ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0425.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: enterprise recruitment; problem definition; e-recruitment
Online: 21 September 2018 (03:47:52 CEST)
Internet-led labour market has become so competitive forcing many organisations from different sectors to embrace e-recruitment. However, realising the value of the e-recruitment from a Requirements Engineering (RE) analysis perspective is challenging. This research is motivated by the results of a failed e-recruitment project conducted in military domain which is used as a case study in this research. After reviewing the various challenges faced in that project through a number of related research domains, this research focuses on two major problems which are the (1) difficulty of scoping, representing, and systematically transforming recruitment problem knowledge towards e-recruitment solution specification; and (2) the difficulty of documenting e-recruitment best practices for reuse purposes in an enterprise recruitment environment. In this paper, a Problem-Oriented Conceptual Model (POCM) with a complementary Ontology for Recruitment Problem Definition (Onto-RPD) is proposed to contextualise the various recruitment problem viewpoints from an enterprise perspective and to elaborate those problem viewpoints towards a comprehensive recruitment problem definition. The POCM and Onto-RPD are developed incrementally using action-research conducted on three real case studies: (1) Secureland Army Enlistment, (2) British Army Regular Enlistment, and (3) UK Undergraduate Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). They are later evaluated in a focus group study against a set of criteria. The study showed that the POCM and Onto-RPD provide a strong foundation for representing and understanding the e-recruitment problems from different perspectives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community engagement; health disparities; precision medicine; participant recruitment
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:21:34 CEST)
In response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) All of Us Medicine Research Initiative, the Precision Medicine Research (PreMeR) Diversity Consortium was formed by four institutions from the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN). This synergistic approach proposed evidence-based, best practices used by experienced researchers to engage, recruit and retain diverse populations in the All of Us initiative. Conceptualization of the proposed approach was aided by social influence theories to better understand how people’s beliefs and opinions should be modified to affect change leading to action . The Social-Ecological Model (SEM), for Health Promotion , from Stokols  and Community-Based Participatory (CBPR) Models, guided proposed engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies contextualized with the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy spheres of influence. The PreMeR produced a partnership to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of current engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies for minority participation in scientific studies. This approach illustrates the need to incorporate multiple methods of engagement to reach a diverse audience to participate in scientific research. Engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies in community and biomedical research must be viewed as community engaged public health interventions, utilizing the same theoretical principles and approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: gaelic football; Australian rules football; performance analysis; player recruitment
Online: 11 August 2016 (10:32:35 CEST)
It has often been said that Gaelic football (GF) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) are similar sports, and amateur Gaelic footballers have been recruited to play in the professional Australian Football League. Using Wilcoxons’s test, the significant (p < 0.05) factors differentiating winning and losing performance in ARF were indirectly compared to the differentiating factors between winning and losing in GF. Of the 15 key performance indicators (KPIs) that were seen to be significant between ARF teams, six (40 %) were also seen to be significant in discriminating between winning and losing GF teams. A Mann-Whitney U test was then completed to directly compare ARF and GF, twenty-six of the 30 KPIs were seen to be significantly different to each other (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that recruiting a Gaelic footballer based on the belief that their Gaelic background will aid their transition to ARF is not an appropriate decision. Instead, staying with more traditional methods of talent identification – for example anthropometric measurements – is advocated until further research is undertaken in this area.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: HBOC; statewide random sampling; cancer survivorship; targeted intervention; tailored intervention; black participants; family recruitment
Online: 5 September 2019 (16:16:34 CEST)
We compared the efficacy of a tailored and a targeted intervention designed to increase clinical breast exam (CBE), mammography, and genetic services/testing among young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) (diagnosed <45 years old) and their blood relatives. A two-arm cluster randomized trial recruited a random sample of YBCS from the Michigan cancer registry and up to two of their blood relatives. Participants were stratified according to race and randomly assigned as family units to the tailored (n=637) or the targeted (n=595) intervention. Approximately 40% of participants were Black; 12% YBCS and 27% relatives were living in more than 20 different U.S. States. Higher screening rates were reported by YBCS (CBE p=0.05; mammography p=0.04) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.04) in the tailored arm, and by White/Other YBCS (CBE p=0.02) and relatives (CBE p<0.01; mammography p=0.03). YBCS genetic testing rates increased from 22% to 26% (p=0.11). Black YBCS and relatives reported higher self-efficacy and intention for genetic testing, and higher satisfaction and intervention acceptance. The tailored intervention improved CBE and mammography uptake - despite having minimal contact with participants. Professional referrals will improve genetic testing uptake. Intervention materials increased self-efficacy and satisfaction for Black women but could not overcome multiple access barriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical workforce shortage; rural and remote; recruitment and retention; sustainable rural medical workforce; medical school innitiatives.
