ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: waste management; cigarette butts; tobacco products; waste collection; cigarette recycling
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:51:18 CEST)
Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most diffuse waste in the world, often abandoned in the environment without proper disposal. They are dangerous because of the numerous harmful chemicals poten-tially released in the environment. There are, in literature, several technological options for CB recycling, but some critical concerns could affect their effectiveness due to the quality and quantity of CB litter collected in the proper way. The present paper focuses on policy framework social behavior, waste collection and transport and technological processes. The Extended Producer Responsibility scheme for CBs is proposed at European level as an action to tackle CB litter and encourage sustainable product development. The CB waste collection and transport is a key step for bringing CB to the recycling process. The main concern is the small quantity of CBs collected: 0.06 % of the municipal waste and 0.18 % of the unsorted waste in the administrative area of Pe-rugia. Another crucial issue is the need for behavioral interventions to increase education and awareness of smoker citizens, addressing the discrepancy between smokers’ behaviors and beliefs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0427.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Recycling; Plastic wastes; Chemical recycling; Depolymerization; Closed-loop recycling
Online: 8 October 2023 (05:28:37 CEST)
Ranging from traditional food packaging, clothing, and furniture to the current small and large electronic devices and automobiles, plastics serve to fulfill diverse demands in our daily lives. However, the global plastic waste generation is dramatically escalating, currently standing at approximately 150 million metric tonnes annually. While some of regenerated plastics recycled by mechanical methods can be used as their parent plastics, cost and energy savings are limited by multiple preliminary processes such as plastic sorting, shredding, washing, and drying. Moreover, the continuous mechanical recycling process degrades the physical properties of the materials. In this context, chemical recycling is emerging as a promising alternative method due to its high efficiency, simple preliminary steps, reducing reliance on fossil resources, and conversion of plastic waste into value-added chemicals. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of contemporary chemical recycling of polymeric materials via i) depolymerization: “polymers to small valuable molecules” and ii) closed-loop cycles: “polymers to monomers, and/or to polymers”, by encompassing both traditional/advanced depolymerization chemistries and the remaining challenges. These recycling approaches are contextualized within the present industrial technologies, key design principles, and specific recycling case studies related to distinct polymeric materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: recycling; public participation; public perception; recycling behavior; environment
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:35:32 CEST)
Managing household solid waste is an urban problem in recent years. To tackle this problem, recycling is one of the most effective methods applicable in waste management. Recycling in the city of Laramie in Wyoming has a history that dates to 1983 with the establishment of Ark Recycling center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011 and In April 2012, the city declared its long-term goal to achieve 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand public participation landscape and factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. Quantitative result of the survey responses, civic engagement score, recycling importance score recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores were created to understand these attributes. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming and the Ark Regional Services. Findings of the study show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated environmental concern was the major motivation to join recycling with high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The Study further uncovered hints that Laramie needs to introduce an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies and a Master Plan to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 by maintaining stronger public participation in its planning process and community outreach programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1089.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: textile recycling; fibre-to-fibre recycling; textile sorting; textile disassembly; digital textile platforms
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:49:16 CET)
As both governments and customers push for sustainable and recyclable textile products, textile companies will have to change their linear business model to a circular one. The aim of the present work is to help these companies take action by providing an update of the state-of-the-art of textile recycling technologies. Extensive desktop research was performed in order to prepare an overview of existing textile recycling technologies, their current state and prognosis, including also facilitating technologies for sorting and disintegration of textile products as well as virtual platforms that connect stakeholders and inform consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0051.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: GTR; mechanochemistry; recycling; thermokinetic mixer
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:11:20 CEST)
This publication highlights the effect of mechanochemical treatment in a high-speed thermoki-netic mixer as an alternative for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR). The GTR initially has an 80% gelled fraction and presented up to 50% gel fraction in the most intensive condition (5145 rpm, s2). Processing at the lowest speed (2564 rpm, s1) resulted in greater selectivity concerning the mechanochemical treatment (K~1). In the most intense processing condition (10 min. at s2), more significant degradation was observed via random scission with a reduction of the glass transition temperature, Tg (11ºC), an increase of the soluble polymer fraction, and a more signif-icant reduction in crosslink density. The artificial neural network could describe and correlate the thermal degradation profile and processing conditions with the physicochemical characteris-tics of the GTR. The approach presented here represents an alternative for mechanochemical treatment since it can reduce the crosslink density with selectivity and in short times (1-3 min.).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: mining; tailings; waste; recycling; restoration
Online: 1 July 2022 (09:00:31 CEST)
Mining is an important industry that provides products and services through infrastructure systems worldwide. However, the global development promotes the steady growth and accelerated demand for minerals, resulting in the accumulation of hazardous waste in land, sea and air environments and, consequently a series of environmental and health problems. Restoration techniques from mining tailing have become increasingly discussed among scholars due to their potential to offer benefits over reducing tailings levels, thereby reducing environmental pressure for the correct management and adding value to previously discarded waste. This review paper critically explores available literature on the main techniques of mining tailing recycling, and discusses leading recycling technologies, including the advantages and drawbacks, as well as future perspectives. The findings of this review contribute as a reference for scholars as well as support for decisionmakers concerning the related environmental issues.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Food waste, recycling, construction materials
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:01:15 CEST)
Highlights: A new material with a bending strength higher than that of concrete was developed using vegetable or fruit waste. The new material maintains the color, taste, and flavor of the original vegetable or fruit. Without water resistant treatment, the material is edible and can be conditioned with seasonings
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0431.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polylactide; polypropylene,; polymer mixtures; recycling
Online: 29 March 2020 (10:02:39 CEST)
Polypropylene (PP) is commonly used in the polymer processing industry. Its feature is a good chemical resistance, it is non-toxic and not harmful to people. Polypropylene is widely used in the manufacturing of food packages, laboratory and medical equipment, electric cables insulators, automotive parts, toys and furniture. The application of this material enables us to obtain complicated shapes of big surfaces. It is also highly recyclable. Polylactide (PLA) is a product of the so called “green chemistry” because it is obtained from the renewable raw materials (biomass). As its price is higher compared to the traditional polymers, its repeated use (recycling) is of high interest. Due to the same reason (cost) the mixtures of PLA with other polymers are applied. In this paper the results of testing the PP/PLA mixtures of various mass ratio of the components are presented. Technical terms of preparing and processing such mixtures have been practically tested. Also the mechanical strength was determined based on the static tensile tests. The results showed that those mixtures can be repeatedly processed. Even five-times reprocessing does not cause essential drop of mechanical properties
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1660.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: asphalt recycling; reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP); recycling rate; MCDM; criteria weight; expert evaluation; opinion consistency
Online: 25 October 2023 (16:16:00 CEST)
Transport infrastructure’s asphalt pavement deteriorates under the influence of destructive factors. Damages which have been occurred during its exploitation period are repaired, and when their further rehabilitation is economically and technically irrational, the asphalt pavement is recycled. The material from the asphalt pavement layer that has reached its limit state is milled out or broken and crushed and then is repeatedly used in the production of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) or warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixtures. In this paper, the dynamics of the percentage recycling ratio (RR) of old asphalt pavement material was investigated. RR represents the quantity of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) used in the production of HMA and WMA mixtures in Europe and the USA, divided by the total amount of RAP prepared in the country. Factors and goals affecting it are analyzed. An original system of 10 criteria that increase the RR country has been created. By applying different multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods and using the importance given to these criteria by 14 experts, the normalized subjective weights of the criteria were determined. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), rank correlation, Average Rank Transformation into Weight - Linear (ARTIW-L) and Non-linear (ARTIW-N), Direct Percentage Weight (DPW) methods were used in the study. The results display that the RAP recycle rate is close to 100% in countries with a sustainable economic background. In the Baltic countries, it is mostly increased by the adequacy of regulatory documents, the strategy promoting asphalt recycling in the country, and the homogeneity and classifying of RAP. The number and capacity of RAP stocks, the number and productivity of asphalt milling equipment and the wear and tear of the asphalt pavement have the least influence on the increase of RR. The opinions of experts in assessing the significance of all criteria are consistent. The averages of the weights of criteria determined by four MCDM methods (AHP, ARTIW-L, ARTIW-N, DPW) made it possible to obtain more reliable results. These results can be used to make strategic decisions and to create a plan of practical actions to increase the RAP recycling rate in the developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: PET; Recycling; Lux meter; Classification; ANOVA; Machine learning; Automation; Illuminance; Polymer recycling; Municipal solid waste
Online: 2 June 2023 (07:12:08 CEST)
This article seeks to strengthen efforts in technological developments based on the classification of PET plastic that positively impacts sustainable development and contributes to suitable solutions in collection centers in Mexico. Three experiment designs and machine learning tools for data processing were developed. For the experimentation, three factors were considered: the bottle's size, the amount of liquids inside the bottle, and the label on the bottle. The first experiment was to identify the distance of the sensor from post-consumer PET bottles. The second experiment was to determine the detection ability of the sensor with different levels of liquids inside the bottles, and the third was to determine the detection ability on the bottle labels. A digital lux meter on a microcontroller was developed to monitor illuminance on post-consumer PET plastic when it contains liquid as it passes through a conveyor belt for processing at an average rate of three bottles per second. With the implemented methodology, liquids were satisfactorily detected inside the transparent PET bottles when they had beverages between 25% and 100% of their capacity. Finally, this paper highlights that it is possible to implement an affordable design to identify bottles with liquids for collection centers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1142.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: sustainable solid waste management; recycling; composting
Online: 16 August 2023 (08:09:27 CEST)
This scoping review examines global strategies and enterprises for sustainable solid waste management, with a focus on alternative landfilling approaches. The study collected and analyzed a significant number of documents from different regions, revealing Asia as the major contributor (for the collected documents) (48.7%), followed by North America (24.3%) and Europe (15.8%). Recycling emerged as the most effective alternative waste treatment method, representing 52.3% of the documented approaches, with industrial recycling (22.6%) and residential/non-residential recycling (20.2%) as prominent categories. Food waste was a significant concern across regions, constituting 21.4% of the collected documents. Composting was widely adopted (15.4%) due to its simplicity and benefits for gardening and soil improvement. Other methods like biogas extraction, reusing, raising awareness, incinerating, redistributing, reducing, and fermentation accounted for 13.1% cumulatively. The study highlights the need for tailored waste management solutions based on regional challenges and successful practices. Promoting recycling infrastructure, composting, and waste reduction approaches are crucial to achieving sustainable waste management aligned with SDGs. Collaboration and knowledge-sharing between regions are essential to improve inefficient waste management mechanisms. Integrating the findings into policymaking and industry practices can lead to a more sustainable future with reduced environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: biodiesel; biolubricant; biosurfactant; MCDA; recycling; WCO
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:08:29 CEST)
The management of waste cooking oil (WCO) often poses significant challenges. Improper disposal of WCO results in negative environmental impacts and economic losses. However, from a circular economy perspective, WCO can be recycled and used as a sustainable feedstock for numerous industrial products, replacing virgin vegetable oils. This approach enables the recovery of resources while simultaneously addressing the problem of WCO disposal. By employing a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach, the study assesses three alternative recycling pathways for WCO used as a feedstock in the production of A1) biodiesel, A2) biolubricant, and A3) biosurfactant. The aim is to identify the optimal alternative, taking into account environmental, economic, and technical factors. The procedure involved a team of chemical engineers working in the WCO recycling sector who were selected as decision-makers. The 'priority scale' combined with the Paired Comparison Technique was employed as a weighting method to evaluate the selected criteria. The results revealed that the decision-makers considered environmental sustainability as the most crucial evaluation criterion, followed by the economic criterion. In contrast, the aspect of process management was deemed less significant. Among the compared alternatives, utilizing WCO as a feedstock for biosurfactant production was assessed as the optimal WCO recycling solution. This alternative not only demonstrated the lowest coefficient variation but was also deemed the most favourable option. Biolubricant production was determined to be the second-best alternative. The adopted MCDA approach proved to be a reliable and effective tool, enabling the clear identification of the preferred WCO recycling alternative among those assessed. This was achieved through the utilization of the decision-makers' expertise and knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0458.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: GTR; Recycling; Reuse; Mechanical Properties; Composites
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:40:22 CEST)
Nowadays, the massive use of tires generates large stocks of waste material which is a serious environmental problem. The usual method used for processing wasted tires is mechanical crushing, in which fiber, steel, and rubber are separated. The aim of this research is the recycling of the obtained rubber, called also GTR (Ground Waste Tires). With this purpose, the paper analyses the mechanical properties of the composites produced by mixing GTR with several industrial polymers. These composites are characterized by the percentage of GTR in the composite and its particle size. These two variables along with seven industrial polymers define a set of composites from which the mechanical properties are analyzed and presented. From the results, it can be drawn that this proposal could be a way to enhance some polymer properties and to contribute in some way to reduce the environmental wasted tires problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: stickies; recycling wastepaper; lipase; Kraft paper
