ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0376.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: thermal infrared; reflectance spectroscopy; emissivity; surface roughness; geological sample preparation; hyperspectral; drill core scanning
Online: 17 October 2018 (07:51:17 CEST)
High-resolution laboratory-based thermal infrared spectroscopy is an up-and-coming tool in the field of geological remote sensing. Its spatial resolution allows for detailed analyses at centimeter to sub-millimeter scale. However, this increase in resolution creates challenges with sample characteristics such as grain size, surface roughness and porosity that can influence the spectral signature. This research explores the effect of rock sample surface preparation on the TIR spectral signatures. We applied three surface preparation methods (split, saw and polish) to determine how the resulting differences in surface roughness affects both the spectral shape as well as the spectral contrast. The selected samples are a pure quartz sandstone, a quartz sandstone containing a small percentage of kaolinite, and an intermediate-grained gabbro. To avoid instrument or measurement type biases we conducted measurements on three TIR instruments, resulting in directional hemispherical reflectance spectra, emissivity spectra and bi-directional reflectance images. Surface imaging and analyses were performed with scanning electron microscopy and profilometer measurements. We demonstrate that surface preparation affects the TIR spectral signatures influencing both the spectral contrast as well as the spectral shape. The results show that polished surfaces predominantly display a high spectral contrast while the sawed and split surfaces display up to 25% lower reflectance values. Furthermore, the sawed and split surfaces display spectral signature shape differences at specific wavelengths, which we link to mineral transmission features, surface orientation effects and multiple reflections in fine-grained minerals. Hence, the influence of rock surface preparation should be taken in consideration to avoid an inaccurate geological interpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0415.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: reflectance PPG; reflectance photoplethysmography; heart rate estimation; video
Online: 24 February 2023 (02:52:59 CET)
Non-invasive heart rate (HR) monitoring is important in clinical settings as it plays a critical role in diagnosing a range of health conditions and assessing well-being. Presently, the gold standards for HR measurement are all based on sensors which require skin contact. Apart from inconvenience, contact sensors have proven problematic in certain scenarios – they cannot be used when mechanical isolation of the patient is imperative (burn victims, patients with shaky hands and feet), cause skin damage to premature babies in the ICU and increase the risk of spreading infections. Non-contact HR monitoring using a camera has been recently shown to be a viable alternative. It is now possible to record cardiac-synchronous blood volume variations from facial videos of human subjects under ambient lighting. These variations produce corresponding changes in skin reflectance which can be extracted as a raw reflectance photoplethysmography (rPPG) signal and processed to reveal HR. In this project, an algorithmic framework for webcam-based HR detection was successfully implemented in MATLAB. The investigation was based on 100 self-captured videos (dark-skinned subject) and 48 videos (from 12 subjects, all but one fair-skinned) obtained from COHFACE – an online database of facial videos and corresponding physiological signals. While the performance metrics (mean error, SNR) of the rPPG signals obtained from the self-captured videos were poor (best case mean error of 22%), they were good enough to demonstrate the success of the implementation. The poor results were primarily imputed to skin tone as rPPG SNR is known to be particularly low for dark tones. The results of the COHFACE videos were far superior, with mean error ranging from 3% to 15% (among 8 different rPPG signals) and 0% to 9% under ambient and dedicated lighting, respectively. This investigation sets the foundation for future research directed at optimizing rPPG performance metrics for dark-skinned subjects.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0535.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spectral processing; reflectance; spectrometer; spectroradiometer
Online: 25 August 2020 (03:37:57 CEST)
Over the past 30 years, the use of field spectroscopy has risen in importance in remote sensing studies for the characterization of the surface reflectance of materials in situ within a broad range of applications. Potential uses range from measurements of individual targets of interest (e.g. vegetation, soils, validation targets etc.), to characterizing the contributions of different materials within larger spatially-mixed areas as would be representative of the spatial resolution captured by a sensor pixel (UAV to satellite scale). As such, it is essential that a complete and rigorous assessment of both the data-acquisition procedures, and the suitability of the derived data product be carried out. The measured energy from solar-reflected range spectroradiometers is influenced by the viewing and illumination geometries and the illumination conditions which vary due to changes in solar position and atmospheric conditions. By applying corrections, the estimated absolute reflectance (Rabs) of targets can be calculated. This property is independent of illumination intensity or conditions and is the metric commonly suggested to be used to compare spectra even when data are collected by different sensors or acquired under different conditions. By standardizing the process of estimated Rabs, as is provided in the described toolkit, consistency and repeatability in processing are ensured and the otherwise labor intensive and error-prone processing steps are streamlined. The resultant end data product (Rabs) represents our best current effort to generate consistent and comparable ground spectra which have been corrected for viewing and illumination geometries as well as other factors such as the individual characteristics of the reference panel used during acquisition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: phenotyping; proximal sensing; reflectance imaging; vegetation indices; hyperspectral reflectance; chlorophylls; carotenoids; anthocyanins; senescence; ripening
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:23:13 CET)
Hyperspectral reflectance imaging is an emerging method for rapid non-invasive quantitative screening of plant traits. This method is essential for high-throughput phenotyping and hence for accelerated breeding of crop plants as well as for precision agriculture practices. However, extraction of sensible information from reflectance images is hindered by the complexity of plant optical properties, especially when they are measured in the field. We propose using reflectance indices (Plant Senescence Reflectance Index, PSRI; Anthocyanin Reflectance Index, ARI; and spectral deconvolution) previously developed for remote sensing of vegetation and point-based reflectometers to infer the spatially resolved information on plant development and biochemical composition using ripening apple fruit as the model. Specifically, the proposed approach enables capturing data on distribution of chlorophylls and primary carotenoids as well as secondary carotenoids (both linked with fruit ripening and leaf senescence during plant development) as well as the information on spatial distribution of anthocyanins (known as stress pigments) over the plant surface. We argue that the proposed approach would enrich the phenotype assessments made on the base of reflectance image analysis with valuable information on plant physiological condition, stress acclimation state, and the progression of the plant development.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Reflectance; Ocimum basilicum; Colour sensor; Phenotyping
