ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; real-time simulation; multiagent system; energy management system
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:53:44 CET)
This paper deals with the problem of real-time management of Smart Grids. For this sake, the energy management is integrated with the power system through a telecommunication system. The use of Multiagent Systems leads the proposed algorithm to find the best-integrated solution, taking into consideration the operating scenario and the system characteristics. The proposed technique is tested with the help of an academic microgrid, so the results may be replicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: static formation temperature; shut-in time; least squares; PSO
Online: 2 August 2016 (05:42:07 CEST)
The static formation temperature (SFT) is required to determine the thermophysical properties and production parameters in geothermal and oil reservoirs. However, the SFT is not easy to be obtained by both experimental and physical methods. In this paper, a mathematical approach to predicting SFT based on a new model describing the relationship between bottom hole temperature (BHT) and shut-in time was proposed. The unknown coefficients of the model were derived from least squares fit by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Besides, the ability to predict SFT based on a few BHT data (such as first 3, 4, or 5 ones of a data set) was evaluated. The accuracy of the proposed method to predict SFT was testified with a deviation percentage less than ±4% and high values of regression coefficient R2 (>0.98). The proposed method could be used as a practical tool to predict SFT in both geothermal and oil wells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: real monitoring; energy efficiency management system; wsan; majmaah university
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:58:31 CEST)
This research presents alternative solutions for an Energy Efficiency Management System (EEMS) serving as a framework for optimizing the energy consumption algorithm and lowering energy consumption. First, a monitoring Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is used for sensing, measuring, gathering data, and modeling all the dynamic disturbance parameters of the rooms in the building. Second, integrated software for metering and controlling the processes of digital data flow is used. Third, an alternative solution is proposed to reduce energy consumption. The primary benefits of this system are real-time monitoring; rapid, alternative solutions; and the ability to make a prudent decision on how to lower energy consumption. The system shows instant and accumulated solutions for short and long-term time planning. The solutions identified can be implemented in the same buildings under the same circumstances. The universities of Majmaah and Philadelphia have buildings with similar infrastructure. The system was applied to the buildings at Philadelphia University. The results were generalized to both universities. After implementation, the energy consumption of the EEMS using WSAN (based on the monitoring was reduced up to 23% when compared to that of the initial state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0037.v3
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: converter-based microgrids; renewable energy sources; optimum battery control; real-time energy management; particle swarm optimisation
Online: 14 January 2019 (10:15:30 CET)
Real-time energy management of a converter-based microgrid is difficult to determine optimal operating points of a storage system in order to save costs and minimise energy waste. This complexity arises due to time-varying electricity prices, stochastic energy sources and power demand. Many countries have imposed real-time electricity pricing to efficiently control demand side management. This paper presents a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) for the application of real-time energy management to find optimal battery controls of a community microgrid. The modification of the PSO consists in altering the cost function to better model the battery charging/discharging operations. As optimal control is performed by formulating a cost function, it is suitably analysed and then a dynamic penalty function in order to obtain the best cost function is proposed. Several case studies with different scenarios are conducted to determine the effectiveness of the proposed cost function. The proposed cost function can reduce operational cost by 12% as compared to the original cost function over a time horizon of 96 hours. Simulation results reveal the suitability of applying the regularised PSO algorithm with the proposed cost function, which can be adjusted according to the need of the community, for real-time energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy management schemes; particle swarm optimisation; community microgrids; scheduling battery energy; real-time energy management and renewable energy
Online: 16 June 2020 (09:46:03 CEST)
Although energy management of a microgrid is generally performed using a day-ahead scheduling method, its effectiveness has been questioned by the research community due to the existence of high uncertainty in renewable power generation, power demand and electricity market. As a result, real-time energy management schemes are recently developed to minimise the operating cost of a microgrid while high uncertainty presents in the network. This paper develops modified particle swarm optimisation (MPSO) algorithms to solve optimisation problems of energy management schemes for a community microgrid and proposes a scheduling approach after taking into consideration high uncertainty to effectively minimise the operational cost of the microgrid. The optimisation problems are formulated for real-time and scheduling approaches, and solution methods are developed to solve the problems. It is observed that the scheduling program demonstrates superior performance in all the cases, including uncertainty in prediction, as compared to the other energy management approaches, although solutions have significant deviations due to prediction errors.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Tunnelling time; helicity; time dilation; Dirac equation; superluminal velocity
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:17:55 CEST)
We have introduced a sign operator of energy, analogous to the operator helicity, but in the direction of what we call energy vector. However, this energy vector needs a time vector. To give physical senses to the components of such a time vector, we try to explain the time dilation in special relativity and try to relate the components of the time vector to the tunneling times when an electron crosses a potential barrier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: channel state information; energy harvesting; amplify-and-forward; time power switching relaying; throughput
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:59:56 CEST)
Wireless Powered Communication Networks (WPCN), which has attracted much attention of researchers, also been recently recommended in 5th generation (5G) wireless networks. With the help of the WPCN, the reliability and battery life of wireless low-power devices can be improved. In this paper, we investigate throughput and ergodic capacity in WPCN-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system, considering two transmission modes including delay-tolerant and delay-limited. As important achievement, we propose symmetric energy harvesting protocol, namely time power switching relaying (TPSR) in order to find maximal throughput. In particular, both time switching and power switching coefficients in this schemes are considered. Unlike most of the previous works, we further focus on impact of outdated channel state information (CSI) in this WPCN. In order to evaluate information processing efficiency, the performance can be substantially improved by optimally harvesting time and power coefficients of the received signal at relay node for energy and information extraction, and by deploying several scenarios. By deploying Monte Carlo simulation, it is confirmed that the system performance is more sensitive to CSI estimation error, noise variance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resulting in other reasonable computations of TPSR need be deployed to obtain QoS requirement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0292.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: time energy uncertainty principle, vacuum fluctuations, wave function, non commutator
Online: 29 January 2019 (09:42:33 CET)
Phenomenon of vacuum fluctuations of virtual particles in high energy physics has been mathematically modeled by a third order differential equation. Aim of present theory is to unravel underlying mathematical equation capable of explaining microscopic phenomenon of vacuum fluctuations. Solution of such a differential equation after applying appropriate boundary conditions gives an acceptable wave function i.e. . Operation of energy and time operator on this wave function proves that these operators do not hold commutative property. Time energy uncertainty principle has been derived by calculating variance of energy and time for the same wave function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0327.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Overcurrent Relay (OCR); Genetic Algorithm (GA); Time Dial Setting (TDS); Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM); Optimal OCR setting and coordination and DigSILENT power factory
Online: 27 April 2018 (15:49:58 CEST)
This paper presents a study on optimization of Overcurrent relay (OCR) coordination protection scheme for Sustainable Standalone Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy (SHRE) distribution network at Batang Rajang river, located at Kapit Sarawak, Malaysia by turning river stream into power generation source. The purpose of the project is to develop rural electrification system for native long houses along the river. The research study is tested on a DigSILENT develop model of the SHRE distribution network and in accordance with all respectively unique parameters and relevant standards. Since this is a new standalone distribution system, an efficient and properly coordinated overcurrent protection system must be provided. Improper and miscoordination among OCRs result in maloperation of the protection system that can lead to false tripping and an unnecessary outage and power system instability. Thus, the objective of this work is to employ Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique in Matlab/Simulink for optimal overcurrent coordination and settings among all OCRs in the proposed distribution network in order to improve the speed of OCR tripping operation. The GA is used because the project is fast track and requiring the simplest method available. In this strategy, time dial setting (TDS) is optimized by using plug setting multiplier (PSM) as the constraint. The obtained results show a significant improvement of the relay operating time of 36.01% faster than that of conventional numerical technique during fault occurrence. Thus, an efficient and reliable overcurrent protection scheme has been achieved for the SHRE distribution network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0118.v1
Online: 7 September 2021 (10:35:38 CEST)
An approximate calculation of the spatial characteristics on finite range is required, so one quantitative continuum represents the accumulation of infinite great quantities is artificially divided it into smaller and camparable parts in which calculus operation can be applied .This operation is defined as Theorem 1 in which infinity is not involved, there is a camparable finity is constantly (forever) approaching and not reaching infinity, and only staying within a finite range. Theorem 1 can exist in this paper as a new mathematical basis for physics. Because the essence of all physical quantities is size comparison, and the size comparison relation of matter can only be space/time, so relation formula space/time is the only expression of the concept of matter, all physical quantities are applicable to this expression, each different physical quantity is a multi-dimensional representation of this expression. A new mass energy formula is aslo derived from this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: real-time control; mechatronics; PZT actuators; vibration; hardware-in-the-loop