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:24:22 CET)
Paper recycling has increased in recent years. A principal consequence of this process is the problem of addressing polymeric components known as stickies. A deep characterization of stickies sampled over one year in a recycled paper industry in México was performed. Based on their chemical structure, an enzymatic assay was performed using lipases. Compounds found in stickies by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectrometry were poly (butyl-acrylate), dioctyl phthalate, poly (vinyl-acetate), and poly (vinyl-acrylate). Pulp with 4% consistency and pH=6.2 was sampled directly from the mill once macro stickies were removed. Stickies were quantified by counting the tacky macrostructures in the liquid fraction of the pulp using a Neubauer chamber before the paper was made, and they were analyzed with rhodamine dye and a UV lamp. Of the two enzymes evaluated, the best treatment condition used Lipase 30G at a concentration of 0.44 g/L, which produced a 35.59% decrease in stickies. SebOil DG showed a smaller stickies reduction of 21.5% when used at a concentration of 0.33 g/L. Stickies in kraft paper processes were actively controlled by the action of lipases, and future research should focus on how this enzyme recognizes its substrate and should apply synthetic biology to improve lipase specificity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0117.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: evaporation; moisture budget; precipitation; recycling ratio
Online: 18 January 2019 (12:31:31 CET)
Upper Blue Nile basin (UBNB) is the water tower of Ethiopia and downstream countries. It contributes significant moistures to the surrounding atmosphere. However, the contribution of the moisture from the basin to the precipitation in the area is not well documented. Therefore, this paper is aimed at seasonal variation of upper Blue Nile basin moisture budget and the global moistures in the role of temporal and spatial precipitation variability. To this end, we used European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) data from 1979-2017. The UBNB moisture contributed precipitation in the central parts of the study area during the summer season, while in spring; it contributed in southern part of the study area. Northwest part of the study area got precipitation from the basin moistures during autumn season. The recycling ratios for four seasons (summer, autumn, spring and winter) were 9.70%, 16.33%, 19.01%, and 35.30% respectively. The maximum amount of precipitation is extracted from the local moistures during winter season. The annual average value of recycling ratio was found 20.11%. Hence, we concluded that UBNB moisture budget had lesser contribution of precipitation over the study area. It rather contributed a significant precipitation to the neighboring countries such as Egypt and Sudan. Further studies on moisture budget are required to explain this phenomenon in the context of Ethiopia.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0100.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Li-ion batteries; anode; cobalt recycling
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:14:51 CEST)
In this paper, a new anode environmentally friendly for hydrogen production was developed based on 430 stainless steel with an electrodeposited cobalt layer. The novelty of this work is the cobalt source once the electrodeposition bath was obtained from recycling of spent Li-ion batteries cathode with composition LiCoO2. The electrodeposited cobalt behaves as supercapacitor in KOH 1M. In the linear voltammetry in KOH 1M, when the overpotential reaches 370 mV, the anodic density current for 430 SS/Co is 19 mA cm−2. Thus, the anode developed in this paper achieves the double of density current with half of production cost if compared with 316SS. Moreover the anode construction described in this paper is an excellent option for Li- ion battery recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0098.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: recycling; Li-ion, methylene blue; LiCoO2
Online: 6 August 2018 (06:25:05 CEST)
In this paper the application of recycled Li-ion batteries spent cathode (LIB-SC) combined with NaHCO3/H2O2 system is presented for the first time in the literature as an alternative for degradation of potentially toxic organic molecules. The model pollutant choice was methylene blue molecule. The spent cathode composition corresponds to LiCoO2, which was proved by the XRD and EDX. Regarding the decolorization of methylene blue solution, the addition of NaHCO3 in comparison with only H2O2 reduces the complete decolorization time in 96%. This reduction occurs because the radical CO3 is more stable than OH. In this way, the application the system proposed in this article is aimed at solving two major global problems: the disposal of cell phone batteries and the pollution of liquid effluents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymers; recycling; waste plastic; upcycle; circular economy; PET; additive manufacturing; distributed recycling; distributed manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 30 July 2020 (07:49:38 CEST)
This study explores the potential to reach a circular economy for post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) packaging and bottles by using it as a distributed recycling for additive manufacturing (DRAM) feedstock. Specifically, rPET is processed using only an open source toolchain with fused particle fabrication (FPF) or fused granular fabrication (FGF) processing. In this study, first the impact of granulation, sifting and heating (and their combination) is quantified on the shape and size distribution of the rPET flakes. Then feeding studies were performed to see if they could be printed through an external feeder or needed to be direct printed with a hopper using two Gigabot X machines, one with extended part cooling and one without. Print settings were optimized based on thermal characterization and for the latter which was shown to print rPET directly from shredded water bottles mechanical testing is performed. The results showed that geometry was important for extended feeding tubes and direct printed using a hopper. Further there is a wide disparity in the physical properties of rPET from water bottles depending on source and the history of the material. Future work is needed to enable water bottles to be used as a widespread DRAM feedstock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0315.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Plastic pollution; waste management; environmental behavior; recycling
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:05:39 CEST)
Excessive production, consumption and indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste cause an increasing plastic pollution with detrimental impacts on environment and human health. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards plastic pollution among Malaysians and evaluate the variation of plastic pollution related KAP among various socio-demographics. An online survey was conducted, and 294 valid responses was obtained. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring and cross tabulation of responses were estimated. One-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and binary logistic regressions were carried out. Results showed that respondents had poor knowledge (mean 7.41 ± 1.80) and practice score (3.81 ± 1.39) across all socio-demographics. Compared to younger (18-30 years) respondents, older ones (>46 years) had higher knowledge (odds ratio, OR 4.304; p<0.01). However, middle aged (31-45 years) respondents reported significantly (p<0.01) higher attitude (OR 4.019) and practice (OR 4.056; p <0.05). Respondents with environmental related university education had showed higher odds about plastic pollution related knowledge (OR 10.343; p<0.01). Suggestions are made to undertake interventions such as environmental awareness creation, incorporating plastic pollution topics in formal and informal education, and providing recycling facilities nearby the localities for encouraging good practices towards minimizing plastic uses and pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0275.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Circular economy; linear economic model; plastics; recycling
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:18:26 CEST)
The Circular Economy of plastics is a promising concept that has the potential to reduce pollution and close the loop on plastic waste. However, further research is needed to develop more efficient and environmentally friendly methods of recycling plastic. This review article discusses the Circular Economy of plastics, its potential benefits and drawbacks, and the challenges that need to be addressed to make it a reality. Some case studies are also examined to explore how the Circular Economy of plastics has been implemented across the globe.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0059.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Astola Island; plastic pollution; Zeolite catalyst; recycling
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:34:11 CET)
Astola Island is the first marine protected area of Pakistan acknowledged 2017, June 15. It is a rich biodiversity hotspot, Ramsar site inhabiting endangered species like Green turtle, Hawksbill turtle, and Arabian Humpback whale. A saw-scaled Russell’s viper is endemic to Island. Marine ecology of Astola Island is affected by plastic pollution resulting in coral destruction, ocean acidification, global warming, fishing nets blockage, water pollution, and coastal erosion. Zeolite catalyst synthesized from environmentally friendly way by coal fly ash to degrade collected plastic waste from Island into useful products in pyrolysis reactor. The synthesized catalyst functionalized further with three type of organosilane(1) Octyltriethoxysilane(OS),(2)Phenyltriethoxysilane(PS)(3)Vinyltriethoxysilane(VS).Zeolite functionalize with octyltriethoxy silane (ZO) shows the highest performance in plastic pyrolysis, resulting in lower degradation temperature, low residue and more product formation may be due to having long chain hydrocarbon and acidic sites. Plastic recycling is the promising solution to tackle plastic blooming issue. Which is negatively impacting all the compartments of ecosystem especially marine environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: trolleybus brushes; recycling; mechanical and electrical properties
Online: 19 October 2020 (13:24:38 CEST)
The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of producing traction brushes from waste materials. Brushes are used to ensure good electrical contact between the rail and the pantograph. Slides are produced in the process of hot pressing, with parameters of heating up to max 175 ⁰C, at the minimal pressure value of 200 MPa. The developed brushes with a high (55-60%) content of recycled materials have comparable characteristics to commercial brushes, and some of the prototypes are even more durable and break-resistant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: plastic waste; concrete waste; recycling; heat pressing
Online: 1 March 2020 (03:24:14 CET)
Demolished concrete and plastic waste are two increasingly aggravating problems. In this study, a novel method was proposed to simultaneously recycle concrete and plastic wastes by compacting concrete and plastic powders together under pressure and temperature. The influence of compression pressure and temperature as well as the mixture proportion on the bending strength of specimens was investigated. The results showed that pressure and temperature had a positive effect on the specimen strength; however, the molding temperature should not exceed the melting temperature of plastic. The proportion of plastic had a minimal effect on the bending strength of the specimen when plastic accounted for 25%–75% of the overall mass of the test piece.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0182.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrical properties; mechanical properties; recycling, epoxy resin
Online: 16 October 2019 (09:37:44 CEST)
In this work we produced biochar by coffee waste and use it as filler in epoxy resin composite with the aim to increase their electrical properties. The biochar and biochar based composite electrical conductivity were studied in function of applied pressure and compared with carbon black and carbon black composite. The applied pressure has the aim to investigate the behaviour of filler in powder or dispersed in composite in function of compression. Results showed that even if the coffee biochar has less conductivity if compared with carbon black in powder form, it has better conductivity in composite if compared with carbon black. Composite mechanical properties were tested and they are generally improved respect to neat epoxy resin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0228.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: sustainable development, recycling, spent catalysts, zinc, copper
Online: 22 February 2018 (15:46:53 CET)
CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 catalysts are designed for the low-temperature shift conversion in the process of hydrogen and ammonia synthesis gas production. The paper presents the results of research on recovery of copper and zinc from spent catalysts using pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods. Under reducing conditions, at high temperature, having appropriately selected the composition of the slag, more than 66% of copper in metallic form and about 70% of zinc in the form of ZnO can be extracted from this material. Hydrometallurgical processing of the catalysts was carried out using two leaching solutions: alkaline and acidic. Almost 62% of the zinc contained in the catalysts has been leached to the alkaline solution and about 98% of copper has been leached to the acidic solution. After the hydrometallurgical treatment of the catalysts, insoluble residue was also obtained in the form of pure ZnAl2O4. This compound can be reused to produce catalysts, or it can be processed under reducing conditions at high temperature to recover zinc. The recovery of zinc and copper from such a material is consistent with the policy of sustainable development and helps to reduce the environmental load of stored wastes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0481.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: plastic waste; chemical recycling; mathematical modelling; carbon feedstock; circular economy; open-loop recycling; acrylonitrile butadiene styrene; polystyrene; toluene
Online: 25 November 2021 (15:26:23 CET)
The inherent value and use of hydrocarbon from waste plastics and solvents can be extended through open-loop chemical recycling as this process converts plastic to range of non-plastic materials. This process is enhanced by first creating plastic-solvent-combinations from multiple sources which are then streamlined through single process stream. We report on the relevant mechanics for streamlining industrially relevant polymers such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) into chemical slurries mixed with various organic solvents such as toluene, xylene and cyclohexane. The miscibility of the polymer feedstock within the solvent was evaluated using the Relative Energy Difference method, and the dissolution process was evaluated using the “Molecular theories in a continuum framework” model. These models were used to design a batch process yielding 1 tonne/h slurry by setting appropriate assumptions including constant viscosity of solvents, disentanglement-controlled dissolution mechanism and linear increase of the dissolved polymer’s mass fraction over time. Solvent selection was found to be the most critical parameter for the dissolution process. The characteristics of the ideal solvent are high affinity to the desired polymer and low viscosity. This work serves as a universal technical guideline for open-loop chemical recycling of plastics avoiding the growth of waste plastic in a circular economy framework.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0933.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Recycling; E-waste; hydrometallurgy; valuable metals; extraction; recovery
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:23:40 CET)
Currently, with the rapid growth of the population, the demand for metals has increased, especially for the manufacture of electronic devices such as cell phones, computer equipment, among others. Once these devices stop working, most are sent to landfills, which represents a danger since these wastes contain metals and other materials that must be properly managed to prevent them from having a negative effect on the environment and the human being. On the other hand, e-waste contains valuable metals such as copper, gold, and silver, the concentration of which in these materials makes it cost-effective to recover. This paper presents a review of the extraction and recovery of valuable metals from electronic waste by hydrometallurgical methods, as well as patents and industrial processes related to the management and treatment of this waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1420.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: PV system; End of life; Recycling; Re-use
Online: 21 September 2023 (08:55:33 CEST)
Abstract: Like other plants, every PV power plant will one day reach the end of its service life. Calculations show that 20,400 tons of PV waste will be generated worldwide by 2030 and 60.2 million tons by 2050, not including the mass of the support structure. Such large amounts of waste pose a potential threat to the environment and people if not properly managed. The paper analysed the options for dealing with PV waste, namely reuse, recycling and landfilling. For recycling as the best option in terms of environmental protection and circular economy, an overview of recycling technologies and the percentage of achievable recycling for the materials contained in each PV system component is given. In addition, the current situation of legislation and recycling of PV modules in Europe was examined with special reference to the Balkan countries. There are a small number of factories for recycling PV modules in Europe, but none in the Balkan countries. The main reason for this is the small amount of PV waste in these countries and consequently the economic unprofitability. For this reason, PV modules (after dismantling the aluminum frame and cables) are mostly disposed of as non-hazardous waste in landfills in these countries. Finally, the main barriers to faster implementation of PV module reuse and recycling are listed, along with guidelines for their removal. The cost of recycling Si modules is about ten times higher than the cost of disposal. To change this ratio in favor of recycling, cheaper recycling methods need to be developed and taxes on landfill disposal need to be increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: fibers, natural leather, upholstery furniture, fiberboard, HDF, recycling