Online: 25 March 2022 (08:44:33 CET)
Modern agriculture demands for comprehensive information about the plant itself. Conventional chemistry-based analytical methods - due to their low throughput and high associated cost - are no longer capable of providing these data. In recent years, remote reflectance-based characterization has developed as one of the most promising solutions for rapid assessments for plant attributes. However, in many cases, expensive equipment is required because accurate quantifications need assessment of the full reflectance spectrum. We examined the versatility of visible colour sensors as reflectance measuring devices for biological / biochemical quantifications on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Our results indicate for the wide potential of spectral colour sensors for quantitative determination of leaf phenolic compounds, flavonoids in particular, and non-invasive plant phenotyping in agricultural applications by low-cost sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: oil; seawater; suspension; detection; radiance reflectance
Online: 24 August 2016 (10:18:14 CEST)
Oil floating on the sea surface can be detected by both passive and active methods using the ultraviolet-to-microwave spectrum, whereas oil immersed below the sea surface can signal its presence only in visible light. This paper presents an optical model of a sea area deeply polluted by an oil suspension (10 ppm) located in a layer (thickness 5 m) separated from the sea surface by a clear layer (thickness 1 m). The impact of wavelength and state of the sea surface on reflectance changes is shown based on the results of Monte Carlo ray tracing. A two-wavelength index of reflectance is proposed to detect oil suspended in the water column (645-469 nm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0574.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Eucalypt chlorophyll-a reflectance ratio; Eucalypt chlorophyll-b reflectance ratio; vegetation identification; Sentinel-2; Planet Dove
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:27:41 CET)
The scale and accessibility of passive global surveillance have rapidly increased over time. This provides an opportunity to calibrate the performance of models, algorithms, and reflectance ratios between remote sensing devices. Here we test the sensitivity and specificity of Eucalypt chlorophyll-a reflectance ratio (ECARR) and Eucalypt chlorophyll-b reflectance ratio (ECBRR) to remotely identify eucalypt vegetation in Queensland, Australia. We compare reflectance ratio values from Sentinel-2 and Planet imagery across four sites of known vegetation composition. All imagery was transformed to reflectance values and Planet imagery was additionally scaled to harmonize across Planet Scenes. ECARR can identify eucalypt vegetation remotely with high sensitivity, but shows low specificity and is impacted by the density of the vegetation. ECBRR reflectance ratios show similar sensitivity and specificity when identifying eucalypt vegetation but with values an order of magnitude smaller than ECARR. We find that ECARR was better at identifying eucalypt vegetation in the Sentinel-2 imagery than Planet imagery. ECARR can serve as a general chlorophyll indicator but is not a specific index to identify Eucalyptus vegetation with certainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1405.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: neural network regression; wastewater quality; spectral reflectance
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:44:00 CEST)
Wastewater (WW) analysis is a critical step in various operations such as control of a WW treatment facility, and speeding-up the analysis of WW quality can significantly improve such operations. This work demonstrates the capability of neural network (NN) regression models to estimate WW characteristic properties such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), total dissolved substances (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), and total hardness (TH) by training on WW spectral reflectance in the visible to near-infrared spectrum (400nm-2000nm). The dataset contains samples of spectral reflectance intensity, which were the inputs, and the WW parameter levels (BOD, COD, NH3-N, TDS, TA, and TH), which were the outputs. Various NN model configurations were evaluated in terms of regression model fitness. The mean-absolute-error (MAE) was used as the metric for training and testing the NN models, and the coefficient of determination (R2) between the model predictions and true values was also computed to measure how well the NN models predict the true values. With online spectral measurements, the trained neural network model can provide non-contact and real-time estimation of WW quality at minimum estimation error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Ensilement; Grass Quality; Hyperspectral Reflectance; Predictive Models
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:02:49 CET)
A series of experiments were conducted to measure and quantify the yield, dry matter content, sugars content and nitrates content of grass intended for ensilement. These experiments took place in the East Midlands of Ireland during the Spring, Summer and Autumn of 2019. A bespoke sensor rig was constructed; included in this rig was a hyperspectral radiometer that measured a broad spectrum of reflected natural light from a circular spot approximately 1.2 metres in area. Grass inside a 50cm square quadrat was manually collected from the centre of the circular spot for ground truth estimation of the grass qualities. Up to 25 spots were recorded and sampled each day. The radiometer readings for each spot were automatically recorded onto a laptop that controlled the sensor rig, and ground truth measurements were made either on site or within 24 hours in a wet chemistry laboratory. The collected data was used to build Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) predictive models of grass qualities from the hyperspectral dataset and it was found that substantial relationships exist between the spectral reflectance from the grass and yield (r2 = 0.62), dry matter % (r2 = 0.54), sugar content (r2 = 0.54) and nitrates (r2 = 0.50). This shows that hyperspectral reflectance data contains substantial information about key grass qualities and can form part of a broader holistic data driven approach to provide accurate and rapid predictions to farmers, agronomists and agricultural contractors.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: reflectance; hyperspectral imaging; pigments; damages; apple fruit
