on high-order fuzzy-fluctuation trends and the fuzzy-fluctuation logical relationships of the training time series. Firstly, we compare each data with the data of its previous day in historical training time series to generate a new fluctuation trend time series(FTTS). Then, fuzzify the FTTS into fuzzy-fluctuation time series(FFTS) according to the up, equal or down range and orientation of the fluctuations. Since the relationship between historical FFTS and the fluctuation trend of future is nonlinear, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to estimate the required parameters. Finally, use the acquired parameters to forecast the future fluctuations. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model with that of the other models, we apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) time series datasets. The experimental results and the comparison results show that the proposed method can be successfully applied in stock market forecasting or such kinds of time series. We also apply the proposed method to forecast Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SHSECI) to verify its effectiveness and universality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: goods and services; water-limited area; plant water relationship; Soil water resource use limit by plants; Soil Water Carrying Capacity for Vegetation; critical period of plant-water relationship regulation; high-quality Sustainable development
Online: 6 October 2022 (10:03:29 CEST)
The goods and services produced by forest vegetation ecosystem are the driving force for the rapid, high-quality and sustainable development of human society. In history, with the increase of population and economic development, there is an increasing demand for the quantity and variety of forest vegetation ecosystem products and services in a country or a region. To meet the demands, most of the original forest has become farmland, plantation and grass and crops land. As a result, the plant water relationship changed from equilibrium to non-equilibrium, which easily led to soil drought, soil degradation and vegetation decline in dry years or waste of soil water in rainy years in most of water-limited regions. In order to solve the question and realize the sustainable utilization of soil water resources and the high-quality sustainable development of forest, it is necessary to apply the limit theory of plant utilization of soil water resources and the vegetation carrying capacity theory in the critical period of plant-water relationship regulation to adjust the relationship between plant growth and soil moisture to obtain the maximum yield and benefit and realize high-quality and sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1525.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fan community platform; Mental well-being; Sense of virtual community; Fan interaction; Parasocial relationship; Weverse
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:15:51 CEST)
Activities in the digital economy driven by information technology have rapidly increased in scope and speed in the aftermath of COVID-19. Meanwhile, social isolation accelerated by quarantine measures has increased concerns about individuals’ mental health. However, little is known about the specific consequences of online interactions, especially when applied in online fan community-based relationships where loyal community members are prevalent. Therefore, we examined whether a sense of virtual community (SOVC) can link fans’ online activities with their mental well-being and behavioral loyalty to the platform. For this purpose, we focus on BTS fandom “Adorable Representative MC for Youth” (ARMY) behaviors and attitudes on the fan community platform Weverse. With 202 valid data samples acquired from global ARMY, this study conducted a partial least squares–structural equation modeling analysis. The empirical findings reveal that SOVC in Weverse is significantly influenced by the intensity of online interactions with other fans and parasocial relationships with celebrities. SOVC is found to be the direct predictor of fans’ behavioral loyalty and mental well-being. When considering fans’ perceptions of other social media platforms, dissatisfaction with previous online fan communities enhances the intensity of online interactions with other fans in Weverse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0835.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: renewable energy,disappointment theory; incomplete fuzzy preference relationship; satisfaction matrix; two-sided matching; field survey
Online: 13 July 2023 (03:00:24 CEST)
In the context of "dual carbon", with the continuous deepening of the power system reform, the application of high proportion renewable energy is becoming increasingly widespread. All sectors of society have put forward higher requirements for electricity sales packages, which can guide the behavior of power users, promote energy conservation and emission reduction, and finally promote low-carbon operation of the power market economy.Therefore, the requirements of power users and power selling companies for the power selling package are increasing, which puts forward higher requirements to the power selling package recommended by the power selling company . However, the existing recommendation methods are unable to make appropriate recommendations for the users with lack of preference information. Therefore, this paper proposes a two-sided matching decision-making method of electricity sales package based on disappointment theory. First of all, according to the incomplete fuzzy preference relationship provided by the power user and the electricity sales package, the respective priority weight vector is obtained, and then the subjective satisfaction matrix of the power user and the electricity sales package to each other is obtained; Next, the adjusted satisfaction matrix is calculated by adding the influence of the theory of joy and disappointment; Then, based on the adjusted satisfaction matrix, an optimization model aiming at maximizing the total satisfaction of power users and electricity sales packages is established, and the optimal stable matching model of power users and electricity sales packages is obtained; Finally, taking an industrial park in Zhejiang Province as an example, by using the bilateral matching method proposed in this article, the optimal matching schemes for 5 power users and 6 electricity sales packages are obtained, which shows the effectiveness and rationality of the two-sided matching decision-making method of electricity sales package based on the disappointment theory proposed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1878.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chicken and egg relationship; origin of gene; origin of protein; GADV hypothesis; origin of life
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:10:08 CEST)