Online: 4 July 2023 (15:08:38 CEST)
During the production of furniture, large amounts of waste of these materials are generated, which are most often stored in warehouses without a specific purpose for their subsequent use. In highly developed countries, as many as 25 million tons of textile waste are produced annually, of which approximately 40% is non-clothing waste, such as carpets, furniture and car upholstery. The aim of the research was to produce and evaluate the dry-formed high-density fiberboards (HDF) with various shares of recycled particles of natural leather used in upholstery furniture production at different contents (1, 5 and 10% by weight). Mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity and screw withdrawal resistance) and physical properties (density profile, thickness swelling after water immersion, water absorption, surface absorption) were tested. The density profile and contact angle of natural leather have been also characterized. The results show that increasing the content of leather particles in HDF mostly has a positive effect on mechanical properties, especially screw withdrawal resistance and water absorption. It can be concluded, that, depending on the further use of HDF, it is possible to use recovered upholstery leather particles as a reasonable addition to wood fibers in HDF technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Recycling; DL-Malic Acid; WEEE; eco-friendly; pretreatment
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:41:58 CEST)
The lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable devices, including cell phones. The useful life is about 2 years or 500 cycles, contributing to the generation of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Mining of lithium and cobalt damages the environment and is onerous; therefore, sustainable alternatives, such as obtaining these elements from secondary sources as recycling of lithium-ion batteries, are essential to provide the inputs used in the sector. However, the metallurgical route which will used to recovering them must be considered, due to this work aims for a more environmentally favorable process using DL-malic acid 1.5 M and instead of compared with sulfuric acid 2 M, heat pretreatment of 1 h and 3 h, and for all conditions, experiments were carried out with and without adding the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide. The best yields occurred in presence of H2O2 10 % v/v, and heat pretreatment of 1 h: 33.49 % Co and 4.63 % Li, and 29.78 % Co e 3.44 % Li were recovered by sulfuric acid and DL-malic acid, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; Waste management; Recycling; Sustainability; Waste shock
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:54:27 CET)
Recycling and waste management have garnered immense popularity in recent years, but few studies have been carried out regarding these systems. Therefore, an in-depth literature review was done in order to highlight the different sectors of the recycling system that need to be reformed. Hence this study examined recycling and waste management systems within three categories–medical, municipal, and plastic–that were carried out pre and post COVID by reviewing previous studies, technical reports, and annual reports. This was done by visiting numerous academic search engines alongside online resources that were utilized to assemble literature related to waste and recycling systems. Continuing a recurring idea was that no matter the type of waste, further research regarding all waste should be carried out. Additionally, since recycling and waste management are a vital part of our society, and seeing how unpredictable events such as the pandemic may be, it is paramount that that research is done not only on how the pandemic has affected systems now, but also how we can learn from current issues to utilize them for future “waste shocks”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Waste Recycling System; Disaster Response; Network; Cognitive Accuracy
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
Since the process of waste recycling generates dust and flammable gas during fragmentation, there is always a risk of fire resulting therefrom, and fire does, in fact, frequently occur. However, research on disaster management at recycling facilities deals only with the problem of processing systems from a technical point of view, but it does not suggest concrete alternatives from a management point of view. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the influence of the disaster response network of a waste recycling center at the organizational level based on the concept of the cognitive accuracy of a network when considering administrative aspects. Through this analysis, we confirmed that factors affecting the influence of the network exist, such that the entire network and the networks of different levels of position are different. We suggest that this can be improved by deploying members who perform formal tasks at the center of the network so that everyone can agree political approach.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: capillary; microfluidic device; single-molecule recycling; maximum likelihood
Online: 26 May 2021 (10:50:13 CEST)
Microfluidic devices have been extensively investigated in recent years in fields including ligand-binding analysis, chromatographic separation, molecular dynamics, and DNA sequencing. To prolong the observation of a single molecule in aqueous buffer, the solution in a sub-micron scale channel is driven by the electric field and reversed after a fixed delay following each passage, so that the molecule passes back and forth through the laser focus and the time before irreversible photobleaching is extended. However, this practice requires complex chemical treatment to the inner surface of the channel to prevent unexpected sticking to the surface and the confined space renders features, such as a higher viscosity and lower dielectric constant, which slow the Brownian motion of the molecule compared to the bulk liquid. In this paper, we have fixed a capillary microchannel with an inner diameter of 2 microns on top of a piezo stage to recycle the molecule and collected the fluorescence by a confocal microscope. The passing times of the molecule through the laser focus are calculated by a real-time control system based on an FPGA and the commands of translation are given to the piezo stage through a feedback algorithm. We have achieved a maximum number of recycles of more than 200 and developed a maximum-likelihood estimation of the diffusivity of the molecule, which attains results of the same magnitude as previous reports. This technique simplifies the overall procedure of the single-molecule recycling and could be useful for the ligand-binding studies of biomolecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0510.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate; PET; glycolysis; recycling; oligoesters; reactive oligomers
Online: 19 April 2021 (16:56:10 CEST)
In this work, oligoesters with terminal hydroxyl groups were obtained by directed glycolytic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate. The possibility of obtaining bifunctional reactive oligomers with an average molecular weight of 865 g mol-1 by directed glycolytic destruction via a dissolution-degradation strategy in dimethyl sulfoxide at a low concentration of ethylene glycol (32.3 mass parts per 100 mass parts of polyethylene terephthalate) was shown. This process allows us to partially solve the urgent problem of recycling post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: zero waste; plastic waste; circular economy; recycling performance
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:45:14 CET)
Despite the increase in popularity of Zero Waste (ZW) concept, the successful implementation of this concept in waste management is still facing many challenges. The plastic recycling rate in Australia is currently only about 9.4%, which could leave up to 90.6% of plastic consumption being sent to landfills. The state of Victoria (in Australia) has proposed an ambitious plan to upgrade its waste and recycling system and to divert about 80% of waste from landfills by 2030. The aim of this research is to study Victoria’s current waste management plan and to develop a simulation model to assess the feasibility of it achieving zero plastic waste by 2035. In this direction, a fundamental knowledge of global ZW implementation needs to be acquired in order to understand the challenges, obstacles, and uncertainties in achieving ZW target. A simulation model is established using a method called double baselines. This method was developed as an improvisation to address the limitation of data availability for the model development. The model will run on 4 scenarios including one from Victoria’s current plan. Outcomes from the model are produced in comparative charts covering 6 key considerations including the rates of plastic consumption, waste to landfill, diversion, recycling, relative accumulative cost and effort. The findings of this study pointed out that Victoria’s current plan are feasible for its goal and presented with opportunities for improvement especially towards zero plastic waste. Besides, study results also reveal that the Victoria’s current plan to achieve 80% diversion rate by 2030 is possible but the zero plastic waste target by 2035 is less likely to happen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0251.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: anthropogenic mineral; recycling; circular economy; metals; urban mining
Online: 25 August 2019 (15:15:47 CEST)
An increasingly large quantity of primary mineral resource is being converted into manufactured products and destined for solid waste disposal. This material can be reclassified as “anthropogenic mineral reserves” and be a potential source of metals for a range of manufacturing uses. China is implementing a range of policy interventions which can lead to such a classification that will raise the profile of recycling programs as a means of metal supply. China is not only a major producer of consumer products and importer of secondary metals, but also has a major urban infrastructure footprint. Here we consider three product groups, 30 products, and imports, and map the recycling potential of anthropogenic mineral and 23 types of the capsulated materials by targeting their evolution from 2010 to 2050. Total weight of anthropogenic mineral on average in China reached 39 Mt in 2010, but it will double in 2022 and quadruple in 2045. Stocks of precious metals and rare earths will increase faster than most base materials. The total economic potential in yearly-generated anthropogenic mineral is anticipated to grow markedly from 100 billion US$ in 2020 to 400 billion US$ in 2050. Anthropogenic mineral of around 20 materials will be able to meet projected consumption of three product groups by 2050, due to high availability of recycled content and gradual saturation of consumption. Durability of material usage and the concomitant stock of the anthropogenic mineral remain major challenges in determining the viability of this supply in the second half of the coming century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0581.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: plastic recycling; filament extrusion; tensile property; thermal analysis
Online: 24 October 2018 (16:22:09 CEST)
The recyclability of polystyrene, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride waste and using them as a source for 3D printing were studied. Filaments of about 3 mm in diameter were extruded successfully with a small-size extruder. The processed filaments were tested on a broad range of parameters - glass transition temperature, tensile properties and a pyrolysis scenario were obtained. The measured parameters were compared with parameters of virgin counterparts presented in the literature. In order to estimate the toxicity of the recycled material, elemental analysis of the samples was done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: gallium nitride; gallium; LED waste; LED recycling; leaching
Online: 3 October 2018 (17:16:07 CEST)
In recent years, with the increasing research and development of the LED industry which contains GaN, it is expected that there will be a large amount of related wastes in the future. Especially the gallium has extremely high value of economic, therefore, it is necessary to establish the recycling system of the GaN waste. However, GaN is a direct-gap semiconductor and with high energy gap, high hardness, and high melting point make it difficult to recycle. Therefore, this study will analyze the physical characteristics of LED wastes containing GaN and carry out various leaching method to leach the valuable metals from the waste optimally. Different acids are used to find out the best reagent for leaching the gallium. Different experimental parameters are discussed such as the effect of the different acid agents , concentration, pressure, solid-liquid mass ratio, temperature, and time which influence the leaching efficiency of the gallium. In this study, various leaching methods which effect the leaching efficiency of the gallium are compared and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, pressurized acid leaching method is preferred to leach the GaN waste, and hydrochloric acid is used as the leaching solution because of its better leaching efficiency of gallium. Eventually, the leaching efficiency of the gallium can reach to 98%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0168.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: municipal waterworks sludge; waste; recycling; valorization; floor tiles
Online: 25 December 2017 (07:40:01 CET)
In municipal waterworks large amounts of waste in the form of sludge have to be discarded. This investigation focuses on the processing of ceramic floor tiles incorporated with a municipal waterworks sludge. Four floor tile formulations containing up to 10 wt. % of the municipal waterworks sludge in replacement of kaolin were prepared. The floor tile processing route consisted of dry powder granulation, uniaxial pressing, and firing between 1190 and 1250 °C using a fast-firing cycle (<60 min). The densification behavior and technological properties of the floor tile pieces as function of the sludge addition and firing temperature were determined. The development of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM/EDS. The results show that the replacement of kaolin with municipal waterworks sludge, in the range up to 10 wt. %, allows the production of ceramic floor tiles (group BIb and group BIIa, ISO 13006 Standard) at lower firing temperatures. These results suggest a new possibility for valorization of municipal waterworks sludge with many economical and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0149.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: waste cotton fibers; recycling; carbon microsphere; physicochemical characteristics
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:19:15 CET)
In order to study the hydrothermal behavior of cotton fiber, the carbonization process and structural evolution of discarded cotton fiber (WCF) under hydrothermal conditions were discussed use microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and glucose as model compounds. The results showed that high temperature was beneficial to the hydrolysis of discarded cotton fiber, and the yield of the sugar was 4.5% which was lower than that of MCC 6.51%. WFC and MCC are carbonized in 240~260 ℃ and 220~240 ℃ respectively, while the carbonation temperature of glucose is lower than 220 ℃. The quality ratio of C/O in WCF and glucose hydrothermal products is 5.79 and 5.85 respectively; three kinds of hydrothermal carbonization products have similar crystal structure and oxygen-containing functional groups, and the WCF carbonization products contain a lot of irregular particles while the main products of glucose carbonization are 0.5 μm carbon microspheres (CMCC). The results show that glucose is an important intermediate product of WCF hydrolysis carbonation, and there are two main paths of cotton fiber hydrothermal carbonization: some cotton fibers are completely hydrolyzed into glucose and the nucleation is formed, and then the carbon microspheres are grown; for the other part, the glucose ring of the polysaccharide oligosaccharide formed by the incomplete hydrolysis of cotton fiber in the hydrothermal environment of high temperature and pressure breaks, then forms the particulate matters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Attitudes; Behaviour; Communication; Information; Prompts; Policy; Recycling; Waste
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:34:39 CEST)
Recycling information can be complex and often confusing which may subsequently reduce the participations in any waste recycling schemes. As a result, this research explored the roles as well as the importance of a holistic approach in designing recycling information using 15 expert-based in-depth interviews. The rationale was to offer a better understanding of what constitutes waste, recycling, and how recycling information should be designed and presented to make recycling more attractive/convenient. Based on the research participants’ perceptions with supports from the existing studies, this research sub-categorised recycling information into three different themes, termed the “WWW” of recycling information components. As a result, these components (or attributes) were extensively described (using findings of semi-structured interviews) to elicit pragmatic guidance for practitioners, policy-makers, and other stakeholders in designing structured communication or information strategies that may simplify and subsequently increase waste-recycling practices. The policy implications of holistic information in enhancing recycling are further discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Plastic degrading bacteria; sustainable environment; genetic enhancement; recycling; biodegradation