Online: 2 February 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Reflected light carries ample information about biochemical composition, tissue architecture, and physiological condition of plants. Recent technical progress brought about affordable imaging hyperspectrometers (IH) providing spatially resolved spectral data on plants. The extraction of sensible information from hyperspectral reflectance images is difficult due to inherent complexity of plant tissue and canopy optics, especially when recorded by IH under ambient sunlight. We aimed at obtaining a deeper insight into plant optics as perceived by IH since there is a high demand for algorithms for fruit harvesting and grading systems equipped with computer vision and robotic systems capable of working in orchard. We report on the characteristic changes in hyperspectral reflectance accompanying the accumulation of anthocyanins in healthy fruit, pigment breakdown during sunscald and phytopathogen attacks. The measurements made outdoors with a snapshot IH were compared with traditional “point” reflectance measured with a conventional spectrophotometer under controlled illumination conditions. Most of the spectral features and patterns of plant reflectance were evident in the IH-derived reflectance images. As a step forward, a novel index for highlighting tissue damages on the background of the anthocyanin absorption, BRI-M = (1/Rorange – 1/Rred + 1/RNIR), is suggested. Difficulties of the interpretation of fruit hyperspectral reflectance images recorded in situ are discussed with possible implications for plant physiology and precision horticulture practices.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: titanium; laser marking; color; reflectance; roughness; oxidation
Online: 26 August 2019 (16:15:09 CEST)
Surface treatments of metals based on laser marking technology is an important application in a wide range of industrial fields. By specific combinations of laser processing parameters, the modified surface leads to different textures with specific roughness and colored appearance. Most of current works are focused on the modification of color tonality of flat surfaces, or the development of specific topography features, but the combination of both processes is not usually evaluated, mainly due to the complexity to control the optical properties on rough surfaces. This research presents an analysis of the influence of the micro-geometrical characteristics of periodic patterned laser tracks on the chromaticity and reflectance of Ti6Al4V substrates. The samples were irradiated with an infrared nanosecond pulsed laser under air atmosphere, taking as control parameter the scan speed of the beam. A roughness evaluation, microscopic inspection, absorption and chromaticity examination were conducted. Although micro-crack growth was detected in isolated case (10 mm/s), the possibility of adjusting the result color were demonstrated by controlling the thermal affected zone thickness of the textures. Results of rough/colored combined textures allow opening new perspectives in industrial design, particularly in aesthetic applications with special properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0049.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: reflectance; dehydration stress; proximal sensing; vegetation indices; pigments.
Online: 2 September 2021 (16:38:49 CEST)
We compared two approaches to non-invasive proximal sensing of the early changes in fresh-cut lettuce leaf quality: hyperspectral imaging and imaging PAM-fluorometry of chlorophyll contained in the leaves. The assessments made by the imaging techniques were confronted with the quality assessments made by traditional biochemical assays: relative water content and foliar pigment (chlorophyll and carotenoid) composition. The hyperspectral imaging-based approach provided the highest sensitivity to the decline of fresh-cut lettuce leaf quality taking place within 24 h from cutting. Using of the imaging PAM was complicated by (i) weak correlation of the spatial distribution pattern of the Qy parameter with the actual physiological condition of the plant object and (ii) its high degree of heterogeneity. Accordingly, the imaging PAM-based approach was sensitive only to the manifestations of leaf quality degradation only at advanced stages of the process. Sealing the leaves in the polyethylene bags slowed down the leaf quality degradation at the initial stages (< 3 days) but promoted its rate at more advanced stages, likely due to build-up of ethylene in the bags. An approach was developed to the processing of hyperspectral data for non-invasive monitoring of the lettuce leaves with a potential for implementation in greenhouses and packinghouses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Boreal Forest; LiDAR; Landsat 8; Surface Reflectance; Alaska
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:51:47 CEST)
Forests are critical in regulating the world’s climate and they maintain overall Earth’s energy balance. The variability in forest canopy structure, topography and underneath vegetation background condition creates uncertainty in the estimation and modelling of Earth’s surface radiation particularly for boreal regions in high latitude. We studied seasonal variation in surface reflectance with respect to land cover classes, canopy structures, and topography in a boreal region of Alaska by fusing together Landsat 8 surface reflectance and LiDAR-derived canopy matrices. Our study shows that canopy structure and topography interplay and influence surface reflectance in a complex way particularly during the snow season. Topographic aspect and elevation control vegetation growth, type and structure. The southern slope is featured with more deciduous and taller trees having greater rugosity than the northern slope. Higher elevation is associated with taller trees for both vegetation types, particularly in the southern slope. In general, surface reflectance shows similar relationships with canopy cover, height and rugosity, mainly due to close relationships between these parameters. Surface reflectance decreases with canopy cover, tree height, and rugosity especially for evergreen forest. Deciduous forest shows larger variability of surface reflectance, particularly in March, mainly due to the mixing effect of snow and vegetation. The relationship between vegetation structure and surface reflectance is greatly impacted by topography. The negative relationship between elevation and surface reflectance may be due to taller and denser vegetation distribution in higher elevation. Surface reflectance in the southern slope is slightly larger than the northern slope for both deciduous and evergreen forest. The shadow effect from topography and tree crowns on surface reflectance play a different role for deciduous and evergreen forests. For deciduous forest, topographic shadow effect on surface reflectance is stronger than from tree shadowing in all seasons. For evergreen forest, shadow effects from topography and tree crowns on surface reflectance are both equally dominant, however tree shadow effect is more significant in March than in May and August. The generalized additive models (GAM) based on non-linear relationships between response (surface reflectance) and predictor (canopy structures and topography) variables confirms such observations. Our study not only provides accurate quantification of surface radiation budget but also helps in parametrization of climate change models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0301.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Grain yield; reflectance; chlorophyll; semi-arid; grain filling; Algeria
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:23:42 CEST)