It has not been reasonably explained still now, how the “chicken and egg relationship” between gene and protein was formed, although RNA world hypothesis was proposed to aim at explaining formation process of the relationship about 40 years ago. On the other hand, GADV hypothesis advocates that life emerged after five members of the fundamental life system; cell structure, metabolism, tRNA, genetic code and gene, were piled up one by one onto immature [GADV]-proteins, which were produced by random joining of [GADV]-amino acids on the primitive Earth. Furthermore, formation process of the first (GNC)n RNA gene encoding a mature [GADV]-protein can be also reasonably explained according to the hypothesis as follows. Double-stranded (ds)-(GNC)n RNA could be produced by complementary strand synthesis of a single-stranded (ss)-(GNC)n RNA, which was formed by random joining of GNC anticodons carried by four types of AntiC-SL tRNAs. Successively, the first (GNC)n RNA gene was generated upon maturation of an immature [GADV]-protein, which was produced through expression of codon sequence on one strand of ds-(GNC)n RNA, as accumulating necessary base substitutions and raising a weak catalytic activity of the immature protein to a more active state. It is considered that, consequently, a gene encoding a mature protein, which has the “chicken and egg relationship”, was generated for the first time. Therefore, it can be concluded that the “chicken and egg relationship” was built not by formation of either one, gene or protein, but by maturation of an immature gene, which was lead by improvement of catalytic activity of an immature protein. That is, it can be concluded that the reason, why it was unable to give an answer to the question on the formation process of the “chicken-egg relationship” thus far, is because it was an unanswered question.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Insects; Acari; Araneae; Gastropods; Weeds; Pesticides; Fertilizers; IPM; Arthropod-Plant Interac-tions; Tri-trophic relationship
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:08:33 CET)
The National Research Centre’s experimental research station (NRCERS) locates in Wadi El Natrun, Egypt 30°29'54.22"N 30°19'10.94"E. The NRCERS has various crop yields (vegetables, fruits, ornamental, and field crops) for different experimental treatments. It followed conventional agricultural procedures in vegetation, fertilisation, irrigation, and plant protection. Such policies have not been evaluated for their impacts on arthropod diversity and distribution. Thus, this study conclusion aims to sufficiently map the arthropod species (pest/predators) distribution, measure the biodiversity indices, to the NRCERS agricultural policies to be modified to support arthropod diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0076.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Complex Network Theory; Social Network Analysis; High-Tech Enterprises; Co-Competition Relationship; Innovation Ecological Niche
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:00:56 CEST)
The fusion of "innovation theory" and "ecology" gave birth to a large number of studies on "innovation ecology", which mainly studies how to build an industrial ecological chain at the regional level, focusing on self-evolution, achieving ecological balance, and enabling the regional economy to take the path of sustainable innovation. This type of research borrows a lot of concepts from ecology, and very vividly describes the competition and cooperation relationships formed by various agents in the innovation system, laying a good foundation for qualitative analysis of the inherent dynamics of innovation development. However, many studies focus on the analogous description of ecosystems and economic systems, lacking scientifically and rigorously quantitative empirical research as a support. This paper uses network-based indicators such as degree, cluster coefficient, and betweenness centrality to measure the function and position of high-tech enterprises in the Z-Park in a business environment, so as to clarify the socio-economic meaning of the topological structure of the regional innovation system. On this basis, it provides theoretical references for regional innovation development and sustainable development policy formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Asian citrus psyllid; citrus greening bacterium; huanglongbing; transcriptomics; virus-vector relationship; vitellogenin; cytoskeleton; endocytotic pathway
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:03:45 CEST)
Citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) limits the citrus production worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in a persistent-propagative manner. Application of insecticides to manage the psyllid vectors and disease is the most common practice. Understanding the molecular interaction between CLas and ACP and interrupting the interrelationship can provide an alternative to insecticides for managing citrus greening disease. Transcriptome analysis of ACP in response to CLas showed differential expression of 3911 genes (2196 up-regulated, and 1715 down-regulated) including the key genes of ACP involved in cytoskeleton synthesis and nutrition-related proteins. Majority of the differentially expressed genes were categorized under molecular function followed by cellular components and biological processes. KEGG pathway analysis showed differential regulation of carbohydrate, nucleotide and energy metabolic pathways, the endocytotic pathway and the defense-related pathways. Differential regulation of genes associated with the key pathways might favors CLas to become systemic and propagate in its insect vector. The study provides an understanding of genes involved in circulation of CLas in ACP. The candidate genes involved in key physiological processes and CLas transmission by ACP would be potential targets for sustainable management of ACP and CLas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0246.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; polyclonal antibodies; triazines; enzyme immunoassay; quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis; 3D-QSAR; atrazine
Online: 9 November 2018 (11:36:02 CET)
A common task in the immunodetection of structurally close compounds is to analyze the selectivity of immune recognition: it is required to understand the regularities of immune recognition and to elucidate the basic structural elements which provide it. Triazines are compounds of particular interest for such a research due to their high variability and the necessity of their monitoring to provide safety of agricultural products and foodstuffs. We evaluated the binding of 20 triazines with polyclonal (pAb) and monoclonal (mAb) antibodies obtained using atrazine as the immunogenic hapten. A total of >3000 descriptors was used in QSAR analysis of binding activities (pIC50). Comparison of the two enzyme immunoassay systems showed that the system with pAb is much easier to describe using 2D QSAR methodology, while the system with mAb can be described using the 3D QSAR COMFA. Thus, for the 3D QSAR model of the polyclonal antibodies, the main statistical parameter q2 (‘leave-many-out’) is equal 0.498, and for monoclonal antibodies q2 is equal 0.566. Obviously, in the case of pAb, we deal with several targets, while in the case of mAb the target is one, and therefore it is easier to describe it using specific fields of molecular interactions distributed in space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0090.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: customer relationship management (CRM); social media; social CRM; customer information; small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
