ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0396.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Progesterone Receptor; Mineralocorticoid Receptor; Evolution; Zebrafish
Online: 22 November 2021 (13:52:50 CET)
There is much concern about disruption of endocrine physiology regulated by steroid hormones in humans, other terrestrial vertebrates and fish by industrial chemicals, such as bisphenol A, and pesticides, such as DDT. These endocrine-disrupting chemicals influence steroid-mediated physiology in humans and other vertebrates by competing with steroids for receptor binding sites, disrupting diverse responses involved in reproduction, development and differentiation. Here I discuss that due to evolution of the progesterone receptor (PR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) after ray-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates diverged from a common ancestor, each receptor evolved to respond to different steroids in ray-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates. In elephant shark, a cartilaginous fish, ancestral to ray-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates, both progesterone and 17,20-beta-dihydroxy-progesterone activate the PR. During the evolution of ray-finned fish and terrestrial vertebrates, the PR in terrestrial vertebrates continued responding to progesterone and evolved to weakly respond to 17,20-beta-dihydroxy-progesterone. In contrast, the physiological progestin for the PR in zebrafish and other ray-finned fish is 17,20-beta-dihydroxy-progesterone, and ray-finned fish PR responds weakly to progesterone. The MR in fish and terrestrial vertebrates also diverged to have different responses to progesterone. Progesterone is a potent agonist for elephant shark MR, zebrafish MR and other fish MRs, in contrast to progesterone’s opposite activity as an antagonist for aldosterone, the physiological mineralocorticoid for human MR. These different physiological ligands for fish and terrestrial vertebrate PR and MR need to be considered in applying data for their disruption by chemicals in fish and terrestrial vertebrates to each other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D receptor; vitamin D receptor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; signal transduction; differentiation
Online: 21 October 2021 (10:52:39 CEST)
(1) Background: Many malignancies are driven by mutations which affect the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1. Previously we have documented that signal transduction from FOP2–FGFR1 fusion protein in KG1 cells downregulated the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. In this paper we investigated if also other FGFRs were responsible for the regulation of the VDR expression. (2) Methods: We used human myeloid leukemia cells U937, and bone cancer cell line U2OS, and cell transfection methods in order to address the above questions. (3) Results: In myeloid leukemia cells overexpression of FGFR 1-4 caused shift to granulocytic differentiation, upregulated expression of VDR, and sensitized these cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D)-induced monocytic differentiation, while in bone cells, signal transduction activated by FGF1 was not responsible for regulation of VDR expression and activity. (4) Conclusions: Since the overexpression of FGFRs occurs in many neoplasms, it may be reasonable to use 1,25D analogs in these cancers, in which overexpression of FGFRs leads to VDR upregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: G-Protein Coupled Receptors; beta-3-adrenergic receptor; receptor desensitization
Online: 6 May 2021 (13:16:27 CEST)
Adrenergic receptor β3 (ADRβ3) is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor family. The binding of the ligand to ADRβ3 activates adenylate cyclase and increases cAMP in the cells. ADRβ3 is highly expressed in white and brown adipocytes and controls key regulatory pathways of lipid metabolism. Trp64Arg (W64R) polymorphism in the ADRβ3 has been associated with the early development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, lower resting metabolic rate, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance. It is unclear how the substitution of W64R affects the functioning of ADRβ3. This study was initiated to functionally characterize this obesity-linked variant of ADRβ3. We evaluated in detail the expression, subcellular distribution, and post-activation behavior of the WT and W64R ADRβ3 using a single cell quantitative fluorescence microscopy. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, ADRβ3 shows a typical distribution displayed by other GPCRs with a predominant localization at the cell surface. Unlike Adrenergic receptor β2 (ADRβ2), agonist induced desensitization of ADRβ3 does not involve loss of cell surface expression. WT and W64R variant of ADRβ3 displayed comparable biochemical properties and there was no significant impact of the substitution of Tryptophan with Arginine on the expression, cellular distribution, signaling, and post-activation behavior of ADRβ3. The obesity-linked W64R variant of ADRβ3 is indistinguishable from the WT ADRβ3 in terms of expression, cellular distribution, signaling, and post-activation behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0126.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: amyloid peptides; androgen receptor; nuclear receptor; aggregation; atomic force microscopy
Online: 16 May 2017 (17:48:54 CEST)
The human androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand inducible transcription factor harboring an amino terminal domain (AR-NTD) hosting the ligand independent activation function. AR-NTD is intrinsically disordered and display aggregation properties conferred by the presence of a poly-glutamine (polyQ) sequence of 22 residues. The length of the polyQ sequence, as well as the presence of adjacent sequence motifs modulate this aggregation property. AR-NTD contains also a conserved sequence motif KELCKAVSVSM that displays an intrinsic property to form amyloid fibrils under mild oxidative conditions of its conserved cysteine residue. As peptide sequences with intrinsic ability to oligomerize are reported to have an impact on the aggregation of polyQ tract, we determined the effect of the KELCKAVSVSM on the polyQ stretch in the context of the AR NTD, using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Here, we present evidence for a crosstalk between the amyloidogenic properties of the KELCKAVSVSM motif and the polyQ stretch at the AR NTD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cholecystokinin-2 receptor; minigastrin; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy; lutetium-177, theranostics
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:39:42 CEST)
Minigastrin (MG) analogs for therapy of CCK2R-expressing malignancies are limited by low stability in vivo or excessive accumulation in non-target organs. By modifying the C-terminal receptor-binding sequence, metabolization could be prevented and tumor targeting significantly improved. In this work, N-terminal changes of the peptide length were evaluated. Based on the amino acid sequence of DOTA-MGS5 (DOTA-DGlu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-(N-Me)Nle-Asp-1Nal-NH2), two new MG analogs were synthesized, by either introduction of a penta-DGlu moiety or depletion of the four N-terminal amino acids and introduction of a non-charged hydrophilic linker. Two CCK2R-expressing cell lines were used to demonstrate receptor interaction. Stability of the 177Lu-labeled peptide analogs was evaluated in human serum up to 24 h after incubation and in BALB/c mice up to 30 min after injection. The biodistribution profile and tumor targeting potential was evaluated in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. For both new MG analogs, the combination of strong receptor-specific cell interaction, high stability and enhanced tumor targeting could be demonstrated. Shortening of the peptide sequence lowered the absorption in the dose-limiting organs, whereas elongation increased uptake in renal tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0001.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: shark steroids; steroid receptor evolution; mineralocorticoid receptor evolution; progesterone; aldosterone; cortisol
Online: 1 March 2019 (06:37:37 CET)
We report the analysis of activation by corticosteroids and progesterone of full-length mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from elephant shark, a cartilaginous fish belonging to the oldest group of jawed vertebrates. Based on their measured activities, aldosterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxcortisol, progesterone and 19-norprogesterone are potential physiological mineralocorticoids. However, aldosterone, the physiological mineralocorticoid in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, is not found in cartilaginous or ray-finned fishes. Because progesterone is a precursor for corticosteroids that activate elephant shark MR, we propose that progesterone was an ancestral ligand for elephant shark MR. Although progesterone activates ray-finned fish MRs, progesterone does not activate human, amphibian or alligator MRs, suggesting that during the transition to terrestrial vertebrates, progesterone lost the ability to activate the MR. Comparison of RNA-sequence analysis of elephant shark MR with that of human MR suggests that MR expression in the human brain, heart, ovary, testis and other non-epithelial tissues evolved in cartilaginous fishes. Together, these data suggest that progesterone-activated MR may have unappreciated functions in elephant shark ovary and testis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0180.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: plasma membrane; membrane domains; nanodomains; neurotransmitter receptors; cannabinoids; acetylcholine receptor; cannabinoid receptor.
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:17:01 CEST)
Fifty years on from the classical fluid-mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson, current views of the plasma membrane portray a much more complex view of this interface region. Compartmentalization, together with transbilayer and lateral asymmetries, provide the structural foundation for functional specializations at the cell surface, including the active role of the lipid microenvironment in the modulation of membrane-bound proteins. The chemical synapse, the site where neurotransmitter-coded signals are decoded by neurotransmitter receptors, adds another layer of complexity to the plasma membrane architectural intricacy, mainly due to the need to accommodate a sizeable number of molecules in a minute subcellular compartment with dimensions barely reaching the micrometer. In this review, we discuss how Nature has developed suitable adjustments to accommodate different types of membrane-bound receptors and scaffolding proteins via membrane microdomains, and how this “efford-sharing” mechanism has evolved to optimize crosstalk or separation or coupling where/when appropriate. To this end, we use a fast ligand-gated neurotransmitter receptor, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and a second-messenger G-protein coupled receptor, the cannabinoid receptor, as paradigmatic example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0513.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: apoferritin nanocarriers; controlled drug delivery; idarubicin; ferritin receptor targeting; folate receptor targeting
Online: 21 December 2020 (11:28:08 CET)
The interactions of chemotherapeutic drugs with nanocage protein apoferritin (APO) are the key features in the effective encapsulation and release of highly toxic drugs in APO-based controlled drug delivery systems. The encapsulation enables mitigating the drugs side effects, collateral damage to healthy cells, and adverse immune reactions. Herein, the interactions of anthracycline drugs with APO were studied to assess the effect of drug lipophilicity on their encapsulation excess n and in vitro activity. Anthracycline drugs, including doxorubicin (DOX), epirubicin (EPI), daunorubicin (DAU), and idarubicin (IDA), with lipophilicity P from 0.8 to 15, were investigated. We have found that in addition to hydrogen-bonded supramolecular ensemble formation with n = 24, there are two other competing contributions that enable increasing n under strong polar interactions (APO(DOX)) or under strong hydrophobic interactions (APO(IDA) of the highest efficacy). The encapsulation/release processes were investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and FTIR spectroscopies. In vitro cytotoxicity/growth inhibition tests and flow cytometry corroborate high apoptotic activity of APO(drugs) against targeted MDA-MB-231 adenocarcinoma and HeLa cancer cells, and low activity against non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells, demonstrating targeting ability of nanodrugs. A model for molecular interactions between anthracyclines and APO nanocarriers was developed, and the relationships derived compared with experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; glycyrrhizin; mineralocorticoid receptor; toll like receptor 4; angiotensin converting enzyme; aldosterone
Online: 21 May 2021 (15:11:30 CEST)
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key entry point of SARS-CoV-2 virus known to induce COVID-19. We have recently outlined the concept to reduce ACE2 expression by the administration of glycyrrhizin, a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract, via its inhibitory activity on 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) and resulting activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We hypothesized that in organs, such as the intestine, which co-express 11betaHSD2, MR and ACE2, the expression of ACE2 would be suppressed. We studied organ tissues from an experiment originally designed to address the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on the stress response. Male Sprague Dawley rats were left undisturbed or exposed to chronic mild stress for five weeks. For the last two weeks, animals continued with a placebo diet or received a diet containing extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight/day. Quantitative PCR measurements showed a significant decrease in gene expression of ACE2 in the small intestine of rats fed with diet containing Glycyrrhiza glabra extract. This effect was independent of the stress condition and failed to be observed in non-target tissues, namely the heart and the brain cortex. In the small intestine we confirmed the reduction of ACE2 also at the protein level. Present findings provide first evidence to support the hypothesis that Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may reduce an entry point of SARS-CoV-2. Whether this phenomenon, when confirmed in additional studies, is linked to the susceptibility of cells to the virus requires further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Acanthamoeba sp.; eyes; toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)
Online: 31 January 2019 (07:00:38 CET)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune response to numerous pathogens, including Acanthamoeba sp. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the eyes of mice following intranasal infection with Acanthamoeba sp. Amoebae used in this study were isolated from the bronchial aspirate of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and atypical symptoms of pneumonia. We found statistically significant differences in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the eyes of immunocompetent mice at 8, 16, and 24 days post Acanthamoeba sp. infection (dpi) compared to control. Immunosuppressed mice showed significant differences in the expression of TLR2 at 16 and 24 dpi compared to uninfected animals. Our results indicate that TLR2 and TLR4 are upregulated in the eyes of mice in response to Acanthamoeba sp. We suggest that it is possible for trophozoites to migrate through the optic nerve from the brain to the eyes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0027.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Liver X receptor (LXR); Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ); Adipose expansion; Insulin resistance
Online: 10 October 2016 (07:56:30 CEST)
Liver X receptors (LXR) are deemed as potential drug targets for atherosclerosis, whereas a role in adipose tissue expansion and its relation to insulin sensitivity remains unclear. To assess the metabolic effects of LXR activation, C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with the dual LXRα/β agonist T0901317 (30 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Differentiated 3T3-L1 was used for analysing the effect of T0901317 on glucose uptake.T0901317 reduced fat mass, accompanied by a massive fatty liver and lower adipokine levels in circulation of HFD mice. Increased adipocyte apoptosis and macrophage infiltration were found in epididymal fat of T0901317-treated HFD mice. In addition, T0901317 treatment promoted basal lipolysis, but blunted the anti-lipolytic action of insulin. Furthermore, LXR activation antagonized PPARγ target genes in epididymal fat and PPARγ-PPRE binding activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Although the glucose tolerance was comparable to that in vehicle-treated HFD mice, the insulin tolerance was significantly decreased in T0901317-treated HFD mice, indicating decreased insulin sensitivity by T0901317 administration, and which was further supported by impaired insulin signalling found in epididymal fat and decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 by T0901317administration. These findings reveal that LXR activation impairs adipose expansion which contributes to decreased insulin sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0374.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: aldosterone; apoptosis; cardiac myocyte; eplerenone; fibrosis; finerenone; G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-5; mineralocorticoid receptor; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA); signal transduction
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:24:29 CEST)
Background: In the heart, aldosterone (Aldo) binds the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to exert damaging, adverse remodeling-promoting effects. We recently showed that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase (GRK)-5 blocks the cardiac MR by directly phosphorylating it, thereby repressing its transcriptional activity. MR antagonist (MRA) drugs block the cardiac MR reducing morbidity and mortality of advanced human heart failure. Non-steroidal MRAs, such as finerenone, may provide better cardio-protection against Aldo than classic, steroidal MRAs, like spironolactone and eplerenone. Herein, we sought to investigate potential differences between finerenone and eplerenone at engaging GRK5-dependent cardiac MR phosphorylation and subsequent blockade. Methods: We used the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Results: GRK5 phosphorylates the MR in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in response to finerenone but not to eplerenone. Unlike eplerenone, finerenone alone potently and efficiently suppresses cardiac MR transcriptional activity, thus displaying inverse agonism. GRK5 is necessary for finerenone`s inverse agonism, since GRK5 genetic deletion renders finerenone incapable of blocking cardiac MR transcriptional activity. Eplerenone alone does not fully suppress cardiac MR basal activity regardless of GRK5 expression levels. Finally in NRVMs, GRK5 is necessary for the anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic effects of both finerenone and eplerenone against Aldo, as well as for the higher efficacy and potency of finerenone at blocking Aldo-induced apoptosis and fibrosis. Conclusions: Finerenone, but not eplerenone, induces GRK5-dependent cardiac MR inhibition, which underlies, at least in part, its higher potency and efficacy, compared to eplerenone, as an MRA in the heart. GRK5 acts as a co-repressor of the cardiac MR and is essential for efficient MR antagonism in the myocardium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0665.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cannabinoid receptor; inflammation; astrocytes; immunohistochemistry