Online: 4 August 2016 (06:20:33 CEST)
This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that compromise seriously the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed by a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator, able to make a self-assessment and adjust to the environmental alteration. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0262.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Dark energy; dark matter; Standard Model; unification; proper time; extra dimensions
Online: 19 May 2022 (13:38:48 CEST)
Generalisation from the local 4-dimensional spacetime form for a proper time interval provides an alternative basis for a unified theory contrasting with the more familiar approach of appending extra dimensions of space. In both cases the main goal is to derive a structure of matter that accounts for empirical observations from the properties of the additional components. Previous work has focussed upon the direct and significant connections that this new approach makes with the Standard Model of particle physics while also providing a link with dark matter models. In this paper we elaborate on how a further sector of generalised proper time, incorporating the key component of negative pressure, can account for the apparent dark energy fuelling the accelerating large-scale expansion of the universe. Through comparison with existing dark energy models we elucidate the elementary composition of this sector, its potential relation to an effective cosmological constant term, and the nature of possible interaction with the visible and dark matter sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: neutrino; neutrino’s flavor; neutrino oscillation; many-body interactions; superconducting energy gap; a quantized space-time; zero-point energy; lepton; Fermi’s golden rule; mass gap
Online: 8 October 2019 (08:47:19 CEST)
We herein described an investigation of a theory, which describes the energies of neutrinos and the source of neutrino oscillations. A series of experiments were conducted to show evidences of the existence a neutrino mass. We also applied theories to explain the reason for the extremely small energy of a neutrino, mainly by employing a vacuum-derived superconducting energy gap from the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer ground state. Moreover, we succeeded in obtaining the transition probabilities of neutrinos’ flavors (i.e., in terms of neutrino oscillation). We focused on the fact that up- and down-quantized space pairs combine by the Lorentz forces, undertake Bose-Einstein condensation, and then create a superconducting energy gap at the energy level of the vacuum with quantum mechanics fluctuation. Eventually, the superconducting energy gap vanishes to form a real body of the neutrino. Furthermore, assuming that the speed of the neutrino is near the speed of light and exhibits Planck’s blackbody emissions, we derived many-body interactions of neutrinos and applied them in Fermi’s golden rule. As a result, the neutrino energy we calculated agreed well within the realms of the experimental results. The calculated transition probabilities of neutrino’s flavor also explain the experiment results very well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0096.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep learning; Energy demand; Temporal convolutional network; Time series forecasting
Online: 5 March 2020 (15:02:37 CET)
Modern energy systems collect high volumes of data that can provide valuable information about energy consumption. Electric companies can now use historical data to make informed decisions on energy production by forecasting the expected demand. Many deep learning models have been proposed to deal with these type of time series forecasting problems. Deep neural networks, such as recurrent or convolutional, can automatically capture complex patterns in time series data and provide accurate predictions. In particular, Temporal Convolutional Networks (TCN) are a specialised architecture that has advantages over recurrent networks for forecasting tasks. TCNs are able to extract long-term patterns using dilated causal convolutions and residual blocks, and can also be more efficient in terms of computation time. In this work, we propose a TCN-based deep learning model to improve the predictive performance in energy demand forecasting. Two energy-related time series with data from Spain have been studied: the national electric demand, and the power demand at charging stations for electric vehicles. An extensive experimental study has been conducted, involving more than 1900 models with different architectures and parametrisations. The TCN proposal outperforms the forecasting accuracy of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent networks, which are considered the state-of-the-art in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0491.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; KNN; energy consumption; energy-intensive manufacturing; time series prediction; industry
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:19:45 CEST)
To minimise environmental impact, avoid regulatory penalties, and improve competitiveness, energy-intensive manufacturing firms require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. Deep learning is widely touted as a superior analytical technique to traditional artificial neural networks, machine learning, and other classical time series models due to its high dimensionality and problem solving capabilities. Despite this, research on its application in demand-side energy forecasting is limited. We compare two benchmarks (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and an existing manual technique used at the case site) against three deep learning models (simple Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)) and three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVM), Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)) for short term load forecasting (STLF) using data from a Brazilian thermoplastic resin manufacturing plant. We use the grid search method to identify the best configurations for each model, and then use Diebold-Mariano testing to confirm the results. Results suggests that the legacy approach used at the case site is the worst performing, and that the GRU model outperformed all other models tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0159.v1
Online: 12 January 2022 (09:50:31 CET)
A new method for short circuit fault location is proposed based on instantaneous signal measurement and its derivatives, and is based on the retardation phenomena. The difference between the times in which a signal is registered in two detectors is used to locate the fault. Although a description of faults in terms of a lumped circuit is useful for elucidating the methods for detecting the fault. This description will not suffice to describe the fault signal propagation hence a distributed models is needed which is given in terms of the telegraph equations. Those equations are used to derive a transmission line transfer function, and an exact analytical description of the short circuit signal propagating in the transmission line is obtained. The analytical solution was verified both by numerical simulations and experimentally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0285.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber physical systems; industry 4.0; MDE; lifetime verification & validation; dependability; correctness; flexibility; real-time self-adaptation, self-management; self-healing
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:45:47 CET)
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been a popular research area in the last decade. The dependability of CPS is still a critical issue, and rare survey has been published in this domain. CPS is a dynamic complex system, which involves various multidisciplinary technologies. To avoid human error and to simplify management, self-management CPS (SCPS) is a wise choice. And to achieve dependable self-management, systematic solution is necessary to verify the design and to guarantee the safety of self-adaptation decision, as well as to maintain the health of SCPS. This survey first recalls the concepts of dependability, and proposes a generic environment-in-loop processing flow of self-management CPS, and then analyzes the error sources and challenges of self-management through the formal feedback flow. Focus on reducing the complexity, we first survey the self-adaptive architecture approaches and applied dependability means; then we introduce a hybrid multi-role self-adaptive architecture, and discuss the supporting technologies for dependable self-management at the architecture level. Focus on dependable environment-centered adaption, we investigate the verification and validation (V&V) methods for making safe self-adaptation decision and the solutions for processing decision dependably. For system-centered adaption, the comprehensive self-healing methods are summarized. Finally, we analyze the missing pieces of the technology puzzle and the future directions. In this survey, the technical trends for dependable CPS design and maintenance are discussed, an all-in-one solution is proposed to integrate these technologies and build a dependable organic SCPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive survey on dependable SCPS building and evaluation.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: antenna array; ambience monitoring; deep learning; internet of things (IoT); RF energy harvesting; rectenna; time series prediction
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:21:28 CEST)
IoT system becomes hot topic nowadays for smart home, IoT helps devices to communicate together without human intervention inside home, so it is offering many challenges. A new smart home IoT platform powered using electromagnetic energy harvesting is proposed in this paper. It contains a high gain transmitted antenna array and efficient circular polarized array rectenna system to harvest enough power from any direction to increase life time of the batteries used in IoT system. Optimized energy consumption, the software with adopting the Zigbee protocol of the sensor node and low power microcontroller are used to operate in lower power modes. The proposed system has an 84.6 days lifetime which is approximately 10 times the lifetime for similar system. On the other hand, the proposed power management circuit operated at 0.3 V DC to boost the voltage to ~3.7V from radio frequency energy harvesting and manage battery level to increase the batteries lifetime. A predictive indoor environment monitoring system is designed based on a novel hybrid system to provide a non-static plan, approve energy consumption and avoiding failure of sensor nodes in smart home.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0100.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Face detection; Drone; Real Time
Online: 9 September 2019 (12:04:50 CEST)
Nowadays, security is a top priority. In fact, biometrics uses cutting-edge technologies to identify terrorists and criminals. But the practice of distinguishing humans based on intrinsic physical or behavior traits goes back thousands of years. With the widespread use of computers in the late 20th century, new possibilities for digital biometrics emerged and new technologies were generously used. Among these, we remember high resolution security video cameras and drones. So, the aim of the present project is to study and explain the features of these technologies, especially the ones of the the Phantom 4 Pro+ aircraft and analyze its operating methods in order to identify human faces during live streaming of videos. For this purpose, it will be used Paul Viola and Michael Jones’ face detection algorithm, which includes Haar features and cascade classifiers to identify faces, eyes and ears of an individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0458.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Lorentz model; ultrahigh energy; Gamma ray burst; rainbow model; variable speed of light; time lag