Online: 5 November 2018 (08:31:42 CET)
Social customer relationship management (SCRM) is a new philosophy influencing the relationship between customer and organization, where the customer gets opportunity to control relationship through social media. The paper aims on (a) identification of current level of SCRM and also on (b) influence of basic organizational characteristics on SCRM level. The data were gathered through the questionnaire distributed in 362 organization headquartered in the Czech Republic. The questionnaire comprised 54 questions focusing on the significance of marketing and CRM practices, establishing a relationship with the customer, online communities, the use of social media in marketing, and acquiring and managing information. The majority of questions were scalable and used typical five-level Likert scale. Results showed that larger firms more often set up their own online communities and manage them strategically, moreover they are able to manage information better. Contrariwise, small sized organizations use social networks as a way to establish communication with the customer more than large sized entities. Use of social media for marketing purposes is significantly higher in organizations oriented on consumer markets than on business markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Coumarin; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Cholinesterase inhibitor; Monoamine oxidase B inhibitor; Structure activity relationship; Albumin binding, Neuroprotection
Online: 15 September 2017 (17:34:38 CEST)
An in vitro medium-throughput screen using M. tuberculosis H37Rv was employed to screen an in-house library of structurally diverse compounds for antimycobacterial activity. From this initial screen, eleven 7-substituted coumarin derivatives with confirmed monoamine oxidase-B and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, demonstrated growth inhibition of more than 50% at a 50 µM concentration. This prompted further exploration of all the 7-substituted coumarins in our library, nineteen in total, as potential antimycobacterial agents. Four derivatives showed promising antimycobacterial activity with MIC99 values of 8.31 – 29.70 µM and 44.15 – 57.17 µM on M. tuberculosis H37Rv in independent assays using Gaste-Fe and 7H9 + OADC media, respectively. These compounds were found to bind to albumin which may explain the variations in MIC between the two assays. Preliminary antimycobacterial evaluation of moxifloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis show that these compounds are able to maintain their activity in fluoroquinolone resistant mycobacteria. Analysis of structure activity relationships for antimycobacterial versus neuronal enzyme inhibitory activity indicate that structural modification on position 4 and/or 7 of the coumarin scaffold may be utilized to improve selectivity towards either inhibition of neuronal enzymes or antimycobacterial effect. Cytotoxicity evaluations of the compounds indicate moderate cytotoxicity with slight selectivity towards mycobacteria. Further neuroprotective assays on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells indicate significant neuroprotection for selected compounds irrespective of their neuronal enzyme inhibitory properties. These coumarin molecules are thus interesting lead compounds that may provide insight into the design of new antimicrobacterial and/or neuroprotective agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0033.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: social recommendation; relationship graph; micro relation transfer model; macro relation transfer model; monte carlo decision tree
Online: 6 November 2017 (06:36:37 CET)
Social recommendation is almost as the integration of the business platform and social platform, and gradually become a top in recommendation system. Social recommendation algorithm solves the problem of cold start and data sparseness for traditional commodity, while the internal structure of the relationship graph in social relations has not been fully excavated. This paper proposes two models of Micro Relation Transfer Model and Macro Relation Transfer Model of social relations, and applies the social relations transfer models into the social recommendation system. A relationship graph is built from the relationship between customers on the Internet. Micro Relation Transfer Model establishes the transfer activation function by calculating the relationship between the two customers using the similarity of interests set. Micro Relation Transfer Model spreads the relationship of friends by calculating the proportion of common neighbors held by the customer's social relations. In order to effectively control the transmission range and effect of social relations graph, we introduce pruning algorithm based on Monte Carlo Decision Tree convergence algorithm. The experimental results show that SRRTC algorithm enhances the success rate and stability significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0969.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Magdalena River Estuary; Saline-Wedge Estuary; Saline-Wedge Interannual Variability; Discharge-salinity relationship; Magdalena River Mouth Siltation.
Online: 15 November 2023 (09:56:59 CET)
The linkage between the salt wedge, tidal patterns, and the Magdalena River discharge is established by assessing the ensuing parameters: stratification (ϵ), buoyancy frequency (β), potential energy anomaly (φ), Richardson number (RL), and bottom turbulent energy production (P). The salinity, temperature, density, and water velocity data utilized were derived from MOHID 3D, a previously tailored and validated model for the Magdalena River Estuary. To grasp the dynamics of the river, a flow regime analysis was conducted during both wet and dry climatic seasons of the Colombian Caribbean. The utilization of this model aimed to delineate the estuary's spatial reach, considering flow rates spanning from 2000 to 6500 m³/s across two tidal cycles. This approach facilitates the prediction of the position, stability, and stratification degree of the salt front. Among the conclusions drawn, it is highlighted that: 1. The river flow serves as the principal conditioning agent for the system, inducing a strong estuary response to weather stations; 2. The extent of wedge intrusion and the river discharge exhibit a non-linear, inversely correlation; 3. Tidal waves cause differences of up to 1000 m in the horizontal extent of the wedge; 4. Widespread channel erosion occurs during the rainy season when the salt intrusion does not exceed 2 km; 5. Flocculation processes intensify during the transition between dry and wet seasons; 6. The stability of the salt layering and the consolidation of the FSI-TMZ are contingent upon the geometric attributes of the channel.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Marketing Automation; Customer Relationship Management (CRMS); Automation; Machine Learning; Simulation; Marketing Simulation; Little’s Framework for Marketing Automation
Online: 6 May 2021 (11:53:13 CEST)