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:11:55 CEST)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), suggesting underlying systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory mechanisms. The endogenous cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) modulate inflammatory gene expression and play an important role in maintaining neuronal homeostasis. Cannabis use is disproportionately high among people with HIV (PWH) and may provide a neuroprotective effect for those on ART due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, expression profiles of CB1 and CB2 in the brains of PWH on ART with HAND have not been reported. In this study, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to determine CB1 and CB2 expression in brain specimens of HAND donors. Immunoblot revealed CB1 and CB2 were differentially expressed in frontal cortices from HAND brains compared to neurocognitively unimpaired (NUI) brains from PWH. CB1 expression levels negatively correlated with memory and information processing speed. CB1 was primarily localized to neuronal soma in HAND brains versus a more punctate distribution on neuronal processes of NUI brains. CB1 expression was increased in cells with glial morphology and showed increased colocalization with an astroglial marker. These results suggest that targeting the endocannabinoid system may be a potential therapeutic strategy for HAND.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0194.v1
Online: 14 February 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
Recently, it was confirmed that ACE2 is the receptor of 2019-nCoV, the pathogen causing the recent outbreak of severe pneumonia in China. It is confused that ACE2 is widely expressed across a variety of organs and is expressed moderately but not highly in lung, which, however, is the major infected organ. It remains unclear why it is the lung but not other tissues among which ACE2 highly expressed is mainly infected. We hypothesized that there could be some other genes playing key roles in the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells. Here we found that AGTR2 (angiotensin II receptor type 2), a G-protein coupled receptor, has interaction with ACE2 and is highly expressed in lung with a high tissue specificity. More importantly, simulation of 3D structure based protein-protein interaction reveals that AGTR2 shows a higher binding affinity with the Spike protein of 2019-nCov than ACE2 (energy score: -15.7 vs. -6.9 [kcal/mol]). Given these observations, we suggest that AGTR2 could be a putative novel gene for the the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells but need further confirmation by biological experiments. Finally, a number of compounds, biologics and traditional Chinese medicine that could decrease the expression level of AGTR2 were predicted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0212.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: cancer; cell-surface receptor; EGFR; molecular mechanism; phosphorylation; receptor tyrosine kinase; transmembrane signal transduction
Online: 30 May 2017 (08:34:04 CEST)
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays vital roles in cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, motility and differentiation. Dysregulated activation of the receptor is often implicated in human cancers. EGFR is synthesized as a single-pass transmembrane protein, which consists of an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an intracellular kinase domain separated by a single transmembrane domain. The receptor is activated by a variety of polypeptide ligands such as epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α. It has long been thought that EGFR is activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptor monomer, which brings intracellular kinase domains into close proximity for trans-autophosphorylation. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, demonstrate that EGFR is present as a pre-formed, yet inactive, dimer prior to ligand binding. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into conformational changes during the activation of a pre-formed EGFR dimer. Upon ligand binding to the extracellular domain of EGFR, its transmembrane domains rotate or twist parallel to the plane of the cell membrane, resulting in reorientation of the intracellular kinase domain dimer from a symmetric inactive configuration to an asymmetric active form (the “rotation model”). This model is also able to explain how oncogenic mutations activate the receptor in the absence of ligand without assuming that the mutations induce receptor dimerization. In this review, we discuss mechanisms underlying ligand-induced activation of the preformed EGFR dimer, as well as how oncogenic mutations constitutively activate the receptor dimer, based on the rotation model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0058.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: human interferon gamma; human interferon gamma receptor; receptor binding; heparan sulfate; co-receptor; molecular dynamics simulations; sodium chlorate; kynurenine antiproliferative assays; hIFNγ signalling
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:43:05 CEST)
The extremely controversial conclusions about the function of human interferon-gamma (hIFNγ) C-terminus as well as the lack of a consistent model explaining its role in the receptor binding prompted us to scrutinize the interaction of hIFNγ with its extracellular receptor hIFNGR1 in different scenarios by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the two molecules alone fail to form a stable complex but the presence of heparan-sulfate-like oligosaccharides largely facilitates the process by both demobilizing the highly flexible C-termini of the cytokine and assisting in the proper positioning of its globule between the receptor subunits. An antiproliferative-activity essay on cells depleted from surface sulfation confirms qualitatively the simulation-based multistage complex-formation model. Our results reveal the key role of HS and its proteoglycans in all processes involving hIFNγ signalling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: glycine transporter; glycine receptor; analgesics; lipids
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:46:31 CET)
Reduced inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission is implicated in a number of neurological conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, epilepsy and hyperekplexia. Restoring glycinergic signalling may be an effective method of treating these pathologies. Glycine transporters (GlyTs) control synaptic and extra-synaptic glycine concentrations and slowing the reuptake of glycine using specific GlyT inhibitors will increase glycine extracellular concentrations and increase glycine receptor (GlyR) activation. Glycinergic neurotransmission can also be improved through positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of GlyRs. Despite efforts to manipulate this synapse, no therapeutics currently target it. We propose that dual action modulators of both GlyTs and GlyRs may show greater therapeutic potential than those targeting individual proteins. To show this, we have characterized a co-expression system in Xenopus laevis oocytes consisting of GlyT1 or GlyT2 co-expressed with GlyRα1. We use two electrode voltage clamp recording techniques to measure the impact of GlyTs on GlyRs and the effects of modulators of these proteins. We show that increases in GlyT density in close proximity to GlyRs diminish receptor currents. Reductions in GlyR mediated currents are not observed when non-transportable GlyR agonists are applied or when Na+ is not available. GlyTs reduce glycine concentrations across different concentration ranges, corresponding with their ion-coupling stoichiometry, and full receptor currents can be restored when GlyTs are blocked with selective inhibitors. We show that partial inhibition of GlyT2 and modest GlyRα1 potentiation using a dual action compound, is as useful in restoring GlyR currents as a full and potent single target GlyT2 inhibitor or single target GlyRα1 PAM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: fibromyalgia; drugs; NMDA receptor; ketamine; memantine.
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:43:53 CEST)
Activation of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) results in increased sensitivity of spinal cord and brain pathways that process sensory information, particularly that which relates pain. The NMDAR shows increased activity in fibromyalgia and hence modulation of the NMDAR is a target for therapeutic intervention. A literature review of interventions impacting on the NMDAR shows a number of drugs to be active on the NMDAR mechanism in fibromyalgia patients, with variable clinical effects. Low-dose intravenous ketamine and oral memantine both show clinically useful benefit in fibromyalgia. However, consideration of side-effects, logistics and cost need to be factored into management decisions regarding use of these drugs in this clinical setting. Overall benefits with current NMDAR antagonists appear modest and there is a need for better strategy trials to clarify optimal dose schedules and to delineate potential longer –term adverse events. Further investigation of the role of the NMDAR in fibromyalgia and the effect of other molecules that modulate this receptor appear important to enhance treatment targets in fibromyalgia.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: histamine; histamine H1 receptor; histamine H4 receptor; itch; TRPV1; TRPA1; dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG); Ca2+-imaging
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:12:01 CEST)
Two histamine receptor subtypes (HR), namely H1R and H4R, as key components, are involved in the transmission of histamine-induced itch. Although exact downstream signaling mechanisms are still elusive, transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels play important roles in the sensation of histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch. Aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels in the transmission of histaminergic itch. The potential of TRPV1 and TRPA1 inhibitors to modulate H1R- and H4R-induced signal transmission was tested in a scratching assay in mice in vivo and in vitro via Ca2+ imaging of murine sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. The TRPV1 inhibition led to a reduction of H1R- and H4R- induced itch and reduced Ca2+ influx into the neurons. The TRPA1 inhibitor reduced H4R-induced itch and both H1R- and H4R-induced Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, these results indicate that both channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1 are involved in the transmission of histamine-induced pruritus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Desipramine; Autophagy; Apoptosis; Death receptor-5; TRAIL
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:09:09 CET)
Autophagy, an alternative cell death mechanism, is also termed programmed cell death type II. Autophagy in cancer treatment needs to be regulated. In our study, autophagy inhibition by desipramine or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) enhanced tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-2 [death receptor (DR5)] expression and subsequently TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant A549 lung cancer cells. Genetic inhibition of DR5 substantially reduced desipramine-enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, proving that DR5 was required to increase TRAIL sensitivity in TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Desipramine treatment upregulated p62 expression and promoted conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to its lipid-conjugated form, LC3-II, indicating that autophagy inhibition occurred at the final stages of autophagic flux. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the presence of condensed autophagosomes, which resulted from the late stages of autophagy inhibition by desipramine. TRAIL, in combination with desipramine or CQ, augmented the expression of apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3. Our results contributed to the understanding of the mechanism underlying the synergistic anti-cancer effect of desipramine and TRAIL and presented a novel mechanism of DR5 upregulation. These findings demonstrated that autophagic flux inhibition by desipramine potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that appropriate regulation of autophagy is required for sensitizing TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0231.v1
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:19:47 CET)
The progesterone receptor (PR) mediates progesterone regulation of female reproductive physiology, as well as gene transcription in non-reproductive tissues, such as brain, bone, lung and vasculature, in both women and men. An unusual property of progesterone is its high affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which regulates electrolyte transport in the kidney in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates. In humans, rats, alligators and frogs, progesterone antagonizes activation of the MR by aldosterone, the physiological mineralocorticoid in terrestrial vertebrates. In contrast, in elephant shark, ray-finned fishes and chickens, progesterone activates the MR. Interestingly, cartilaginous fishes and ray-finned fishes do not synthesize aldosterone, raising the question of which steroid(s) activate the MR in cartilaginous fishes and ray-finned fishes. The simpler synthesis of progesterone, compared to cortisol and other corticosteroids, makes progesterone a candidate physiological activator of the MR in elephant sharks and ray-finned fishes. Elephant shark and ray-finned fish MRs are expressed in diverse tissues, including heart, brain and lung, as well as, ovary and testis, two reproductive tissues that are targets for progesterone, which together suggests a multi-faceted physiological role for progesterone activation of the MR in elephant shark and ray-finned fish. The functional consequences of progesterone as an antagonist of some terrestrial vertebrate MRs and as an agonist of fish and chicken MRs are not fully understood. Indeed, little is known of physiological activities of progesterone via any vertebrate MR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Influenza A virus, immunology, immunotherapy, receptor; tumors
Online: 29 May 2019 (16:16:49 CEST)
Dewetting transition - a concept borrowed from fluid mechanics - is a physiological process which takes place inside the hydrophobic pores of ion channels. This transient phenomenon causes a metastable state which forbids water molecules to cross the microscopic receptors’ cavities. This leads to a decrease of conductance, a closure of the hole and, subsequently, severe impairment of cellular performance. We suggest that artificially-provoked dewetting transition in ion channels’ hydrophobic pores could stand for a molecular candidate to erase detrimental organisms, such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. We describe a novel type of high-affinity monoclonal antibody, which: a) targets specific trans-membrane receptor structures of harmful or redundant cells; b) is equipped with lipophilic and/or hydrophobic fragments that prevent physiological water flows inside ion channels. Therefore, we achieve an artificial dewetting transition inside receptors’ cavities which causes transmembrane ionic flows discontinuity, channel blockage and subsequent damage of morbid cells. As an example, we describe dewetting monoclonal antibodies targeting the M2 channel of the Influenza A virus: they might prevent water to enter the pores, thus leading to virion impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; cytokines; inflammation; endogenous opioid; opioid receptor
Online: 16 April 2019 (09:49:14 CEST)
Background: There is now evidence that immune and opioid systems show functional reciprocal relationships and that both systems may participate in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Objective: The present study was carried out to delineate differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in dynorphin and kappa opioid receptor (KORs) in association with levels of β-endorphins and mu opioid receptors (MORs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Method: The present study recruited 60 drug-free male participants with MDD aged 24-70 year and 30 age-matched healthy males as control group and measured serum levels of dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin, MOR, IL-6 and IL-10. Results: Serum dynorphin, KOR, β-endorphin and MOR are significantly increased in MDD as compared with controls. The increases in the dynorphin/KOR system and β-endorhin/MOR system are significantly intercorrelated and are both strongly associated with increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Dynorphin, β-endorphin, KOR and both cytokines showed a good diagnostic performance for MDD versus controls, whereby both opioid peptides and cytokines show a bootstrapped (n=2000) area under the receiver operating curve of 0.972. KOR and the dynorphin/KOR system are both significantly decreased in depressed subjects with comorbid nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in MDD, immune activation is associated with a simultaneous activation of dynorphin/KOR and β-endorhin/MOR signaling and that these opioid systems may participate in the pathophysiology of depression by a) exerting immune regulatory activities attenuating the primary immune response; and b) modulating reward responses and mood as well as emotional and behavioral responses to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0033.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: cordycepin; adenosine A1 receptor; prolactin; anti-obesity
Online: 3 April 2018 (07:53:24 CEST)
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris, which is a traditional medicine with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. A large quantity of evidences showed that prolactin plays an important part in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupling with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin, the results suggested that cordycepin is a potential drug for therapying obesity which could be related with prolactin. In vitro, cordycepin could inhibit prolactin secretion in GH3 cells via upregulating the expression of adenosine A1 receptor, the inhibition effect could be blocked by an antagonist of adenosine receptor A1 DPDPX, prolactin induced the upregulation of lipogenesis genes PRLR, and P-JAK2 in 3T3-L1 cells. Intriguingly, cordycepin would down-regulate the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR). Thus, we concluded that cordycepin modulate body weight by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Free fatty acid receptor 2; microbiota; metabolite; sensor; G-coupled protein receptor; signaling; Alzheimer’s disease; senescence; C. elegans
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:56:00 CET)
Gut microbiota and its metabolites like short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are linked with pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)- a debilitating public health problem in older adults. However, strategies to beneficially modulate gut microbiota and its sensing signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Here, we screened, validated and established the agonists of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) signaling, which senses beneficial signals from SCFAs produced by microbiota in the gut. We demonstrated that inhibition of FFAR2 signaling increases amyloid-beta (Aβ) stimulated neuronal toxicity. Thus, we screened FFAR2 agonists, using in-silico library of more than 144,000 natural compounds, and 15 compounds were selected based on binding with FFAR2 agonist sites. Further, cell culture toxicity and FFAR2 stimulatory experiments demonstrated that Fenchol (a natural compound commonly present in basil) was potent FFAR2 agonist in neuronal cells. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that Fenchol protects Aβ-stimulated neurodegeneration in FFAR2 dependent manner. In addition, Fenchol reduced AD like phenotypes such as Aβ-accumulation and, learning and memory behaviors in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans. Fenchol increased Aβ-clearance by increasing proteasome/lysosome activity and reduced senescence in neuronal cells. These results demonstrated that the inhibition of FFAR2 signaling promotes Aβ-induced neurodegeneration, while activating it by Fenchol as a natural agonist reverse it by promoting Aβ-clearance and reducing cellular senescence; thus stimulation of FFAR2 signaling can be a therapeutic approach to prevent/ treat AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0185.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: eel luteinizing hormone receptor; constitutively activating mutation; inactivating mutation; cyclic adenosine monophosphate response; cell surface loss of receptor