: Our study aim to test the influence of RGB reflectance and chlorophyll content on grain fill and grain yield of 15 durum wheat cultivars sown under semi-arid conditions. the evolution of chlorophyll content during three stages showed a stability during the heading stage, the chlorophyll content begins at this degradation during grain filling. Boutaleb genotype which was the best yielding genotype was characterized by low values of RGB reflectance and high values of majority of grain filling parameters and thousand kernels weight. Grain filling follows a sigmoid curve. Chlorophyll content was positively correlated with reflectance under the green band and negatively with both Red and Blue bands. A positive correlation was recorded between thousand kernel weight and grain yield, maximum grain dry weight and grain filling duration. The duration of the grain filling was positively influenced by the maximum dry weight of the grain and negatively by the grain filling ratio, the grain filling ratio was positively affected by reflectance at blue band. The principal component analysis separated the cultivars considered into 3 principal components, the absorption/reflectance component, the profitability component and the component of grain filling rate to which the local landrace Boutaleb belongs in terms of grain yield.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0934.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: precision agriculture; crop classification; satellite data; spatial analysis; spectral reflectance
Online: 15 November 2023 (04:06:16 CET)
The agricultural sector is currently confronting multifaceted challenges such as an increased food demand, a slow adoption of sustainable farming, a need for climate-resilient food systems, resource inequity, and protection of the small-scale farmers’ practices, all issues integral to food security and environmental health. Remote sensing technologies can assist precision agriculture to effectively address these complex problems, by providing farmers with a high-resolution lens. The use of vegetation indices (VIs) is an essential component of remote sensing, which combine the variability of spectral reflectance value (derived from remote sensing data) with the growth stage of crops. Currently a wide array of VIs is available that could be used to provide a classification and an evaluation of the state and health of crops. However precisely this high number leads to difficulties in selecting the best VI and combination of VIs for a specific objective. Without a thorough documentation and analysis of appropriate VIs, users might be confronted with difficulties in using remote sensing data or even with a very low accuracy of the results. Thus, the objective of this review is to conduct a critical analysis of the existing state of the art on the most important features related to the effective use of VIs for the discrimination and monitoring of the most important agricultural crops (wheat, corn, sunflower, soybean, rape, potatoes, and forage crops), grasslands and meadows. This data could be highly useful for all the stakeholders involved in agricultural activities (from farmers, researchers up to institutions dealing with the centralization and monitoring of agricultural crops).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0750.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: forest model; radiative transfer; vegetation indices; individual based; forest reflectance
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:41:12 CEST)
To understand forest dynamics under today’s changing environmental conditions, it is important to analyze the state of forests at large scales. Forest inventories are not available for all regions, so it is important to use other additional sources of information, e.g. remote sensing observations. Increasingly, remotely sensed data based on optical instruments and airborne LIDAR are becoming widely available for forests. There is great potential in analyzing these measurements and gaining an understanding of forests state. In this work, we combine the new generation radiative transfer model mScope with the individual-based forest model FORMIND to generate reflectance spectra for forests. Combining the two models allows us to account for species diversity at different height layers in the forest. We compare the generated reflectances for forest stands in Finland, in the region of North Karelia, with Sentinel-2 measurements. We investigate which level of forest representation gives the best results. For the majority of the forest stands, we generated good reflectances with all levels forest representation compared to the measured reflectance. Good correlations were also found for the vegetation indices (especially NDVI with R²=0.62). This work provides a forward modelling tool for relating forest reflectance to forest characteristics. With this tool it is possible to generate a large set of forest stands with corresponding reflectances. This opens the possibility to understand how reflectance is related to succession and different forest conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Laser scanning instrument; 3D scanner calibrator; surface reflectance; measurement accuracy
Online: 2 February 2022 (15:57:04 CET)
Abstract: The calibrator is one of the most important factors in the calibration of various laser 3D scanning instruments. The requirements for diffuse reflection surface are specially emphasized in many national standards. In this study, the spherical calibrator and plane calibrator compara-tive measurement experiments were carried out. The black ceramic standard sphere, white ce-ramic standard sphere, metal standard sphere, metal standard plane and white ceramic standard plane were used to test the laser 3D scanner. In the spherical calibrators comparative measure-ment experiments, the results indicated that the RMS of the white ceramic spherical calibrator with reflectance about 60% is 10 times that of the metal spherical calibrator with the reflectance of about 15%, and the RMS of the black ceramic spherical calibrator with reflectance of about 11% is of the same order as the metal spherical calibrator. In the plane calibrators comparative measurement experiments, the RMS of flatness measurement is 0.077 mm for metal plane cali-brator with reflectance of 15%, and 2.915 mm for ceramic plane calibrator with reflectance of 60%. The results show that when the optimal measurement distance and incident angle are selected, the reflectance of the calibrator has a great effect on the measurement results, regardless of the outlines or profiles. Based on the experiments, it is recommended to use the spherical calibrator or the standard plane with reflectance of around 18% as the standard, which can obtain the rea-sonable results. In addition, it is necessary to clearly provide the material category and surface reflectance information of the standard when calibrating the scanner according to the measure-ment standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0660.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ZnO; Room Temperature Synthesis; XRD Characterization UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:38:42 CET)
ZnO has many technological applications which largely depend on its properties that can be tuned by controlled synthesis. Ideally, the most convenient ZnO synthesis is carried out at room temperature in aqueous solvent. However, the correct temperature values are often loosely defined. In the current paper we performed synthesis of ZnO in aqueous solvent, by varying reaction and drying temperature by 10°C steps and monitored the synthesis products primarily by XRD. We found out that a simple direct synthesis of ZnO, without additional surfactant, pumping of freezing, required both a reaction (TP) and a drying (TD) temperature of 40°C. Higher temperatures also afford ZnO, but lowering any of the TP or TD below the threshold value results either in the achievement of Zn(OH)2 or in a mixture of Zn(OH)2/ZnO. A more detailed Rietveld analysis of the ZnO samples reveals a density variation with the synthesis temperature and an increase of the nanoparticles average size also verified by SEM images. The optical properties of ZnO obtained by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy indicate a red shift of the band gap by ~0.1 eV.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: physiological indicators; reflectance spectra; Suaeda salsa; salt stress; coastal wetland