In order to be able to face competition, thriving corporations have to be compelled to maintain an awfully smart relationship with their existing customers and additionally to be able to anticipate their future wants. Thus, corporations do not target customers as teams, however they’re attempting to focus on them as individuals. However, to be able to use this information, corporations have to be compelled to use promoting automation tools. Marketing Automation was an idea first introduced in 2001 by John D.C. Little in his presentation at the 5th Invitational Choice Symposium UC Berkeley 2001. This survey paper assesses prominent research on Marketing Automation and suggests how it can be modified to adapt to the current marketing scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0316.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; cancer; shared pathways; shared genes and proteins; relationship between cancer and type 2 diabetes
Online: 15 October 2020 (09:47:35 CEST)
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and different forms of cancers are among the leading human diseases and highly complex in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Diabetes and cancer are among the most frequent and complex diseases and based on epidemiological evidence and study it can be concluded that the patients suffering from diabetes are considered to be significantly at higher risk for a number of cancer types. Both these diseases are among the highly complex and heterogeneous in nature. There are a number of evidences which support the hypothesis that these diseases interlinked and obesity may aggravate the risk(s) of both these diseases type 2 diabetes and different types of cancers. Multi-level unwanted alterations such as (epi-)genetic alterations, changes at the transcriptional level, and altered signaling pathways (receptor, cytoplasmic, and nuclear level) are the major source which promotes a number of complex diseases and such heterogeneous level of complexities are considered as the major barrier in the development of therapeutic. With so many known challenges, it is critical to understand the relationships and the common shared causes between type 2 diabetes and cancer which is difficult to unravel and understand. Furthermore, the real complexity arises during diagnosis from contended corroborations that specific drug(s) (individually or in combination) during diagnosis process of type 2 diabetes may increase or decrease the cancer risk or affect cancer prognosis. In this review article, we have presented the recent and most updated evidences from the studies where the origin, biological background, correlation between them have been presented or proved. Furthermore, we have summarized the methodological challenges and tasks that are frequently encountered. we have also outlined the physiological links between type 2 diabetes and cancers. Finally, we have presented and summarized the outline of the hallmarks for both these diseases diabetes and cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; contextual; context-specific; hierarchical model; psychological need satisfaction and frustration; well/ill-being
Online: 1 March 2019 (12:51:56 CET)
No research to date has explored the possibility of context-specific, within-relationship fluctuation in attachment security. In this present article, two cross-sectional studies were designed (1) to develop and validate context-specific attachment scales in Traditional-Chinese, and (2) to explore fluctuations in within-parent attachment security between the contexts of sport and academics, in relation to global attachment patterns and indicators of psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that youth can and do perceive within-parent attachment patterns differently depending upon context but that the relationship of such differences to context-specific outcomes is complex. Of particular interest was that the degree of within-parent attachment variability between contexts was clearly and negatively related to indices of psychological wellbeing. This suggests that contextual variation may be a meaningful and useful way to explore within-parent attachment fluctuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0330.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: hyperpigmentation; tyrosinase inhibitors; 3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid; structure-activity relationship study; B16-F10 cellular melanogenesis inhibition
Online: 14 November 2018 (09:59:45 CET)
Compounds with tyrosinase inhibitory efficacy could be effective as depigmenting agents. Although a large number of natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported, few of them are used as skin-whitening agents due to poor activity and safety concerns. 3-(2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (DPPA), a naturally occurring compound isolated from Ficus carica, was previously discovered as a moderate tyrosinase inhibitor. In this study, the structure-activity relationship study of DPPA was conducted. Compound 3g, with the 2,4-resorcinol subunit and terminal hydrophobic di-butylamino group, was identified with low nanomolar enzymatic IC50 value. Additionally, compound 3g could effectively reduce melanin levels in B16-F10 melanoma cells treated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) without affecting cell viability and proliferation. All these results indicated that compound 3g could be considered as a promising candidate for the treatment of diseases associated with hyperpigmentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0753.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: student relationship management; critical success factors; knowledge management; employees’ involvement; student orientation; SRM technology; confirmatory factor analysis
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:04:24 CET)
Due to the upward trend in the globalization of sustainability issues and the intense competitive environment, it is evident that higher education institutions need new strategic approaches to succeed. To this end, the inquiry for this paper has been made into the debate about student relationship management. Going through the literature indicates that institutions have mainly perceived the concept as a technological initiative for solving the problems in individual domains, accompanied by uncoordinated efforts. Thus, the aims of this study are to theoretically present critical success factors of this strategic approach and to empirically examine the recognized factors. To do so, confirmatory factor analysis that is a quantitative analytic method was performed. The results and analyses revealed that there has been a significant correlation between the four critical success factors including knowledge management, student relationship management technology, student orientation, and employees’ involvement. It was also found that these factors are significantly correlated with the construct of student relationship management success. The findings have consequently highlighted that in addition to the technological tool, the role of knowledge management, employees’ involvement, and student orientation appeared to be particularly important for the implementation of the application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adequate drainage structures; Rainfall IDF Curve relationship; predicted peak rate of runoff (Qlogy); Gumbel’s Extreme Value Distribution Method.