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:56:48 CEST)
We analyzed signal transduction of three constitutively activating mutants (M410T, L469R, and D590Y) and two inactivating mutants (D417N and Y558F) of the eel luteinizing hormone receptor (eel LHR), known to occur in human LHR. The objective of this study was to assess the functional effects of these mutations in signal transduction and cell surface loss of receptor. Mutant receptors were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Eel LH-stimulated accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was measured by homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assays. The loss of receptors from the cells surface was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The cAMP response in cells expressing the wild type eel LHR was increased in a dose-dependent manner using eel LH ligand stimulation. Compared with the wild type, cells expressing the activating mutants (M410T, L469R, and D590Y), exhibited a 4.0-, 19.1-, and 7.8-fold increase in basal cAMP response without agonist stimulation, respectively. Their maximal responses to agonist stimulation were approximately 65%, 52%, and 98%, respectively, of those of the wild type. The inactivating mutants (D417N and Y558F) did not completely impair signal transduction, and their maximal responses were only 33% and25 % of those of wild type. These data clearly showed that the eel LHR-L469R and D590Y, activating mutants enhanced the rate of the loss of cell surface receptors following treatment with eel LH. Thus, the loss of cell surface receptors in cells expressing mutant eel LHRs was consistent with the eel LH agonist-induced production of cAMP. Our results suggested that the activation of the eel LHR requires appropriate loss of LHR-ligand complexes from the cell surface.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: μ opioid receptor; receptor model; biased ligands; dependence; pain therapy; neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome; naltrexone; 6β-naltrexol; buprenorphine
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:27:40 CEST)
Opioid analgesics are effective pain therapeutics but cause various adverse effects and addiction. For safer pain therapy, biased opioid agonists selectively target distinct m opioid receptor (MOR) conformations, while the potential of biased opioid antagonists has been neglected. Agonists convert a dormant receptor form (MOR-m) to a ligand-free active form (MOR-m*), which mediates MOR signaling. Moreover, MOR-m converts spontaneously to MOR-m* (basal signaling). Persistent upregulation of MOR-m* has been invoked as a hallmark of opioid dependence. Contrasting interactions with both MOR-m and MOR-m* can account for distinct pharmacological characteristics of inverse agonists (naltrexone), neutral antagonists (6b-naltrexol), and mixed opioid agonist-antagonists (buprenorphine). Upon binding to MOR-m*, naltrexone but not 6b-naltrexol suppresses MOR-m*signaling. Naltrexone blocks opioid analgesia non-competitively at MOR-m*with high potency, whereas 6BN must compete with agonists at MOR-m, accounting for ~100-fold lower in vivo potency. Buprenorphine’s bell-shaped dose-response curve may also result from opposing effects on MOR-m and MOR-m*. In contrast, we find that 6b-naltrexol potently prevents dependence, below doses affecting analgesia or causing withdrawal, possibly binding to MOR conformations relevant to opioid dependence. We propose that 6b-naltrexol is a biased opioid antagonist modulating opioid dependence at low doses, opening novel avenues for opioid pain therapy and use management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: : mineralocorticosteroid receptor antagonist (MRA); angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); SARS-CoV-2; transmembrane protease receptor serine 2; furin; plasmin
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:39:03 CEST)
Aims: Spironolactone is a steroidal mineralocoricosteroid receptor antagonist (MRA) used for treatment of resistant hypertension, heart failure and edema. It exerts class specific adverse effects that are shared by other MRAs. Additionally, it exerts unique “off target” steroidal effects that include gynecomastia, impotence and loss of libido in males and menstrual irregularity in females. Together, these have led to a poor tolerability and limited use despite positive results in many randomized, controlled clinical trials. We review the off-target effects of spironolactone that may summate with its MRA action to provide an advantageous profile for prevention or treatment of patients with COVID-19. Methods: Literature review using PubMed Central. Results: The blockade by spironolactone of the androgen receptor should diminish the expression of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) that has an androgen promoter while its MRA action should enhance the expression of protease nexin1 (PN1) that inhibits furin and plasmin. TMPRSS2, furin and plasmin cooperated to process the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to increase its high affinity binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and thereby promote viral cell entry. Its actions as an MRA may reduce inflammation and preserve pulmonary, cardiac and vascular functions. Its anti-plasmin action may combat hemostatic dysfunction. Conclusion: The hypothesis that the off-target effects of spironolactone summate with its MRA actions to provide special benefits for COVID-19 is worthy of direct investigation and clinical trial.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0290.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cholesterol; PCSK9 inhibitors; HMG-CoA; LDL receptor; statins
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a proteolytic enzyme that indirectly regulates serum LDL cholesterol by destroying LDL receptors. In clinical studies, the main role of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type9 (PCSK9) inhibitor in cholesterol regulation was elucidated. It is produced in the liver but is also present in the kidney and intestine. It prevents HMGCo from synthesizing cholesterol. SREBP-2 is a reductase that is induced by statins. In a dose-dependent manner, increasing SREBP-2 levels enhanced LDL-R and PCSK9 gene expression. At the minimum, two procedures have been developed to overcome the plasma level of PCSK9. This is the LDLR test, polyclonal antibodies, and sentience oligonucleotide. Lower dosage statin treatment with a proprotein convertase subtilisin/Kexin type9 inhibitor will be most efficient in lowering LDL and avoiding statin adverse effects. In multiple long-term trials, statins have been found to reduce cardiovascular mortality by 30% and stroke incidence by 20%. In this way, we conclude the role of PCSK9 in hypercholesterolemia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: inflammation; calcium-sensing receptor; burns; chemokines; NLRP3 inflammasome
Online: 20 May 2022 (04:01:33 CEST)
Burn injury serves as an example of a condition with a robust inflammatory response. The elevation of circulating interleukins (IL)- 1 beta and -6 in children with severe burn injury up-regulate the parathyroid calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) resulting in hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism with urinary calcium wasting. This effect protects the body from the hypercalcemia resulting from bone resorption liberating calcium into the circulation. Extracellular calcium can exacerbate and prolong the inflammatory response by stimulating mononuclear cell chemokine production as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome of the innate immune system, resulting in increased IL-1 production by monocytes and macrophages. Interestingly, the CaSR response to inflammatory cytokines disappears with age, potentially trapping calcium from bone resorption in the circulation and allowing it to contribute to increased inflammation and possibly increased calcium deposition in small arteries, , such as the coronaries, as conditions with increased chronic inflammation, such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have an incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary artery calcium deposition significantly higher than the unaffected age-matched population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0082.v1
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:57:16 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that belongs to the TAARs family (TAAR1-TAAR9). TAAR5 is expressed in the olfactory epithelium and is responsible for sensing 3-methylamine (TMA). However, recent studies showed that TAAR5 is also expressed in the limbic brain regions and is involved in the regulation of emotional behaviour and adult neurogenesis, suggesting that TAAR5 antagonism may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for anxiety and depression. We used the AtomNet® model, the first deep learning neural network for structure-based drug discovery, to identify putative TAAR5 ligands and tested them in an in vitro BRET assay. We found two mTAAR5 antagonists with low to submicromolar activity that are able to inhibit the cAMP production induced by TMA. Moreover, these two compounds also inhibited the mTAAR5 downstream signalling, such as the phosphorylation of CREB and ERK. These two hits exhibit drug-like properties and could be used to develop further more potent TAAR5 ligands with putative anxiolytic and antidepressant activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0007.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: receptor; distribution; BMP; BMPR; center of mass; micropattern
Online: 2 August 2021 (09:29:25 CEST)
At the plasma membrane, transmembrane receptors are at the interface between cells and their environment. They allow sensing and transduction of chemical and mechanical extracellular signals. The spatial distribution of receptors and the specific recruitment of receptor subunits to the cell membrane is crucial for the regulation of signaling and cell behavior. However, it is challenging to define what regulates such spatial patterns for receptor localization, as cell shapes are extremely diverse when cells are maintained in standard culture conditions. Bone morphogenic protein receptors (BMPRs) are serine-threonine kinases, which build heteromeric complexes of BMPRI and II. These are especially interesting targets for receptor distribution studies, since the signaling pathways triggered by BMPR-complexes depends on their dimerization mode. They might exist as pre-formed complexes, or assemble upon binding of BMP, triggering cell signaling which leads to differentiation or migration. In this work we analyzed BMPR receptor distributions in single cells grown on micropatterns, which allows not only to control cell shape, but also the distribution of intracellular organelles and protein assemblies. We developed a script called ComRed (Center Of Mass Receptor Distribution), which uses center of mass calculations to analyze the shift and spread of receptor distributions according to the different cell shapes. ComRed was tested by simulating changes in experimental data, showing that shift and spread of distributions can be reliably detected. Our ComRed-based analysis of BMPR-complexes indicates that receptor distribution depends on cell polarization. The absence of a coordinated internalization after addition of BMP suggests that a rapid and continual recycling of BMPRs occurs. Receptor complexes formation and localization in cells induced by BMP might yield insights into the local regulation of different signaling pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0030.v1
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:59:27 CEST)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important biological mediator involved in the defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Currently, there are no reports on the mycobacterial components that regulate PGE2 production. Previously, we have reported that RpfE-treated dendritic cells (DCs) effectively expanded the Th1 and Th17 cell responses simultaneously; however, the mechanism underlying Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation is unclear. Here, we show that PGE2 produced by RpfE-activated DCs via the MAPK and cyclooxygenase 2 signaling pathways induces Th1 and Th17 cell responses mainly via the EP4 receptor. Furthermore, mice administered intranasally with PGE2 displayed RpfE-induced antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 responses with a significant reduction in bacterial load in the lungs. Furthermore, the addition of optimal PGE2 amount to IL-2-IL-6-IL-23p19-IL-1β was essential for promoting differentiation into Th1/Th17 cells with strong bactericidal activity. These results suggest that RpfE-matured DCs produce PGE2 that induces Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation with potent anti-mycobacterial activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: silica; nanoparticles; ATP; purinergic receptor; airway; epithelial cell
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:45:50 CEST)
Because of their low cost and easy production silica nanoparticles (NPs) are amply used in multiple manufactures as anti-caking, densifying and hydrophobic agents. However, this has increased the exposure levels of the general population and has raised concerns about possible toxicity of this nanomaterial. NPs are known to affect the function of the airway epithelium, but the biochemical pathways targeted by these particles remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of NPs on the responses of cultured human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells to the damage-associated molecular pattern ATP, using fluorometric measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Upon stimulation with extracellular ATP these cells displayed a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+, which was mediated by release from intracellular stores. Silica NPs inhibited the Ca2+ responses to ATP within minutes of application and at low micromolar concentrations, which are significantly faster and more potent than those previously reported for the induction of cellular toxicity and pro-inflammatory responses. NPs-induced inhibition appeared to be independent from the increase in intracellular Ca2+ they produce, and via a non-competitive mechanism. These findings suggest that NPs reduce the ability of airway epithelial cells to mount ATP-dependent protective responses such as the increase in mucociliary clearance and cough.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0625.v1
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:17:01 CEST)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) family that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns derived from microbes and activate immune cell response. Following TLRs ligation, different adaptor and transcription molecules such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) are recruited that initiate inflammatory signaling pathways. The human Toll-like receptor 10 (hTLR10) is a novel member of the PRRs family with a regulatory function of immune responses because of unique cytoplasmic domains which lead to induction of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have reported the association of TLR10 polymorphisms with many inflammatory diseases and human cancer. Engagement of TLR10 on the surface of the epithelium and macrophages leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, while other studies have proven an anti-inflammatory role of TLR10. Accordingly, TLR10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production via negative regulation of MyD88 and the Akt (protein kinase B) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathways. This review aimed to provide answers for these conflicting findings (Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties of TLR10) to further identify distinct biological functions of TLR10.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: glucocorticoid receptor; allosteric; elephant shark; nuclear receptors; evolution
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:03:00 CEST)
Orthologs of human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) first appear in cartilaginous fishes. Subsequently, the MR and GR diverged to respond to different steroids: the MR to aldosterone and the GR to cortisol and corticosterone. We report that cortisol, corticosterone and aldosterone activate full-length elephant shark GR, and progesterone, which activates elephant shark MR, does not activate elephant shark GR. However, progesterone inhibits steroid binding to elephant shark GR, but not to human GR. Together, this indicates partial functional divergence of elephant shark GR from the MR. Deletion of the N-terminal domain (NTD) from elephant shark GR (truncated GR) reduced the response to corticosteroids, while truncated and full-length elephant shark MR had similar responses to corticosteroids. Swapping of NTDs of elephant shark GR and MR yielded an elephant shark MR chimera with full-length GR-like increased activation by corticosteroids and progesterone compared to full-length elephant shark MR. Elephant shark MR NTD fused to GR DBD+LBD had similar activation as full-length MR, indicating that the MR NTD lacked GR-like NTD activity. We propose that NTD activation of human GR evolved early in GR divergence from the MR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: scavenger receptor CD36; inflammation; vascular calcification; diabetes; atherosclerosis
Online: 4 August 2020 (10:37:01 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus entails increased atherosclerotic burden and medial arterial calcification but the precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Our aim was to investigate the implication of CD36 in inflammation and calcification processes orchestrated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) under hyperglycemic and atherogenic conditions. We examined the expression of CD36, pro-inflammatory cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers and mineralization-regulating enzymes by RT-PCR in human VSMCs, cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or high glucose (22 mM) for 72 h with or without oxLDL (24 h). The uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was quantified by flow citometry and fluorimetry and calcification assays were performed in VSMC cultured in osteogenic medium and stained by alizarin red. We observed an induction in the expression of CD36, cytokines, calcification markers and ER stress markers under high glucose that was exacerbated by oxLDL. These results were confirmed in carotid plaques from subjects with diabetes versus non-diabetic subjects. Accordingly, the uptake of DiI-labelled oxLDL was increased after exposure to high glucose. Silencing of CD36 abolished the induction of CD36 and reduced the expression of calcification enzymes and mineralization of VSMC. Our results indicate that CD36 signaling is involved in hyperglycemia and oxLDL-induced vascular calcification in diabetes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0006.v1
Online: 2 May 2020 (12:11:38 CEST)