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:17:29 CET)
In order to understand the response mechanism between plant stress, physiological indicators and hyperspectral indices, pot experiments were conducted on Suaeda salsa seedlings collected from a coastal wetland area to reveal the effects of salt stress on the physiological indicators and reflectance spectra of Suaeda salsa at the canopy and leaf level. The Suaeda salsa seedlings were exposed to seven salt treatments of different concentrations (0 mmol/L (control), 50 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L, 300 mmol/L, 400 mmol/L, and 600 mmol/L) in natural conditions. The physiological indicators of plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf succulence, chlorophyll content, and carotenoid content were measured, in addition to the reflectance spectra of Suaeda salsa at both the canopy and leaf level. Firstly, the effects of salt stress on the physiological indicators and reflectance spectra were analyzed by the qualitative and quantitative methods. Then, physiological indicators sensitive to salt stress were further retrieved. Afterwards hyperspectral indices such as a/b and ((a-b)/(a+b) ) sensitive to salt stress were also extracted by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls (S-N-K) comparison test. Our results showed that plant height, root length, leaf succulence, biomass, Chl-a, and Chl-b were sensitive to salt stress, while carotenoids (Car) and relative water content on the root were not significantly affected by salt stress. At the salt concentration of 200 mmol/L, plant height, biomass, relative water content, leaf succulence peaked. With enhanced salt stress, physiological indicators decreased. The first-order derivative spectral reflectance has the highest correlation with salt stress, compared to the control. The spectral index most sensitive to the salt stress at the canopy level is (D903−D851)/(D903+D851), for which the multiple determination coefficient (r2) is 0.9216. While the most sensitive spectral index to the salt stress is (D442−D667)/(D442+D667) at the leaf level, for which the r2 is −0.898. In summary, the results indicated that there exists the quantitative relationship between the physiological indicators and spectra reflectance under salt stress and hyperspectral plant indices can effectively estimate the degree of salt stress. The inconsistency between the diagnostic hyperspectral plant indices at the canopy and leaf levels may be caused by the observation conditions, canopy structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1397.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Harmonization; Surface Reflectance; Landsat-7; Landsat-8; Sentinel-2; Mediterranean basin
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:49:30 CEST)
In the Mediterranean area, vegetation dynamics and phenology analyzed over a long time can have an important role in highlighting changes in land use and cover as well as the effect of climate change. Over the last 30 years, remote sensing has played an essential role in bringing about these changes thanks to many types of observations and techniques. Satellite images are to be considered an important tool to grasp these dynamics and evaluate them in an inexpensive and multidisciplinary way thanks to Landsat and Sentinel satellite constellations. The integration of these tools holds a dual potential: on one hand, allowing to obtain longer historical series of reflectance data, while on the other hand, making data available with a higher frequency even within a specific timeframe. The study aims to conduct a comprehensive cross-comparison analysis of long-time series pixel values in the Mediterranean regions. For this scope comparisons between Landsat-7 (ETM+), Landsat-8 (OLI), and Sentinel-2 (MSI) satellite sensors were conducted based on surface reflectance products. We evaluated these differences using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Major Axis linear regression (RMA) analysis on points extracted from over 15,000 images across the Mediterranean basin area from 2017 to 2020. Minor but consistent differences were noted, necessitating the formulation of suitable adjustment equations to better align Sentinel-2 reflectance values with those of Landsat-7 or Landsat-8. The results of the analysis are compared with the most used harmonization coefficients proposed in the literature, revealing significant differences. The root mean square deviation, the mean difference and the orthogonal distance regression (ODR) slope show an improvement of the parameters for both models used (OLS and RMA) in this study. The discrepancies in reflectance values lead to corresponding variations in the estimation of biophysical parameters, such as NDVI, showing an increase in the ODR slope of 0.3. Despite differences in spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics, we demonstrate that integration of these datasets is feasible through the application of band-wise regression corrections for a sensitive and heterogeneous area like those of the Mediterranean basin area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy; Camellia seeds kernel; Oil content; Moisture content
Online: 23 July 2018 (21:12:39 CEST)
A fast and effective determination method of different species of vegetable seeds oil is vital in the plant oil industry. The near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method was developed in this study to massively analyze the oil and moisture contents of Camellia gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi seeds kernels. In the prediction models of NIRS, the levels of accuracy obtained were sufficient for C. gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi, the correlation coefficient of which oil were 0.983 and 0.962, respectively, while which of moisture were 0.937 and 0.907, respectively. The near infrared spectrum of crush seeds kernels was more precise compared to intact kernels. Based on the calibration models of the two Camellia species, the NIRS predictive oil contents of C. gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi seeds kernels were 48.71 ± 8.94% and 31.71 ± 7.39%, respectively, and the NIRS predictive moisture contents were 4.39 ± 1.08% and 3.49 ± 0.71%, respectively. Compared with the traditional chemical measurement, the rapid, precise measurement of oil and moisture of C. gauchowensis Chang and C. semiserrata Chi seeds kernels can be actualized by NIRS method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0150.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Pechini method; TiO2; CuO; anatase; tenorite; band gap; absorbance; diffuse reflectance; XPS
Online: 11 May 2022 (08:54:56 CEST)
High purity TiO2 and CuO powders were synthesized by the Pechini method, an inexpensive and easy-to-implement procedure to synthetize metal oxides. The variables of synthesis were the ethylene glycol:citric acid molar ratio and the pH. High reproducibility of the anatase and tenorite phase was obtained for all synthesis routes. The degree of purity of the powders was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis absorption and XPS spectra. SEM and TEM images revealed the powders are composed by micrometer grains that can have a spherical shape (only in the TiO2) or formed by a non-compacted nanocrystalline conglomerate. FTIR spectra only vibrational modes associated to the TiO2 or CuO with a nanoparticle behavior. UV-vis absorption spectra revealed the values of maximum absorbance percentage of both systems are reached in the ultraviolet region, with percentages above 83 % throughout the entire visible light spectrum for the CuO system, a relevant result for solar cell applications. Finally, XPS experiments allow the observation of the valence bands and the calculation of the energy bands of all oxides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: cork oak decline; Quercus suber-Phytophthora cinnamomi interaction; reflectance spectra; disease spectral monitoring