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:14:54 CEST)
Due to the increase in the emission of greenhouse gases, the hydrologic cycle is being altered on the daily basis. This has affected the variations in relations of intensity, duration, and frequency of rainfall events. Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curves describe the relationship between rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and return period. IDF curves are one of the most often applied implements in water resource engineering, in areas such as for operating, planning and designing of water resource projects, or for numerous engineering projects aimed at controlling floods. In particular, IDF curves for precipitation answer problems of improper drainage systems or conditions and extreme characters of precipitation which are the main cause of floods in Nyabugogo catchment. This study aims to establish Rainfall IDF empirical equations, curves and hydrological discharge (predicted peak rate of runoff (Qlogy)) equations for eight Districts that will be used for designing an appropriate and sustainable hydraulic structures for controlling flood to reduce potential loss of human and aquatic life, degradation of water, air and soil quality and property damage and economic lessen caused by flood in Nyabugogo catchment. However Goodness of Fit tests revealed that Gumbel’s Extreme-Value Distribution method appears to have the most appropriate fit compared with Pearson type III distribution for validating the Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves and equations through the use of daily annual for each meteorological station. The findings of the study show that the intensity of rainfall increases with a decrease in rainfall duration. Additionally, a rainfall of every known duration will have a higher intensity if its return period is high, while the predicted peak rate of runoff (Qlogy) increases also with an increase in the intensity of rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0685.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: gene-environment; serotonin transporter gene; 5HTTLPR; attachment; parent-infant interaction; parental bonding; maternal overprotection; close relationship; anxiety; avoidance
Online: 26 April 2021 (17:30:58 CEST)
Humans are evolutionary-driven to adult mating and conceive social expectations on the quality of their affiliations. The genetic susceptibility to adverse environments in critical periods can alter close relationships. The current research investigates how the promoter region of the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTTLPR) and perceived caregiving behavior in childhood could influence the social expectations on close adult relationships. For this purpose, 5-HTTLPR data was collected from the buccal mucosa of 65 Italian individuals (33 males). The participants filled a) the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) to provide the levels of care and overprotection from mother and father, and b) the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) to report the social expectations on the intimate relationship assessed in terms of anxiety and avoidance from the partner. An interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and PBI dimensions on the ECR-R scores was hypothesized. Results confirmed that the interplay between the genetic groups and history of maternal overprotection predicted avoidance experienced in romantic relationships in adulthood. Moreover, both adult anxiety and avoidance felt in an intimate relationship were found to covary as a function of maternal overprotection. The present work proposes further evidence of the genetic and parental mechanisms regulating social expectations involved in close relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0491.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: fluctuating asymmetry; ground beetles; morphometric variation; biotope impact; species*biotope interaction; negative relationship between dimensional and meristic traits
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:16:14 CET)
In our study we used the data set on morphimetric traits in beetles species. It has been constantly replenishing for 20 years by the samples, received from different regions of Russia and abroad. In this case we have selected data on nine species for which the left and right sides had been measured and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) could be estimated. The samples were from 6 provinces of Russia and Belarus, which ranged in 3 degrees in latitude and 57 degrees in longitude and included more than 150 plots in different types of biotopes. FA was assessed according to the standard method in 5265 specimen in one dimensional trait and one - meristic. ANOVA showed that biotope, species and their interaction affected FA in both traits, that is different species reacted differently to biotope type. In uncommon biotopes (according to accepted in carabidology classification) FA was increased. In forest species the negative relationship between FA in dimensional and meristic traits in the range in biotopes was revealed. In those species only FA values were higher in males than in females. In generalist species FA varieв similarly in both sexes and in both traits being the highest in open biotopes. In eudomonant of arable lands biotopes – Poecilus cupreus – the highest values of FA were recorded in the meadows, being about equal in all types of crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0365.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: ADMET; antimicrobial agents; effects of chain length; molecular docking; regioselective acylation; structure-activity relationship; sugar fatty acid ester (SFAE).
Online: 6 November 2023 (15:08:45 CET)
The approval of sucrose fatty acid esters (SFAEs) as food additives/preservatives has triggered enormous interest in discovering new applications for these materials. Accordingly, many researchers reported that SFAEs consist of various sugar moieties, and hydrophobic side chains are highly active against certain fungal species. The combination of chain length and site of acylation is crucial in endowing the SFAE with high antimicrobial potency against Aspergillus species. Following several important studies, we herein present the synthesis and an assessment of the effects of acylation site and chain length (i.e., C-6 vs. C-2, C-3, C-4, and long-chain vs. short-chain) on the antimicrobial activity of mannopyranoside fatty acid esters. In vitro tests revealed that the fatty acid chain length in mannopyranoside esters significantly affects the antifungal activity where C12 chains are more potent against Aspergillus species. In terms of acylation site, mannopyranoside esters with a C8 chain substituted at the C-6 position are more active in antifungal inhibition. Molecular docking also revealed that these mannopyranoside esters had comparatively better stable binding energy, and hence better inhibition, with the fungal enzymes lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase (3LD6), urate oxidase (1R51), and glucoamylase (1KUL) than the standard antifungal drug fluconazole. Additionally, the thermodynamic, orbital, drug-likeness, and safety profiles of these mannopyranoside esters were calculated and discussed, along with the structure-activity relationships (SAR). This study thus highlights the importance of the acylation site and lipid-like fatty acid chain length that govern the antimicrobial activity of mannopyranoside-based SFAE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: prime numbers; composite numbers; prime-composite relationship; formula of composite; formula of all composite; formula of all odd composite