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:05:35 CET)
.Abstract: Indonesia, one of the Asia Pacific LMICs, has suffered from a chronic medical workforce shortage. However, there are limited published studies describing the approaches implemented by the Indonesian government regarding the recruitment and retention of the medical workforce. This case study aimed to understand the current practices for recruitment and retention of the medical workforce in Indonesian rural and remote provinces. We conducted a case study of the Maluku Province of Indonesia with document analysis and key informant interviews with officials responsible for medical workforce recruitment and retention. We used the WHO’s guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the recruitment and retention practices under four domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and classified them into University/Medical School level and Government/Non-government level. Our findings suggest that Indonesia has implemented most of the WHO-recommended medical workforce recruitment and retention strategies. However, implementation is still problematic; hence, the aim of establishing an adequate, sustainable medical workforce has not been reached. Nationwide government intervention in educational aspects is important to magnify the impact of the regional medical school initiatives. Relevant programs must be re-evaluated and re-enforced concerning significance, comprehensiveness and effectiveness for sustainable rural and remote medical workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0351.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: family-school; home-school; parent engagement; family engagement; parent involvement; recruitment; prevention; intervention; mental health; partnership
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:10:14 CET)
Parent education programs, offered via family-school partnerships, offer an effective means for promoting the mental health and educational functioning of children and adolescents at a whole-of-school level. However, these programs often have low uptake. This study aimed to identify strategies for increasing the uptake of parent education programs within preschool and school settings. A three-round Delphi procedure was employed to obtain expert consensus on strategies that are important and feasible in educational settings. First, thirty experts rated statements identified from the literature and a stakeholder forum. Next, experts re-appraised statements, including new statements generated from the first round. Ninety statements were endorsed by ≥ 80% of the experts. Primary themes include strategies for program selection, strategies for increasing the accessibility of programs and the understanding of educational staff on parent engagement and child mental health, strategies for program development, promotion, and delivery, as well as strategies for increasing parent and community engagement. This study offers a set of consensus strategies for improving the uptake of parent education programs within family-school partnership.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0263.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: high fecundity; random sweepstakes; natural selection; fixation; bottleneck; evolution; ecology; recruitment dynamics; epistasis
Online: 15 December 2022 (03:14:33 CET)
Evolutionary ecology may be described as explaining ecology through evolution and vice versa, but one may also view it as an integration of the two fields, where one takes the view that ecology and evolution are inseparable, and one can only begin to understand the biology of organisms by synthesizing the two fields. An example of such a synthesis is the biology of high fecundity and the associated concept of sweepstakes reproduction, or skewed individual recruitment success. As an illustration we consider selection at linked sites under various dominance and epistasis mechanisms in a diploid population evolving according to random sweepstakes and experiencing recurrent bottlenecks. Using simulations we give a few examples of the impact of the stated elements on selection. We show that depending on the dominance mechanisms random sweepstakes can shorten the time to fixation (conditional on fixation) of the fit type at all sites. Bottlenecks tend to increase the fixation time, with random sweepstakes counteracting the effects of bottlenecks on the fixation time. Understanding the effect of random sweepstakes, recurrent bottlenecks, dominance mechanisms and epistasis on the fate of selectively advantageous mutations may help with explaining genetic diversity in natural highly fecund populations possibly evolving under sweepstakes reproduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0473.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: inhibitory control; executive function; event-related potentials; electroencephalography; N200; P300; cognitive aging; neural recruitment
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:18:16 CEST)
Aging is accompanied by frontal lobe and non-dominant hemisphere recruitment that supports executive functioning, such as inhibitory control, which is crucial to all cognitive functions. Yet, the spatio-temporal sequence of processing underlying successful inhibition and how it changes with age is understudied. Thus, we assessed N200 (conflict monitoring) and P300 (response inhibition, performance evaluation) event-related potentials (ERPs) in young and healthy older adults during comparably performed successful stop-signal inhibition. We additionally interrogated the continuous spatio-temporal dynamics of N200- and P300-related activation within each group. Young adults had left hemisphere dominant N200, while older adults had overall larger amplitudes and right hemisphere dominance. N200 activation was biphasic in both groups but differed in scalp topography. P300 also differed, with larger right amplitudes in young, but bilateral amplitudes in old, with old larger than young in the left hemisphere. P300 was characterized by an early parieto-occipital peak in both groups, followed by a parietal slow wave only in older adults. A temporally similar but topographically different final wave followed in both groups that showed anterior recruitment in older adults. These findings illuminate differential age-related spatio-temporal recruitment patterns for conflict monitoring and response inhibition that are critically important for understanding age-related compensatory activation.