The recent 2019-nCoV outbreak, spreading infection around the globe is jeopardizing the public health and global economy. The virus was reported to have emerged from an animal market in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 and presumed to have originated from bats and eventually transmitted in humans. The entry of the virus into human cells is triggered by a series of molecular events initiated with the binding of a receptor-binding domain of viral spike protein to human Ace2 cell surface receptor. Based on the comparative sequence analysis of the well-known binding hotspots of human Ace2, cross-interacting potential of 2019-nCoV was predicted, which suggests Ace2 of wild animals like tiger, bear, orangutan, etc.; aquatic mammals like whale and dolphins; and domestic animals like cat, horse, goat, sheep, dog etc. as potential target. However, the recognition of Ace2 of bats, rats and mice by the 2019-nCoV spike protein remains under question. The study indicates that 2019-nCoV might have broad host range and may thus intensify the gravity of 2019-nCoV outbreak
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV2; spike; receptor–ligand docking; super infection
Online: 20 March 2020 (08:30:40 CET)
SARS-CoV2 (corona virus) has spread globally at an unprecedented rate; so far, increasing SARS-CoV2-infected individuals have been identified. Although the situation in China is improving and is currently under control, the outbreak in other countries and its pandemic management is only beginning to develop. Based on 154 SARS-CoV2 genome sequence analyses, we used receptor–ligand docking to identify one potential point mutation (V354F) on the spike structure which enhances spike binding to ACE2 receptors underlying potential super infection. Importantly, the V354F site on spike S1 had been identified in 5/10 infected French patients living in Paris, who sharing 100% identical SARS-CoV2 genomes. With Covid-19 cases increasing rapidly in France that could lead to a new explosion, we suggest that the French government should identify all potential super spreaders and treat them accordingly. In summary, our study provides on of the measures to avoid the potential second worldwide explosion of SARS-CoV2.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: CYP3A5; androgen receptor; African American; CYP3A5 inhibitors/inducers
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:33:52 CET)
Androgen receptor signaling is crucial for prostate cancer growth and is positively regulated in part by intratumoral CYP3A5. As African American (AA) men often carry the wild type CYP3A5 and express high level of CYP3A5 protein, we blocked the wild type CYP3A5 in AA origin prostate cancer cells and tested its effect on androgen receptor signaling. q-PCR based profiler assay identified several AR regulated genes known to regulate AR nuclear translocation, cell cycle progression and cell growth. CYP3A5 processes several commonly prescribed drugs and many of these are CYP3A5 inducers or inhibitors. In this study, we test the effect of these commonly prescribed CYP3A5 inducers/inhibitors on AR signaling. The results show that the CYP3A5 inducers promoted AR nuclear translocation, downstream signaling and cell growth whereas CYP3A5 inhibitors abrogated them. The observed changes in AR activity is specific to alterations in CYP3A5 activity. Both the inducers tested demonstrated increased cell growth of prostate cancer cells, whereas the inhibitors showed reduced cell growth. Further, characterization and utilization of the observation that CYP3A5 inducers and inhibitors alter AR signaling may provide guidance to physicians prescribing CYP3A5 modulating drugs to treat comorbidities in elderly patients undergoing ADT, particularly AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0746.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aryl hydrocarbon receptor; polyphenols; inflammation; urolithin; AHR antagonist
Online: 31 October 2018 (10:08:59 CET)
Urolithins (e.g., UroA and B) are gut microbiota-derived metabolites of the natural polyphenol ellagic acid. Urolithins are associated with various health benefits, including attenuation of inflammatory signaling, anti-cancer effects and repression of lipid accumulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of urolithins remain unclear. We hypothesize that some of the human health benefits of urolithins are mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Utilizing a cell-based reporter system, we tested urolithins for the capacity to modulate AHR activity. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA levels were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Competitive ligand binding assays were performed to determine whether UroA is a direct ligand for the AHR. Subcellular AHR protein levels were examined utilizing immunoblotting analysis. AHR expression was repressed in Caco-2 cells by siRNA transfection to investigate AHR-dependency. UroA and B were able to antagonize 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced AHR-mediated transcriptional activity. Furthermore, UroA and B attenuated TCCD-mediated stimulation of CYP1A1 mRNA levels. In addition, competitive ligand binding assays characterized UroA as a direct AHR ligand. Consistent with other AHR antagonists, UroA failed to induce AHR retention in the nucleus. AHR is necessary for UroA-mediated attenuation of cytokine-induced interleukin 6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) expression in Caco-2 cells. Here we identified UroA as the first dietary-derived human selective AHR antagonist produced by the gut microbiota through multi-step metabolism. Furthermore, previously reported anti-inflammatory activity of UroA may at least in part be mediated through AHR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; environment; EE2; NP; estrogen receptor; EGFR
Online: 22 July 2018 (11:23:02 CEST)
Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in the world. In addition to smoking, estrogen is supposed to play an important role in the lung cancer development because women have a higher proportion of adenocarcinoma than men. In the environment, there are many metabolites and wastes that mimic human estrogen structurally and functionally. As an oral contraceptive, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is released to wastewater after being utilized. Moreover, 4-nonylphenol (NP) exiting in the petrochemical products and air pollutants has estrogenic activity. In our study, 17β-estradiol (E2), EE2, and NP are administered to stimulate A549 male lung adenocarcinoma cells and H1435 female lung adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrate that EE2 and NP stimulate A549 and H1435 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent trend. Both estrogen receptor α and β are activated simultaneously during these processes. Up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK expression is involved in response to estrogens. In conclusion, we first time report that EE2 and NP exert biotoxic effect to stimulate the proliferation of both male and female lung cancer cells in a dose- and time- response manner. New challenges from environmental hormones to lung cancer deserved further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: apoptosis; gynecologic cancer; lipopolysaccharide; proliferation; Toll-like receptor
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:12:07 CET)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a member of the TLR family. Members of the TLR family play an important role in innate immune responses and are induced by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They are also involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in cancer. We investigated the role of TLR4 in apoptotic cell death in gynecological cancer cells; gynecological cancer is associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion. To examine the effect of TLR4 activation on apoptotic signaling in cancer cells, cultured primary cancer cells were treated with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The morphology of cancer cells was compared with normal myometrial cells. Enhanced growth rate and loss of contact inhibition with cellular overlap was observed in the cancer cells. The molecular mechanism analysis revealed differential expression of tumor suppressor genes in LPS-treated cancer cells. The expression of apoptosis-related caspase-3 was increased significantly in cancer cells with TLR4 activation after exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results suggest the pro-apoptotic activity of TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gynecological cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: thiadizines; serotonin transporter (SERT); serotonin-1A receptor; serotonin-3 receptor; docking; docking energy; binding affinity; binding mechanism; c-Fos; immunohistochemistry; electrophysiology
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:32:43 CEST)
L-17 is a thiadiazine derivative with putative anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like properties. In this study, we applied combined in silico, ex vivo, and in vivo electrophysiology techniques to reveal the potential mechanism of action of L-17. PASS 10.4 Professional Extended software suggested that L-17 might have pro-cognitive, antidepressant, and antipsychotic effects. Docking energy assessment with AutoDockVina predicted that the binding affinities of L-17 to the serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin receptors 3 and 1A (5-HT3 and 5-HT1A) receptors are compatible to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and selective antagonists of 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, granisetron and WAY100135, respectively. Acute pre-treatment with L-17 robustly increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala (central nucleus), suggesting increased neuronal excitability in this brain area after L-17 administration. Acute L-17 also dose-dependently inhibited of 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). This inhibition was partially reversed by subsequent administration of WAY100135, suggesting the involvement of extracellular 5-HT. Based on in silico predictions, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and in vivo electrophysiology, we suggest that L-17 is a potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitor and/or partial 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. Thus, L-17 might be a representative of a new class of antidepressant drugs. Since L-17 also possesses neuro- and cardio-protective properties, it can be useful in post-stroke and post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression. In general, combined in silico predictions and ex vivo neurochemical and in vivo electrophysiological assessment might be a useful strategy for early preclinical assessment of the affectivity and neural mechanism in action of the novel CNS drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0795.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: T cells; chimeric antigen receptor; transgenic T-cell receptor; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; exhaustion; terminal differentiation; senescence; apoptosis; adoptive cell transfer; immunotherapy
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:55 CET)
Over the last decades, cellular immunotherapy has revealed its curative potential. However, the inherent physiological characteristics of immune cells can limit the potency of this approach. Best defined in T cells, dysfunction associated with terminal differentiation, exhaustion, senescence, and activation-induced cell death undermine adoptive cell therapies. In this review, we concentrate on how the multiple mechanisms that articulate the various forms of immune dysfunction impact cellular therapies primarily involving conventional T cells, but also other lymphoid subtypes, in addition to the various strategies put in place to circumvent these effects. The repercussions of immune cell dysfunction across the full life cycle of cell therapy, from the source material, during manufacturing, and after adoptive transfer are discussed. Applicable to cellular products prepared from native and unmodified immune cells, as well as genetically engineered therapeutics, the understanding and potential modulation of dysfunctional features is key to the development of improved cellular immunotherapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4; Fibroblast growth factor; Gastrointestinal peptide; Glucagon-like peptide 1; Glucagon receptor; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; Sodium glucose cotransporter
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:44:49 CET)
Liver related diseases are the 3rd leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. There are no established pharmacotherapies for NASH patients with T2DM. Though vitamin E is established as a 1st line agent in NASH without T2DM, its efficacy was recently denied in NASH with T2DM. The effects of pioglitazone on NASH histology with T2DM have extensively been established, but several concerns exist such as body weight gain, fluid retention, cancer incidence, and bone fracture. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH (LEAN study, LEAD trial, and E-LIFT study). Among a variety of SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin have already entered phase 3 trials (DEAN study). A key clinical question is what kinds of anti-diabetic drugs are the most appropriate for the treatment of NASH to prevent progression of hepatic fibrosis resulting in HCC/liver-related mortality without increasing risk at cardiovascular or renal events. The combination therapies such as glucagon receptor agonist/GLP-1 or gastrointestinal peptide /GLP-1 will be under development. This review focuses on antidiabetic agents and future perspectives on the view of the treatment of NAFLD with T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0253.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Type I interferon receptor, Leukocytes; Angiogenesis
Online: 19 September 2022 (02:08:07 CEST)
Objective: Type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) signaling contributes to several autoimmune and vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and stroke. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of IFNAR1 deficiency on the formation and progression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods: AAAs were induced in type I interferon receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) deficient and wild type control male mice via intra-infrarenal aortic infusion of porcine pancreatic elastase. Immunostaining for IFNAR1 was evaluated in experimental and clinical aneurysms. The initiation and progression of experimental AAAs was assessed via ultrasound imaging prior to (day 0) and 3-, 7-, and 14-days following elastase infusion. Aneurysmal histopathology was analyzed at sacrifice. Results: Increased aortic medial and adventitial IFNAR1 expression was present in both clinical AAAs harvested at surgery and experimental AAAs. Following AAA initiation, wild type mice experienced progressive, time-dependent infrarenal aortic enlargement. This progression was substantially attenuated in IFNAR1 deficient mice. On histological analyses, medial elastin degradation, smooth muscle cell depletion, leukocyte accumulation and neoangiogenesis were markedly diminished in IFNAR1 deficient as compared to wild type mice. Conclusion: IFNAR1 deficiency limited experimental AAA progression in response to intra-aortic elastase infusion. Combined with clinical observations, these results suggest a regulatory role for IFNAR1 activity in AAA pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0551.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor; ErbB; biomarker; meningioma; intracranial tumor
Online: 23 July 2021 (22:06:24 CEST)
Meningioma (MGM) is the most common type of intracranial tumor in adults. The validation of novel prognostic biomarkers to better inform tumor stratification and clinical prognosis is urgently needed. Many molecular and cellular alterations have been described in MGM tumors over the past few years, providing a rational basis for the identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The role of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs), including those of the ErbB family of receptors, as oncogenes has been well established in several cancer types. Here, we review histological, molecular, and clinical evidence suggesting that RTKs, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB 1), as well as other members of the ErbB family, may be useful as biomarkers in MGM.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: cannabinoid receptor 2; epilepsy; cAMP, M-current; anti-inflammatory
Online: 6 July 2021 (17:09:20 CEST)
Epilepsy is characterized by repeated spontaneous reactions caused by hyper-excitability and neurons firing in high synchronization in the central nervous system. It seriously affects the quality of life of epileptic patients and nearly 30% of individuals are refractory to treatment of antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new medicines to manage and control the refractory epilepsy. Cannabinoid ligands including selective cannabinoid receptor subtype (CB1 or CB2 receptor) ligands and non-selective cannabinoid (synthetic and endogenous) ligands may serve as the novel candidates for this need. Cannabinoid systems appear to regulating seizure activity in the brain through the activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R). An abundant series of cannabinoid analogues have been tested in various animal models, including a rat pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy, in vitro hippocampal neuronal culture models of acquired epilepsy and status epilepticus, a pentylenetetrazole model of myoclonic seizures in mice and a penicillin-induced model of epileptiform activity in the rats. The accumulating lines of evidence show that cannabinoid ligands exhibit significant benefits to control seizure activity in different epileptic models. For this reason, we summarize the relationship between brain CB2 receptors and seizures, and emphasize the potential mechanisms of their therapeutic effects involving affecting neurons, astrocytes, and microglia cells. The unique features of CB2Rs, such as lower expression levels under physiological conditions and high inducibility under epileptic conditions, make it an important target for future research on drug-resistant epilepsy.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: lncRNA; breast cancer; alternative splicing; estrogen receptor; RNA-Seq
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:29:31 CEST)
Background: DSCAM-AS1 is a cancer-related long noncoding RNA with higher expression levels in Luminal A, B and HER2-positive Breast Cancer (BC), where its expression is strongly dependent on Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα). Methods: To decipher its function, DSCAM-AS1 expression was measured by qRT-PCR in tissue samples from 93 BC patients in addition to a meta-analysis of 30 gene expression datasets, together with the evaluation of its association with clinical data. By computational analyses of our RNA-Seq in MCF-7 cells, we investigated the DSCAM-AS1 knock-down effects at both gene and isoform levels. Results: We confirmed DSCAM-AS1 overexpression in high grade Luminal A, B and HER2+ BCs and found a significant correlation with disease relapse. 908 genes were regulated by DSCAM-AS1-silencing, primarily involved in cell cycle and inflammatory response. Noteworthy, the analysis of alternative splicing and isoform regulation revealed 2,085 splicing events regulated by DSCAM-AS1, enriched in differential polyadenylation sites and 3’UTR shortening events. Finally, the DSCAM-AS1-interacting splicing factor hnRNPL was predicted as the most enriched RBP for exon skipping and 3’UTR events. Conclusion: The relevance of DSCAM-AS1 overexpression in BC is confirmed by clinical data and further enhanced by its possible involvement in the regulation of RNA processing, which is emerging as one of the most important dysfunctions in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; ACE2 receptor; medical cannabis; CBD
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:45:50 CEST)