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:13:27 CET)
Prime number-related issues can be viewed from drastically different perspectives by examining the close connections between prime numbers and composite numbers. We think that multiple perspectives are the pillars on the path to solutions so we have created this study. As a result of the study, we proposed two new formulas by presenting three theorems and one proof for each theorem, a total of three proofs. We proved that the formula p · n + p returns a composite number in the first of the theorems, which is the preliminary theorem. Our first theorem except the preliminary theorem is that the formula p · n + p returns all composite numbers, and we proved that too. Finally, we created Theorem II using Theorem I to use in our other work and proved that the formula 2 · n · p + p returns all odd composite numbers, which is Theorem II. Afterward, we presented the similarities of the 2 · n · p + p formula we put forth with another known formula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0122.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Music Keywords: music therapy; stroke rehabilitation; moments of interest; process research; therapeutic relationship; mixed methods; EEG hyperscanning; social neuroscience; medical anthropology
Online: 8 March 2022 (10:41:32 CET)
Interdisciplinary research into the underlying neural processes of music therapy (MT) and subjective experiences of patients and therapists are largely lacking. The aim of the current study was to assess the feasibility of newly developed procedures (including EEG/ECG hyperscanning, synchronous audio-video monitoring, and qualitative interviews) to study the personal experiences and neuronal dynamics of moments of interest during MT with stroke survivors. The feasibility of our mobile set-up and procedures as well as their clinical implementation in a rehabilitation centre and an acute hospital ward were tested with four phase C patients. Protocols and interviews were used for the documentation and analysis of the feasibility. Recruiting patients for MT sessions was feasible, although data collection on three consecutive weeks was not always possible due to organisational constraints, especially in the hospital with acute ward routines. Research procedures were successfully implemented, and according to interviews, none of the patients reported any burden, tiredness or increased stress due to the research procedures, which lasted approx. 3 hours (ranging from 135min to 209min) for each patient. Implementing the research procedures in a rehabilitation unit with stroke patients was feasible and only small adaptations were made for further research.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: organocopper; C,N-chelated; C,C-chelated; bidentate; butadienyl; intramolecular coordination; three center-two electron bonds; structure-reactivity relationship
Online: 2 September 2021 (12:01:01 CEST)
Copper-catalyzed and organocopper-involved reactions are of great significance in organic synthesis. To have a deep understanding of the reaction mechanisms, the structural characterizations of organocopper intermediates become indispensable. Meanwhile, the structure-function relationship of organocopper compounds would advance rational design and development of new Cu-based reactions and organocopper reagents. Compared to the mono-carbonic ligand, the C,N- and C,C-bidentate ligands better stabilize the unstable organocopper compounds. The bidentate ligands can chelate to the same copper atom via ?2-mode, forming a mono-cupra-cyclic compounds with at least one acute C-Cu-C angle. When the bidentate ligands bind to two copper atoms via ?1-mode at each coordinating site, the bimetallic macrocyclic compounds will form nearly linear C-Cu-C angles. The anionic coordinating sites of the bidentate ligand can also bridge two metals via ?2-mode, forming organocopper aggregates with Cu-Cu interactions and organocuprates with contact ion pair structures. The reaction chemistry of some selected organocopper compounds is highlighted, showing their unique structure-reactivity relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0023.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Land Use Land Cover (LULC); Land Surface Temperature (LST); Google Earth Engine (GEE); relationship; remote sensing indices; MODIS; global
Online: 3 January 2020 (05:03:05 CET)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC) are the principal aspects of climate and environment studies. The object of the study is to assess spatial relationship between LST and remote sensing LULC indices at the global and continental scale. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua daytime LST and eight LULC MODIS indices of 2018 prepared and processed using Earth Engine Code Editor. R squared and significance of the relationship values of randomly selected points computed in R program. The research observed the relationship between examined indices and LST is significant at the 0.001 level. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Normalized Difference Snow Index (DSI) are the dominant drivers of LST in the world, Asia and North America. In Australia and Africa, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are the dominant drivers of LST. Albedo and Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI) have superior in Central America. In South America and Europe, the dominant driver of LST is NDWI. Relationship between albedo and LST is moderate inverse on a global scale. Observed relationship between LST and examined vegetation indices is positive in Europe and North America while inverse in Australia and Africa. All observed relationship between Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) and LST are positive. Association observed between NDSI and LST is positive in Australia, Africa and Central America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0444.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: snow-darkening, light-absorbing aerosols, dust and black carbon, elevated-heat- pump effect, snow cover–monsoon relationship, Blanford hypothesis
Online: 22 September 2018 (23:18:38 CEST)
The impact of snow darkening by deposition of light absorbing aerosols (LAAs) on snow cover over the Himalaya-Tibetan-Plateau (HTP) and influence on the Asian monsoon are investigated using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model Version 5 (GEOS-5). We find that during April-May-June, deposition of LAAs on snow leads to a reduction in surface albedo, initiating a sequence of feedback processes, starting with increased surface solar radiation, rapid snowmelt in HTP and warming of the surface and upper troposphere, followed by enhanced low-level southwesterlies and increased dust loading over the Himalayas-Indo-Gangetic Plain. The warming is amplified by increased dust aerosol heating, and subsequently amplified by latent heating from enhanced precipitation over the Himalaya foothills and northern India, via the Elevated Heat Pump (EHP) effect during June-July-August. The reduced snow cover in the HTP anchors the enhanced heating over the Tibetan Plateau and its southern slopes, in conjunction with an enhancement of the Tibetan Anticyclone, and the development of an anomalous Rossby wavetrain over East Asia, leading to weakening of the subtropical westerly jet, and northward displacement and intensification of the Mei-Yu rainbelt. Our results suggest that atmosphere-land heating by LAAs, particularly desert dust play a fundamental role in physical processes underpinning the snow-monsoon relationship proposed by Blandford more than a century ago.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: psychological distress; COVID-19 pandemic; health care workers; perceived risks; workplace relationship; support; training; workplace hazards; perceived barriers; job tension