Subject: Keywords: brain injuries; traumatic brain injury; children; diversity; student-led; participant-focused; recruitment; sample; methods
Online: 7 July 2020 (04:42:39 CEST)
The advancement of the pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) knowledge base requires biospecimens and data from large samples. This study seeks to describe a novel clinical research modality to establish best practices for enrolling a diverse pediatric TBI population and quantifying key information on enrollment into biobanks. Screening form responses were standardized and cleaned through Google Sheets. Data was used to analyze total individuals at each enrollment stage. R was utilized for final analysis, including chi-square goodness of fit and proportion statistical tests, to determine further significance and relationships. Issues throughout data cleaning shed light on limitations of the consent modality. Results suggest that through a diverse research team, the recruited sample exceeds traditional measures of representation (e.g. sex, race, ethnicity). Sex demographics of the study are representative of the local population. Screening for candidates is critical to the success of the consent modality. The consent modality may be modified to increase diversity of study population and accept bilingual candidates. Researchers must implement best practices, including increasing inclusivity of bilingual populations, utilizing technology, and improving participant follow-up, to improve health disparities for understudied clinical populations.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19; lung damage mechanisms; leukecyte recruitment; viral infection; immune response; temperature and humidity; interstitial pressure change
Online: 9 September 2020 (11:32:55 CEST)
To understand lung damage caused by COVID-19, we deduced two-phase lung damage mechanisms. After the lungs are infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus, the affected lung tissue swells and surface properties of pulmonary capillaries change, resulting in an increased flow resistance of affected capillaries. If a sufficient number of capillaries are affected by the infection, the swelling and increased cell wall adhesion collectively raise pulmonary vascular resistance. The increased vascular resistance further increases the dwell times of WBCs in affected capillaries and nearly capillaries. When pulmonary pressure is sufficiently higher, WBCs are forced to squeeze into interstitial spaces or alveolar spaces when local pressures are higher than what the capillaries can withstand. When more and more WBCs are dynamically retained, the flow resistance of more capillaries rises, pulmonary vascular resistance rises, and pulmonary pressure rises. The rise in the pulmonary pressure in turn results in elevated capillary pressures. When capillary pressures around the alveoli are sufficiently high, they cause interstitial pressures to change from normally negative values to positive values. The positive pressures cause fluid leakage to the alveolar space and thus degrade lung function. Tissue swelling, and occupation of WBCs in interstitial spaces and alveolar spaces further reduce compressible volume, and thus cause further rise in the pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary pressure. When the pulmonary pressure has reached a critical point as in the second phase, the blood breaks capillary walls and squeezes through interstitial spaces to reach alveolar spaces, resulting in irreversible lung damages. The available free volume in the thorax cage, organ usable capacities, temperature and humid are expected to have great impacts on degree of lung damages. The free volume in the thorax cage, lung usable surplus capacity, and other organ usable capacities determine the arrival time of last-phase irreversible damage. The mechanisms imply that the top priority for protecting lungs is maintaining pulmonary micro-circulation and preserving organ functions in the entire disease course while controlling viral reproduction should be stressed in the earliest time possible. The mechanisms also explain leukecytes are recruited and migrated into inflamed tissues by increasing their dwell times caused by increased local flow resistance.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0069.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Skills Shortage; AI; Work 4.0; Digital Transformation; Digital Transformation; Adaptive Learning; Skill Development; HCI; Artificial Intelligence; Recruitment and Selection; Human Resources Infor-mation Systems; Augmentation; Substitution of Workforce; Augmentation Strategies
Online: 3 February 2023 (10:09:41 CET)
In order to counter the impending shortage of skilled professionals in the aging societies of our time in many western countries such as Germany, solutions for business and society are urgently needed. Here, artificial intelligence (AI) can play an important role in mitigating the problem with the help of diverse applications. At the same time, it is important to consider both the needs of the respective employee1 and the company to ensure that the use of AI has a positive impact on the organization and finds social acceptance. In this article, we describe the newly developed OSQE model (Optimize, Secure, Qualify, Expand), which for the first time outlines an AI cycle against the shortage of skilled professionals in a holistic approach that focuses equally on people and companies. This can serve organizations as a guide for strategy development, decision-making for and implementation of AI-supported measures in an entire cycle of an employee's affiliation with a company. The model takes three driving forces into account: companies, professionals, and AI applications. In the model, the measures to be implemented are prioritized with ascending numbering based on what would be most urgent for a company to implement. All measures relate to areas of action that place people at the center and can be assigned to the classic cycle of belonging of an employee in the company. In this regard, the opportunities that AI offers to professionals and companies are highlighted.