Online: 20 July 2023 (05:47:06 CEST)
Cork oak tree (Quercus suber L.) symbolises Montado landscape in Portugal and is a central element in the country's social and economic history. In recent decades, the loss of thousands of cork oaks has been reported, revealing the ongoing decline of these agro-forestry ecosystems. This emblematic tree of the Mediterranean Basin is host to the soil-born root pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, an active cork oak decline driver. In this framework, the early diagnosis of trees infected by the oomycete by non-invasive methods should contribute to the sustainable management of cork oak ecosystems and motivated this work. Using leaf reflectance spectroscopy it was possible to distinguish plants inoculated with P. cinnamomi from non-inoculated plants in a long course assay and to argue about the factors contributing to this differentiation. Spectral acquisitions in the visible-near infrared (400–1100 nm) were performed at 63, 78, 91, 126 and 248 days after inoculation (DAI), on the abaxial and adaxial faces of the leaves, and the spectral data was arranged in a three-way array of samples × wavelengths × days. The separation of the two plant groups were attributed to variations in water content (4v (O−H)) and/or a shift in the red edge and to structural modifications in the epidermal layer and/or the mesophyll of the leaves observed in the visible range. These spectral signatures can assist in the field identification of cork oaks that are interacting with P. cinnamomi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0253.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil reflectance composites; digital soil modeling; soil organic carbon; GEOBIA, Landsat; terrain analysis
Online: 17 March 2022 (11:42:28 CET)
There is a growing need for an area-wide knowledge of SOC contents in agricultural soils at field scale for food security, monitoring long-term changes related to soil health and climate change. In Germany, large-scale SOC maps are mostly available with a spatial resolution of 250 m to 1 km2. The nationwide availability of both digital elevation models at various spatial resolutions and multi-temporal satellite imagery enables the derivation of multi-scale terrain attributes and Landsat-based multi-temporal soil reflectance composites (SRC) as explanatory variables. On the example of an Bavarian test of about 8000 km2, the scale-specific dependencies between the representativeness of 220 soil samples and different aggregation levels of the explanatory variables were analyzed for their scale-specific predictive power. The aggregation levels were generated by applying a region-growing segmentation procedure, the SOC content prediction was realized by the Random Forest algorithm. In doing so, established approaches of (geographic) object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) and machine learning were combined. The modeling results revealed scale-specific differences. Compared to terrain attributes, the use of SRC parameters lead to a significant model improvement at large field-related scale levels. The joint use of both terrain attributes and SRC parameters resulted in further model improvements. The best modeling variant is characterized by an accuracy of R2=0.84 and RMSE=1.99.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0002.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: monochalcogenides; germanium sulfide; photoluminescence; reflectance contrast; excitons; Raman scattering; Density Fuctional Theory; phonons
Online: 1 November 2021 (10:18:02 CET)
The optical response of bulk germanium sulfide (GeS) is investigated systematically using different polarization-resolved experimental techniques, such as photoluminescence (PL), reflectance contrast (RC), and Raman scattering (RS). It is shown that while the low-temperature (T=5 K) optical band-gap absorption is governed by a single resonance related to the neutral exciton, the corresponding emission is dominated by the disorder/impurity- and/or phonon-assisted recombination processes. Both the RC and PL spectra are found to be linearly polarized along the armchair direction. The low and room (T=300 K) temperature RS spectra consist of six Raman peaks identified with the help of Density Fuctional Theory (DFT) calculations: Ag1, Ag2, Ag3, Ag4, B1g1, and B1g2, which polarization properties are studied under four different excitation energies. We found that the polarization orientations of the Ag2 and Ag4 modes under specific excitation energy can be useful tools to determine the GeS crystallographic directions: armchair and zigzag.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0432.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; ion-exchange resin; drinking water
Online: 21 September 2018 (08:29:11 CEST)
Infrared spectroscopy is an effective method for the determination of compositions and concentrations of liquids, with advantages of fast response, no-sampling, flexible in use and is able for on-line monitoring. However, for trace substances in drinking water, such as nitrates and heavy metals, infrared spectroscopy is not sensitive enough for the quantitative and qualitative measurement. In this study, we improved the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy for nitrite determination by developing an ion-exchange-enhanced diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which consist of an accessory based on ion-exchange resin for enrichment and a FTIR spectrometer for measurement. Using this method, the limit of detection for nitrate is 1.7 mg/L, which is enough for drinking water sensing. We also verified the quantitative measurement ability of the method. Furthermore, the limit of detection and quantitative measuring range could be adjusted by changing the mass of resin and adsorption time. This study demonstrated the method can be used to detect trace nitrites in drinking water, can be applied in the field, and is sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive with a wide dynamic range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0449.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: bismuth manganite; ceramics; composite; lead titanate; optical energy gap; surface morphology; Vis-NIR reflectance
Online: 29 October 2021 (10:13:45 CEST)
This work shows a correlation between light reflectance, absorption, and morphologies of series of (1-x) BM–x PT, (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, 0.24) ceramics composite. The (1-x) BM–x PT showed features of a black mirror with a low optical energy gap. The measured Vis-NIR diffused reflectance enabled the calculation of the energy gap using the modified Kubelka-Munk function. The estimated energy gap was lower than 1.5 eV related to low reflectance in the Vis-NIR range. Moreover, obtained histograms of grains, using scanning electron microscope, enabled the correlation between grains size and amount of lead titanate. We deduced from the ceramics surface morphology that marked porosity also induced reflectivity of low magnitude. We correlated the magnitude of the energy gap with phases of the BM-PT composite and with the electrical conductivity activation energy reported in the literature. Our results findings opened prospect studied materials for optical applications.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: oil-in-water emulsion; seawater; oil pollution detection; radiance reflectance; Monte Carlo simulation, spectral index