With the rapidly growing pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the new and challenging to treat zoonotic SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, there is an urgent need for new therapies and prevention strategies that can help curtail disease spread and reduce mortality. Inhibition of viral entry and thereby spread constitute plausible therapeutic avenues. Similar to other respiratory pathogens, SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through respiratory droplets, with potential for aerosol and contact spread. It uses receptor-mediated entry into the human host via angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is expressed in lung tissue, as well as oral and nasal mucosa, kidney, testes, and the gastrointestinal tract. Modulation of ACE2 levels in these gateway tissues may prove a plausible strategy for decreasing disease susceptibility. Cannabis sativa, especially one high in the anti-inflammatory cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), has been proposed to modulate gene expression and inflammation and harbour anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Working under the Health Canada research license, we have developed over 800 new Cannabis sativa lines and extracts and hypothesized that high-CBD C. sativa extracts may be used to modulate ACE2 expression in COVID-19 target tissues. Screening C. sativa extracts using artificial human 3D models of oral, airway, and intestinal tissues, we identified 13 high CBD C. sativa extracts that modulate ACE2 gene expression and ACE2 protein levels. Our initial data suggest that some C. sativa extract down-regulate serine protease TMPRSS2, another critical protein required for SARS-CoV2 entry into host cells. While our most effective extracts require further large-scale validation, our study is crucial for the future analysis of the effects of medical cannabis on COVID-19. The extracts of our most successful and novel high CBD C. sativa lines, pending further investigation, may become a useful and safe addition to the treatment of COVID-19 as an adjunct therapy. They can be used to develop easy-to-use preventative treatments in the form of mouthwash and throat gargle products for both clinical and at-home use. Such products ought to be tested for their potential to decrease viral entry via the oral mucosa. Given the current dire and rapidly evolving epidemiological situation, every possible therapeutic opportunity and avenue must be considered.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: adenosine receptor; nucleoside transport; CNS; inflammation; cardiovascular system; pain
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:19:14 CEST)
Many ligands directly target adenosine receptors (ARs). Here we review the effects of noncanonical AR drugs on adenosinergic signaling. Non-AR mechanisms include raising adenosine levels by inhibiting adenosine transport (e.g. ticagrelor, ethanol, cannabidiol), affecting intracellular metabolic pathways (e.g. methotrexate, nicotinamide riboside, salicylate, 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside), or undetermined means (e.g. acupuncture). Yet other compounds bind ARs in addition to their canonical ‘on-target’ activity (e.g. mefloquine). The strength of experimental support for an adenosine-related role in a drug’s effects varies widely. AR knockout mice are the ‘gold standard’ method for investigating an AR role, but few drugs have been tested in these mice. Given the interest in AR modulation for treatment of cancer, CNS, immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal conditions, it is informative to consider AR and non-AR adenosinergic effects of approved drugs and conventional treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0118.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Receptor-specific antibodies; targeting; nanoparticles; dendritic cells; cross-presentation
Online: 10 April 2019 (07:46:18 CEST)
Abstract Optimal targeting of nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells (DCs) receptors to deliver cancer-specific antigens is key to an efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing tètanus toxoid and gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, toll-like receptor adjuvants were targeted to the DC-SIGN receptor in DCs by specific humanized antibodies or by ICAM3-Fc fusion proteins mimicking natural ligand. Despite higher binding and uptake efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibody-targeted NP vaccines than ICAM3-Fc ligand, no difference were observed in DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86 and CCR7 induced. DCs loaded with NP coated with ICAM3-Fc appeared more potent in activating T cells via cross-presentation than antibody-coated NP vaccines. This fact could be very crucial in the design of new cancer vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Dopamine receptors, Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics, Receptor-Ligand Interactions
Online: 6 February 2019 (13:54:13 CET)
Background: Selectively targeting dopamine receptors has been a persistent challenge in the last years for the development of new treatments to combat the large variety of diseases evolving these receptors. Although, several drugs have been successfully brought to market, the subtype-specific binding mode on a molecular basis has not been fully elucidated. Methods: Homology modeling and molecular dynamics were applied to construct robust conformational models of all dopamine receptor subtypes (D1-like and D2-like receptors). Fifteen structurally diverse ligands were docked to these models. Contacts at the binding pocket were fully described in order to reveal new structural findings responsible for DR sub-type specificity. Results: We showed that the number of conformations for a receptor:ligand complex was associated to unspecific interactions > 2.5 Å and hydrophobic contacts, while the decoys binding energy was influenced by specific electrostatic interactions. Known residues such as 3.32Asp, the serine microdomain and the aromatic microdomain were found interacting in a variety of modes (HB, SB, π-stacking). Purposed TM2-TM3-TM7 microdomain was found to form a hydrophobic network involving Orthosteric Binding Pocket (OBP) and Secondary Binding Pocket (SBP). T-stacking interactions revealed as especially relevant for some large ligands such as apomorphine, risperidone or aripiprazole. Conclusions: This in silico approach was successful in showing known receptor-ligand interactions as well as in determining unique combinations of interactions, key for the design of more specific ligands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0483.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: IFN-γ; histamine; splenocyte; histamine H1 receptor, histidine decarboxylase
Online: 20 November 2018 (05:35:39 CET)
Accumulating evidence suggests that histamine synthesis induced in several types of tumor tissues should modulate tumor immunity. We found that a transient histamine synthesis was induced in CD11b+Gr-1+splenocytes derived from BALB/c mice transplanted with a syngeneic colon carcinoma, CT-26, when they were co-cultured with CT-26 cells. Significant levels of IFN-γ were produced under this co-culture condition. We explored the modulatory roles of histamine on IFN-γ production and found that several histamine receptor antagonists, such as pyrilamine, diphenhydramine, JNJ7777120, and thioperamide, could significantly suppress IFN-γ production. However, suppression of IFN-γ production by these antagonists was also found when splenocytes were derived from the Hdc-/- BALB/c mice. Suppressive effects of these antagonists were found on IFN-γ production induced by concanavalin A or the combination of an anti-CD3 antibody and an anti-CD28 antibody in a histamine-independent manner. Murine splenocytes were found to express H1 and H2 receptors, but not H3 and H4 receptors. IFN-γ production in the Hh1r-/- splenocytes induced by the combination of an anti-CD3 antibody and an anti-CD28 antibody was significantly suppressed by these antagonists. These findings suggest that pyrilamine, diphenhydramine, JNJ7777120, and thioperamide could suppress IFN-γ production in activated splenocytes in histamine-independent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: GFETs; TNT explosive; sensor; TNT peptide receptor; graphene sheet
Online: 30 May 2017 (06:02:40 CEST)
Smart sensors based on graphene field effect transistor and biologically receptors are regarded as a promising nanomaterial that could be the basis for future generations of selective real-time monitoring of target analytes and smaller electronics. So the purpose of this paper is to provide details a real-time and selective explosive sensor based on GFETs and PDA-based lipid membranes coupled with biologically inspired TNT peptide receptors. Following an introduction, this paper describes the way of fabrication of the GFETs device by investigation methods for transferring graphene sheet from Cu substrates to target substrates, which is functionalized by the TNT peptide receptors, in order to offer a system which has the capability of answering the presence of related target molecules. Field effet transistor was fabricated using graphene as a channel and monitored by the source-drain current and back-gate voltage curves in the measurement. The transport property changed compared to that of the FET made by intrinsic graphene, that is, the Dirac point position moved from positive Vg to negative Vg, indicating the transition of graphene from p-type to n-type after annealing in TNT, and GFET sensor show good sensitivity and selectivity response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: endocannabinoid system; anandamide; 2-AG; cannabis; cannabinoid receptor 1; cannabinoid receptor 2; PPARSa, b; Ht1a; TRPV1; GPR55; cannabidiol; CBD; THC; CBG; CBC; tetrahydrocannabinol
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:28:52 CEST)
The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species primitive as the Hydra. Insects apparently are devoid of this otherwise ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts: 1. Endogenous ligands, 2. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and 3. Enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. These are the endocannabinoids: Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed, phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0339.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: cis-prenyltransferase; DHDDS; dolichol; Nogo-B receptor; retinal degeneration; RP59
Online: 22 September 2022 (10:18:11 CEST)
Retinitis pigmentosa-59 (RP59) is a rare, recessive form of RP, caused by mutations in the gene encoding DHDDS (dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase). DHDDS forms a heterotetrameric complex with Nogo-B Receptor (NgBR; gene NUS1) to form a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) enzyme complex, which is required for synthesis of dolichol, which in turn is required for protein N-glycosylation as well as other glycosylation reactions in eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review the published phenotypic characteristics of RP59 models extant, with an emphasis on their ocular phenotypes, based primarily upon knock-in of known RP59-associated DHDDS mutations as well as cell type- and tissue-specific knockout of DHDDS alleles in mice. We also briefly review findings in RP59 patients with retinal disease and other patients with DHDDS mutations causing epilepsy and other neurologic disease. We discuss these findings in the context of addressing “knowledge gaps” in our current understanding of the underlying pathobiology mechanism of RP59, as well as their potential utility for developing therapeutic interventions to block the onset, or to dampen the severity or progression, of RP59.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0348.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Naltrexone; mu-opioid receptor; MD simulations; MMGBSA; binding free energy
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:09:30 CEST)
Naltrexone (NTX) is a potent opioid antagonist with good blood-brain barrier permeability, targeting different endogenous opioid receptors, particularly the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Therefore, it represents a promising candidate for drug development against drug addiction. However, the details of the molecular interactions of NTX and its derivatives with MOR are not fully understood, hindering ligand-based drug discovery. In the present study, taking advantage of the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the murine MOR (mMOR), we constructed a homology model of the human MOR (hMOR). A solvated phospholipid bilayer was built around the hMOR and submitted to microsecond (µs) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to obtain an optimized hMOR model. NTX and its derivatives were docked into the optimized hMOR model and submitted to µs MD simulations in an aqueous membrane system. The MD simulation results were submitted to Molecular Mechanics Generalized-Born surface area (MMGBSA) binding free energy calculations and principal component analysis. Our results revealed that NTX and its derivatives showed differences in protein-ligand interactions; however, they shared contact with residues at TM2, TM3, H6, and TM7. The binding free energy and principal component analysis revealed the structural and energetic effects responsible for the higher potency of NTX compared to its derivatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0385.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; cognition; decision-making; switch task
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:49:51 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors present in mammals in the brain and in several peripheral organs. Apart from its olfactory role, TAAR5 is expressed in the major limbic brain areas and regulates brain serotonin functions and emotional behaviors. However, most of its functions remain undiscovered. Given the role of serotonin and limbic regions in some aspects of cognition, we used a temporal decision-making task to unveil a possible role of TAAR5 in cognitive processes. We found that TAAR5 knock-out (KO) mice showed a generally better performance due to a reduced number of errors and displayed a greater rate of improvement at the task than WT littermates. However, task-related parameters, such as time accuracy and uncertainty have not changed significantly. Overall, we show that TAAR5 modulates specific domains of cognition, highlighting a new role in brain physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0531.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Microglia; Extracellular vesicles; migration; P2X4 receptor; MFG-E8; lipid rafts
Online: 22 June 2021 (08:26:41 CEST)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) effectively suppress neuroinflammation and induce neuroprotective effects in different disease models. However, the mechanisms by which EVs regulate neuroinflammatory response of microglia remain largely unexplored. Here, we addressed this issue by testing the action of EVs derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHEDs) on immortalized human microglial cells. We found that EVs induced a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ and promoted a significant ATP release in microglial after 20 min of treatment. Boyden chamber assays revealed that EVs promoted microglial migration by 20 %. Pharmacological inhibition of different subtypes of purinergic receptors demonstrated that EVs activated microglial migration preferentially through the P2X4R pathway. Proximity ligation and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that EVs promote association between milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) and P2X4 receptor proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of αVβ3/αVβ5 integrin suppressed EV -induced cell migration and formation of lipid rafts in microglia. These results demonstrate that EVs promote microglial motility through P2X4 R/ MFG-E8 – dependent mechanisms. Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms through which EVs target human microglia that may be exploited for the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting disease associated neuroinflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Apoptosis; PARP; Caspase 3; Neurodegeneration; GPR4 receptor; MPTP; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 8 April 2021 (09:12:06 CEST)
GPR4, a member of proton activated GPCRs group. Previously we have reported that GPR4 is constitutively active at physiological pH and knockout of GPR4 has shown to protect dopaminergic neuronal cells from caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic cell death. In this study we have investigated the role of GPR4 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice model of Parkinson’s disease. Subchronic administration of MPTP in mice produces oxidative stress induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and motor deficits. Treatment with NE52-QQ57, a selective antagonist of GPR4 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss MPTP-intoxicated C57BL6/J mice and improved motor deficit and memory impairment. Co-treatment with NE52-QQ57 significantly decreases the protein level of proapoptotic marker (Bax), and increases the antiapoptotic marker (Bcl-2) in the SNpc and striatum tissue collected from the brain of MPTP inflicted mice. Further, MPTP induced activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was significantly decreased in the SNpc and striatum tissue of NE52-QQ57 cotreated mice. Further mice receiving both MPTP and NE52-QQ57 mice showed significantly higher TH positive cells in the SNpc and striatum than MPTP treated mice alone. Moreover, NE52-QQ57 cotreatment improved the motor activity in the rotarod test and pole test and also improved spatial memory in Y maze test. Our findings suggest GPR4 as a potential therapeutic target for PD whereas the activation GPR4 is involved in the caspase mediated apoptotic cell death in SNpc and striatum of MPTP-intoxicated mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0276.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: liver receptor homolog-1; perilipin 5; triglyceride; fasting; lipid droplet
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:36:17 CET)
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has emerged as a regulator of hepatic glucose, bile acid, and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the functional mechanism underlying the effect of LRH-1 on lipid mobilization has not been addressed. This study investigated the regulatory function of LRH-1 in lipid metabolism during fasting. The wild-type (WT) and LRH-1 liver-specific knockout (LKO) mice were either fed or fasted for 24 h, and the liver and serum were isolated. During fasting, the LRH-1 LKO mice showed greater accumulation of triglycerides in the liver compared to that in WT mice. Interestingly, LRH-1 LKO liver decreased the perilipin 5 (PLIN5) expression and genes involved in β-oxidation. Additionally, the LRH-1 agonist dialauroylphosphatidylcholine also enhanced PLIN5 expression in human cultured HepG2 cells. To identify new target genes of LRH-1, these findings directed to analyze the PLIN5 promoter sequence, which revealed −1620/−1614 to be a putative binding site for LRH-1. This was confirmed by promoter activity and chromatin immuno-precipitation assays. Moreover, fasted WT primary hepatocytes showed increased co-localization of PLIN5 in lipid droplets (LDs) compared to that in fasted LRH-1 LKO primary hepatocytes. Overall, these findings suggest that PLIN5 might be a novel target of LRH-1 to mobilize LDs and manage the cellular needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0675.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Breast cancer; Estrogen Receptor; PI3K-AKT-mTOR; anti-estrogen resistance
Online: 28 December 2020 (09:22:17 CET)