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:53:29 CET)
In this paper we re-investigated the relationship between the symmetry of inertial systems and the Lorentz transformation. We found that when we just follow the following three principles: (1)we can define the time in the whole space with a prescribed clock synchronization, (2)the time-space is uniform and the space is isotropic and (3)all the inertial systems are equivalent, then we can totally construct a general coordinate transformation to meet the symmetry of inertial systems, and with a special assumption on the speed of light, we can construct a non-Lorentz transformation between inertial systems to make the particle’s energy have a limited value, which is similar to the rainbow model. Similar to the usual Lorentz violating models, the non-Lorentz transformation in this paper lead to a new modified disperse relation. We applied the obtained disperse relation to analyze the photon’s arrival time lag effect in astronomy and found that the "maximum energy" derived in our model is somewhat related to the "maximum energy" assumed in the rainbow model.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Recurrent Neural Network; Renewable Energy; Power consumption; Open Power System Data; Multivariate Exploratory; Time series forecasting
Online: 27 September 2022 (02:44:29 CEST)
The environmental issues we are currently facing require long-term prospective efforts for sustainable growth. Renewable energy sources seem to be one of the most practical and efficient alternatives in this regard. Understanding a nation's pattern of energy use and renewable energy production is crucial for developing strategic plans. No previous study has been performed to explore the dynamics of power consumption with the change in renewable energy production on a country-wide scale. In contrast, a number of deep learning algorithms demonstrated acceptable performance while handling sequential data in the era of data-driven predictions. In this study, we developed a scheme to investigate and predict total power consumption and renewable energy production time series for eleven years of data using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The dynamics of the interaction between the total annual power consumption and renewable energy production are investigated through extensive Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and a feature engineering framework. The performance of the model is found satisfactory through the comparison of the predicted data with the observed data, visualization of the distribution of the errors and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) value of 0.084. Higher performance is achieved through the increase in the number of epochs and hyperparameter tuning. The proposed framework can be used and transferred to investigate the trend of renewable energy production and power consumption and predict the future scenarios for different communities. Incorporation of the cloud-based platform into the proposed pipeline may lead to real-time forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: MILP; district optimization; energy system model; time series aggregation; typical periods
Online: 10 May 2019 (10:25:50 CEST)
The complexity of Mixed-Integer Linear Programs (MILPs) increases with the number of nodes in energy system models. An increasing complexity constitutes a high computational load that can limit the scale of the energy system model. Especially in microgrid optimisation problems with multiple buildings and energy systems with a number of rival supply, distribution and storage technologies, methods are sought to reduce this complexity. In this paper, we present a new 2-Level Approach to MILP energy system models that determine the system design through a combination of continuous and discrete decisions. On the first level, data reduction methods are used to determine the discrete design decisions in a simplified solution space. Those decisions are then fixed, and on the second level the full dataset is used to extract the exact scaling of the chosen technologies. The performance of the new 2-Level Approach is evaluated for a case study of an urban energy system with six buildings and an island system based on a high share of renewable energy technologies. The results of the studies show a high accuracy with respect to the total annual costs, chosen system structure, installed capacities and peak load with the 2-Level Approach compared to the results of a single level optimization. The computational load is thereby reduced by more than one order of magnitude, while a significantly higher accuracy is reached in comparison to the common time series aggregation approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0048.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: expansion of the universe; vacuum energy; dark energy; time energy uncertainty principle; radius of the universe
Online: 18 July 2017 (12:18:16 CEST)
According to the current understanding, the recently observed accelerated expansion of the universe is caused by the dark or the vacuum energy. Attempts to calculate the magnitude of this energy using the standard model of particle physics led to values which are 59 – 120 orders of magnitude larger than the experimentally estimated one. Even though the expanding space has positive internal energy, in a flat universe it is completely balanced by the negative energy of gravitational field making the net energy equal to zero. However, the current physical theories may breakdown for times less than or on the order of Planck time and one cannot assume that the above assertion concerning the balance of two energies is valid also in this time scale. In this note it is assumed that this balance of the two energies during the creation of new space as the universe expands takes place only for times larger than the Planck time. If this assumption is correct, the net energy of the newly created space remains positive for times on the order of Planck time and the positive vacuum energy has to be burrowed from empty space before it is being balanced by gravity. This can happen only within the restrictions of the time-energy uncertainty principle. In this note it is shown that such considerations lead to a vacuum energy density of about 0.3 Nanojoules per cubic meter which has to be compared with the measured value of 0.6 Nanojoules per cubic meter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: VP28; WSSV; real-time PCR; viral load; apoptosis
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:55:17 CET)
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has emerged as one of the most prevalent and lethal viruses globally, and infects both shrimps and crabs in the aquatic environment. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of WSSV in different ghers of Bangladesh and the virulence of the circulating phylotypes. We collected 360 shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and 120 crab (Scylla sp.) samples from the South-East (Cox’s Bazar) and South-West (Satkhira) coastal regions of Bangladesh. The VP28 gene-specific PCR assays and sequencing revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05, Kruskal Wallis test) differences in the prevalence of WSSV in shrimps and crabs between the study areas (Cox’s Bazar and Satkhira), and over the study periods (2017-2019). The mean Log load of WSSV varied from 8.40 (Cox’s Bazar) to 10.48 (Satkhira) per gram of tissue. The mean values for salinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH were 14.71±0.76 ppt, 3.7±0.1 ppm, 34.11±0.38˚C and 8.23±0.38, respectively in the WSSV-positive ghers. The VP28 gene-based phylogenetic analysis showed an amino-acid substitution (E→G) at 167th position in the isolates from Cox’s Bazar (referred to as phylotype BD2) compared to the globally circulating one (BD1). Shrimp PL artificially challenged with BD1 and BD2 phylotypes with filtrates of tissue containing 0.423 X 109 copies of WSSV per mL resulted a median LT50 value of 73 hrs and 75 hrs, respectively. The in-vivo trial showed higher mean Log WSSV copies (6.47±2.07 per mg tissue) in BD1 challenged shrimp PL compared to BD2 (4.75±0.35 per mg tissue). Crabs infected with BD1 and BD2 showed 100% mortality within 48 hrs and 62 hrs of challenge, respectively with mean Log WSSV copies of 12.06±0.48 and 9.95±0.37 per gram tissue, respectively. Moreover, shrimp antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) penaeidin and lysozyme expression was lower in BD1 challenged group compared to BD2 challenged shrimps. These results collectively demonstrated that relative virulence properties of WSSV based on mortality rate, viral load and expression of host immune genes in artificially infected shrimp PL could be affected by single aa substitution in VP28.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0352.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quality real-time systems; Automated Machine Learning; Real-time embedded control systems; Cyber-physical systems; Neural Networks
Online: 25 May 2022 (11:17:19 CEST)
A correct system design can be systematically obtained from a specification model of a real-time system that integrates hybrid measurements in a realistic industrial environment, this has been carried out through complete Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow models. However, there is a widespread interest in carrying out that modeling by resorting to Machine Learning models, which can be understood as Automated Machine Learning for Real-time systems that present some degree of hybridization. An induction motor controller which must be able to maintain a constant air flow through a filter is one of these systems and it is discussed in the paper as a study case of closed-loop control system. The article discusses a practical application of ML methods that demonstrates how to replace such closed loop in industrial control systems with a Simulink block generated from neural networks to show how the proposed procedure can be applied to derive complete hybrid system designs with artificial neural networks (ANN). In the proposed ANN-based method to design a real-time hybrid system with continuous and discrete components, we use a typical design of a neural network, in which we define the usual phases: training, validation, and testing. The generated output of the model is made up of reference variables values of the cyber-physical system, which represent the functional and dynamic aspects of model. They are used to feed Simulink/Stateflow blocks in the real target system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0689.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Inhibitive assay; mercury; ficin; RSM; near real-time
Online: 31 August 2020 (03:53:15 CEST)