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:56:55 CEST)
The drastically increasing amount of plastic waste is causing an environmental crisis that requires innovative technologies for recycling post-consumer plastics to achieve waste valorization while meeting environmental quality goals. Biocatalytic depolymerization mediated by enzymes has emerged as an efficient and sustainable alternative for plastic treatment and recycling. A variety of plastic- degrading enzymes have been discovered from microbial sources. Meanwhile, protein engineering has been exploited to modify and optimize plastic-degrading enzymes. This review highlights the recent trends and up-to-date advances in mining novel plastic-degrading enzymes through state-of-the-art omics-based techniques and improving the enzyme catalytic efficiency and stability via various protein engineering strategies. Future research prospects and challenges are also discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0824.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic panels; crystalline silicon, recycling; chemical methods; thermal methods
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:23:44 CEST)
The rapid development of the photovoltaic (PV) industry will result in an increase in the amount of electrical and electronic waste from used PV panels. Only in Poland, the total capacity installed in photovoltaic sources in Poland in May 2020 exceeded 1,950 MW, and the installation weight was approximately 120,000. tone. The problem arises in the recycling or management of this waste. This work presents methods used to recycle waste into photovoltaic modules. The authors investigated the possibility of mechanical and chemical processing of crystalline silicon. A method of thermal treatment of the panel was also proposed. As a result of the research, it was found that the stage of separating materials (crystalline cream, EVO foil, aluminum frame) plays an important role in the recycling process, which is not easy. Chemical treatment allows the silicon to become plastic and the temperature melts the back layer of the panel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0062.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate; PET plastic; depolymerization; biocatalys; biodegradation; glycolysis; recycling
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:33:58 CEST)
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pollution poses significant environmental consequences, and thus new degradation methods must be explored to mitigate this problem. We previously demonstrated that a consortium of three Pseudomonas and two Bacillus species can synergistically degrade PET in culture. The consortium more readily consumes Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET), a byproduct made in PET depolymerization, compared to PET, and can fully convert BHET into metabolically usable monomers terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). Because of its crystalline structure, the main limitation of the biodegradation of post-consumer PET is the initial transesterification from PET to BHET, depicting the need for the transesterification step in the degradation process. Additionally, there have been numerous studies done on the depolymerization reaction of PET to BHET, yet few have tested the biocompatibility of that product with a bacterial consortium. In this report, a two-step process was implemented for sustainable PET biodegradation, where PET is first depolymerized to form BHET using an Orange Peel Ash (OPA) catalyzed glycolysis reaction, followed by complete degradation of the BHET glycolysis product by the bacterial consortium. Results show that OPA-catalyzed glycolysis reactions can fully depolymerize PET, with an average BHET yield of 92% (w/w) and that the reaction product is biocompatible with the bacterial consortium. After inoculation with the consortium, 19% degradation of the glycolysis product was observed in 2 weeks, for a total degradation percentage of 17% when taking both steps into account. Furthermore, the 10-week total BHET degradation rate was 35%, demonstrating that the glycolysis products are biocompatible with the consortium for longer periods of time, for a total two-step degradation rate of 33% over 10 weeks. While we predict complete degradation is achievable using this method, further experimentation with the consortium can allow for a circular recycling process, where TPA can be recovered from culture media and reused to create new materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: P recycling, P bioavailability, organomineral, gradual release of P
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:49:17 CEST)
Sewage sludge is an organic waste generated in waste-water treatment plants with certain content of nutrients, what may potentially be used as a source of slow release fertilizer, especially as phosphorus (P) source, but it demands some pre-treatment and the content of P is much lower compared to soluble mineral fertilizers. For these reasons, composted sewage sludge was used to manufacture pelletized organomineral fertilizers, mixing it with the inorganic sources monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and AshDec® (ASD) (thermochemically incinerated sewage sludge). The fertilizers were physiochemically characterized and evaluated as to the dynamics of soil P solubilization, and the forms of P remaining according to its lability. The sources evaluated were: organic compost of sewage sludge powder (SSC), pelletized SSC (SCP), pelletized organominerals SSC+MAP (S+MAP) and SSC+ASD (S+ASD), ASD alone, all compared to a soluble mineral fertilizer (MAP), and a control without P fertilizer. A test was conducted in leaching columns with 50 g of soil (Oxisol), where the fertilizers were applied at a dose of 100 mg P/column, and 30 mL of water or 2% citric acid were added daily for 30 consecutive days. The collected leachates had pH measured and P content determined. Pelletizing process resulted in denser products and promoted more gradual P release. The organomineral S+MAP was the most water-soluble recycled source, solubilizing about 70% of the total P, while the others presented much lower solubilization (<20%). In contrast, all fertilizers showed high solubility in 2% citric acid (except for S+ASD). After leaching, the greatest amount of P remaining in the soil as labile and moderately labile. Composting and the AshDec process produced materials with slow P solubilization, which would be favoured to solubilize in acidic soils and acidic rhizosphere conditions. In turn, the organomineral mixture of SSC with a highly soluble mineral fertilizer (MAP) resulted in a promising product with intermediate nutrient solubility, better synchronized with crop demand, thus increasing efficiency in P use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0853.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: hydrogel; polyvinyl alcohol; hydrogen bonding; mechanics; stress; reusability; recycling
Online: 12 June 2023 (15:45:45 CEST)
Natural cellulose hydrogels have been widely used to enhance mechanical properties. However, existing natural fiber composite hydrogels are not reusable, limiting their potential applications. To address this issue, we designed and prepared a polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol /bamboo microfibril double network tough hydrogel using a simple method. The bamboo microfibril and polyvinyl alcohol form a tight and rigid network through hydrogen bonding, improving mechanical properties. The prepared polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol/bamboo microfibril double network tough hydrogel has the advantages of reusability and fatigue resistance. Furthermore, both the elastic modulus and toughness of the hydrogel increase with increasing bamboo microfibril content. We also demonstrated that the hydrogel can be recast after cyclic compression, maintaining its recyclability, stability, and certain stiffness and toughness. Our study highlights the potential of hydrogels for controllable mechanical properties, fatigue resistance and shows that polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol/bamboo microfibril hydrogel has broad value for plasticity and reuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: pro-environmental behaviours; recycling; teenagers’ engagement; gamified learning activities
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:39:33 CEST)
Edcraft, a recycling and upcycling event for Malaysian secondary school students, particularly in the Klang Valley area in 2020. The event's goal was to look into gamified solutions to encourage recycling and upcycling among the students’ age group. Lectures, talks, practical exercises and games were used to teach students about climate change and environmental preservation. According to a post-event survey, the percentage of participants who recycle has climbed significantly: 76% now recycle, compared to only 24% previously. The study discovered that gamification-based activities could effectively facilitate recycling and upcycling behaviours. Such solutions can be applied to encourage behavioural changes in different contexts. By interviewing 15 Edcraft students in a focus group study setting, researchers could better understand the motivations. Themes such as 'social connections are vital', 'convenience and rewards are significant motivators', 'gamified activities help attract and engage teens' and 'environmental knowledge is crucial to prolonging recycling' emerged from the thematic analysis. This manuscript proposes gamified activities to induce a behavioural change in upcycling, and the findings yield helpful insights to fuel pro-environmental behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0450.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Drought; NDVI; Soil moisture; moisture recycling; land-atmosphere interactions
Online: 20 July 2021 (12:12:28 CEST)
The 2018 summer drought in Europe was particularly extreme in terms of intensity and impact due to the combination of low rainfall and high temperatures. However, it remains unclear how this drought developed in time and space in such an extreme way. In this study we aimed to get a better understanding of the role of land-atmosphere interactions. More specifically, we investigated whether there was a change in water vapor originating from land, if that caused a reduction in rainfall, and by this mechanism possibly the propagation and intensification of the drought in Europe. Our first step was to use remote sensing products for soil moisture content (SMC) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to see where the 2018 drought started and how it developed in time and space. Our SMC and NDVI analysis showed that the 2018 drought started to impact the soil and vegetation state in June in Scandinavia and the British Isles. After that it moved towards the West of Europe where it intensified in July and August. In September, it started to decay. In October, drought was observed in southeast Europe as well. Based on the observed patterns we divided Europe into six regions of similar spatiotemporal characteristics of SMC and NDVI. Then, we used a global gridded dataset of the fate of land evaporation (i.e., where it ends up as precipitation) to investigate whether the drought intensification and propagation was impacted by the reduction in water vapor transported from the regions that first experienced the drought. This impact was investigated by identifying the anomalies in the water vapor originating from land recycling, imports and exports within Europe during the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. From these regions we identified four drought regions and investigated the changes in water vapor originating from source regions on the development of drought in those regions. It was found that during the onset phase of the 2018 drought in Europe that the water vapor originating from land played an important role in mitigating the precipitation anomalies as, for example, the share of land evaporation contributing to precipitation increased from 27% (normal years) to 38% (2018) during July in West of Europe. Land evaporation played a minor role in amplifying it during the intensification phase of the drought as the share of land evaporation contribution to precipitation decreased from 23% (normal years) to 21% (2018) during August in West of Europe. These findings are somewhat in contrast to similar studies in other continents that found the land surface to play a strong amplifying role for drought development. Subsequently, we found that the relative increase in the amount of land water vapor originating from eastern half of Europe played a role in delaying the onset and accelerating the decay of the 2018 drought in West of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0398.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability; Strategy; Control; Recycling; Collaboration; Standard; AM; CM; SME
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:23:21 CEST)
Additive manufacturing (AM) has been the core area of sustainable manufacturing commonly recognized for its high efficiency in enabling cost-effective production towards sustainability. There are three models this research constituted: In Collection-Recycling-Manufacturing (CRM) model, technologies and processes are benchmarked followed by Business model that evaluates industrial key criteria. However, these are insufficient for AM to effectively play dominant role as the realization requires human factors such as multi-entities authorities, policy making and AM society to initiate and execute the plan. Strategy control model focuses on human-centric approaches such as demography, population control, policy, regulations, and management. It investigates each nation’s demography, and enables strategy, plan and control to relocate overcrowding population to rural areas. It also produces robust workforce to support AM and materials recycling through the appropriate applications. Through the construction of AM and materials recycling, strategy control model creates job opportunities for those unemployed people. It further builds infrastructure for the livelihood of new residents and supports AM home-based business (HBB).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0230.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: plastic; bio-based plastic; willingness to pay; attitudes; recycling
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:54:11 CET)
Fossil-based plastics are significant contributors to global warming through CO2 emissions. For more sustainable alternatives to be successful, it is important to ensure that consumers become aware of the benefits of innovations such as bio-based plastics, in order to create demand and a willingness to initially pay more. Given that consumer attitudes and (inaccurate) beliefs can influence the uptake such new technologies, we investigated participants’ attitudes towards fossil-based and bio-based plastic, their perceived importance of recycling both types of plastic, their willingness to pay, and their perceptions of bio-based plastic in four studies (total N = 961). The pre-registered fourth study experimentally manipulated information about bio-based plastic and measured willingness to pay for different types of plastic. The results suggest participants hold very favourable attitudes and are willing to pay more for bio-based products. However, they also harbour misconceptions, especially overestimating bio-based plastic’s biodegradability, and they find it less important to recycle bio-based than fossil-based plastic. Study 4 provided evidence that educating consumers about the properties of bio-based plastic can dispel misconceptions, retain a favourable attitude and a high willingness to pay. We found mixed evidence for the effect of attitudes on willingness to pay, suggesting other psychological factors may also play a role. We discuss how attitudes and misconceptions affect the uptake of new sustainable technologies such as bio-based plastics and consumers’ willingness to purchase them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0361.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA); wastes rubber; recycling; tensile properties
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:05:30 CET)
Poly (Lactic Acid) (PLA) / Ground Tire Rubber (GTR) blends using Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as a crosslinking agent were prepared as a route to recycle wastes rubber from the automotive industry. The GTR were exposed to grinding and exhibited mechanical damage, traduced at the rubber network scale by chains scission and/or chemical cross-links breakage. Such damage is accompanied by a decrease of 80% of the rubber chains network density of the initial tire buffing but found independent on the type of grinding (cryogenic, dry ambient) or on the GTR size (from <400 µm to <63 µm). Moreover, the finest sieved GTR contain the largest the amount of reinforcing elements (carbon black, clay) that can be advantageously used in PLA/GTR blends. The melt-blending of these finest GTR particles obtained by cryo-grinding at an amount of 15 wt.% and in presence of the crosslinking agent (DCP), resulted in an optimum improvement of the ductility, energy at break and impact strength of the PLA/GTR blends as compared to neat PLA, while maintaining its stiffness. The results were attributed to (i) the good dispersion of the fine GTR particles into the PLA matrix, (ii) the partial re-crosslinking of the GTR particles and co-crosslinking at PLA/GTR interface and (iii) the presence of reinforcing carbon black into the GTR particles and clay particles dispersed into the PLA matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0405.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: quantum loss limit; broadband signal recycling; optomechanical filter cavity
Online: 16 November 2020 (09:10:41 CET)
Quantum noise limits the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Given the state-of-the-art optics, the optical losses define the lower bound of best possible quantum-limited detector sensitivity. In this work, we come up with the configuration which allows to saturate this lower bound by converting the signal recycling cavity to be a broadband signal amplifier using an active optomechanical filter. We will show the difference and advantage of such a broadband signal recycling scheme compared with the previous white-light-cavity scheme using the optomechanical filter in [Phys.Rev.Lett.115.211104 (2015)]. The drawback is that the new scheme is more susceptible to the thermal noise of the mechanical oscillator. To suppress the radiation pressure noise which rises along with the signal amplification, squeezing with input/output filter cavities and heavier test mass are used in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: recycling; concrete waste; wooden waste; heating compaction; bending strength