Online: 11 July 2022 (07:40:12 CEST)
While the global COVID-19 pandemic has been widely acknowledged to affect the mental health of health care workers (HCWs), attention to measures that protect those on the front lines of health outbreak response has been limited. In this cross-sectional study, we examine workplace contextual factors associated with how psychological distress was experienced in a South African setting where a severe first wave was being experienced with an objective of identifying factors that can protect against HCWs experiencing negative impacts. Consistent with mounting literature on mental health effects, we found a high degree of psychological distress (57.4% above General Health Questionnaire cut-off value) and a strong association between perceived risks associated with the presence of COVID-19 in the healthcare workplace and psychological distress (adjusted OR = 2.35, p <.01). Our research indicates that both training (adjusted OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.21 – 0.81) and the reported presence of supportive workplace relationships (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.97) were associated with positive outcomes. This evidence that workplace resilience can be reinforced to better prepare for the onset of similar outbreaks in the future suggests that pursuit of further research into specific interventions to improve resilience is well merited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0363.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cannabinoid receptor 1; synthetic cannabinoids; quantitative structure-activity relationship; multiple linear regression; partial least squares regression; dependence and abuse potential
Online: 13 November 2020 (07:19:36 CET)
In recent years, there have been frequent reports on the adverse effects of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) abuse. SCs cause psychoactive effects, similar to those caused by marijuana, by binding and activating cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model to correlate the structures and physicochemical properties of various SCs with their CB1R-binding affinities. We prepared 15 SCs and their derivatives (tetrahydrocannabinol [THC], naphthoylindoles, and cyclohexylphenols) and determined their binding affinity to CB1R, which is known as a dependence-related target. We calculated the molecular descriptors for dataset compounds using an R/CDK (R package integrated with CDK, version 3.5.0) toolkit to build QSAR regression models. These models were established and statistical evaluations were performed using the mlr and plsr packages in R software. The most reliable QSAR model was obtained from the partial least squares regression method via external validation. This model can be applied in vivo to predict the addictive properties of illicit new SCs. Using a limited number of dataset compounds and our own experimental activity data, we built a QSAR model for SCs with good predictability. This QSAR modeling approach provides a novel strategy for establishing an efficient tool to predict the abuse potential of various SCs and to control their illicit use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0457.v3
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Timoshenko beam; moment shear force curvature relationship; closed-form solutions; non-uniform heating; stability; second-order element stiffness matrix; elastic Winkler foundation
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
This paper presents an exact solution to the Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) for first-order analysis, second-order analysis, and stability. The TBT covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation considerations, whereas the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT) neglects shear deformations. Thus, the Euler–Bernoulli beam is a special case of the Timoshenko beam. The moment-curvature relationship is one of the governing equations of the EBBT, and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations are available in the literature. However, neither an equivalent to the moment-curvature relationship of EBBT nor closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations can be found in the TBT. In this paper, a moment-shear force-curvature relationship, the equivalent in TBT of the moment-curvature relationship of EBBT, was presented. Based on this relationship, first-order and second-order analyses were conducted, and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived for various load cases. Furthermore, beam stability was analyzed and buckling loads were calculated. Finally, first-order and second-order element stiffness matrices were determined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: goods and services; water-limited area; plant-water relationship; Soil water resource use limit by plants; Soil Water Carrying Capacity for Vegetation
Online: 9 February 2021 (11:49:54 CET)
The goods and services produced by forest and vegetation ecology system is the power by which human society can be promoted fast in high-quality and sustainable way. With the increase of population and economic development in water-limited regions, there is an increasing demand for the quantity and variety of forest vegetation ecosystem products and services. To meet the demands of this situation, most of the original forest has changed into farmland, non-native forest and grass land. As a result, water-plant relationship changed from equilibrium to non-equilibrium, which led to soil drought, soil degradation and vegetation decline in dry years or waste of soil water in rainy years in most of water-limited regions. In order to solve the questions and realize the sustainable utilization of soil water resources and the high quality and sustainable development of social economy, it is necessary to apply the utilization limit theory of soil water resources by plants and the theory of soil water carrying capacity for vegetation to adjust the relationship between plant growth and soil moisture to obtain the maximum yield and benefit of vegetation and serve high-quality and sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2070.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Vaping; E cigarette; lung injury; lung disorder; association; relationship; adults; long term impact; vaping risk -benefit analysis; attitudes; mental health; side effect; EVALI
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:23:06 CEST)