Heavy metals pollution in the Straits of Malacca warrants the development of rapid, simple and sensitive assays. Enzyme-based assays are excellent preliminary screening tool with near real-time potential. The heavy-metal assay based on the protease ficin was optimized for mercury detection using Response Surface Methodology. The inhibitive assay is based on ficin action on the substrate casein and residual casein is determined using the Coomassie dye-binding assay. Heavy metals strongly inhibit the hydrolysis. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was utilized to optimize detection. The results show a marked improvement for the concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) for mercury, silver and copper. Compared to One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) optimization, RSM gave an improvement of IC50 from 0.060 (95% CI, 0.0300.080) to 0.017 (95% CI, 0.0160.019), from 0.098 (95% CI, 0.0770.127) to 0.028 (95% CI, 0.0220.037) and from 0.040 (95% CI, 0.035.045) to 0.023 (95% CI, 0.0200.027), for mercury, silver and copper, respectively. A near real-time monitoring of mercury concentration in the Straits of Malacca at one location in Port Klang was carried out over a 4-h interval for a total of 24 h and validated by instrumental analysis with the result revealing an absence of mercury pollution in the sampling site.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0108.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biomass, Fusarium head blight, real-time PCR, trichothecenes, zearalenone
Online: 10 September 2019 (11:24:51 CEST)
The aim of the study was to determine the presence Fusarium species and mycotoxins in winter wheat grain in Poland. Grain samples from different locations in Poland in 2009 and 2010 were analysed for the content of biomass of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. In 2009 biomass of F. graminearum and F. poae was present in all samples, F. culmorum in 82% of samples, F. avenaceum in 55% of samples. F. sporotrichioides, F. tricinctum and F. equiseti were found only in individual samples. F. langsethiae was not detected. In 2010, five Fusarium species were detected with the exception of F. sporotrichioides. The highest content of biomass was found for F. graminearum followed by F. avenaceum, F. poae and F. langsethiae. The amount of F. culmorum biomass was very low. The most frequently occurring species was F. poae and F. graminearum. In 2009, deoxynivalenol was detected in all samples. In 2010, the average content of deoxynivalenol was lower than in 2009. Nivalenol was detected at very low concentration in both years. Significant correlations between content of F. graminearum biomass and deoxynivalenol concentration in grain and between content of F. poae biomass and nivalenol concentration in grain in 2009 were found. The most important finding of this study was that main Fusarium species infecting wheat kernels in Poland in both years was F. graminearum. The amount of biomass of F. graminearum was the highest in both years. It was present in the most samples. The other frequently detected species was F. poae, which in 2010 appeared in more samples than F. graminearum. However, the amount of F. poae biomass was lower. F. culmorum, species that was previously dominating as wheat pathogen in Poland, was found less frequently than F. graminearum. The amount of biomass of this species was the lowest in 2010.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0625.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: terrestrial modeling; real-time forecasting/monitoring; workflows
Online: 16 November 2018 (08:06:18 CET)
Operational weather and also flood forecasting has been performed successfully for decades and is of great socioeconomic importance. Up to now, forecast products focus on atmospheric variables, such as precipitation, air temperature and, in hydrology, on river discharge. Considering the full terrestrial system from groundwater across the land surface into the atmosphere, a number of important hydrologic variables are missing especially with regard to the shallow and deeper subsurface (e.g. groundwater), which are gaining considerable attention in the context of global change. In this study, we propose a terrestrial monitoring/forecasting system using the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TSMP) that predicts all essential states and fluxes of the terrestrial hydrologic and energy cycles from groundwater into the atmosphere. Closure of the terrestrial cycles provides a physically consistent picture of the terrestrial system in TSMP. TSMP has been implemented over a regional domain over North Rhine-Westphalia and a continental domain over European in a real-time forecast/monitoring workflow. Applying a real-time forecasting/monitoring workflow over both domains, experimental forecasts are being produced with different lead times since the beginning of 2016. Real-time forecast/monitoring products encompass all compartments of the terrestrial system including additional hydrologic variables, such as plant available soil water, groundwater table depth, and groundwater recharge and storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0404.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Darknet; Traffic Analysis; Network Management; Malicious Intent Detection; Weight Agnostic Neural Networks; Real-Time Forensics; Shapley Value; Power Predicting Score
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:56:34 CET)
Attackers are perpetually modifying their tactics to avoid detection and frequently leverage legitimate credentials with trusted tools already deployed in a network environment, making it difficult for organizations to proactively identify critical security risks. Network traffic analysis products have emerged in response to attackers’ relentless innovation, offering organizations a realistic path forward for combatting creative attackers. Additionally, thanks to the widespread adoption of cloud computing, Device Operators (DevOps) processes, and the Internet of Things (IoT), maintaining effective network visibility has become a highly complex and overwhelming process. What makes network traffic analysis technology particularly meaningful is its ability to combine its core capabilities to deliver malicious intent detection. In this paper, we propose a novel darknet traffic analysis and network management framework to real-time automating the malicious intent detection process, using a weight agnostic neural networks architecture. It is an effective and accurate computational intelligent forensics tool for network traffic analysis, the demystification of malware traffic, and encrypted traffic identification in real-time. Based on Weight Agnostic Neural Networks (WANNs) methodology, we propose an automated searching neural net architectures strategy that can perform various tasks such as identify zero-day attacks. By automating the malicious intent detection process from the darknet, the advanced proposed solution is reducing the skills and effort barrier that prevents many organizations from effectively protecting their most critical assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0387.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Brownian motion; Parisian time; exact simulation; real-time gross settlement system
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:43:03 CEST)
In this paper, we study the Parisian time of a reflected Brownian motion with drift on a finite collection of rays. We derive the Laplace transform of the Parisian time using a recursive method, and provide an exact simulation algorithm to sample from the distribution of the Parisian time. The paper is motivated by the settlement delay in the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system. Both the central bank and the participating banks in the system are concerned about the liquidity risk, and are interested in the first time that the duration of settlement delay exceeds a predefined limit, we reduce this problem to the calculation of the Parisian time. The Parisian time is also crucial in the pricing of Parisian type options; to this end, we will compare our results with the existing literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Real-Time Networks; Scheduling; Time-Triggered; SMT Solvers; Cyber-Physical Systems
Online: 8 May 2019 (11:53:33 CEST)
Future cyber-physical systems may extend over broad geographical areas, like cities or regions, thus requiring the deployment of large real-time networks. A strategy to guarantee predictable communication over such networks is to synthesize an offline time-triggered communication schedule. However, this synthesis problem is computationally hard (NP-complete), and existing approaches do not scale satisfactorily to the required network sizes. This article presents a segmented offline synthesis method which substantially reduces this limitation, being able to generate time-triggered schedules for large hybrid (wired and wireless) networks. We also present a series of algorithms and optimizations that increase the performance and compactness of the obtained schedules while solving some of the problems inherent to segmented approaches. We evaluate our approach on a set of realistic large-size multi-hop networks, significantly larger than those considered in the existing literature. The results show that our segmentation reduces the synthesis time up to two orders of magnitude.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0022.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: real‐time reconstruction; SLAM; kinect sensors; depth cameras; open source
Online: 7 August 2017 (11:03:23 CEST)
Given a stream of depth images with a known cuboid reference object present in the scene, we propose a novel approach for accurate camera tracking and volumetric surface reconstruction in real-time. Our contribution in this paper is threefold: (a) utilizing a priori knowledge of the cuboid reference object, we keep drift-free camera tracking without explicit global optimization; (b) we improve the fineness of the volumetric surface representation by proposing a prediction-corrected data fusion strategy rather than simple moving average, which enables accurate reconstruction of high-frequency details such as sharp edges of objects and geometries of high curvature; (c) we introduce a benchmark dataset CU3D containing both synthetic and real-world scanning sequences with ground-truth camera trajectories and surface models for quantitative evaluation of 3D reconstruction algorithms. We test our algorithm on our dataset and demonstrate its accuracy compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We release both our dataset and code as opensource1 for other researchers to reproduce and verify our results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0341.v1
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:30:54 CET)
Rapid growth of IoT applications and their interference in our daily lives led to many different IoT devices which generates enormous data. The IoT devices’ resources are very limited, so storing and processing IoT data in the devices is very inefficient. Several resources of cloud-computing are efficiently used to handle some IoT resources issues. While using resources in the cloud centers cause some other issues, like latency in the IoT applications, which are time-critical. Thus, the technology of edge cloud has evolved recently. This technology permits storage and data processing at the network edge. This paper studies edge computing in-depth for timeless sensitive devices in IoT. In-depth, cutting-edge IoT computing systems (ECAs-IoT) are evaluated and characterized in this paper according to numerous criteria, such as information placement, improvisation facilities, reliability, and data visualization. Moreover, according to distinctive properties, the paper aims at comparing each structure in detail. The paper also highlights the significant limitations of the new ECAs-IoT and recommends solutions to them. The studies also introduce and propose solutions to some of the most important restrictions of the current ECAs-IoT. Consequently, in the edge computing domain, this survey outlines the IoT implementations. Lastly, with the use of IoT implementations for ECAs-IoT, the paper suggests four distinct scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bandwidth Employment; Real time protocol; TCP; header reduced
Online: 1 November 2021 (15:52:52 CET)