Online: 23 February 2020 (09:28:21 CET)
A large amount of concrete waste is generated around the world and its recycling is an urgent issue. In this research, a new approach to recycle concrete waste with wooden waste was studied. Concrete and wooden wastes were crushed, mixed, and heat compacted to produce plates with different water contents and mix proportions at various temperatures, pressures, and durations of compaction. The bending strength of the plates was measured after compaction. The result indicated that with an increase in the percentage of wooden waste in the mixture, pressure, or temperature improved the bending strength. The increase in water content reduced the bending strength. Most of the products exhibited higher bending strength than that of ordinary concrete.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0242.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: rubber devulcanisation; rubber devulcanization; sustainability; recycling; twin screw extruder
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:13:52 CET)
Vulcanized Rubber, as elastomer, is difficult to recycle. Today, the main end of life routes of tyres and other rubber products are landfilling, incineration in e.g. cement plants, and grinding to a fine powder, with huge quantities lacking sustainable recycling of this valuable material. Devulcanization, i.e. the breaking up of sulfur bonds by chemical, thermo-physical or biological means, is a promising route that has been investigated for more than 50 years. This review article presents and update on the state-of-the art in rubber devulcanization. This review article addresses established devulcanization technologies and novel processes described in the scientific and patent literatures. It is expected that the public discussion of environmental impacts of thermoplastics will soon spill over to thermosets and elastomers. Therefore, the industry needs to develop and market solutions proactively. Tyre recycling through devulcanization has a huge lever, since approx. 30 million tons of tyres are discarded annually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0118.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Irrigation; rainwater harvest; surface runoff; ecologic recycling; landscape ecology
Online: 11 September 2019 (12:56:15 CEST)
The reserves of water, which is one of the most important requirements for human life, gradually decreases under current conditions and rapidly depletes despite being one of the renewable resources. Considering the global water reserves, it became imperative to implement measures to protect the anticipated water reserves. The fact that the amount of quality water per capita decreases every day in the world and the increasing competition in water management could be considered among the indicators of the above-mentioned case. In recent years, as the effects of this adversity became increasingly more evident, several sustainable methods were adopted all over the world such as rain gardens and rainwater storage facilities. These sustainable techniques could be observed in many areas, especially in urban centers. In the present study, the area with the highest water collection was determined at Karadeniz Technical University Kanuni Campus and identified as the study area. Precipitation per square meter and surface runoff volume were identified based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) data, annual water collection volume was calculated, and information on economic and ecological recycling of the water was provided. In conclusion, the precipitation data for 11 years were compared, and it was calculated that the average annual precipitation was 64.06 kg/m2 and annual surface runoff water was 552.77 m3. Based on the surface runoff water volume in the months when no irrigation is conducted, a reservoir was designed under the vehicle road and water recycling recommendations were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: optimization; LINDO; landfill; Delaware; recycling; municipal solid waste (MSW)
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:14:55 CET)
Municipal landfills play a vital role in disposing of the solid waste from a community. One of the biggest challenges landfill management face is when the available storage space is being reduced faster than the rate that was planned for. This shortening of the landfill lifecycle impacted the city of Wilmington, Delaware when it was found that their landfill had lost 11 years of its projected lifespan and would reach fully capacity within the next decade. In order to remedy the situation six alternative solutions were devised, with each having different costs (capital, operating, and transport) and varying lengths of landfill extension. This research used the principle of optimization via a LINDO program to determine which solution would achieve the longest landfill extension for the minimum total cost. Other constraints placed on the program include reducing the waste being sent to the landfill and to achieve a minimum of 25 additional years for the landfill. The calculated solution produced a cost reduction of $232.64 million dollars and 3.2 additional years of operation from the option that was eventually chosen by the landfill authority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0446.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: electronic waste recycling; occupational health; public health; injuries; stress
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:23:06 CET)
Little research has been done on occupational health ramifications of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling work, which is increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries, and very little is known about this in high-income countries. Our study evaluated informal and formal e-waste recycling workers in Chile, which was recently recognized as a high-income country. In 2017 we recruited 78 informal recycling workers from two cities, and 15 formal e-waste recycling workers from one recycling facility. Participants completed a questionnaire and health assessment regarding their involvement in, and potential impacts of, e-waste recycling, among other measures. Participants were primarily male, middle-aged, married with children, and had worked in e-waste recycling for an average of 12 years. Participants generally reported good health status, and chronic disease prevalence was similar to the national prevalence. Workers commonly reported exposures to several occupational stressors, including mental health stressors and noise, as well as insufficient income. Occupational injuries were common and use of safety equipment was low. No significant differences were found between informal and formal workers. Informal e-waste workers in Chile face occupational health challenges. The extent to which these issues impact the health of informal Chilean e-waste workers is unclear and warrants further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: life cycle assessment; circular economy; material efficiency; recycling; reuse
Online: 18 December 2017 (06:36:56 CET)
Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life cycle. Whilst steel, as a result of high recycling rates, is one of the most ‘circular’ of all manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. In the field of Life Cycle Management, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. As well as containing information to calculate environmental impacts, LCA models also provide the flows of materials through the product life cycle and can also be used to quantify material efficiency and the circularity of a product system. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and re-use of materials from the supply chain, and at end-of-life, is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. Resulting carbon footprints were then compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise were that i) LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and ii) when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0038.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sewage sludge recycling; soil organic fertility; heavy metals bioavailability
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:41:57 CET)
The biomass fraction of processed municipal and industrial wastes added to soil can maintain, and in some case improve, the soil’s organic fertility. One of the main constraints in the agricultural use of the sewage sludge is its content of heavy metals. In the long term, soil administration of sewage sludge in agriculture could result in a risk of environmental impact. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medium-term fertilization with sewage sludge diversely processed on the soil’s organic carbon content and humification – mineralization soil’s processes and on the physical and mechanical properties of soil. Furthermore, the heavy metals accumulation in soil, in their total and available form, has been investigated. After eight years of administration to soil, the use of sewage sludge as an agricultural soil amendment has contributed to maintaining the soil’s organic fertility. An increase in concentrations of total Ni and Zn was detected in soil. For bioavailable form (DTPA-extractable) this trend was evidenced for all heavy metals analysed. However, the concentrations of total and available heavy metals in the soil did not exceed the legal threshold established by Italian law for unpolluted soils.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: recycling of spent coffee grounds; lactic acid production; polylactic acid
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:19:57 CEST)
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Annual coffee consumption continues to increase, but at the same time, it generates a large amount of spent coffee grounds from the brewing process, that arises environmental problems. An appropriate solution to manage these spent coffee grounds becomes crucial. Our project aims to discuss the feasibility of utilizing the spent coffee ground to synthesize polylactic acid as a recycling application for spent coffee ground. This paper will discuss the properties and potential recycling applications of spent coffee grounds, the brief production process of polylactic acid, and the potential process for converting spent coffee ground to lactic acid. From our review, it is feasible to utilize spend coffee ground as the primary sources for lactic acid production by bacteria fermentation, and further produce bioplastics, polylactic acids by ring-opening polymerization. Possible ways to improve the yield and corresponding cost analysis are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0356.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: sustainability; recycling; water treatment sludge; construction materials; environmentally clean materials
Online: 20 March 2023 (12:46:15 CET)
This study evaluated the grain size and high organic content from drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) in the properties of ceramics. Samples were studied using raw and oven dried DWTS at 110 °C in two granulometries (0.180 mm and 0.075 mm), with and without calcination (550 °C), as partial replacement of two soils commonly used in ceramic production. Specimens were prepared with 5, 10, and 20% DWTS and calcined at 950 °C to determine their chemical, physical, mineralogical and mechanical properties. The DWTS reduced the density and increased the absorption and shrinkage of the specimens after calcination. An increase in strength with up to 10% sludge, driven by the presence of fluxing agents, was verified. The processing method had little influence on the properties of ceramic with above 10% of sludge. In conclusion, the use of raw DWTS obtained better results with low energy usage for its reuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0241.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: hydrothermal upgrading; naphtha; life cycle assessment; chemical recycling; waste plastic
Online: 21 November 2022 (02:38:44 CET)
This paper presents the life cycle assessment results of a study of plastic recycling via hydrothermal upgrading (HTU), a chemical recycling technology. It was investigated due to its potential to address current gaps in the plastic recycling system, largely due to several plastic packaging materials and formats that cannot be processed by traditional mechanical recycling technologies (primarily due to technoeconomic reasons). As society transitions towards a net-zero-based circular economy, assessments should be conducted with a futuristic outlook, preventing costly mistakes by employing the right technologies in the right areas. HTU can generate up to 76% reduction in climate change impacts when compared with comparable end-of-life treatment technologies whilst conserving material with the system. Additionally, further reductions could be achieved by changes in electricity consumption within the study. This represents a new insight to chemical recycling of polymers by establishing a prospective life cycle assessment study that looks to introduce a step-change in the recycling system. By creating a transparent cut-off model with consistent allocation, it highlights the benefits of introducing this technology as opposed to the current model of disposal through incineration or landfill.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0391.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: circularity of materials; circular activity; recycling; regression model; key elements
Online: 30 May 2022 (09:59:03 CEST)
The authors have revised the circularity of materials, which is important to stimulate circular activity processes. The theoretical part starts with describing the characteristics of the circular activity and the comparison of circular and linear systems in terms of recycling. Later on, the authors examined key elements important for the circularity and the results of an examination of various sectors. The authors formed a correlation matrix and used a dynamic regression model to identify the circular material use rate. The authors suggested a three-level methodology, using it provided a dynamic regression model which could be applied for forecasting the size of circular material use rate in European Union countries. The results show that private investments into recycling and the recycling of electronic waste and the recycling of other municipal waste categories are important in seeking to increase the usage rate of circular materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Keywords: Ship Recycling, Predictive Analytics, Big Data, Shipbreaking, Leakage Effect
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:43:52 CET)
Abstract:Global ship demolition is mostly concentrated in south Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and China, since 1990’s, having competitive advantage for their high natural tide, and low environmental and social costs. Due to high social and environmental externalities, stakeholders increase monitoring of the externalities and continue to prescribe improvement towards sustainability, which put pressures on profitability and competitiveness. As a consequence, also seen in the past, a leakage effect may emerge, leading to shift of this activity to a region, with relatively less monitored and less stricter on social and environmental impacts. Unfortunately, the leakage effect is never predicted in shipbreaking in order to understand the level of push compatible in the given socio-economic contexts. In this study, we have attempted to predict the future ship demolition landscape, applying machine learning technique to 34,531 in-service vessels worldwide, larger than 500 gross tonnage (GT), which is run against a learning model based on 3500 demolished vessels from 2014. This study shows that redistribution may occur among the top recycling nations: India may emerge out to be a dominant player in shipbreaking, surpassing Bangladesh by a margin of two-fold, while Pakistan and China are in decreasing trend. In addition, the leakage effect is observed, in that Vietnam is predicted to be the fourth largest ship demolition country, while China and Pakistan recede from the third and fourth place to 6th and 8th. Turkey is predicted to advance from fifth position to third position by vessel count but stays same in term of total GT dismantled. Although it is not clear if any leakage is to be observed in the near future, this study may be a model for future predictive analytics and help stakeholders take evidence-based business decisions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: shipbreaking; ship recycling; life cycle sustainability assessment; literature review; sustainability
Online: 5 September 2020 (05:47:18 CEST)
The shipbreaking industry is located predominantly in South Asian countries, and dismantles end-of-life ships to meet national steel demand. There are charges that this industry exploits local environmental, economic and social conditions to boost profits. The majority of this previous research often draws from a single disciplinary point of view that ignores or downplays complexities and trade-offs, precluding realistic policy improvement. Here we review 110 shipbreaking papers published in international peer reviewed journals that are indexed in SCOPUS, Science Direct and Google Scholar. We found that to date, shipbreaking research revolves around the coastal contamination of end-of-life ships waste over many other topics, and lacks critical interdisciplinary studies that explain trade-offs between environmental, social and economic factors that would better inform policy formulations for improvement of worker safety and environmental conditions. We propose a Life Cycle Sustainability assessment (LCSA) framework that could incorporate these trade-offs in a single analysis. We hope this review guides future studies towards more comprehensive sustainability measurement of shipbreaking activities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: recycling; circularity; concrete waste; wood waste; botanical concrete; heat pressing
Online: 3 May 2020 (06:20:37 CEST)
