ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0274.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell inequality; locality; nonlocality; realism; counterfactual definiteness
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:43:24 CEST)
We present a pragmatic analysis of the different meanings assigned to the term "local realism'' in the context of the empirical violations of Bell-type inequalities since its inception in the late 1970s. We point out that most of them are inconsistent and arise from a deeply ingrained prejudice that originated in the celebrated 1935 paper by Einstein-Podolski-Rosen. We highlight the correct connotation that arises once we discard unnecessary metaphysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0592.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: learning theory; symbolic conditioning; direct realism; valence transfer
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:40:55 CET)
Semantically meaningless strings that are associated with affective attributes (US) can become emotionally valenced CS. Jurchiș et al (2020) recently demonstrated CS-US associations may influence evaluations towards previously-unseen letter strings if the latter share grammar construction rules with CS. We replicated those authors' findings in a modified extension (Experiment 1; N1 = 108), where happy/angry faces (US) were differentially associated with letter strings (CS) constructed using familiar (English) or non-familiar (Phoenician) alphabets. CS-US sequences were sandwiched by evaluations of strings that never appeared as CS, but shared grammar construction rules. However, post-hoc tests indicated valence effects were restricted to participants classified as 'high awareness' or those who had been exposed to longer stimulus durations, suggesting resource-intense deliberations were central during evaluations. Qualitative awareness checks additionally showcased many participants had attributed valences to recurring elements across conditioned and evaluated exemplars. These limitations were collectively addressed in Experiment 2 (N2 = 140), where participants viewed Phoenician (/English) CS during conditioning but viewed English (/Phoenician) strings during evaluations, meaning no strings nor elements recurred between phases. We found credible valence effects across English and Phoenician strings, with the latter observed across all awareness categories. Because participants were unable to consciously specify any evaluative strategies while evaluating Phoenician strings, we speculate grammar construction rules (organizing relations) may have been non-consciously acquired during conditioning.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum entanglement; Bell’s theorem; quantum non-locality; quantum realism.
Online: 2 July 2021 (08:24:20 CEST)
Quantum mechanics is often described as irreducibly non-local. A tacit element of this picture is the assumption that one and the same sub-ensemble of quanta is post-selected in every measurement combination of a Bell test. Yet, this expectation was recently shown to be formally inconsistent with quantum theory (Cetto et al., 2020) and even to be experimentally falsifiable (Mardari 2021). The need to make sense of this development motivated a rigorous conceptual analysis of quantum non-locality, especially as it relates to the basic principles of quantum mechanics. The simple conclusion is that quantum theory and quantum non-locality are fundamentally incompatible. This is not a loophole around the predictions of quantum mechanics, but rather an insight into the essential conditions that make them accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0295.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Hidden variables; von Neumann's theorem; Bell's theorem; Local realism; Quantum correlations
Online: 15 January 2021 (13:09:12 CET)
We show that the respective oversights in the von Neumann's general theorem against all hidden variable theories and Bell's theorem against their local-realistic counterparts are homologous. Both theorems unjustifiably assume the additivity of expectation values within hidden variable theories to derive their respective conclusions. However, for non-commuting observables, the equivalence of a sum of expectation values and the expectation value of the sum of measurement results, although respected within quantum mechanics, need not hold for hidden variable theories, regardless of specific characteristics such as local realism they may respect. Once this oversight is ameliorated from Bell's argument and local realism is implemented correctly, the bounds on the CHSH correlator work out to be +/-2\/2 instead of +/-2, thereby mitigating the conclusion of Bell's theorem. Consequently, what is ruled out by the Bell-test experiments is not local realism but the additivity of expectation values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0493.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: measurement problem; convivial solipsism; realism; entanglement; non-locality; past events; delayed choice
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:26:41 CEST)
In a recent paper , I argued against backward in time effects used by several authors to explain delayed choice experiments. I gave an explanation showing that there is no physical influence propagating from the present to the past and modifying the state of the system at a time previous to the measurement. However, though the solution is straightforward in the case of delayed choice experiments involving only one particle, it is subtler in the case of experiments involving two entangled particles because they give rise to EPR-like situations. Considering that a measurement is not an actual change of the physical state of a system and is relative to the observer allows to understand that there is neither backward in time effects nor instantaneous collapse of the second system when the first one is measured, as is often postulated. This allows also to get rid of any non-locality . In this paper, I want to go further into the consequences of this way of considering the measurement, that I have called Convivial Solipsism, and show that even if, in the usual sense, there is no physical effect of the present or of the future on the past, we must nevertheless consider that the observer’s past is sometimes not entirely determined and that it becomes determined only when certain measurements are done latter. This apparent contradiction disappears if one understand that each observer builds, through her own measurements, her own world (that I call the phenomenal world in Convivial Solipsism) which is different from what we are used to consider as the common world shared by everybody.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0414.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nursing values; burnout; hardy personality; work-life balance; nursing stress; co-counselling; critical realism; nurse education; nurse-patient ratios
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:21:47 CET)
This initial report of a longitudinal study of 192 English hospital nurses has measured Nursing Values (the 6Cs of nursing); Personality, Self-Esteem and Depression; Burnout Potential; Work-Life Balance Stress; ‘Hardy Personality’; and Intention to Leave Nursing. Correlational, component and cluster analysis identifies four groups: “The Soldiers” (N = 79) , with medium scores on most measures, who bravely ‘soldier on’ in their nursing roles, in the face of numerous financial cuts to the National Health Service, and worsening nurse-patient ratios; “Cheerful Professionals” (N = 54), coping successfully with nursing roles, and a variety of challenges, in upwardly mobile careers; “High Achievers” (N = 39), senior nurses with strong profiles of a ‘hardy personality’, and commitment to fundamental nursing values; “Highly Stressed, Potential Leavers” (N = 20), with indicators of significant psychological distress, and difficulty in coping with nursing role challenges. We propose a model of co-counselling and social support for this distressed group, by nurses who are coping more successfully with multiple challenges. We discuss the role of nurse educators in fostering nursing values, and developing and supporting ‘hardy personality’ and emotional resilience in recruits to nursing. This study is framed within the disciplinary approach of Critical Realism, which identifies the value basis for research and dialogue in developing strategies for social change.