The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is the new alternative method to deliver nicotine. In 2007, the United States introduced vaping devices on the market. Due to their attractive taste and lack of adverse effects, these vaping devices have gained popularity among youth and adults. However, there has been increasing evidence that vaping can cause severe lung injury, and these devices release toxic chemicals into the body. E-cigarettes are recognized as a global threat to public health. Nicotine, the most prevalent chemical in vaping devices, is associated with neurological problems and cognitive decline. Long-term use of e-cigarettes can cause adverse health problems, including respiratory illnesses, asthma, bronchitis, and lung inflammation. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officially declared vaping-associated illness EVALI (e-cigarette or Vaping Product Associated Lung Injury). The US Surgeon General published an alarm in December 2016 that e-cigarette consumption among adolescents and teens in the US is a "major public health concern" and that more young people are now vaping than smoking traditional cigarettes and cigars. Since its commercial introduction in 2003, modern electronic cigarettes (or E-cigarette s) have become increasingly popular with smokers, non-smokers, and those who used to smoke who have switched to them. With such a rise in consumption, people are becoming more aware of the irritating, harmful, and perhaps cancer-causing effects on the lungs. (Chadi et al., 2019; Dinardo & Rome, 2019; Lyzwinski et al., 2022; Marrocco et al., 2022; O’Callaghan et al., 2022)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0547.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Design of experiments, Light velocity, observers, Special Relativity, Time dilation, Time synchronization, Sagnac effect, Mass-Energy relationship, Particle acceleration, Michelson-Morley experiment, Asymmetry Theory
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:41:54 CET)
The principle of the constancy of the velocity of light, which stated that the light velocity is invariant to the motion of the emitter, was well established and directly proven by experiments. Interestingly, the further assumption that the light velocity is independent of the motion of the observer was, arguably, never directly proven by any experiment for a century. This paper proposed the design of two experiments to directly test this assumption, which tried to address some perceived technical difficulty in such experiments. One is to directly measure the light speed as to moving sensors. The experiment setup is designed in such a way that the concerns of time synchronization and dilation can be avoided. Another experiment is to test the isotropy of the light speed to a moving particle in the electromagnetic accelerator by measuring the momentum to acceleration ratio. The experiment result, if positive, will provide direct and solid proof of the assumption. Otherwise, it may imply a need for further investigation. Since the light speed invariance to moving observers is a key assumption of some fundamental physical theory, either way, the experiments will have significant meanings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0501.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Timoshenko beam; rotary inertia; moment shear force circular frequency curvature relationship; spring mass system; closed-form solutions; first-order dynamic stiffness matrix; second-order vibration analysis
Online: 7 October 2022 (10:34:31 CEST)
This study presents an exact solution to the free vibration analysis of a uniform Timoshenko beam, with a harmonic vibration being assumed. The Timoshenko beam theory covers cases associated with small deflections based on shear deformation and rotary inertia considerations. In this paper, a moment-shear force-circular frequency-curvature relationship was presented. The complete study was based on this relationship and closed-form expressions of efforts and deformations were derived. The free vibration response of single-span systems and spring-mass systems was analyzed; closed-form formulations of matrices expressing the boundary conditions were presented and the natural frequencies were determined by solving the eigenvalue problem. Systems with intermediate mass, spring, or spring-mass system were also analyzed. Furthermore, first-order dynamic stiffness matrices in local coordinates were derived. Finally, a second-order analysis of beams resting on an elastic Winkler foundation was conducted. The results obtained in this paper were in good agreement with those of other studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban green areas; health; urban health; emotional health; physical health; well-being; nature; environmental medicine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; Vienna; Austria, environmental perception; pandemic; human nature relationship; recreation; age
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:08:02 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic drew public attention back to the living conditions related to housing, access to green areas in close neighbourhood and nearby recreation. Several studies confirm that visiting green spaces improved the health and wellbeing in times of crisis. This representative study for the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria’s capital, confirms the high relevance of contact with nature, particularly for citizens to cope with the negative consequences and perceived stress, anxiety, nervousness and many other negative symptoms experienced during the health crisis. It highlights the importance of nearby smaller but also medium to large scale green areas in cities for health and wellbeing of the population. Moreover, it specifically adds novel insights on age effects in use and perception of urban green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. The online panel survey (n=1012) was conducted in summer 2021. In order to obtain a representative sample reflective of the population’s characteristics, a (stratified) random sample was selected by applying the quota method. The objective was to obtain a sample which represented gender, age and regional distribution of the population of the City of Vienna as well as the immediately surrounding local communities. Interestingly, particularly young people spent more time outside in green areas during the pandemic, discovered novel spaces for the first time and stated a high relevance of contact with nature for their wellbeing. Elderly people above sixty five, on the contrary, stayed more frequently at home. Significant differences are visible between the age groups also with regard to negative symptoms experienced in case of restricted access to green areas due to strict pandemic measures such as lockdowns and quarantine. All age groups, however, similarly acknowledged the importance of green areas for their physical, mental and emotional health in general during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0170.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: business sustainability; research and development (R&D); multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM); financial objective; variable-consistency dominance-based rough set approach (VC-DRSA); internetwork relationship map (INRM); directional flow graph (DFG)
Online: 30 September 2017 (06:19:43 CEST)
The influence and importance of research and development (R&D) for business sustainability have gained increasing interests, especially in the high-tech sector. However, the efforts of R&D might cause complex and mixed impacts on the financial results considering the associated expenses. Thus, this study aims to examine how R&D efforts may influence business to improve its financial performance considering the dual objectives: the gross and the net profitability. This research integrated a rough-set-based soft computing technique and multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to explore this complex and yet valuable issue. A group of public listed companies from Taiwan, all in the semiconductor sector, was analyzed as a case study. Initially, more than 30 variables were considered, and the adopted soft computing technique retrieved 14 core attributes—for the dual profitability objectives—to form the evaluation model. The importance of R&D for pursuing superior financial prospects is confirmed, and the empirical case demonstrates how to guide an individual company to plan for improvements to achieve its long-term sustainability by this hybrid approach.