Botanical recycled concrete, or concrete bonded with wood, is formed by heat pressing the mixture of concrete and wooden waste. Botanical recycled concrete is a relatively new material and the relationship between production condition and its real-world performance is not clear yet. This experimental study investigated the influence of several production condition factors on the density and bending strength of botanical recycled concrete. As a result, temperature and mass ratio of concrete powder to wood flour presented significant effects on the density of this botanical recycled concrete. The increase in production temperature resulted in a remarkable increment in density and bending strength. This is probably due to increased wood flowability and accelerated compaction and bonding formation. The fineness of wood flour had a significant effect on improving bending strength. This is attributed to a larger contact surface between the wood substance and concrete particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: lithium-ion battery; battery recycling; battery electric vehicle; circular economy
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:10:23 CEST)
Driven by the rapid uptake of battery electric vehicles, Li-ion power batteries are increasingly reused in stationary energy storage systems, and eventually recycled to recover all the valued components. Offering an updated global perspective, this study provides a circular economy insight on lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ports, waste management, Baltic Sea, cruise ships, sea environment, recycling
Online: 7 April 2017 (12:44:20 CEST)
The cruise ship industry has become a well-implemented industry in the Baltic Sea area, and each year, the number of cruise ship passengers rises steadily. Efficient waste management in cruising ports around the Baltic Sea is a crucial element in minimizing environmental impacts. This research involves the four selected ports of Copenhagen, Helsinki, Stockholm and Tallinn. The study applies statistics and interview data to the analysis of waste management systems for cruise ship-generated waste. The interview data involves 14 executives and professionals responsible for environmental issues and decision making in their respective ports. The interviews highlighted the need for standardized environmental legislation and related procedures, which would result in coherent measurement systems. These systems would enable transparent environmental monitoring, thus maintaining the ports’ competitiveness. A common environmental legislation would support the emerging waste management system for the whole Baltic Sea area. We suggest that ports should focus on handling specific types of wastes and collaborate as a spatial network. Specialization to allow discharge of certain fractions of waste is essential. The paper concludes by addressing demands for future research, particularly vessel- and customer behavior focused studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0161.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: railway; trains; rolling stocks; recycling; reuse; life cycle; environmental benefit
Online: 23 December 2016 (10:45:48 CET)
This review paper highlights feasible and practicable approaches for managing end-of-life rolling stocks. It aims to promote and enable sustainable procurement policy for rolling stocks. Firstly, it demonstrates that modern rolling stocks can potentially gain the environmental benefits since almost all of their materials used in the rolling stock manufacturing can be recycled and reused. In this study, brief definition and concept of various train types are introduced and discussed, accompanied by some demonstrative illustrations. Then, component analyses, recovery rates and percent proportion of each material in various rolling stock assemblies have been evaluated. The estimation of material quantities that can potentially be recycled has been carried out using industry data sources. The suitable management procedures for end-of-life rail vehicles are then discussed, together with the life cycle of the key materials in which the recyclability criteria take into account the environmental risks and the best and safest approaches to deal with them. The aim of this study is to increase the awareness of the public, train manufacturers and rail industries on the benefits to the environments from rolling stock recycling, which could result in sustainable society and urban livings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0021.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: electrical and electronic waste; recycling; legislative frameworks; environmental management; landfilling
Online: 3 August 2016 (12:33:45 CEST)
Households and businesses are generating unprecedented levels of electrical and electronic wastes (e-waste), fueled by modernisation and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exists; with developing nations such as South Africa lagging. The increase in e-waste generation increases the need to formulate strategies to manage it. This paper presents an overview of e-waste management on a global and South African scenarios with a specific case for Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste management practices in South Africa. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain hazardous elements such as lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. The research into the South African practices with regards to CRT waste management showed that there is still more to be done to effectively manage this waste stream. This is despite clear waste regulatory frameworks in the country. However, recent developments have placed e-waste as a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts should aim to maximise diversion from landfilling and to create value-addition opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Agricultural waste utilization; Waste reuse, recycling, and recovery; Recycling and reuse of waste plastic film; Fluid-solid coupling simulation; bonding V2 model; agglomerate disaggregation
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:11:20 CEST)
A tumbler screen type residual film–impurity mixture wind separator as a key equipment for secondary utilization of farmland residual film. During the working process, the proportion of impurities in the separated waste mulch film intermittently increases, resulting in poor working stability of the device, which may hamper long-term operation. In this study, the material inside the separation unit was continuously monitored, and the main factor affecting separator per-formance was determined to be the challenges in the effective depolymerization of some residual film–impurity mixtures. The principles of agglomeration and depolymerization of the residual film–impurity mixtures were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) flow-solid coupling simulation methods. The key factor affecting the disaggregation of the mixture was the collision force between the residual film–impurity mixture and the trommel screen. The collision force was maximum when the residual film–impurity mixture first collided with the trommel screen when it was fed into the separation device. As determined by force analyses, the key factors affecting the collision force of the process were the material feeding amount and the structure of the inlet. Furthermore, simulations were carried out for different inlet structure forms; the evaluation index was the maximum collision force of the residual film–impurity mixture agglomerate on the trommel screen. The best disaggregation effect was obtained with a square feed inlet and at a feeding rate of 202 kg/h. A prototype was built using these specifications for verification. The average value of the ratio of impurities in the re-sidual film was 6.966%, the coefficient of variation was 7.38%, and the dispersion of statistical results was small. The ratio of impurities in the residual film was kept constant during the con-tinuous operation of the wind separator. Thus, this study analyzed the agglomerate disaggregation process and provided theoretical insights for deter-mining the optimal structures of the inlets of various cleaning devices and the feeding volumes.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; distributed manufacturing; distributed recycling; granulator; shredder; open hardware; fab lab; open-source; polymers; recycling; waste plastic; extruder; upcycle; circular economy
Online: 1 September 2019 (08:25:03 CEST)
Abstract: In order to accelerate deployment of distributed recycling by providing low-cost feed stocks of granulated post-consumer waste plastic, this study analyzes an open source waste plastic granulator system. It is designed, built and tested for its ability to convert post-consumer waste, 3-D printed products and waste into polymer feedstock for recyclebots of fused particle/granule printers. The technical specifications of the device are quantified in terms of power consumption (380 to 404W for PET and PLA, respectively) and particle size distribution. The open source device can be fabricated for less than USD$2000 in materials. The experimentally-measured power use is only a minor contribution to the overall embodied energy of distributed recycling of waste plastic. The resultant plastic particle size distributions were found to be appropriate for use in both recyclebots and direct material extrusion 3-D printers. Simple retrofits are shown to reduce sound levels during operation by 4dB-5dB for the vacuum. These results indicate that the open source waste plastic granulator is an appropriate technology for community, library, makespace, fab lab or small business-based distributed recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1642.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: plastic recycling; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; vinyl functional groups; sodium silicate; vinyltrimethoxysilane
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:26:26 CEST)
Due to growing concerns about environmental pollution from plastic waste, plastic recycling research is gaining momentum. Traditional methods, such as incorporating inorganic particles, increasing cross-linking density with peroxides, and blending with silicone monomers, often improve mechanical properties but reduce flexibility for specific performance requirements. This study focuses on synthesizing silica nanoparticles with vinyl functional groups and evaluating their mechanical performance when used in recycled plastics. Silica precursors, namely sodium silicate, and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS), combined with a surfactant, were employed to create pores, increasing silica's surface area. Early-stage introduction of vinyl functional groups prevented the typical post-synthesis reduction in surface area. Porous silica was produced in varying quantities of VTMS, and the synthesized porous silica nanomaterials were incorporated into recycled Polyethylene to induce cross-linking. Despite a decrease in surface area with increasing VTMS content, a significant surface area of 883 m2/g was achieved. In conclusion, porous silica with the right amount of vinyl content exhibited improved mechanical performance, including increased tensile strength, compared to conventional porous silica. This study shows that synthesized porous silica with integrated vinyl functional groups effectively enhances the performance of recycled plastics.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1489.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: material recycling; subsea cables; offshore infrastructures; flowlines; decommissioning; end-of-life
Online: 22 September 2023 (04:51:22 CEST)
Hundreds of thousands of kilometers of communication and power (umbilical) cables and flowlines lie undersea worldwide. Most of these offshore cables and flowlines have reached or will soon be nearing the end of their service life, necessitating the need for a viable recycling approach to recover some valuable material, e.g., copper. However, separation into constituent materials has proven very challenging due to the highly robust design of the composite cables (and flowlines) to withstand service conditions and the tough external plastic sheaths that protect against seawater corrosion. Here, we summarize the findings of the cryogenic comminution of subsea cables and flowlines for an effective separation and recovery of component materials. Heat transfer analyses of complex multilayer flowlines and umbilicals were conducted to evaluate the time required for these structures to reach their respective critical brittle-transition temperatures. Subsequently, the time was used as a guide to crush the flowline and umbilical cables under cryogenic conditions. The results show that the flowlines and umbilical cables will reach the brittle-transition temperature after approximately 1000s (i.e., 17 min) of submergence in liquid nitrogen (LN). Comminution of the materials at temperatures near the brittle-transition temperature was proven relatively efficient compared to room-temperature processing. The present evaluation of heat transfer and lab-scale crushing will afford accurate process modelling and design of a pilot cryogenic comminution of decommissioned flowlines in an LN-doped atmosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1929.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Recycling; polyethylene; tire fibers; ground tire rubber; injection molding; compression molding
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:46:52 CEST)
Recycled tire fibers (RTF) are currently one of the most abundant waste not being recovered due to several processing hurdles and the presence of high amounts of residual ground rubber particles (GR). Therefore, this study proposes a simple approach to separate most of rubber particles from fibers and to determine their rubber content using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/calcination. Afterwards, clean fiber (CF) and GR are used as fillers for recycled post-consumer low density polyethylene (rLDPE), and their effects on the physical properties are investigated. Accordingly, a series of composites with CF and GR is prepared at different filler concentrations (0-30%) via extrusion compounding before using compression molding and injection molding for comparison. In all cases, injection molding leads to higher strength and modulus, but lower elongation at break. The results show that incorporating 30 wt.% of CF into rLDPE yields a remarkable improvement in tensile strength (15%), tensile modulus (192%) and flexural modulus (142%). On the other hand, the incorporation of up to 30 wt.% of GR results in a reduction of both tensile strength and flexural modulus by 15%, confirming the critical role of the cleaning process for RTF in achieving the best results.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Plastics recovery; plastics recycling; waste plastics; polyesters; polyamides; cleantech; green energy
Online: 15 March 2023 (02:39:29 CET)
Plastic waste constitutes one of the most important sources of pollution worldwide. Despite the growing recycling trend, nowadays there are no effective technologies that can compensate for the continuous increase in plastic production. Polyesters and polyamides are one of the most produced single-use plastics, mainly used in manufacturing textiles and soft drinks bottles. Today, only a very low fraction of these polymers can be recycled. It can be done by exploiting two leading technologies: mechanical and chemical recycling. Mechanical recycling represents, nowadays, the most used industrial application. However, it can treat a very narrow range of waste materials due to the impossibility of removing dyes and the deterioration of mechanical properties due to the incompatibility of different plastic materials. Another critical limit of this recycling technology is the limited number of recycling loops that can be done due to the thermal degradation that occurs during the extrusion process. The second possibility is chemical recycling, which allows the depolymerization of the original product to recover the monomers directly. The main drawbacks are the long reaction times and the many solvents needed to achieve high-purity products. Therefore, chemical recycling is economically feasible, only for big companies that can produce the virgin polymer in situ. In this work, a new technology has been patented. This process is constituted of three main steps. The first one is the distillation-assisted cyclodepolymerization (DA-CDP), introduced as a modification of the CDP process. In this unit, cyclic oligomers together with high molecular weight compounds have been produced. Then, after polymer purification, it is possible to achieve the same molecular weight of the initial polymer in less than 30 minutes, exploiting the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) in the next step.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0189.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: plastics; energy; small-scale mechanical recycling; environment; extrusion; PET; PE; PP
Online: 10 November 2022 (04:11:23 CET)
Mechanical recycling of solid plastic wastes on a small-scale level can be accomplished with the correct approaches. Thermoplastics are mostly considered for mechanical recycling because of their physical properties and ease of reprocessing. This paper reviews the mechanical reprocessing techniques of selected thermoplastics (polyethylene terephthalate and polyolefins) since they constitute a significant proportion of plastics used commercially. Furthermore, necessary considerations for effective operation of small-scale plants, including energy requirements of machinery and optimisation in order to improve efficiency and product quality, are discussed. A clearer understanding and addressing of the process-related challenges will lead to successful establishment and management of small-scale mechanical recycling facilities to benefit communities. Efficient small-scale mechanical reprocessing establishments have become essential in reducing the environmental impacts of solid plastic wastes and for energy conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0198.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Radiation And Radiography Keywords: radioactive waste; radioactive waste recycling; industrial slag; industrial ash; aerospace industry
Online: 16 May 2022 (07:50:42 CEST)