Timeworn telecommunication are progressively being substituted by a new one that run over IP networks, which is recognized as voice over internet protocol (VoIP). VoIP has a number of qualities (e.g., inexpensive call rate), which make it progressively widespread in the telecommunication domain. However, VoIP faces plentiful obstacles that slow its growth. One of the major obstacles is poorly utilizing the network bandwidth. A number of techniques have been offered to handle this obstacle, including packet multiplexing techniques. This paper designs an original multiplexing techniques, called packet multiplexing and carrier header (PM-CH), to decrease the quantity of the bandwidth consumed by VoIP. PM-CH protect the bandwidth by multiplexing the packets in a header and using the Timestamp field in the RTP header. The achievement of the PM-CH technique was examined depends on connection capacity and payload shortening. Simulation outcomes show that the PM-CH technique outperforms the contrast technique in the two factors. For instance, the PM-CH technique’s connection capacity outperforms the comparable technique by 58.9% when the connection bandwidth is 1000 kbps. Consequently, the PM-CH technique attains its objective of reducing the unexploited bandwidth caused by VoIP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0119.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: HTN planning; real-time strategy game; plan repair
Online: 19 April 2017 (04:41:22 CEST)
Real-time strategy (RTS) game has proposed many challenges for AI research for its large state spaces, enormous branch factors, limited decision time and dynamic adversarial environment. To tackle above problems, the method called Adversarial Hierarchical Task Network planning (AHTN) has been proposed and achieves favorable performance. However, the HTN description it used cannot express complex relationships among tasks and impacts of environment on tasks. Moreover, the AHTN cannot handle task failures during plan execution. In this paper, we propose a modified AHTN planning algorithm named AHTNR. The algorithm introduces three elements essential task, phase and exit condition to extend the HTN description. To deal with possible task failures, the AHTNR first uses the extended HTN description to identify failed tasks. And then a novel task repair strategy is proposed based on historical information to maintain the validity of previous plan. Finally, empirical results are presented for the μRTS game, comparing AHTNR to the state-of-the-art search algorithms for RTS games.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0223.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Memory Delay; Multicore Systems; Interference Delay; Real-Time Systems; Testing
Online: 12 September 2018 (15:48:39 CEST)
In modern Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) multicore systems, cores can produce several simultaneous memory requests. The processing of such requests over the memory controller negatively impacts the interference delay triggered by running parallel tasks on the platform. In this paper, we propose a software-based testing approach for analyzing memory interference delay, when cores are exposed to extensive read/write requests that access in parallel their Cache Coherent Interconnect. The hardware targeted in this work is the well-known LayerScape QorIQ LS2085A, which can be approached as a potential successor to the Freescale QorIQ P4080. The test analysis was conducted based on a bare-metal operating system that we developed to guarantee a deterministic execution environment at all time points. Our testing was accomplished using a set of carefully designed synthetic benchmarks as well as TACLeBench benchmarks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0519.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-Time; Stormwater; Control Measure; Low-Cost; Machine Learning; Time-series; LSTM
Online: 16 December 2022 (05:21:32 CET)
The alteration of natural land cover to impervious surfaces during development increases stormwater runoff. Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are used to manage water quantity and enhance water quality by restoring the hydrologic cycle altered by development. Often, SCMs have an outflow pipe to handle overflows or to manage the release of water detained when infiltration is not possible. Traditionally, these are static controls (e.g. a small orifice is used to restrict the volume of outflow), however, these systems can be improved by instituting real-time controls (RTC). RTC improve the functionality of SCMs by dynamically controlling outflows to adjust to environmental conditions. A major impediment to the widespread implementation of RTC is the high cost of installation and operation. This study utilized machine learning methods to develop a forecasting approach for the implementation of low-cost RTC that were implemented on a programmable gate of the outlet structure of a multi-stage basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. The goals were to decrease the peak flow exiting the basin during rain events, increase the volume of water detained, decrease the number of overtopping events, maintain healthy vegetation in the basin, and protect the downstream vegetation from erosion. Multiple popular data science algorithms were evaluated including multiple linear regression and long short-term memory. These algorithms were used with a dataset, which consisted of four years of historical sensor data, collected in 5-minute intervals, to train models to predict water levels to optimize operations. The accuracy of 30 models with three different methods of handling missing values were compared. A long short-term memory model configured with a 30-minute lead time produced the best results. Having an approximate same lag time of 30 minutes for the contributing drainage area of the SCM provided a sufficient RTC functioning period to improve the performance of the outlet structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Bayesian modeling, long memory/anti-persistence; continuous time modeling; MCMC
Online: 4 July 2016 (09:57:31 CEST)
Using recent developments in econometrics and computational statistics we consider the estimation of the instantaneous rate of asset return process when the underlying Data Generating Mechanism (DGM) is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, driven by fractional noise, and sampled at fixed intervals of length h. To address the problem we adopt throughout the paper an exact discretization approach. This enable us to exploit the fact that a flow sampling scheme arises naturally when observing the DGM. For, while the instantaneous rate of return process is unobservable at points in time, its time integral over successive observations is observable since it equals the increment of log-prices. Exact discretization delivers an ARIMA(1,1,1) model for log-prices with a fractional driving noise. Building on the resulting exact discretization formulae and covariance function, a new Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme is proposed and we examine the properties of both the time and frequency domain likelihoods / posteriors through Monte Carlo. For the exact discrete model we adopt a general sampling interval of length h. This allow us to determine the optimal choice of h independent of the sample size. An empirical application using high frequency stock price data is presented showing the relevance of aggregation over time issues in modelling asset prices.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Real-time PCR; peanut; food allergen; chloroplast marker; DNA isolation
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:33:10 CEST)
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) contains allergenic proteins, which make it harmful to the sensitised population. The presence of peanut in foods must be indicated on label, to prevent accidental consumption by allergic population. In this work, we use chloroplast markers for specifically detection of peanut by real-time PCR, in order to increase the assay sensitivity. Binary mixtures of raw and processed peanut flour in wheat were performed at concentrations ranging from 100000 to 0.1 mg/kg. DNA isolation from peanut, mixtures and other legumes was carried out following three protocols for obtaining genomic and chloroplast-enrich DNA. Quantity and quality of DNA was evaluated, obtaining better results for protocol 2. Specificity and sensitivity of the method has been assayed with specific primers for three chloroplast markers (mat k, rpl16 and trnH-psbA) and Ara h 6 peanut allergen-coding region was selected as nuclear low-copy target and TaqMan probes. Efficiency and linear correlation of calibration curves were within the adequate ranges. Mat k chloroplast marker yielded the most sensitive and efficient detection for peanut. Moreover, detection of mat K in binary mixtures of processed samples was possible up to 10 mg/kg even after boiling, and autoclave 121°C 15 min, with acceptable efficiency and linear correlation. Applicability of the method has been assayed in several commercial food products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Real-time Control; Reinforcement Learning; Smart Stormwater Systems; Urban Flooding
Online: 20 October 2020 (15:03:45 CEST)
Climate change and development have increased urban flooding, requiring modernization of stormwater infrastructure. Retrofitting standard passive systems with controllable valves/pumps is promising, but requires real-time control (RTC). One method of automating RTC is reinforcement learning (RL), a general technique for sequential optimization and control in uncertain environments. The notion is that an RL algorithm can use inputs of real-time flood data and rainfall forecasts to learn a policy for controlling the stormwater infrastructure to minimize measures of flooding. In real-world conditions, rainfall forecasts and other state information, are subject to noise and uncertainty. To account for these characteristics of the problem data, we implemented Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG), an RL algorithm that is distinguished by its capability to handle noise in the input data. DDPG implementations were trained and tested against a passive flood control policy. Three primary cases were studied: (i) perfect data, (ii) imperfect rainfall forecasts, and (iii) imperfect water level and forecast data. Rainfall episodes (100) that caused flooding in the passive system were selected from 10 years of observations in Norfolk, Virginia, USA; 85 randomly selected episodes were used for training and the remaining 15 unseen episodes served as test cases. Compared to the passive system, all RL implementations reduced flooding volume by 70.5% on average, and performed within a range of 5%. This suggests that DDPG is robust to noisy input data, which is essential knowledge to advance the real-world applicability of RL for stormwater RTC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0462.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: unified field theory; zero-point energy; quantized space–time; quantized Einstein’s gravity equation; conservation of angular momentum in terms of quantized space–times
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:48:03 CEST)