Signaling from estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and its ligand estradiol (E2) is critical for growth of ~70% of breast cancers. Therefore, several drugs that inhibit ER functions are in clinical use for decades and new classes of anti-estrogens are continuously being developed. Although a significant number of ER+ breast cancers respond to anti-estrogen therapy, ~30% of these breast cancers recur, sometimes even after 20 years of initial diagnosis. Mechanism of resistance to anti-estrogens is one of the intensely studied disciplines in breast cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed including mutations in ESR1, crosstalk between growth factor and ER signaling, and interplay between cell cycle machinery and ER signaling. ESR1 mutations as well as crosstalk with other signaling networks lead to ligand independent activation of ER thus rendering anti-estrogens ineffective, particularly when treatment involved anti-estrogens that do not degrade ERa. As a result of these studies, several therapies that combine anti-estrogens that degrade ER with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors targeting growth factor signaling or CDK4/6 inhibitors targeting cell cycle machinery are used clinically to treat recurrent ER+ breast cancers. In this review, we discuss nexus between ER-PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways and how understanding of this nexus has helped to develop combination therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: In silico; Estrogen Receptor; Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; Phytochemical; Anthocyanin; SERM
Online: 25 December 2020 (16:03:32 CET)
The estrogen hormone receptor (ER) mediated gene expression mainly regulate the development and physiology of primary and secondary reproductive system alongside bone-forming, metabolism and behaviour. Over-expressed ER is associated with several pathological conditions and play a key role in breast cancer occurrence, progression and metastasis. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. or roselle is a rich source of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds including anthocyanins and reportedly have strong estrogenic activity. To validate these findings, we have investigated the estrogen receptor binding affinity and safety of some previously recorded polyphenols using a suite of computational methods. Our investigation showed the estrogen-receptor binding potential of Pelargonidin, Delphinidin, Cyanidin, and Hibiscetin are more efficient than popular breast cancer drugs, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, with favourable toxicological parameters and low half maximal inhibitory concentration. This is the first report to investigate the phytochemical basis of estrogenic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0379.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: hormone; quorum sensing; receptor; bacteria; fungi; metazoa; plants; microbiota; evolution
Online: 25 September 2020 (10:40:10 CEST)
Cellular communications play pivotal roles in multi-cellular species, but they do so also in uni-cellular species. Moreover, cells communicate with each other not only within the same individual but also with cells in other individuals belonging to the same or other species. These communications occur between two unicellular species, two multicellular species, or between unicellular and multicellular species. The molecular mechanisms involved exhibit diversity and specificity, but they share common basic features which allow common pathways of communication between different, and sometimes very different species. These interactions have been made possible by the high degree of conservation of the basic molecular mechanisms of interaction of many ligand-receptor pairs in evolutionary remote species. These inter-species cellular communications played crucial roles during Evolution and must have been positively selected, particularly when collectively beneficial in hostile environments. We think that communications between cells did not arise after their emergence but was part of the very nature of first cells. Synchronization of populations of non-living protocells through chemical communications may have been a mandatory step towards their emergence as populations of living cells and explain the large commonality of cell communication mechanisms among microorganisms, plants, and animals.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae; nonmucoid; O-antigen; outer membrane protein; phage receptor
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:55:02 CEST)
The use of bacteriophage is reemerging as a tool for combatting multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. In our previous study, we showed that colistin resistant carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColR-CRKP) is more susceptible to killing by lytic tailed phages, including ФNJS1 specific for nonmucoid K. pneumoniae. Although we demonstrated that alteration on surface charges of ColR-CRKP promotes phage adherence and infection, the receptor for ФNJS1 was still unknown. In current study, we identified O-antigen was involved in the reversible adsorption, and outer membrane protein (OMP) FepA may be served as one of the irreversible receptors for ФNJS1. We firstly found accelerated reversible phage adsorption to ColR-CRKP cells, and that periodate treatment of bacteria inhibited the phage binding, indicating LPS may be involved in phage reversible adsorption. ФNJS1-resistant bacterial mutants screening revealed that mutants in ∆wecG(mTn5) and ∆wecA(mTn5), two genes responsible for LPS biosynthesis, affected phage adsorption capacity and phage infectivity. The loss of wzyE encoding O-antigen polymerase showed no significant difference in phage adsorption but increased phage infectivity, suggesting the long chain length of O-antigen may also be a barrier for bacteriophage infection. Among four OMP mutants including ∆fepA, ∆fhuA, ∆ompA and ∆ompC, only ∆fepA slowed phage lysis rate, suggesting FepA may be as one of irreversible receptors for ФNJS1. The results are helpful to better understand why ColR-CRKP sensitizes phage infection and to combat multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae infections in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Annona squamosa; phytomedicine; proliferation; apoptosis; migration; estrogen receptor; tumor size
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:37:43 CEST)
: Annona squamosa L. is an important medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Different parts of A. squamosa L. have various therapeutic effects; however, the anticancer activity of the leaves has not yet been identified. In vitro, MTT, nuclear staining, and LDH assays were used to evaluate cell survival and proliferation in cells exposed to the extracts. The effect of the extracts on cell migration was investigated using a monolayer wound repair assay, and the apoptotic effects were evaluated using flow cytometry. A breast cancer model was used to study the effect of the extract on the tumor size, and the expression of different proliferative and apoptotic markers was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, A. squamosa leaf extracts exerted strong antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against various cell lines. The extracts reduced wound closure and strongly induced apoptosis. In vivo study, rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection, and tumor size, as well as the expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers, were observed to be greatly affected by treatment with the extracts. Therefore, A. squamosa leaf extract may be developed as a potential novel drug to treat breast cancer in the future
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0077.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; native American Indian; treatment; ACE2 receptor; pathophysiology; virulence
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:08:52 CEST)
Background: On Dec 19, 2019, the public health department of China reported that an outbreak of pneumonia was caused by a novel Coronavirus. The virulence of the new virus COVID-19 was much greater than either the SARs and MERSs viruses and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Department (WHO) declared a worldwide pandemic. Understanding the pathophysiology of virulence of the SARS-COV-2 virus is absolutely necessary for understanding the transmission, virulence factors, reduce risk factors, clinical presentation, predict outcomes of the disease and provide guidance for any current or future treatment protocols. Methodology: A comprehensive PubMed search was performed during December 20, 2019 and April 03, 2020, utilizing the words: Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S-protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal. Results: The SARS-COV-2 virus is much more virulent than either the SAR’s or MER’s virus and its ability to cause serious disease inversely corresponds to the person’s ability to produce T-cells which declines linearly with age. The ACE2 receptor binding site does not vary among different ethnic groups but do in ACE-2 expression levels. This variance in expression level may explain for different infectivity rates among men and women and predict and explain different susceptibilities to infection by different ethnic groups. Furthermore, by understanding the underlying pathophysiology one can explain and provide guidance to the clinical effectiveness of any treatment. Conclusions: The underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19 explains not only the virulence, and clinical presentation, but, explains at a molecular level the comorbidity risk factors such as hypertension, sex, and age. Ethnic and anatomic expression patterns of ACE-2 and associated pathophysiology suggests that Native Americans and Asians may be particularly susceptible to this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: allergic reaction; CD158d; IgE receptor; KIR2DL4; KIT; mast cell; pregnancy
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:26:12 CET)
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) 2DL4 (CD158d) was previously thought to be a human NK-cell-specific protein but its expression has also been demonstrated in human mast cells. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions via their KIT-mediated and IgE receptor-mediated responses. We recently detected the expression of KIR2DL4 in human cultured mast cells established from peripheral blood derived from healthy volunteers (PB-mast), a human mast cell line (LAD2), and non-neoplastic mast cells, including pathological specimens. An agonistic antibody against KIR2DL4 negatively regulates the KIT- and IgE-receptor-mediated responses of PB-mast and LAD2 cells. In addition, agonistic antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a natural ligand for KIR2DL4, induce the secretion from these cells of leukemia inhibitory factor and serine proteases, which have been implicated in pregnancy establishment and cancer metastasis. Therefore, KIR2DL4 stimulation with agonistic antibodies and recombinant HLA-G protein may enhance both processes, in addition to suppressing mast-cell-mediated allergic reactions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0028.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: stomatal movement; calcium sensing receptor; phosphorylation; abiotic stress; calcium signaling
Online: 3 December 2018 (14:02:28 CET)
The calcium-sensing receptor (CAS), as a chloroplast thylakoid membrane protein, involved in the process of [Ca2+] ext-induced [Ca2+]cyt increase (CICI) in the plant. However, the underlying mechanism regulating this process is lacking. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that CAS may perform additional roles in the plant. Here, we provide an update covering the multiple roles of CAS in stomatal movement regulation and calcium signaling in the plant. We also analysis the possible phosphorylation mechanism of CAS by light and discuss the role of CAS in abiotic stress (drought, salt stress) and biotic stresses (plant immune signaling). Finally, we provide a perspective for future experiments which are required to fill gaps in our understanding of the biological function of CAS in the plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0102.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: aryl hydrocarbon receptor; DNA damage; single nucleotide polymorphisms; BCL6; lymphoma
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:28:08 CET)
1) Background: We tested whether AHR activation induces DNA damage, whether polymorphisms in genes related to risk of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma are associated with DNA damage, and whether the two conditions do interact with each other. 2) Methods: Our study population included 36 subjects, randomly selected among the population controls participating in a case-control study on lymphoma in Sardinia, Italy, who donated a blood sample. We investigated 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to convey risk of lymphoma; the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System to detect activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by the serum of study subjects; and the COMET Assay to detect DNA damage. 3) Results: Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor did not increase DNA damage in our study population. On the other hand, the mutant allele (G) of rs1056932/BCL6 increased the occurrence of DNA damage (p = 0.045); such association was confirmed among AhR negative, but not AhR positive subjects. 4) Conclusions: We observed excess DNA damage associated with a gene polymorphism, namely rs1056932/ BCL6, previously reported in association with risk of lymphoma. No increase in DNA damage was associated with AhR activation per se, nor with the other gene polymorphisms we investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0675.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; cancer markers; biosensors; receptor immobilization; antibodies; nanoparticles
Online: 29 October 2018 (11:31:10 CET)
Almost 50 papers on surface plasmon resonance biosensors, published between 2016 and mid-2018, are reviewed. Papers concerning the determination of large particles such as vesicles, exosomes, cancer cells, living cells, stem cells and microRNA are excluded, as these are covered by a very recent review. The reviewed papers are categorized into five groups, depending on the degree of maturity of the reported solution: ranging from simple marker detection to clinical application of a previously developed biosensor. Instrumental solutions and details of biosensor construction are analyzed, including the chips, receptors and linkers used, as well as calibration strategies. Biosensors with a sandwich structure containing different nanoparticles are considered separately, as are SPR applications for investigating the interactions of biomolecules. An analysis is also made of the markers determined using the biosensors. Concluding, there is shown to be a growing number of SPR applications in the solution of real clinical problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0574.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carmustine-loaded micelle; brain targeting; borneol; IL-13 receptor; BBB
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:53:00 CEST)
Abstract: Tumor-targeting and blood-brain barrier (BBB)-penetrating are highly desirable for the treatment of glioma. In this study, we developed Pep-1&borneol-bifunctionalized carmustin-loaded micelles (Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M) capable of targeting to IL-13 receptor-overexpressed glioma and penetrating the brain microvascular endothelial cells-associated physiologic barriers. Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M were nearly spherical particles with a dimeter of 32.6 ± 1.1 nm and zeta potential of -21.3 ± 3.1 mV. Carmustine (CMS) released from Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M in pH 7.4 was significantly faster than in acidic environments. In human glioma BT325 cellular studies, Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M remarkably increased the cytotoxicity, notably improved the internalization and effectively induced the cell apoptosis. Likewise, in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) cells, Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M obviously promoted the cellular uptake, rapidly decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and thereby of enhancing the ability of penetration. In orthotopic Luc-BT325 glioma tumor-bearing nude mouse models, the stronger fluorescence signal and longer retention were observed in brain tissues compared with other controls, after single administration of DiD-labelled Pep-1/Bor/M (DiD/Pep-1/Bor/M). Importantly, Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M displayed the strongest inhibition of tumor growth, the longest survival period and low systemic toxicity in treating orthotopic glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. Simultaneous functionalization of Pep-1 and borneol offers a novel strategy for designing CMS-based nanomedicine and precisely treating glioma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Hyperbaric oxygen; Neuroinflammation; burn; Galectin-3; Toll-like receptor-4
Online: 9 July 2018 (12:03:39 CEST)
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has been proven to attenuate neuroinflammation in rats. This study aimed to determine the potential mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of HBO treatment on burn-induced neuroinflammation in rats. Thirty-six adult male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to the following six groups (n = 6 per group): (1) sham burn with sham HBO treatment, (2) sham burn with HBO treatment, (3) burn with 1-week sham HBO treatment, (4) burn with 2-week sham HBO treatment, (5) burn with 1-week HBO treatment, and (6) burn with 2-week HBO treatment. SD rats that received third-degree burn injury were used as a full-thickness burn injury model. Subsequently, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the galectin-3 (Gal-3)-dependent Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, and Western blotting, and a behavior test was also conducted. The behavior test revealed that HBO treatment significantly suppressed mechanical hypersensitivity in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). ELISA results showed that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) levels in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the skin were significantly decreased in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). Western blotting results demonstrated that HBO treatment significantly reduced the expression of Gal-3 and TLR-4 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the burn with HBO treatment group compared with the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05). IHC analysis results showed that the expression of Gal-3, TLR-4, CD68, and CD45 in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly lower in the burn with HBO treatment group than in the burn with sham HBO treatment group (p < 0.05), and the expression of CD68 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the right hind paw skin was significantly lower. The expression of vimentin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in the right hind paw skin was significantly higher after HBO treatment (p < 0.05). This study proved that early HBO treatment relieves neuropathic pain, inhibits the Gal-3-dependent TLR-4 pathway, and suppresses microglia/macrophage activation in a rat model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0208.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Retinoid X receptor; RXR; antagonists; structural classification; heterodimers; permissive; tRXR
Online: 13 June 2018 (10:45:58 CEST)
Retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists are not only useful as chemical tools for biological research, but also are candidate drugs for treatment of various diseases, including diabetes and allergy, although no RXR antagonist has yet been approved for clinical use. In this review, we describe currently available RXR antagonists, their structural classification, and their evaluation, focusing on the latest research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0377.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aa = amino acids; ACE-2 = receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cDNA = complementary DNA; mRNA = messenger RNA; orf = open reading frame; RBD = receptor binding protein; S-protein = Spike protein; SARS-CoV-2 = severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccines.