The article discusses an alternative way of recycling radioactive waste (RW), presented in the form of radioactive building materials - concrete and reinforced concrete structures and metal fittings, with the further use of materials, obtained during recycling, in the space industry. That is, it is supposed to send radioactive waste into space not as a passive ballast, but as a payload that will operate in space under conditions of increased radiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0427.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Solid waste management; LED lamp; characterization protocol; recycling; LED waste management
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:25:18 CEST)
Solid-state lighting has been replacing conventional lighting in the market, raising concerns for implementing an efficient end-of-life management system. Since LED waste streams have not been quite dominant, characterization studies (product-level characteristics, component-wise information, bill of materials, diversity, and differences) are inconsistent and having substantial gaps. This study investigates the end-of-life LED lamp literature, focusing on the bill-of-materials, and reveals that the characterization procedure suffers from a severe lack of sample representativeness. Consequently, characterization results are widely varied and not generalizable. Moreover, most of the studies did not inform and document the detailed sample characteristics, precluding the possibility of identifying reasons for variation. Combining available information from the recent studies, we present a mass distribution at the component level, exemplifying the prospect for meeting EU regulatory limit and the need for more insight at the lamp and component level. To fill the disconnection between lamp level characteristics and component and material content, we propose a characterization protocol that carefully documents lamp, component, and material level information by establishing a lamp-component–material composition nexus. The protocol may help researchers, policymakers, and industrial stakeholders conduct a systematic characterization, analyze complexities and prepare for a sustainable solution.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Carbon fiber; recycling; nonwoven; carding; hot pressing; Polyamide 6; Polyethylene terephthalate
Online: 27 May 2021 (07:40:49 CEST)
Nonwovens made of recycled carbon fibers (rCF) and thermoplastic (TP) fibers have excellent economic and ecological potential. In contrast to new fibers, recycled carbon fibers are significantly cheaper and the CO2 footprint is mostly compensated by energy savings in the first product life cycle. The next step for this promising material is its industrial serial use. Therefore the process chain from fiber to composite material is analyzed. Initially rCF length at different positions during the carding process is measured. Thereafter the influence of the TP fibers onto processing, fiber shortening and mechanical properties is evaluated. At last several nonwovens with different TP fibers and fiber volume contents between 15 vol.-% and 30 vol.-% are produced, consolidated by hot pressing and tested by 4-point bending to determine the mechanical values. The fiber length reduction ranges from 20.6 % to 28.4 %. TP fibers cushion the rCF against mechanical stress but hold rCF fragments back due to their crimp. The resulting bending strength varies from 301 MPa to 405 MPa and the stiffness from 16.3 GPa to 30.1 GPa. Design recommendations for reduced fiber shortening are derived as well as material mixtures which offer better homogeneity and higher mechanical properties.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Facemask; community mask; medical mask; recycling; reuse; carbon footprint; COVID-19
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:04:46 CEST)
IntroductionThe use of protective masks, especially medical masks, increased dramatically during the COVID-19 crisis. Medical masks are made of synthetic materials, mainly polypropylene, and a majority of them are produced in China and imported to the European market. The urgency of the need has so far prevailed over environmental considerations.ObjectiveAssess the environmental impact of different strategies for the use of facemaskMethod Different strategies for the use of medical and community masks are being investigated for their environmental impact in this study. 8 scenarios, differentiating the typologies of masks and the modes of reuse are compared using several environmental impact indicators, mainly the Global Warming Potential (GWP100), and the plastic leakage (PL). This study attempts to provide clear recommendations that consider both the environmental impact and the protective effectiveness of face masks used in the community.Results The environmental impact of single-use masks is the most unfavorable, with a GWP of 0.4 -1.3 kgCO2 eq., depending on the transport scenario, and a PL of 1.8 g, for a one month protection against COVID-19. The use of home-made cotton masks and prolonged use of medical masks through wait-and-reuse are the scenarios with the lowest impact.ConclusionThe use of medical masks with a wait and reuse strategy seems to be the most appropriate when considering both environmental impact and effectiveness. Our results also highlight the need to develop procedures and the legal/operational framework to extend the use of protective equipment during a pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: solid state recycling; metallic scrap/sludge; powder metallurgy; in-situ reduction
Online: 27 September 2018 (15:07:43 CEST)
The issues of metallic scrap management and its utilization in manufacturing plants are nowadays intensely considered to address essential sustainability guidelines. Efficient recycling procedure for shop floor metallic scrap is not yet available because of abundance and contamination of nonmetallic constituents. Other ferrous metallic scrap are melted and purified during secondary steelmaking to get products in the form of blooms and billets are obtained. This study illustrates the potential of powder technology (powder metallurgy (PM) and metal injection molding (MIM)) based process for solid-state recycling and attainment of usable products. Industrially downgraded grinding sludge is pulverized and used as a raw material. Results showed properties of sintered parts are significantly improved due to in-situ reduction and densification during sintering. Recyclability Index (RI) was created to compare the effect of process variables on obtained products. Based on RI, recycled ferrous parts have about 70% comparable properties with equivalent pure iron parts. Complex reduction and sintering behavior in MIM, particularly, diffusion and pore volume kinetics limits applicability of MIM with this recycling approach. However, few industrial parts were developed and manufactured by PM based approach to validate the applicability of this novel recycling-cum-manufacturing process for the production of porous parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: uric acid; purine recycling disorders; Parkinson’s disease; cerebrospinal fluid; general linear model
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:42:47 CET)
The phenomenon of decreased serum uric acid (UA) levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its relationship with purine metabolic pathways remain unclear. We compared inosine, hy-poxanthine, xanthine, and UA levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients with those of controls, and investigated the effect of changes in the purine metabolic system on UA levels in PD. Overall, 134 samples (serum, 45 PD patients and 30 controls; CSF, 39 PD patients and 20 controls), were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A general linear model (GLM) was used to investigate relationships among purine metabolites. Compared to controls, PD patients had significantly lower UA levels in the serum and CSF, and serum and CSF UA levels were significantly correlated. Additionally, in PD, decreased serum hypoxanthine levels were observed with decreased CSF inosine and hypoxanthine levels, suggesting the involvement of the purine recycling system. GLM analysis indicated that the reduced UA levels in PD were mainly due to sources other than the purine metabolic system, such as exercise, nutritional indices, muscle volume, or adipose tissue. Our results highlight the impairment of purine recycling pathways in PD, as evidenced by the decreased serum hypoxanthine and CSF inosine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1652.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Income inequality; sustainable tomato supply chain; waste composting and recycling; profit distribution
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:29:12 CEST)
Investigating the potential impact of composting and recycling waste on income distribution are crucial to promote a fairer and more sustainable fresh tomato supply chain (FTSC). Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential of gaining extra income from recycling tomatoes waste generated along the FTSC and to calculate the contribution of extra income from recycling tomato waste to reduce income inequality along the FTSC. Data were collected from 136 greenhouse tomato producers, 60 wholesalers, 18 exporters, 120 domestic retailers, 22 overseas retailers, and 3 recycling facilities in Türkiye. Marketing cost, absolute marketing margin, relative marketing margin and net profit margin were used when economically analyzing the FTSCs. Research results showed that the net profit share of the producer decreased associated with the increasing number of intermediaries. Research results also showed that revenue gained from composting and recycling of product loss and waste increased the welfare of greenhouse producer more than other supply chain actors. When taking into account the revenue from composting and recycling of wastes, producers increased their net profit by 9.85% at first FTSC, while that of second and third FTSCs were 8.29% and 9.21%, respectively comparing to the prevailing conditions. The contribution of extra revenue from composting and recycling of wastes to retailers was more comparing wholesaler and exporter. Retailers and wholesalers gaining from recycling in domestic FTSCs was more comparing to overseas one. Close cooperation between producers, wholesalers, exporters, retailers, and recycling facilities is essential for the effective implementation of waste recycling initiatives. Organizing the training and education programs focused on waste management can increase the extra income of producers and active intermediaries in FTSC from composting and recycling tomato wastes. Offering financial incentives, grants, or subsidies can encourage producers and other actors within the supply chain to adopt waste recycling practices. Continuous research and innovation are crucial in identifying and developing new technologies, processes, and strategies to minimize food loss and waste. Dominating fair-trade practices to ensure that all FTSC actors may balance the income distribution among FTSC actors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; water recycling; grey water reuse; soil biodiversity; climate change; water scarcity
Online: 16 February 2023 (07:37:06 CET)
Fresh water is an increasingly scarce resource in both urban and rural developments. As a response to this challenge, non-potable water reuse is on the rise. This research explored a potential off-grid system for water purification, consisting of a staircase wetland with terracotta pot plants working as a filter for greywater. The study further investigated the physicochemical properties of the greywater and the soil before and after the wetland purification. Results showed that the filtered water satisfied all requirements for water reuse, e.g., pH, turbidity, and total coliforms. The research then uniquely investigated the effect of greywater on the soil biodiversity and soil biomass using soil DNA extraction and the tea bag index testing method. The filtered greywater absorbed by soil decomposed the soil faster and stabilized it better compared to tap water-absorbed soil or unfiltered greywater. The DNA generation sequencing revealed no significant differences in alpha diversity between control and treatment samples. The beta diversity differences were significant. This nature-based solution can lead to reduced load on the sewage system, resulting in less wastewater generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0432.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain management; phosphorus fertilizers; environmental issues; sustainability; recycling policy; metaheuristic algorithm
Online: 23 December 2022 (01:39:06 CET)
Phosphorus (P) is the most important substance in inorganic fertilizers used in agriculture industry. In this study, a multi-product and multi-objective model is presented considering economic and environmental concerns to design a renewable and sustainable P-fertilizer supply chain management (PFSCM). To handle complexities of the proposed model, an ensemble knowledge-based three-stage heuristic-metaheuristic algorithm utilizing heuristic information available in the model, whale optimization algorithm, and variable neighborhood search (named H-WOA-VNS) is proposed. At first, a problem-dependent heuristic is designed to generate a set of near-optimal feasible solutions. These solutions are fed into a population-based whale optimization algorithm which benefits from both exploration and exploitation strategies. Finally, a single-solution metaheuristic based on variable neighborhood search is applied to further improve the quality of the solution using local search operators. The objective function of the algorithm is formulated as a weighted average function to minimize total economic cost, while increasing crop yield and P use efficiency. Experimental results over five synthetic datasets and a real case study of the P-fertilizer supply chain confirm the superiority of the proposed method against the state-of-the-art techniques. The results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in optimizing both the economic cost and environmental issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0190.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: wheat; seed rate; yield effect; dose-response; seed recycling; cost-benefit analysis
Online: 5 March 2021 (13:45:42 CET)
Previous studies investigated the effects of seed rates and seed recycling practices on the yield and yield related variables. However, higher yield does not always guarantee cost-efficiency. This study aimed at investigating the yield effects of plot-level seed rate along with the cost-benefit analysis of seed recycling practices. This study has introduced the dose-response model to the existing analytical methods used in analyzing the effect of different agrochemicals on crop yield. A multi-stage stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of 450 sample respondents. Data was gathered using a mix of data collection tools. Descriptive statistics along with the dose-response model have been applied for data analysis. Farmers of the study were found to be dissimilar in terms of their seed rate application. The dose-response analysis indicated that the highest average wheat yield has been associated with a seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 above what is recommended. The yield effect of seed recycling has also been assessed and a one-time seed recycling has caused a yield decline of 665 kg ha-1 as compared to the non-recycled seeds. The cost reduced by using recycled seed is by far lower than the economic gains associated with using unrecycled and fresh seeds. The cost-benefit analysis made clear that farmers can reduce their seed costs through seed recycling but their yields and net income can be best improved by using unrecycled CBWS. Thus, farmers must be encouraged to make use of unrecycled seed by establishing agricultural credit schemes geared towards seed procurement and seed price subsidy as key strategies to reduce economically wasteful seed recycling practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0203.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: actual recycling rate; material flow analysis; municipal solid waste; waste treatment charge
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:02:13 CEST)
The recycling, incineration, and final disposal rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) are calculated based on the total amount of waste input to each facility in many countries. These statistic data have serious limitation in setting the national goal and policy for effective waste management because it is not considering the amount of foreign objectives in the process of each life-cycle stage. This case study is to estimate the actual rates of recycling, incineration, and final disposal by material flow analysis (MFA) after the collection of MSW in Korea. The actual rates of recycling, incineration and final disposal for MSW in 2016 were 49.9%, 32.9% and 23.1% respectively, indicating that the recycling rate was lower by 10.1%, while the incineration and final disposal rates were raised by 7.6% and 8.4% respectively, compared with the statistics for current MSW. In addition, the changed actual rates of recycling, incineration treatment, and final landfill, and variation of waste treatment charge according to treated amounts per treatment method was analyzed. This results of this study will contribute to establish national level of plan on effective waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0577.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: waste tire recycling; bitumen plasticization; microwave treatment; synergistic effects; structure-property relationships
Online: 29 September 2018 (04:50:58 CEST)
In this paper, ground tire rubber (GTR) was mechano-chemically modified with road bitumen 160/220 and subsequently treated using a microwave radiation. The combined impact of bitumen 160/220 content and microwave treatment on short-term devulcanization of GTR were studied by thermal camera, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WD-XRF), static headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS), thermogravimetric analysis combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR), oscillating disc rheometer and static mechanical properties measurements. The obtained results showed that bitumen plasticizer prevent oxidation of GTR during microwave treatment and simultaneously improves processing and thermal stability of obtained reclaimed rubber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste; Waste Management, Sustainable Technology, Recycling, Reuse, Waste to wealth
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:44:57 CEST)