In our previous papers [1,3], using only the concepts of the zero-point energy and quantized space–times, all the fields including gravity were explained. However, the previous papers had the following limitations: First, the concept of the quantized space-time must be experimentally confirmed. Second, we should clarify the meaning of the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation, which is derived in . Moreover, in another paper , we succeeded in describing the neutrinos’ self-energy and their oscillations. However, this paper assumes the rest energy of 3-leptons in advance, which is why we needed to uncover the reason why leptons have 3-generations. As mentioned, using the concepts of the zero-point energy and quantized space–times, we derived the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation in our previous paper . The paper provides an analytical solution of this equalized Einstein’s equation, which implies the conservation of angular momentum in terms of quantized space–times. Employing this solution and without the standard big bang model, a unique form of acceleration equation for the acceleration-expansion universe is derived. Moreover, the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) emission is also obtained. Further, this solution results in an analytical (not numerical) derivation of the gravity wave. Moreover, based on the configuration of quantized space–times in terms of both electric and magnetic fields, we analytically attempted to calculate every equation in terms of electromagnetic and gravity fields, using the solution of the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation. As a result of this theory, first the calculated acceleration and temperature of CMB emission agree with the measurements. Furthermore, the analytical solution of the quantized Einstein’s gravity equation resulted in all the laws of electromagnetic and gravity fields in addition to the analytically derived gravity wave, which agrees well with the recent measurements. Moreover, the calculations of the energies in the basic configuration of the quantized space–times resulted in all 3-leptons’ rest energies. Considering this basic configuration is uniformly distributed everywhere in the universe, we can conclude that τ-particles or static magnetic field energy derived from the basic configuration of the quantized space–times is the identity of dark energy, which also distributes uniformly in the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0318.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: thermal bridge; data-driven system modeling; system identification; time-varying indoor temperature; dynamic analysis; building energy simulation; building envelope
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:40:55 CEST)
It is not easy to dynamically analyze thermal bridges that require multidimensional analysis in building energy simulations, which are mostly one-dimensional platforms. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted and, recently, a study was conducted to model the thermal bridge based on the data by approaching this in a similar way to steady-state analysis, showing high accuracy. This was an early-stage study, which is only applicable when the indoor temperature is constant. By extending this study, a thermal bridge model that can be applied even when the indoor temperature changes over time is proposed and validated. Since the governing equation, the heat diffusion equation, is linear, the key idea is to create and apply two thermal bridge transfer function models by expressing the heat flow entering the room as a linear combination of the transfer function for indoor temperature and the transfer function for outdoor temperature. For the proposed thermal bridge model, the NRMSE of the model itself showed a high accuracy of 99.9%, and in the verification through annual simulation using the model, the NRMSE showed an accuracy of 88.8%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: industrial internet of things; random job arrival time; information entropy theory; self-adaption; real-time scheduling
Online: 6 August 2020 (06:00:12 CEST)
In recent years, the individualized demand of customers brings small batches and diversification of orders towards enterprises. The application of enabling technologies in factory, such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Cloud Manufacturing (CMfg), enhances the ability of customer requirement automatic elicitation and the manufacturing process control. The job shop scheduling problem with random job arrival time dramatically increases the difficulty in process management. Thus, how to collaboratively schedule the production and logistics resources in the shop floor is very challenging, and it has a fundamental and practical significance of achieving the competitiveness for an enterprise. To address this issue, the real-time model of production and logistics resources is built firstly. Then, the task entropy model is built based on the task information. Finally, the real-time self-adaption collaboration of production and logistics resources is realized. The proposed algorithm is carried out based on a practical case to evaluate its effectiveness. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms three existing algorithms.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: storage tank; continuous real–time; release model; leakage test; hole discharge
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:34:54 CEST)
The calculation of the release of liquid hazardous chemicals storage tanks is an important part of the quantitative risk assessment of accidents. This paper mainly establishes a continuous real–time release model based on the instantaneous mass flow Qm model. Meanwhile, the software function module was analyzed, and programming software was developed using C# language for model solving. A series of experiments for repeated leakage tests was designed and the discharges through three small holes with different heights for 200 s were observed. The results show that the continuous real–time leakage model is effective, and the deviation between theoretical and experimental release amounts are within a reasonable range. The higher the liquid level above the leak hole is, and the smaller the height of the leak hole from the ground is, the greater the flow rate at the leak orifice is and the smaller discharge rate change is. Therefore, the deviation between the theoretical release amount Mt and the experimental average release amount Ma is greater while the height of the leak hole from the ground is smaller, which indicates that the smaller the distance from the leak orifice to the ground, the greater the influence of the empirical discharge coefficient C0 on the release amount M.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0040.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Predictive Maintenance; Predictive maintenance-based process scheduling; Real-time anomaly detection
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:09:05 CEST)
Predictive maintenance (PM) algorithms are widely applied for detecting operational anomalies on industrial processes to trigger maintenance before a possible breakdown; however, much less focus has been devoted to the use of such PM predictions as feedback in automated process control mechanisms. They usually integrate preventive solutions to protect the machines, usually causing downtimes. The premise of this study is to develop a holistic adaptive process scheduling mechanism that incorporates PM analysis as a safety component to optimize the operation mode of an industrial process toward preventing breakdowns while maintaining its availability and operational state, thereby reducing downtimes. As PM is largely a data-driven approach; hence, relies on the setup, we first compare different PM approaches and identify a one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) as the best performing option for the anomaly detection on our setup. Then, we propose a novel pipeline to integrate maintenance predictions into a real-time adaptive process scheduling mechanism. It schedules for the most suitable operation, i.e., optimizing for machine health and process efficiency, according to the abnormal readings. To demonstrate the pipeline on action, we implement our approach on a small-scale conveyor belt system utilizing our Internet of Things (IoT) framework. The results show that our PM-based adaptive process control provides an efficient process with less or no downtime. We also conclude that a PM approach does not provide sufficient efficiency without its integration into an autonomous planning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0087.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: well-posedness; asymptotic stability; infinite memory; Cattaneo's law; time-varying delay
Online: 19 January 2017 (10:53:04 CET)
In this paper, we study a one-dimensional Bresse-Cattaneo system with infinite memories and time-dependent delay term (the coefficient of which is not necessarily positive) in the internal feedbacks. First, it is proved that the system is well-posed by means of the Hille-Yosida theorem under suitable assumptions on the relaxation functions. Then, without any restriction on the speeds of wave propagations, we establish the exponential or general decay result by introducing suitable energy and Lyapunov functionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0779.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: real-time systems; safety integrity level; scheduling; mixed-criticality
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:41:53 CEST)
In a safety-critical system typically not all provided services have the same criticality, which we call mixed-criticality systems. Criticality arithmetic, also called SIL arithmetic, is an approach to lower the development effort of a service by providing redundancy with tasks that are developed for a lower criticality level. In this paper we present ATMP-CA, which is a derivation of the multi-core scheduler ATMP. ATMP-CA is able to take into account the knowledge about the use of criticality arithmetic. ATMP-CA has a modified core allocation and procedure for utility optimisation, considering the context of the replicated tasks. We conducted experiments that show that ATMP-CA is able to provide the services using criticality arithmetic, while the reference schedulers were not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0587.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; surface morphology; real-time measurement; deep learning
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:01:50 CET)
Layer-wise 3D surface morphology information is critical for the quality monitoring and control of additive manufacturing (AM) processes. However, most of the existing 3D scan technologies are either contact or time consuming, which are not capable of obtaining the 3D surface morphology data in a real-time manner during the process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to achieve real-time 3D surface data acquisition in AM, which is achieved by a supervised deep learning-based image analysis approach. The key idea of this proposed method is to capture the correlation between 2D image and 3D point cloud, and then quantify this relationship by using a deep learning algorithm, namely, convolutional neural network (CNN). To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, both simulation and real-world case studies were performed. The results demonstrate that this method has strong potential to be applied for real-time surface morphology measurement in AM, as well as other advanced manufacturing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0749.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Bovine coronavirus; intersititial pneumonia; phylogenetic analysis; Real time PCR
Online: 31 July 2020 (13:46:21 CEST)
An outbreak of winter disease, complicated by severe respiratory syndrome, occurred in January 2020 in a high production dairy cow herd located in a hilly area of the Calabria region. Of the 52 animals belonging to the farm, 5 (9.6%) died with severe respiratory distress, death occurring 3-4 days after the appearance of the respiratory signs (caught and gasping breath). Microbiological analysis revealed absence of pathogenic bacteria whilst Real-time PCR identified the presence of RNA from Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) in several organs: lungs, small intestine (jejunum), mediastinal lymph nodes, liver and placenta. Since being the only pathogen identified, BCoV was hypothesized to be the cause of the lethal pulmonary infection. Like the other CoVs, BCoV is able to cause different syndromes. Its role in calfhood diarrhoea and in mild respiratory disease is well known: we report instead the involvement of this virus in a severe and fatal respiratory disorder, with symptoms and disease evolution resembling that of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotary machinery; adaptive order tracking; online real-time monitoring.