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:28:40 CET)
The presented results of simulations take into account the optical parameters of the selected sea region (from literature data on the southern Baltic Sea) and two optically extreme types of crude oil (from historical data) which exist in the form of a highly diluted oil-in-water emulsion (10 ppm). The spectral index was analyzed based on the results of modelling the radiance reflectance distribution for almost an entire hemisphere of the sky (zenith angle from 0 to 80o). The spectral index was selected and is universal for all optically different types of oil (wavelengths 650 and 412 nm). The possibility of detecting pollution in the conditions of the wavy sea surface (as a result of wind of up to 10 m/s) was studied. It has been also shown that if the viewing direction is close to a direction perpendicular to the sea surface, observations aimed at determining the spectral index are less effective than observation under the zenith angle of incidence of sunlight for all azimuths excluding the direction of sunlight specular reflection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0740.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: detonation nanodiamonds; photoacoustic IR spectroscopy; diffuse-reflectance IR spectroscopy; attenuated total internal reflection IR spectroscopy
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:12:52 CET)
The qualitative analysis of nanodiamonds by FTIR spectrometry as photoacoustic (PAS), diffuse-reflectance (DRIFT), and attenuated total reflection (ATR) modalities was evaluated for rapid and nondestructive analysis and comparison of nanodiamonds. The spectra reproducibility and signal-gathering depth was compared. The assignment of characteristic bands showed that only six groups of bands were present in spectra of all the modalities with appropriate sensitivity: 1760 (C=O stretch, isolated carboxyl groups); 1640–1632 (H–O–H bend, liquid water); 1400–1370 (non-carboxyl C–O–H in-plane bend and CH2 deformation); 1103 (non-carboxyl C–O stretch); 1060 (in-plane C–H bend, non-aromatic hydrocarbons and carbohydrates); and 940 cm–1 (out-of-plane carboxyl C–O–H bend). DRIFT provides the maximum number of bands and is capable of measuring hydrogen-bonded bands and CHX groups. ATR provides the good sensitivity for water and C–H/C–C bands in the range 2000–400 cm–1. PAS-FTIR reveals less bands than DRIFT but more intense bands than ATR-FTIR and shows the maximum sensitivity for absorption bands that do not appear in ATR-IR spectra and are expedient for supporting either DRIFT or PAS along with depth-profiling. Thus, all three modalities are required for full characterization of nanodiamonds surface functional groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0081.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spectral reflectance; vegetation indices; vegetation; remote sensing; oil spill; mangrove forest; oil pollution; Landsat 8
Online: 23 September 2016 (06:19:49 CEST)
This study is aimed at demonstrating application of vegetation spectral techniques for detection and monitoring of impact of oil spills on vegetation. Vegetation spectral reflectance from Landsat 8 data were used in the calculation of five vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), adjusted resistant vegetation index 2 (ARVI2), green-infrared index (G/NIR) and green-shortwave infrared (G/SWIR) from the spill sites (SS) and non-spill (NSS) sites in 2013 (pre-oil spill), 2014 (oil spill date) and 2015 (post-oil spill) for statistical comparison. The result shows that NDVI, SAVI, ARVI2, G/NIR and G/SWIR indicated certain level difference between vegetation condition at the SS and the NSS were significant with p-value <0.5 in December 2013. In December 2014 vegetation conditions indicated higher level of significant difference between the vegetation at the SS and NSS as follows where NDVI, SAVI and ARVI2 with p-value 0.005, G/NIR - p-value 0.01 and GSWIR p-value 0.05. Similarly, in January 2015 a very significant difference with p-value <0.005. Three indices NDVI, ARVI2 and G/NIR indicated highly significant difference in vegetation conditions with p-value <0.005 between December 2013 and December 2014 at the same sites. Post—spill analysis show that NDVI and ARVI2 indicated low level of significance difference p-value <0.05 suggesting subtle change in vegetation conditions between December 2014 and January 2015. This technique is essential for real time detection, response and monitoring of oil spills from pipelines for mitigation of pollution at the affected sites in the mangrove forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: OLCI; harmful algal blooms; Pseudo-nitzschia spp.; support vector machine; multi-spectral sensors; reflectance; Galician rias
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:31:16 CEST)
Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms are a recurrent problem in many coastal areas globally imposing some significant threats to the health of human, ecosystems and economy. Monitoring programmes have been established, where feasible, to mitigate the impacts caused by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and other harmful algae blooms. The detection of such blooms from satellite data could really provide timely information on emerging risks but the development of taxa-specific algorithms from available multispectral data is still challenged by coupled optical properties with other taxa and water constituents, availability of ground data and generalisation capabilities of algorithms. Here, we developed a new set of algorithms (PNOI) for the detection and monitoring of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms over the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) from Sentinel-3 OLCI reflectances using support vector machine (SVM). Our algorithm was trained and tested with reflectance data from 260 OLCI images and 4607 Pseudo-nitzschia spp. match up data points, of which 2171 were of high quality. The performance of no bloom/bloom model in the independent test set was robust, showing values of 0.80, 0.72 and 0.79 for area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Similar results were obtained by our below detection limit/presence model. We also present different model thresholds based on optimisation of true skill statistic (TSS) and F1-score. PNOI outperforms linear models, while its relationship with in-situ chlorophyll-a concentrations is weak demonstrating poor correlation with the phytoplankton abundance. We showcase the importance of PNOI algorithm and OLCI sensor for monitoring the bloom evolution between the weekly ground sampling and during periods of ground data absence, such as due to Covid-19.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0539.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: α-phase; Au-Cu-Al system; fcc annealing twin; martensite phase; mechanical properties; microstructure; reflectance analysis
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:22:10 CEST)