The practice of collecting, treating and management of solid waste prior to disposal has become a necessity in developing and modern societies. Over the years, it is known that most wastes that are disposed have a second hand value. However, the construction cost for conventional Material Recovery Facility(s) (MRFs) has been a major barrier for implementation. These technologies require considerable technical expertise, which is often not available in developing nations to successfully operate the MRFs. Covenant University; a private mission institution through her waste to wealth scheme is focused on managing and processing used materials to reusable products. These include Pet bottles, Paper wastes, Food wastes from cafeteria, plastic food packs, nylon, tin cans and others. Specific areas chosen for the Survey include the residential areas for staff and students and the two cafeterias. The waste generated was characterized based on the waste stream so as to quantify the amount of recyclable waste generated and most occurring. The survey involved the use of structured questionnaires, on-site observations and measurements. The study reveals an average amount of recyclable waste generated per day in the institution as 13.46% pet bottles, 4.03% paper, 55.56% food waste, 12.64% plastic, 9.63% nylon and 4.68% tin cans. The study established that adequate waste characterization is a requirement for effective integrated solid waste management which would boost resource recovery, reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: circular economy; platinum recycling; greenhouse gas emission reduction; resource saving; life cycle assessment
Online: 22 November 2023 (02:28:07 CET)
When disposing of waste metal resources in landfills, environmental issues such as soil contamination may arise. Recycling these resources not only recovers valuable metals but also mitigates environmental pollution. Platinum (Pt), a valuable metal used in fuel cells for its high water production activity, will see increased future demand as a fossil fuel alternative. This study analyzes the environmental and resource reduction effects of recycled Pt, considering the growing emphasis on its recycling for stable supply and demand of Pt. The environmental impact and resource consumption of recycled Pt with primary Pt (from natural mines) were compared and analyzed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique. Results revealed that resource consumption for primary Pt was 8.25E+01 kg Sb-eq./kg, significantly more than the 5.45E+00 kg Sb-eq./kg for recycled Pt. This represents an environmental reduction effect of approximately 93%. In the case of greenhouse gas emissions, primary Pt emitted 1.35E+04 kg CO2-eq./kg, while recycled Pt emitted 6.94E+02 kg CO2-eq./kg, resulting in an environmental reduction effect of approximately 95%. In conclusion, recycling Pt, compared to primary extraction, offers substantial environmental and resource reduction benefits. This study underscores the significance of recycling and highlights the potential environmental improvements achievable through sustainable practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental economics; general; valuation of environmental effects; pollution control adoption and costs; recycling
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:40:25 CET)
In this article we investigate the impact of “Renewable Electricity Output” on green economy in the context of circular economy for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We use data from World Bank ESG framework. We perform Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, and Pooled OLS. Our results show that Renewable Electricity Output is positively associated, among others, to “Adjusted Savings-Net Forest Depletion” and “Renewable Energy Consumption” and negatively associated, among others, to “CO2 Emission” and “Cooling Degree Days”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis implementing the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow Method and we find the presence of 4 clusters. Finally, we confront seven different machine learning algorithms to predict the future level of “Renewable Electricity Output”. Our results show that Linear Regression is the best algorithm and that the future value of renewable electricity output is predicted to growth on average at a rate of 0.83% for the selected countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0523.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Carbonate recycling; Ca isotopes; Subduction zone; Sediment melts; Arc magmas; Slab-derived fluids
Online: 22 July 2021 (16:57:46 CEST)
Calcium (Ca) is an essential element constituting sedimentary carbonate in subducting sediments. Ca isotopic characteristics of subduction-related rocks could provide insight into the behavior and budget of carbonate and carbon cycles in subduction zones, due to the distinctive δ44/40Ca ranges of sedimentary carbonate with respect to the mantle. Here, we studied the Ca isotopic compositions of arc magmas from the Northern Luzon arc (NLA), which are evolved from a depleted mantle metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and sediment melts. The δ44/40Ca values range from 0.76 ± 0.04‰ to 1.01 ± 0.03‰ and cover the typical ranges for bulk silica earth (BSE, ~ 0.94‰) and fresh mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB, ~ 0.83‰). The Ca isotopes of NLA volcanics are not dominantly determined by the effects of mantle partial melting or fractional crystallization, nor significantly modified by secondary alteration. Instead, the δ44/40Ca values of NLA volcanics are controlled by the subduction-related metasomatism. The metasomatism by slab-derived fluids (mainly expelled from altered oceanic crust, AOC) dramatically elevated the contents of fluid-mobile elements (e.g., Ba and Pb) with respect to fluid-immobile elements (e.g., Ce). This process, however, rarely modified the Ca isotopes, possibly ascribed to the δ44/40Ca similarity between AOC and the depleted mantle. The δ44/40Ca values significantly correlated with subduction indicators (e.g., Sr-Nd isotopes, Ba/Nb, Ce/Pb, and Nb/La), demonstrating the Ca isotopes of NLA volcanics are mainly controlled by the metasomatism of sediment melts subducting from the South China Sea (SCS). Based on the thermal structures and chemical compositions of sediments subducting into global trenches, we propose that carbonate Ca isotopic signals can only be observed in the arcs with high sedimentary Ca fluxes and temperature-pressure conditions well beyond the solidus of H2O-saturated sediment melting, e.g., NLA, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Colombia, Peru, South Chile, North Vanuatu, New Zealand, and Kermadec. The absence of such signals in other arcs suggests either limited sedimentary fluxes or much of the subducting sedimentary carbonate has been survived during plate subduction to enter the deep mantle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0381.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy; supersonic jet expansion; molecular clusters; gas recycling; water dimer; hydrate complex
Online: 17 February 2021 (11:23:38 CET)
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy of cold molecules and clusters in supersonic slit jet expansions complements and extends more sensitive action spectroscopy techniques and provides important reference data for the latter. We describe how its major drawback, large substance and carrier gas consumption, can be alleviated by one to two orders of magnitude via direct and continuous recycling of the gas mixture. This is achieved by a combination of dry rotary lobe and screw pump compression. The signal-to-noise ratio is boosted by the established buffered giant gas pulse technique with full interferogram synchronization. The buildup of water impurities typically limits the recycling gain, but is turned into a feature for the study of hydrate complexes of volatile molecules. Continuous operation with a single gas filling over several days becomes practical and useful. Decadic absorbances in the low ppm range are detectable and the mid infrared range can be recorded simultaneously with the near infrared. The less straightforward hydration number assignment of spectral features in direct absorption spectroscopy is supported by a gradual water buildup at a rate of less than 0.5 mg/h. A recent reassignment proposal for the water dimer OH stretching spectrum is refuted and vibrational spectra of vacuum-isolated 18O-water clusters are presented for the first time. Methanol docking on asymmetric ketones is used to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the recycling concept. Previous assignments of the hydrate complex of 1-phenylethanol are confirmed. Additional features of the setup await testing and refinement, but the recycling technique already substantially widens the applicability of direct absorption spectroscopy of neutral molecular clusters. It may be attractive for other high-throughput jet spectrometers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0264.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: recycling; composting; waste-to-energy; incineration; municipal solid waste; circular economy; green jobs
Online: 17 March 2020 (03:46:53 CET)
Sharing the same raw material, recycling and composting are in direct conflict with incineration of municipal solid waste in combined heath and power plants. Indeed, waste-to-energy plants in regions with high recycling rates import urban waste from other countries to use otherwise unused capacity, and raise revenues. Using the case of Italy’s second largest and economically most developed region, I discuss the economic viability of municipal solid waste incineration to produce electricity and heath in the context of the increasing role of electricity production from renewable energy sources as well as of the emerging mass-scale uptake of bioplastics. Four lessons and three guidelines aimed to local authorities and policy makers emerge from the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: metal-working coolants (MWC); lubricant; rolling; strip rolling; waste recycling; sunflower oil production
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:36:43 CEST)
The efficiency of cold steel rolling depends mainly on the quality of the metal-working coolant (MWC) and its cost. In this connection, it is actual to search for new compositions of lubricants and emulsions, which provide the lowest values of the friction coefficients in deformation zone and are obtained by waste recycling in other industries. In this study we have developed new compositions of the MWC on basis of mono- and diglycerides and their esters of boric acid synthesized from the wastes of sunflower oil production. The new compositions of MWC were tested in DSEA on laboratory rolling mill 100x100 with a roll diameter of 100 mm. The efficiency of new MWC during cold rolling of brass L63 samples was determined by factor of metal stretch forming λ. We found the new metal-working coolants to show the most efficiency under higher cobbing that provides the highest metal stretch forming. The composition with 30 % of mono- and diglycerides is the most effective because it provides the minimum coefficient of friction that leads to increase of factor of metal stretch forming. Thereby the metal-working coolants on basis of mono- and diglycerides obtained from the wastes of sunflower oil production can be recommended for use in strip rolling of copper-zinc alloys because of a low cost, availability and high efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1549.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: waste recycling; brick waste; geopolymers; tuff waste; alkali activation; historical buildings restoration; circular materials
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:22:52 CEST)
Nowadays the preservation and restoration of historical building needs to be faced in accordance with a novel sensibility regarding environment to preserve the future generations. In this context, the scientific community is focusing on novel and sustainable materials and techniques allowing durability and mechanical performances and at the same time compatibility with the existing heritage. Alkali activated materials represent a great challenge to produce new materials starting from the existing ones with reducing consumption, emission of greenhouse gases and environmental impact. This study deals with the valorization of waste materials coming from demolition and construction activities in the manufacture of geocomposites suitable for restoration and conservation of historical heritage. In particular, waste from tuff sawing and brick grinding were used as raw materials, then the geopolymeric samples produced were characterized from physical-chemical and mechanical point of view in order to investigate their performance and evaluate their suitability as materials for historical buildings recovery. Brick waste based geocomposites resulted to be more compact than the tuff-based ones as showed by the higher density values and the lower values of open porosity and water absorption and as further confirmed by the trend of the mechanical performance. Moreover, experimental data showed that physical and mechanical properties of both bricks and tuff waste-based geocomposites, even with different waste content, are compatible with existing building materials and to all the traditional repairing products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0512.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: end of life; fluoropolymers; per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); polymerization aids; recycling; regulators; surfactants
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:18:51 CEST)
In contrast to some low molar-mass per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), well-established to be toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and mobile, fluoropolymers (FPs) are water insoluble, safe, bio-inert, durable niche high performance polymers which fulfil the 13 polymer of low concern (PLC) criteria in their recommended conditions of use. In addition, more recent innovations (e.g., the use of non-fluorinated surfactants in aqueous radical (co)polymerization of fluoroalkenes) from industrial manufacturers of FPs are highlighted. This review also aims at showing how these specialty polymers endowed with outstanding properties are essential (even irreplaceable since hydrocarbon polymer alternatives used in similar conditions fail) for our daily life (electronics, Energy, optics, internet of things, transportation, etc) and constitute a special family a part from other “conventional” C1-C10 PFASs found everywhere on the Earth and Oceans. Furthermore, some information reports the recycling (e.g. the unzipping depolymerization of polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, into TFE), end of life of FPs, their risk assessment, circular economy and regulations. Various researches are devoted to Environment involving FPs, though they represent a niche volume (with a yearly production of 330,300 tonnes) compared to all plastics (with 460 million tonnes). Complementary to other reviews on PFASs, which lack of such above data, this review presents both fundamental and applied strategies as evidenced by major FP producers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0794.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Solar panel recycling; Leaching; Base metals: Precious metals; Waste management; Environmental impact, Sustainable technology
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:22:32 CEST)
The production of photovoltaic modules is increasing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, this results in a significant amount of waste at the end of their lifespan. Therefore, recycling these solar panels is important for environmental and economic reasons. However, collecting and separating Crystalline silicon, Cadmium Telluride, and Copper indium gallium selenide panels can be challenging, especially in underdeveloped countries. The innovation of this work is to develop a process to recycle all solar panel waste. The dissolution of all metals is studied through the leaching process as the main step of the flowchart. In the first step of leaching, silver can be recovered 98% by 0.5 nitric acid. Then, the second and third step involves the use of glycine for base metals dissolution, followed by the leaching of valuable metals with hydrochloric acid. The effect of parameters such as initial pH, acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, and Hydrogen peroxide concentration are studied. The results show that Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn, Cd, In, Ga, and Se can be recovered until about 100% under optimal conditions. The optimal conditions for the dissolution of Cu, Zn, and Cd were the glycine concentration of 0.5 M, Temperature of 25 ˚C, the solid/liquid ratio of 10 gr/l, and 1% of Hydrogen peroxide. The optimized glycine concentration for the leaching of lead and tin was 1.5M. Indium and gallium were recovered to 100% by the use of 5M Hydrochloric acid, S/L=10gr/l, and T=45 ˚C. Separation of selenium and tellurium occurred by 0.5 M HCl at a temperature of 60 ˚C. Additionally, for the first time, a general outlook for the recycling of various end-of-life solar panels is suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Environmental Economics; General; Valuation of Environmental Effects; Pollution Control Adop-tion and Costs; Recycling.
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:30:08 CET)
In this article we investigate the role of “Renewable Energy Consumption” in the context of Circular Economy. We use data from the World Bank for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We perform several econometric techniques i.e., Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS. Our results show that “Renewable Energy Consumption” is positively associated among others to “Cooling Degree Days” and “Adjusted savings: net forest depletion” and negatively associated among others to “GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF” and “Mean Drought Index”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis with the application of the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient and we find the presence of two clusters. Finally, we compare eight different machine learning algorithms to predict the value of Renewable Energy Consumption. Our results show that the Polynomial Regression is the best algorithm in the sense of prediction and that on average the renewable energy consumption is expected to growth of 2.61%.