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:02:45 CEST)
When a rotary machine is running, from which the acquired vibro-acoustic signals enable to reveal its operation status and health condition. The study proposed a DSP-based adaptive angular-velocity Vold-Kalman filtering order tracking (AV2KF_OT) algorithm with an online real-time nature for signal interpretation and machine condition monitoring. Theoretical derivation and numerical implementation of computation schemes are briefly introduced. An online real-time monitoring system based on the AV2KF_OT algorithm, which was implemented through both a digital signal processor and a user interface coded by using LabVIEW, was developed. Two experimental tasks were applied to justify the proposed technique, including (i) the detection of startup on the fluid-induced whirl performed through a journal-bearing rotor rig, and (ii) the separation of close orders from the measured signals of a multifunction transmission-element ball-bearing bench.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: autonomy; optimal; spacecraft; navigation guidance; attitude control; inertial sensors; star trackers; linear quadratic regulator; time-optimal control; optimal open loop; proportional plus derivative control; real-time optimal control; switched real-time optimal control
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:40:49 CET)
Autonomous navigation of spacecraft necessitates innovative technologies, methods, and algorithms, particularly when orbiting in proximity of other space objects. Optimization methods are useful for autonomous spacecraft navigation, guidance, and control, but their performance is hampered by noisy multi-sensor technologies and poorly modeled system equations, and real-time on-board utilization is generally computationally burdensome. Some proposed methods use noisy sensor data to learn the optimal guidance and control solutions real-time (online), where non-iterative instantiations are preferred to reduce computational burdens. This study aims to highlight efficacy and limitations of several common methods for optimizing guidance and control while proposing a few more, where all methods are applied to the full, nonlinear, coupled equations of motion including cross-products of motion from the transport theorem. Five disparate types of optimum guidance and control algorithms are presented and compared to a classical benchmark. Comparative analysis is based on tracking errors (both states and rates), fuel usage, and computational burden. Real-time optimalization with singular switching plus nonlinear transport theorem decoupling proves superior by matching open-loop solutions to the constrained optimization problem (in terms of state and rate errors and fuel usage), while robustness is validated in the utilization of mixed, noisy state and rate sensors and uniformly varying mass and mass moments of inertia. State tracking errors are reduced one-hundred ten percent. Rate tracking errors are reduced one-hundred thirteen percent. Control utilization (e.g., fuel) is reduced eighty four percent, while computational burden in reduced ten percent simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0279.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: chemotype; 3ADON; DNA; Fusarium; Fusarium head blight; NIV; real-time PCR; wheat
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:09:55 CET)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a wheat disease caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. The aim of the study was to find relationships between the weather conditions in the experimental years and the locations and the amount of F. culmorum DNA and trichothecene genotypes, as well as the proportions between them. A three-year field experiment (2017, 2018 and 2019) was established at two locations (Poznań, Radzików). F. culmorum DNA was detected in all grain samples in an average amount of 20124 pg per 1 g of wheat DNA. The average amount of DNA from the 3ADON genotype was 4879 pg/μg and the amount of DNA from the NIV genotype was 3330 pg/μg. In the three experimental years, a large variability was observed in the coefficients of correlation between DNA concentrations and the FHB index, FDK, ergosterol, and the corresponding toxins. There were significant correlations between disease incidence, fungal biomass (quantified as the total amount of fungal DNA or DNA trichothecene genotypes) and toxins (DON, 3AcDON and NIV) concentrations. The 3ADON trichothecene genotype dominates over the NIV genotype (ratio 1.5); however, this varied greatly depending on environmental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: mixing time; LIF; CFD; SPH; stirred tank
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:22:18 CET)
Performing optimisation and scale-up studies of crystallisation systems requires accurate and computationally efficient mathematical models. The assumption of the ideal mixing conditions in batch reactors typically produce inaccurate results while the computational expense of CFD models is still prohibitively high. Therefore, in this work, a new intermediary approach is proposed that takes into account the non-ideal mixing conditions in the reactor and requires less computational resources than full CFD simulations. Starting with the Danckwerts concept of the intensity of segregation, an analogy between its application to chemical reactions and the kinetics of the crystallisation phenomena (such as nucleation and growth) has been made. As a result, the modified kinetics expressions have been derived which incorporate the effect of non-idealities present in stirred reactors. This way, based on the experimental measurements of the mixing time using the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique, computationally more efficient mathematical models can be developed in two ways: (1) the accurate semi-empirical correlations are available for standard mixing configurations with the most often used types of impellers, (2) CFD simulations can be utilised for estimation of the mixing time; in this case it is necessary to simulate only the mixing process. The benefits offered by the LIF experimental technique have been demonstrated and some frequent problems in its application analysed. The mixing time results for configurations with and without baffles for three types of impellers and four different rotational speeds have been presented. The false shorter mixing times in the non-baffled configurations have been observed and this phenomena explained by the existence of two segregated zones in the reactor and confirmed by additional experiments. The precise measurements in these cases have been shown as difficult using the LIF technique, particularly for higher rpms. The experimental data has been compared to the preliminary simulation results obtained from the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method and the standard k-ε turbulence model with the modest success. The shortcomings of the SPH model have been recognized and the directions for the future work discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0018.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: allergenic pollen; ozone; automatic real-time device; image analysis; principal component analysis
Online: 2 October 2019 (06:02:31 CEST)
Alnus glutinosa is important woody plant in Lithuanian forest ecosystems. Knowledge of fluorescence properties of black alder pollen is necessary for scientific and practical purposes. By the results of the study we aimed to evaluate possibilities of identifying Alnus glutinosa pollen fluorescence properties by modeling ozone effect and applying two different fluorescence-based devices. To implement experiments, black alder pollen was collected in a typical habitat during the annual flowering period in 2018-2019. There were three groups of experimental variants, which differed in the duration of exposure to ozone, conditions of pollen storage before the start of the experiment, and the experiment start time. Data for pollen fluorescence analysis were collected using two methods. The microscopy method was used in order to evaluate the possibility of employing image analysis systems for investigation of pollen fluorescence. The second data collection method is related to the automatic device identifying pollen in real-time, which uses the fluorescence method in the pollen recognition process. Data were assessed employing image analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Digital images of ozone-exposed pollen observed under the fluorescence microscope showed the change of the dominant green colour towards the blue spectrum. Meanwhile, the automatic detector detects more pollen whose fluorescence is at the blue light spectrum. It must be noted that assessing pollen fluorescence several months after exposure to ozone, no effect of ozone on fluorescence remains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; Real-Time Tracker; Common Symptoms; Data Visualization; Hypothesis Testing; ARIMA Time-Series Forecast; Penalized Logistic Regression
Online: 7 June 2020 (07:44:48 CEST)
While the COVID-19 outbreak was reported to first originate from Wuhan, China, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 by WHO, and it has spread to over 180 countries by the time of this paper was being composed. As the disease spreads around the globe, it has evolved into a worldwide pandemic, endangering the state of global public health and becoming a serious threat to the global community. To combat and prevent the spread of the disease, all individuals should be well-informed of the rapidly changing state of COVID-19. In the endeavor of accomplishing this objective, a COVID-19 real-time analytical tracker has been built to provide the latest status of the disease and relevant analytical insights. The real-time tracker is designed to cater to the general audience without advanced statistical aptitude. It aims to communicate insights through various straightforward and concise data visualizations that are supported by sound statistical foundations and reliable data sources. This paper aims to discuss the major methodologies which are utilized to generate the insights displayed on the real-time tracker, which include real-time data retrieval, normalization techniques, ARIMA time-series forecasting, and logistic regression models. In addition to introducing the details and motivations of the utilized methodologies, the paper additionally features some key discoveries that have been derived in regard to COVID-19 using the methodologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0442.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; molecular diagnostic; SARS-CoV-2; Real-time PCR
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:10:47 CEST)