To enhance the mechanical properties (i.e. strength and elongation) of the face-centered cubic (fcc) α-phase in the Au-Cu-Al system, this study focused on the introduction of the martensite phase (doubled B19 (DB19) crystal structure of Au2CuAl) via the manipulation of alloy compositions. Fundamental evaluations, such as microstructure observations, phase identifications, thermal analysis, tensile behavior examinations, and reflectance analysis have been conducted. The presence of fcc annealing twins was both observed in the optical microscope (OM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Both the strength and elongation of the alloys were greatly promoted while the DB19 martensite phase was introduced into the alloys. Amongst all the prepared specimens, the 47Au41Cu12Al and the 44Au44Cu12Al alloys performed the optimized mechanical properties. The enhancement of strength and ductility in these 2 alloys was achieved while the stress plateau was observed during the tensile deformation. A plot of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) against fracture strain was constructed to illustrate the effects of the introduction of the DB19 martensite phase on the mechanical properties of the alloys. Regardless of the manipulation of the alloy compositions and the introduction of the DB19 martensite phase, the reflectance stayed almost identical to pure Au.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0398.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: water-leaving radiance; remote sensing reflectance; color index; seasonal blooms; AERONET; Black Sea; MODIS Aqua; AOT; VIIRS
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:53:01 CET)
Geo-information about the spectral variability of the water-leaving radiance is the key to the validation of satellite and in situ measurements and the development of regional algorithms. In this study, using cluster analysis, five trends were identified that are characteristic of various phenomena in the northwestern part of the Black Sea (summer and winter blooms, turbid waters, river runoff). Typical values of the remote sensing reflectance coefficient are calculated for each case. Additionally, the standard values of the color indices for each cluster are calculated. It is shown that the ratio of the color index CI(412/443 nm) is slightly variable and equals 0.8±0.07.This can be a reference point for recovering incorrect (negative) satellite Rrs(λ) values in the shortwave region. In a similar way, the color index was calculated according to the MODIS and VIRS data, it was shown that on days with a turbid atmosphere (high AOT values), the standard deviation of the color index is 30%. For days with a clear atmosphere, the color index is close to the in situ results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0166.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cool materials; cool coatings; solar reflective index; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; natural weathering; green buildings; reflective paints
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:13:00 CEST)
Solar reflective index (SRI) is one of the important parameters in the analysis of a building’s energetic and thermal performance, especially for “cool” reflective paints or coatings. However, there exists less information on the typical performance of the cool materials exposed for long term in the Middle East and more specifically in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, we determined values of reflectance, emittance, solar reflective index (SRI), and color difference, for three different high SRI white paints exposed naturally on low and high sloped racks for three years. After 3 years, reflectance values of exposed paint panels significantly decreased with an increased color difference in comparison with original unexposed paint surfaces. Emissivity of the paint changed very little for all of the exposed samples, but SRI, determined from both the reflectance and emittance, was reduced from between 95 and 110 to between 60 and 90 after three years. This appeared to be related to exposure to high temperatures, UV radiation, and adhesion of airborne contaminants in conjunction with low precipitation. Macroscopically, panels exposed on a low slope were the most discolored with the greatest presence of dust infusion and reduction in increase in surface temperatures which was demonstrated through thermal imaging. Such natural weathering research study is necessary for the development of standard exposure tests and determination of various control elements to increase the durability of cool materials in hot and arid climatic conditions of UAE.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: 15th-century illuminated manuscripts; smalt; bismuth ink; non-invasive analyses; Raman spectroscopy; XRF mapping; UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:03:01 CEST)
This paper discusses a cross-disciplinary, international collaboration aimed at researching a series of 15th century choir books at the abbey of San Giorgio Maggiore on the homonymous island in Venice. Produced for the abbey itself, the books have never left the island during their 500-years history, thereby allowing a unique opportunity to analyse historic artefacts, which have undergone little modification over time. Prompted by ongoing cataloguing work on the manuscripts, a week-long analytical campaign using a combination of non-invasive analytical methods used in portable configuration allowed the comprehensive characterisation of ten volumes. The manuscripts’ palette and painting techniques were analysed using near-infrared imaging, reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR range, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence mapping and digital microscopy. The paper will discuss the challenges linked to the fragility and the large dimensions of the volumes as well as the most interesting results of the investigation. These include the detection of unusual painting materials such as bismuth ink, as well as the discovery of a less homogeneous palette than originally expected, which prompted a partial revision of the attribution of the decoration in one of the volumes to a single artist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: remote sensing; attenuation coefficient; ratio method; soil line; bottom reflectance; shallow substrate; satellite derived bathymetry; water column correction; bottom typing
Online: 6 June 2017 (06:33:27 CEST)
All empirical water column correction methods have consistently been reported to require existing depth sounding data for the purpose of calibrating a simple depth retrieval model; they yield poor results over very bright or very dark bottoms. In contrast, we set out to (i) use only the relative radiance data in the image along with published data, and several new assumptions, (ii) in order to specify and operate the simplified radiative transfer equation (RTE), (iii) for the purpose of retrieving both the satellite derived bathymetry (SDB) and the water column corrected spectral reflectance over shallow seabeds. Sea truth regressions show that SDB depths retrieved by the method only need tide correction. Therefore it shall be demonstrated that, under such new assumptions, there is no need (i) for formal atmospheric correction, (ii) nor for conversion of relative radiance into calibrated reflectance , (iii) nor for existing depth sounding data, to specify the simplified RTE and produce both SDB and spectral water column corrected radiance ready for bottom typing. Moreover, the use of the panchromatic band for that purpose is introduced. Altogether, we named this process the Self-Calibrated Supervised Spectral Shallow-sea Modeler (4SM). This approach requires a trained practitioner, though, to produce its results within hours of downloading the raw image. The ideal raw image should be a “near-nadir” view, exhibit homogeneous atmosphere and water column, include some coverage of optically deep waters and bare land, and lend itself to quality removal of haze, atmospheric adjacency effect, and sun/sky glint.