Online: 22 June 2021 (11:53:34 CEST)
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (Coronavirus)-2 S(spike)-protein mRNA/cDNA currently being used as vaccines are antigenic but not antigens against SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID (Coronavirus Disease) -19. Furthermore, the mRNA and cDNA antigenic vaccines also have potentials for homologous as well as heterologous recombination, primarily into the somatic cell DNA of the vaccine recipients. On the contrary, a SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein antigen, a part of the S-protein, will directly stimulate antibody production against SARS-CoV-2. Hence, a vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein as a safer, fast acting, and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and thus against COVID-19. This is also useful for some immune compromised individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: prostate cancer; castrate-resistant growth; metastases; androgen receptor; glucocorticoid receptor; cytokines; transmembrane receptors; cell signaling; pharmacological targeting; neuroendocrine differentiation; lineage plasticity; prostate cancer stem cells
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:03 CEST)
Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer has led to development of therapeutic strategies targeting androgen receptor (AR). These androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSI) include androgen synthesis inhibitor- abiraterone and androgen receptor antagonists- enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide. Although these medications provide significant improvement in survival among men with prostate cancer, drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with time. This could be through androgen-dependent or androgen-independent mechanisms. Even weaker signals and non-canonical steroid ligands can activate AR in the presence of truncated AR-splice variants, AR overexpression, or activating mutations in AR. AR splice variant, AR-V7 is the most studied among these and is not targeted by available ARSIs. Non-androgen receptor dependent resistance mechanisms are mediated by activation of an alternative signaling pathway when AR is inhibited. DNA repair pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, BRAF-MAPK and Wnt signaling pathway and activation by glucocorticoid receptors can restore downstream signaling in prostate cancer by alternative proteins. Multiple clinical trials are underway exploring therapeutic strategies to overcome these resistance mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0389.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: adverse remodeling; aldosterone; cardiac myocyte; crosstalk; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); GPCR-kinase (GRK); heart failure; inflammation; mineralocorticoid receptor; myocardial infarction; oxidative stress; signal transduction
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:54:04 CET)
The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium homeostasis but also adversely modulates the maladaptive process of cardiac adverse remodeling post-myocardial infarction. Through activation of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a classic steroid hormone receptor/transcription factor, aldosterone promotes inflammation and fibrosis of the heart, the vasculature, and the kidneys. This is why MR antagonists reduce morbidity and mortality of heart disease patients and are part of the mainstay pharmacotherapy of advanced human heart failure. A plethora of animal studies using cell type–specific targeting of the MR gene have established the importance of MR signaling and function in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, renal cells, and macrophages. In terms of its signaling properties, the MR is distinct from nuclear receptors in that it has, in reality, two physiological hormonal agonists: not only aldosterone but also cortisol. In fact, in several tissues, including in the myocardium, cortisol is the primary hormone activating the MR. There is a considerable amount of evidence indicating that the effects of the MR in each tissue expressing it depend on tissue- and ligand-specific engagement of molecular co-regulators that either activate or suppress its transcriptional activity. Identification of these co-regulators for every ligand that interacts with the MR in the heart (and in other tissues) is of utmost importance therapeutically, since it can not only help elucidate fully the pathophysiological ramifications of the cardiac MR`s actions but also help design and develop novel better MR antagonist drugs for heart disease therapy. Among the various proteins the MR interacts with are molecules involved in cardiac G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. This results in a significant amount of crosstalk between GPCRs and the MR, which can affect the latter`s activity dramatically in the heart and in other cardiovascular tissues. This review summarizes the current experimental evidence for this GPCR-MR crosstalk in the heart and discusses its pathophysiological implications for cardiac adverse remodeling as well as for heart disease therapy. Novel findings revealing non-conventional roles of GPCR signaling molecules, specifically of GPCR-kinase (GRK)-5, in cardiac MR regulation are also highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0082.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: therapy resistance; tumor microenvironment; metabolic reprogramming; purinergic receptor; cancer metabolism; immunometabolism
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:35:30 CEST)
ATP and other nucleoside phosphates have specific receptors named purinergic receptors. Purinergic receptors and ectonucleotidases regulate various signaling pathways that play a role in physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular ATP in the tumor microenvironment (TME) has a higher level than in normal tissues and plays a role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In this review, we investigated the role of purinergic receptors in the development of resistance to therapy through changes in tumor cell metabolism. When a cell transforms to neoplasia, its metabolic processes change. The metabolic reprogramming modified metabolic feature of the TME, that can cause impeding immune surveillance and promote cancer growth. The purinergic receptors contribute to therapy resistance by modifying cancer cells' glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Limiting the energy supply of cancer cells is one approach to overcoming resistance. Glycolysis inhibitors which reduce intracellular ATP levels, may make cancer cells more susceptible to anti-cancer therapies. The loss of the P2X7R through glucose intolerance and decreased fatty acid metabolism reduces therapeutic resistance. Potential metabolic blockers that can be employed in combination with other therapies will aid in the discovery of new anti-cancer immunotherapy to overcome therapy resistance. Therefore, therapeutic interventions that are considered to inhibit cancer cell metabolism and purinergic receptors simultaneously can potentially reduce resistance to treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0117.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: G protein-coupled receptor; mouse models; skin cancer; UVR; drug; network
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:41:08 CET)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) serve prominent roles in melanocyte lineage physiology, with an impact at all stages of development, as well as on mature melanocyte functions. GPCR ligands are present in the skin and regulate melanocyte homeostasis, including pigmentation. The role of GPCRs in the regulation of pigmentation and, consequently, protection against external aggression, such as ultraviolet radiation, has long been established. However, evidence of new functions of GPCRs directly in melanomagenesis has been highlighted in recent years. GPCRs are coupled, through their intracellular domains, to heterotrimeric G proteins, which induce cellular signaling through various pathways. Such signaling modulates essential cellular processes of melanomagenesis, such as proliferation and migration. GPCR-associated signaling in melanoma can be activated by the binding of paracrine factors to their receptors or directly by activating mutations. In this review, we present melanoma-associated alterations of GPCRs and their downstream signaling and discuss the various preclinical models used to evaluate new therapeutic approaches against GPCR activity in melanoma. Recent striking advances in our understanding of the structure, function, and regulation of GPCRs will undoubtedly broaden treatment options in melanoma in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0523.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Keratinocytes; epidermis; Pemphigus vulgaris; autoimmune disease; autoantibodies, Fc receptor neonatal; efgartigimod
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:46:04 CET)
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering disease of the epidermis, caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal proteins, mainly desmogleins 1 and 3, which induce an impairment of desmosomal adhesion and blister formation. Recent findings have shown that inhibition of immunoglobulin G binding on the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, results in reduced autoantibody recycling and shortens their half-life, providing a valid treatment option for PV. We have here analyzed the role of FcRn in human keratinocytes treated with novel, recombinant anti-desmoglein-3 antibodies that induce pathogenic changes in desmosomes, such as loss of monolayer integrity, aberrant desmoglein-3 localization and degradation of desmoglein-3. We show that blocking IgG binding on FcRn by efgartigimod, a recombinant Fc fragment that is undergoing clinical studies for pemphigus, stabilizes the keratinocyte monolayer, whereas the loss of desmoglein-3 is not prevented by efgartigimod. Our data show for the first time that FcRn may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of pemphigus at the level of the autoantibody target cells, the epidermal keratinocytes. Our data also imply that in keratinocytes, FcRn may have functions different from its known function in IgG recycling. Therefore, stabilization of keratinocyte adhesion by FcRn blocking entities may provide a novel treatment paradigm for pemphigus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0502.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: mushroom; immune checkpoints; Axl receptor; lung cancer; dendritic cells; immune response.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:43:11 CEST)
Agaricus blazei Murrill or Himematsutake is an edible and medicinal mushroom. Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body extracts have anticancer properties, although the mechanism is unknown. Basic or organic solvents, which are hazardous for human health, are generally used to prepare Agaricus blazei Murrill's extracts. Inhibition of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl receptor is an effective therapy in cancer. This study assessed whether subcritical water extracts of the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium affect the expression of Axl and immune checkpoint molecules in lung cancer cells. We used A549 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in the experiments. We prepared subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium. The subcritical water extracts from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's fruiting body or mycelium significantly inhibited the expression of immune checkpoint molecules and Axl compared to saline-treated cells. Also, the hot water extract, subcritical water extract, and the hot water extraction residue subcritical water extract from the Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium significantly enhanced the expression of maturation markers in dendritic cells. These observations suggest that the subcritical water extract from Agaricus blazei Murrill's mycelium is a promising therapeutic tool for stimulating the immune response in cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0276.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Vitamin D; VDR; inflammation; microbiome; metabolites; nuclear receptor; probiotics; tight junctions
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:55:13 CET)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal0 tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e. g. vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g. butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling. In this review, we summarize the clinical progress and mechanism studies on VitD /VDR related to gut microbiota modulation in IBD. We also discuss epigenetics in IBD and the probiotic regulation of VDR. Furthermore, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials exploring the appropriate dose and the influence of gender, age, ethnicity, genetics, microbiome, and metabolic disorders in IBD subtypes. To move forward, we need well-designed therapeutic studies to examine whether enhanced vitamin D will restore functions of VDR and microbiome in inhibiting chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Intestinal microflora; Microbiota; Pain; Transient Receptor Potential; TRP channels; TRPA1; TRPV1
Online: 26 July 2020 (18:02:33 CEST)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family proteins are sensors for pain, which sense variety of thermal and noxious chemicals. Sensory neurons innervating the gut abundantly express TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels and are in close proximity of gut microbes. Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional gut-brain cross-talk in several entero-neuronal pathologies; however, the direct evidence of TRP channels interacting with gut microbial populations is lacking. Herein, we examine whether and how the knockout (KO) of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels individually or combined TRPA1/V1 double-knockout (dKO) impacts the gut microbiome in mice. We detect distinct microbiome clusters among the three KO mouse models versus wild-type (WT) mice. All three TRP-KO models have reduced microbial diversity, harbor higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, and reduced proportion of Firmicutes. Specifically distinct arrays in the KO models are determined mainly by S24-7, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiales, Prevotellaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. A1KO mice have lower Prevotella, Desulfovibrio, Bacteroides, Helicobacter and higher Rikenellaceae and Tenericutes; V1KO mice demonstrate higher Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, Desulfovibrio and Mucispirillum; while A1V1dKO mice exhibit higher Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides and S24-7 and lower Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae, Oscillospira, Lactobacillus and Sutterella abundance. Also, the abundance of taxa involved in biosynthesis of lipids and primary and secondary bile acids is higher while that of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated taxa is lower in all KO groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating distinct gut microbiome signatures in TRPA1, V1 and dKO models and should facilitate prospective studies exploring novel diagnostic/ therapeutic modalities regarding the pathophysiology of TRP channel proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Angiotensin-II Type-I receptor; renin-angiotensin system; valsartan; colorectal cancer
Online: 22 July 2020 (09:49:51 CEST)
Dysregulation of the angiotensin-II Type-I receptor (AT1R) and its pathway was reported to associate with poor-prognosis in several malignancies, including colorectal-cancer (CRC). We have explored the therapeutic-potential of targeting AT1R using valsartan, and its pharmacological-interaction with Fluorouracil (5-FU) in CRC. Anti-proliferative function was evaluated in 2-/3-dimensional cells and in vivo models. Anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, apoptotic function and effect on cell-cycle was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), wound-healing test, and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), respectively, while gene-expression was determined at mRNA/protein levels. By histogical analysis and measuring of oxidative/antioxidant markers, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of valsartan. Valsartan suppressed cell-growth and impacted the anti-tumor-activities of 5-FU by apoptosis-induction. Valsartan inhibited the cells migration by perturbation of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1). Furthermore, valsartan inhibited tumor-growth and metastasis, and this was more notable in valsartan/5-FU combination-treated-group. The mechanism was plausible to be via the induction of Reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) and down-regulation of Superoxide-dismutase (SOD), thiol/catalase (CAT) as well as Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Valsartan may protect cells against intestinal fibrosis by modulation of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory components include fibronectin, Interleukin) IL-1β (, Tumor necrosis factor alpha) TNF-α (, Interferon gamma) INF-γ (, and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1). Our findings demonstrated that targeting the AT1R receptor may inhibit tumor-growth and ameliorate fibrosis and inflammation associated with CRC via modulation of AT1 and TGF-β pathways.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0476.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: androgen insensitivity syndrome; androgen receptor; ligand binding domain; pathogenic mutation; bioinformatics
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:59:38 CEST)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is the most common disorder of sex development in people with karyotype 46,XY. Mutations in AR (androgen receptor) gene are found in most individuals with AIS. Exons 4-8, which encode LBD, were shown to be a mutation hotspot. The aim of this study was the search of mutations in the sequence of exons 6-8 which encode LBD of AR gene in patients with different clinical AIS phenotypes from Ukraine. The investigated patients were 4 women with 46,XY karyotype, SRY-positive and clinical features of AIS (2 – CAIS, 2 – PAIS). Serum levels of T, LH, and FSH were quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) technology. Cytogenetic studies were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes with further use of standard protocols of chromosomal analysis (GTG-banding). The presence of SRY sequence was confirmed by FISH with LSI SRY probe. Direct Sanger sequencing of 6-8 exons was performed in patients and family members on the PCR products on the matrix of DNA samples isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Detected SNPs were analysed using gnomAD, VEP, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder, NetPhorest 2.1, Group-based Prediction System 5.0, and PhosphoPICK bioinformatical resources. Modelling of mutant proteins based on available 3D models was conducted using the open source software UCSF Chimera 1.14rc. We have detected 3 previously described mutations (missense mutation X:67722905 Т>С (rs9332970) in PAIS patient, missense mutation X:67722943 C>T (rs886041132) in CAIS patient and, samesense mutation X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) in PAIS patient). We determined these mutations as pathogenic using SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder. Moreover the synonymous mutation X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) detected in patient with PAIS was determined as mutation affecting processes of splicing. In our study we have identified novel mutation X:67722884 T>G in CAIS patient and family members. This mutation was predicted as a pathogenic using aforementioned bioinformatical tools. STRUM calculations of the protein stability change caused by single-point mutation showed a destabilization effect of the Ile836Ser substitution ΔΔG=-2.6. Possible aberrant phosphorylation analysis revealed the ability of MAPK family, Akt family, CDK1, CDK7, CDK9, PKC kinases to phosphorylate Ser836. Results concerning the pathogenicity of X:67722905 Т>С (rs9332970), X:67722943 C>T (rs886041132), X:67723745 C>T (rs137852594) mutations detected in patients with AIS from Ukraine obtained using bioinformatical resources SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster, Human Splicing Finder correlate with previously published data concerning weaker binding of androgens in patients with the same mutations. This approves informativity of using such resources for mutation pathogenicity analysis. Analysis of the ortholog proteins, subdomain structure, and aberrant phosphorylation of AR-LBD suggests novel X:67722884 T>G mutation to be pathogenic. Based on analysis of mutant protein modelling followed by assessment of free energy change using STRUM it was predicted that mutant protein binds androgens 460 times worse than wild type.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: adenosine receptor; immune system; cancer therapy; tumor microenvironment; cell proliferation; metastasis
Online: 13 October 2019 (16:28:09 CEST)
There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors. The A2BAR, coupled to both Gαi and Gαq G proteins, is one of the several G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in a significantly higher level in some cancer tissues in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. There is growing evidence that the A2BAR plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune suppression. Thus, A2BAR antagonists are potentially novel attractive anticancer agents. Several antagonists targeting at the A2BAR are currently in clinical trials for various types of cancers. In this review, we first describe the signaling, agonists, and antagonists of the A2BAR. We further discuss the role of the A2BAR in the progression of various types cancers, and the rationale of using A2BAR antagonists in cancer therapy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0117.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: eel luteinizing hormone receptor, constitutively activating mutation, inactivating mutation, cAMP responses.
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:38:11 CEST)
Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a member of the seven-transmembrane (TM) receptor family. Several mutations in LHR have been identified in many mammalian species, leading to either constitutive activation or inactivation of the receptor. Mutations in highly conserved regions of the TM domain have been reported. In this study, we analyzed signal transduction by three constitutively active mutants (designated M410T, L469R, and D590Y) and two inactivating mutants (D383N and Y546F) of eelLHR known as naturally occurring in human LHR . To directly assess the functional effects of these mutations, site-directed mutant receptors were transiently expressed in CHO-K1 cells and cAMP accumulation stimulated by recombinant eelLH (rec-eelLH) was measured by homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assays. The cAMP response in cells expressing eelLHR wild-type (eLHR-WT) increased in a dose-dependent manner with rec-eelLH ligand stimulation. Cells expressing the activating eelLHR mutants, M410T, L469R, and D590Y, exhibited a 4.0-, 19.1-, and 7.8-fold increase in basal cAMP response, respectively. However, their maximal responses were approximately 73, 53, and 92%, respectively, of the maximal response of LHR-WT. The L469R mutant exhibited a particularly marked increase in cAMP production in the absence of agonist. The maximal responses of the inactivating mutants, D383N and Y546F, were 32 and 24% of LHR-WT, respectively. However, the inactivating mutations did not completely impair signal transduction. Thus, we report here the first characterization of activating and inactivating mutations in eelLHR and we show that these mutations have similar effects as those reported for mammalian LHRs. Moreover, eelLHR with activating mutations showed constitutive cAMP responses. These results provide important data on the signal transduction of constitutively active and inactive LHR mutants. Further studies should aim to identify the mechanism responsible for the significant increase in basal cAMP response in the constitutively activated eelLHR mutants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0271.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: glucocorticoid receptor; 11HSD; mitochondria; NFκB; inflammation; ovary; uterus; polycystic ovary syndrome
Online: 28 March 2019 (14:05:40 CET)
Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are co-pathologies of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Recent evidence has suggested that elevated local cortisol levels are associated with ovarian and endometrial insulin resistance in hyperandrogenic PCOS patients, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical findings remain unclear. We and others have used chronic treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and insulin to create an in vivo rodent model for the onset and development of PCOS-like phenotypes. Here, we aimed to determine whether the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling, mitochondrial function, and local inflammation in the ovary and uterus are intrinsically different in PCOS-like rats compared to controls. In both the ovary and the uterus, decreased expression of two GR protein isoforms was concurrent with increased expression of Fkbp51 but not Fkbp52 mRNA in PCOS-like rats compared to controls. However, PCOS-like rats exhibited an opposite regulation of Hsd11b1 or Hsd11b2 mRNAs in the two tissues. Further, the expression of several oxidative phosphorylation-related protein components was decreased in the PCOS-like ovary and uterus, but surprisingly the expression of many genes involved in mitochondrial function and homeostasis was increased in the same tissues and animals. Additionally, PCOS-like rats showed the increased expression of ovarian and uterine NFκB signaling proteins and Tnfaip3 mRNA. In PCOS-like rats, while similar decreased expression of Il1b, Il6, and Mmp2 mRNAs was seen in the ovary and uterus, the opposite regulation of Tnfa, Ccl2, Ccl5, and Mmp3 mRNA expression was observed in the two tissues. Both ovaries and uteri from PCOS-like animals showed increased collagen deposition compared to controls. Collectively, our observations suggest that hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance disrupt ovarian and uterine GR activation and trigger compensatory or adaptive effects for mitochondrial homeostasis, allowing tissue-level maintenance of mitochondrial function in order to limit ovarian and uterine dysfunction. Our study also suggests that hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance-induced activation of NFκB signaling resulting in aberrant regulation of inflammation-related gene expression might be tissue specific in female reproductive tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: vitamin D receptor, cytokines, miR-346, primary sclerosing cholangitis, colorectal cancer
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:36:38 CEST)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disorder frequently associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with PSC and UC have higher risk of colorectal neoplasia than patients with UC without PSC. Oncogenic properties of micro RNA 346 (miR-346) have been recently reported. In this study we investigated expressions of miR-346 and its two target genes i.e. the receptor of vitamin D (VDR) and the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which are known to modulate carcinogenesis. Biopsies from ascending and sigmoid colon were obtained from patients with PSC with and without UC, patients with UC and healthy controls. MiR-346 expression was increased in ascending but not sigmoid colon of patients with PSC and UC when compared to other analyzed groups (p<0.001 for all). In patients with UC an exceptionally low colonic expression of miRNA-346 was accompanied by the increase in VDR expression, and the extensive upregulation of TNF-α gene which protein product is known to be cytotoxic to tumor cells at high concentration. In summary, a substantial upregulation of miRNA-346 in ascending colon of patients with PSC and UC may be responsible for the inhibition of VDR and TNF-α signaling -pathway which may result in an inadequate suppression of neoplasia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: fibroblast growth factor; fibroblast growth factor receptor; targeted treatments; breast cancer
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:50:30 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality in women. Despite the incredible progress made in this field, the metastatic breast cancer leaves a poor prognosis. In an era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for a better knowledge of the biology leading to the disease, which can lead to the design of always more accurate drugs against patients’ specific molecular aberrations. Among one of the actionable targets is the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) pathway, triggered by specific ligands. The FGFRs/FGFs axis offers interesting molecular targets to be pursued in clinical development. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge of the FGFRs mutations leading to tumour formation and summarizes the state-of-the-art of therapeutic strategies for targeted treatments against the FGFRs/FGFs axis in the context of BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: feed-forward loop (FFL); cAMP receptor protein (CRP); transcriptional factor (TF).
Online: 6 June 2018 (16:00:56 CEST)
The feed-forward loop (FFL) is an important and basic network motif to understand specific biological functions. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), a transcription factor (TF), mediates catabolite repression and regulates more than 400 genes in response to changes in intracellular concentrations of cAMP in Escherichia coli. CRP participates in some FFLs like araBAD and araFGH operons and adapt to fluctuating environmental nutrients thus enhancing the survivability of E. coli. Although computational simulations have been used to explore the potential functionality of FFLs, a comprehensive study of the functions of all structural types based on in vivo data is lacking. Also, the regulatory role of CRP-mediated feed-forward loops (CRP-FFLs) remain unclear to date. Using EcoCyc and RegulonDB, we identified 393 CRP-FFLs in the E. coli. Dose-response genomic microarray of E. coli revealed dynamic gene expression of each target gene of CRP-FFLs in response to a range of cAMP dosages. All eight types of FFLs were present in CRP regulon with various expression patterns of each CRP-FFL, that were further divided into five functional groups. Microarray and reported regulatory relationships identified 202 CRP-FFLs which were directly regulated by CRP in these eight types of FFLs. Interestingly, 30% (147/482) of genes were directly regulated by CRP and CRP-regulated TFs, indicating that these CRP-regulated genes were also regulated by other CRP-regulated TFs responding to environmental signals through CRP-FFLs. Furthermore, we applied gene ontology annotation to reveal the biological functions of CRP-FFLs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: constitutive androstene receptor; cytochrome P450, fibrosis; gender difference; high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet; necrosis; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats; sulfotransferase, pregnane X receptor; UGP-glucuronosyltransferase
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:54:46 CEST)
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstene receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: vitamin D; calcifediol; cailcitriol; graft-versus-host disease; vitamin D receptor (VDR)
Online: 3 March 2022 (10:02:45 CET)
The different cell subsets of the immune system express vitamin D receptor (VDR). Through VDR, vitamin D exerts different functions which influences on immune responses, as previously shown in different preclinical models. Based on this background, retrospective studies have explored the impact of vitamin D levels on the outcome of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, showing that vitamin D deficiency is related to an increased risk of complications, especially graft-versus-host disease. These results have been confirmed in a prospective cohorts trial, although further studies are required to confirm this data. In addition, the role of vitamin D on the treatment of hematologic malignancies has also been explored. Considering this dual effect both on the immune system as well as on tumor cells in patients with hematologic malignancies, vitamin D might be useful in this setting both to decrease graft-versus-host disease and relapse rates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0692.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Ryanodine receptor; skeletal muscle; cardiac muscle; exercise and injury; heart function; diet
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:37:53 CEST)
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a Ca2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscles and plays a key role in excitation-contraction coupling. The activity of the RyR is regulated by many intracellular factors such as divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), nucleotides, associated proteins, and reactive oxygen species. Since these intracellular factors change depending on the condition of the muscle, e.g., exercise, fatigue, or disease states, the RyR channel activity will be altered accordingly. In this review, we describe how the RyR channel is regulated under various conditions and discuss the possibility that the RyR acts as a sensor for change in the cellular environment of muscles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0297.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Protein Kinase Receptor (PKR); Mammarenavirus; Interferon; Innate immune response; Mx1; ISG15; CCL5
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:27:07 CEST)
The New World (NW) mammarenavirus group includes several zoonotic highly pathogenic viruses, such as Junin (JUNV) or Machupo (MACV). Contrary to Old World mammarenavirus, these viruses are not able to completely suppress the innate immune response, and trigger a robust interferon (IFN)-I response via retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Nevertheless, pathogenic NW mammarenaviruses trigger a weaker IFN response than their non-pathogenic relatives do. RIG-I activation leads to upregulation of a plethora of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which exert a characteristic antiviral effect either as lone effectors, or resulting from the combination with other ISGs or cellular factors. The dsRNA sensor-protein kinase receptor (PKR) is an ISG that plays a pivotal role in the control of the mammarenavirus infection. In addition to its well-known protein synthesis inhibition, PKR further modulates the overall IFN-I response against different viruses, including mammarenaviruses. For this study, we employed Tacaribe virus (TCRV), the closest relative of the human pathogenic JUNV. Our findings indicate that PKR does not only increase IFN-I expression against TCRV infection, but also affects the kinetic expression and the extent of induction of Mx1 and ISG15 at both levels, mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, TCRV fails to prevent the effect of PKR on viral protein translation and its viral titer is inhibited when PKR is pre-stimulated via IFN-I. Here, we provide first evidence of the specific immunomodulatory role of PKR over selected ISGs, altering the dynamic of the innate immune response course against TCRV. IMPORTANCE: The mechanisms for innate immune evasion are key for emergence and adaptation of human pathogenic arenaviruses, and highly pathogenic mammarenaviruses such as JUNV or MACV trigger a weaker IFN response than non-pathogenic mammarenaviruses. Within the innate immune response context, PKR plays an important role in sensing and restricting the infection of TCRV virus. Although the mechanism of PKR for protein synthesis inhibition is well described, its immunomodulatory role is less understood. In this study, we found that TCRV protein expression and viral propagation are inhibited from early times after infection, and when externally activated, PKR inhibits TCRV viral progeny production. Our present findings further characterize the innate immune response in absence of PKR, unveiling the role of PKR in defining the ISG profile after viral infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0401.v1
Subject: Keywords: insulin; insulin receptor; brain insulin resistance; mitochondria; brain; neuron; H2O2; glutamate excitotoxicity.
Online: 15 March 2021 (17:38:24 CET)
Current hypotheses implicate insulin resistance of the brain as a pathogenic factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, major depression, and traumatic brain injury. A variety of genetic, developmental, and metabolic abnormalities that lead to disturbances in the insulin receptor signal transduction may underlie insulin resistance. Insulin receptor substrate proteins are generally considered to be the node in the insulin signaling system that is critically involved in the development of insulin insensitivity during metabolic stress, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests that lower activation of the insulin receptor (IR) is another common, while less discussed, mechanism of insulin resistance in the brain. This review aims to discuss causes behind the diminished activation of IR in neurons, with a focus on the functional relationship between mitochondria and IR during early insulin signaling and the related roles of oxidative stress, mitochondrial hypometabolism, and glutamate excitotoxicity in the development of IR insensitivity to insulin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: insulin; insulin receptor; brain insulin resistance; mitochondria; brain; neuron; H2O2; glutamate excitotoxicity.
Online: 15 March 2021 (11:46:08 CET)
Current hypotheses implicate insulin resistance of the brain as a pathogenic factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, major depression, and traumatic brain injury. A variety of genetic, developmental, and metabolic abnormalities that lead to disturbances in the insulin receptor signal transduction may underlie insulin resistance. Insulin receptor substrate proteins are generally considered to be the node in the insulin signaling system that is critically involved in the development of insulin insensitivity during metabolic stress, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests that lower activation of the insulin receptor (IR) is another common, while less discussed, mechanism of insulin resistance in the brain. This review aims to discuss causes behind the diminished activation of IR in neurons, with a focus on the functional relationship between mitochondria and IR during early insulin signaling and the related roles of oxidative stress, mitochondrial hypometabolism, and glutamate excitotoxicity in the development of IR insensitivity to insulin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0318.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence; Androgen Receptor; Random Forest; Deep Neural Network; Convolutional
Online: 24 February 2021 (13:14:01 CET)
Substances that can modify the androgen receptor pathway in humans and animals are entering the environment and food chain with the proven ability to disrupt hormonal systems and leading to toxicity and adverse effects on reproduction, brain development, and prostate cancer, among others. State-of-the-art databases with experimental data of human, chimp, and rat effects by chemicals have been used to build machine learning classifiers and regressors and evaluate these on independent sets. Different featurizations, algorithms, and protein structures lead to dif- ferent results, with deep neural networks (DNNs) on user-defined physicochemically-relevant features developed for this work outperforming graph convolutional, random forest, and large featurizations. The results show that these user-provided structure-, ligand-, and statistically-based features and specific DNNs provided the best results as determined by AUC (0.87), MCC (0.47), and other metrics and by their interpretability and chemical meaning of the descriptors/features. In addition, the same features in the DNN method performed better than in a multivariate logistic model: validation MCC = 0.468 and training MCC = 0.868 for the present work compared to evalu- ation set MCC = 0.2036 and training set MCC = 0.5364 for the multivariate logistic regression on the full, unbalanced set. Techniques of this type may improve AR and toxicity description and predic- tion, improving assessment and design of compounds. Source code and data are available at https://github.com/AlfonsoTGarcia-Sosa/ML