RT-PCR tests have become the gold standard for detecting the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of the extreme number of cases in periodic waves of infection, there is a severe financial and logistical strain on diagnostic laboratories. For this reason, alternative implementations, and validations of academic protocols, that employ the lowest cost and most widely available equipment and reagents found in different regions, is essential. In this study, we report an alternative implementation of the EUA 2019-nCoV CDC assay which uses a previously characterized duplex PCR reaction for the N1 and RNAse P target regions and an additional uniplex reaction for the N2 target region. Taking advantage of the Abbott m2000 Sample Preparation System and NEB Luna Universal Probe One-Step RT-qPCR kit, some of the most widely available and lowest cost nucleic acid extraction and amplification platforms, this modified test shows a state-of-the-art analytical and clinical sensitivities and specificities, when compared with the Seegene Allplex-SARS-CoV-2 assay. This implementation has the potential to be verified and implemented by diagnostic laboratories around the world to guarantee low-cost RT-PCR tests that can take advantage of widely available equipment and reagents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0161.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Pineal cyst; hydrocephalus; microsurgery; real-time MRI; respiration; glymphatic system
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:00:41 CEST)
Proposal: Pineal region cysts (PCs) may affect the tectum and aqueduct and cause deep central vein congestion and endocrine dysfunction. In addition to headaches, PC often causes a broad range of symptoms, leading to prolonged diagnosis and therapy. The aims of this study are to reveal parameters that might explain the ambiguity of the symptoms and to identify factors association with the respiration driven neurofluid preload system. Methods: This retrospective study included 28 paediatric patients (mean age 11.6 years) who received surgical treatment for pineal region cysts and 18 patients (mean age 11.3 years) who were followed conservatively. Multiple clinical patient characteristics, such as symptoms, time to neuroimaging diagnosis, cyst size, ventricular indices, head circumference and postoperative outcome, were analysed. Four patients were investigated for CSF dynamics with real-time MRI. The mean follow-up time was 1.6 years. Results: The most common early onset symptoms were headaches (92%), blurred vision (42.8%), sleep disturbances (39.3%) and vertigo (32.1%). Tectum contact was observed in 82% of patients, and MRI examinations revealed that imaging flow void signals were absent in 32.1% of patients. The mean cyst diameters were 13.7 mm for the axial axis and 15.6 mm for the longitudinal axis. Together with a postoperative flow void signal, 4 patients recovered their respiration-driven CSF upward flow, which was not detectable before OP. After operation in 92.1% of patients, the leading symptoms improved without any mortality or morbidity. Conclusion: Despite proximity to the tectum and aqueduct with frequently absent aqueductal flow void signals, hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was never detected. Data from real-time MRI depicted a reduced preoperative filling of the ventricular CSF compartments, indicating a diminished fluid preload, which recovered postoperatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0066.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Raman spectra; mixed pesticides; apple; correction method; rapid; real-time
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:17:24 CEST)
In the study, a new correction method was applied to reduce error during detection on mixed pesticide residue in apples by using Raman spectra. Combined with self-built pesticide residues detection system by Raman spectroscopy and the application of surface enhancement technology, rapid real-time qualitative and quantitative analysis of deltamethrin and acetamiprid residues in apples can be applied effectively. In quantitative analysis, compared with the intensity value of characteristic peaks of single pesticide with same concentration, the intensity value of characteristic peaks of the two pesticides decreased after mixing the pesticides, which interferes the results severely. By comparing the difference in the intensity of characteristic peaks of single and mixed pesticides, a correction method is proposed to eliminate the influence of pesticides mixture. Characteristic peak intensity values of gradient concentration pesticide from 10-1 g•kg-1 to 10-6 g•kg-1 and Lagrangian interpolation are applied in the correction method. And a smooth surface is applied to describe the correction ratio of characteristic peak intensity. Through detecting the characteristic peak intensity values of the mixed pesticide, correction ratio will be obtained. Then real values of the peak intensity of pesticides and the content of each component of the mixed pesticide will be acquired by the correction method. Correlation coefficient of model validation exceeds 0.88 generally and Root Mean Square Error also decreases obviously after correction, which proved the reliability of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0083.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: state estimation; model reference; sliding mode; real-time; parameter detuning
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:01:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to present an adaptive sliding mode luenberger state observer with improved disturbance rejection capability and better tracking performance under dynamic conditions. The sliding hyperplane is altered by incorporating the estimated disturbance torque with the stator currents. Also, the effects of parameter detuning on the speed convergence is observed and compared with the conventional disturbance rejection mechanism. The entire drive system is first built in simulink environment. Then, the simulink model is integrated with RT-Lab blocksets and implemented in a relatively new real-time environment using OP4500 real-time simulator. Real-time simulation and testing platforms have succeeded offline simulation and testing tools due to their reduced development time. The real-time results validate the improvement in the proposed state observer and also correspond to the performance of the actual physical model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0616.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: gait diagnosis; wearable device; graphical descriptor; real-time monitoring; tele-rehabilitation; digital biomarkers
Online: 25 March 2021 (13:52:03 CET)
The deterioration of gait can be used as a biomarker for ageing and neurological diseases. Continuous gait monitoring and analysis are essential for early deficit detection and personalized rehabilitation. The use of mobile and wearable inertial sensor systems for gait monitoring and analysis have been well explored with promising results in the literature. However, most of these studies focus on the technologies for gait characteristic assessment, few of them have considered the data acquisition bandwidth of the sensing system. Inadequate sampling frequency will sacrifice signal fidelity, thus leading to an inaccurate estimation especially for spatial gait parameters. In this work, we developed an inertial sensor based in-shoe gait analysis system for real-time gait monitoring and investigated the optimal sampling frequency to capture all the information on walking patterns. An exploratory validation study was performed using an optical motion capture system on four healthy adult subjects, where each person underwent five walking sessions, giving a total of 20 sessions. Percentage mean absolute errors (MAE%) obtained in stride time, stride length, stride velocity, and cadence while walking were 1.19%, 1.68%, 2.08%, and 1.23%, respectively. In addition, an eigen-analysis based graphical descriptor from raw gait cycle signals was proposed as a new gait metric that can be quantified by principal component analysis to differentiate gait patterns, which has great potential to be used as a powerful analytical tool for gait disorder diagnostics.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; mosses; low-cost; equipment; time-consuming
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:28:31 CET)
Air pollution has created a lot of problems in the developed and developing countries. To avoid or reduce these problems, constant monitoring of the air should be ensured. The conventional techniques is costly because it requires a lot of money and time consuming. Biomonitoring has been the alternative method. Moss, lichens and plants are biomonitors available to entrap air pollutants. The aim of this paper is to discuss one of the ways of monitoring air pollution – Moss bag technique. To do this, types, choice, preparation, handling of bags after preparation of moss were discussed. From the literatures consulted, it was discovered that there were differences in the techniques used by the researchers. In all, the use of mosses with emphasis on the employment of moss bag have proved to be a powerful tool in airborne particulate and toxic elements. To conclude, developing countries should focus more on this technique because it will reduce cost of air monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0520.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Multiplex PCR; Real time PCR; Human herpes viruses; clinical significance; Pediatric Leukemia patients
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:30:06 CEST)
Objectives: Human herpes viruses can cause life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised children, especially leukemic patients. Therefore, the aim of this study is to detect the human herpes viruses (HHV1-7) and to investigate its clinical significance in Middle Eastern Pediatric Leukemia Patients by using 2 Independent PCR assays. Methods: Detection of human herpes virus DNA has been done in blood samples of 200 pediatric leukemia patients in addition to 90 blood donors as a control group using multiplex PCR assays. When a ‘‘positive’’ result was observed, real-time PCR was performed to measure the viral load. Results: The most frequent herpes virus infection in Middle Eastern Pediatric Leukemia cases was CMV, followed by EBV, then HHV6, VZV, HHV7, HSV1, and HSV2, where they were 92/200 (46%), 76/200 (38%), 72/200 (36%), 48/200 (24%), 12/200 (6%), 8/200 (4%), and 2/200 (1%) respectively. Also, there was a statistically significance difference between leukemic patients and their controls regarding CMV, EBV, HHV6, and VZV (P <0.05). Correlation between percentage of co-infection, and clinical parameters for the 7 herpes viruses has been studied, and there is an increase in absolute neutrophilic count (ANC), total leukocyte count (TLC) and duration of fever and neutropenia in age group 6-11 years for HHV6/CMV, then in age group 12-18 years especially for EBV/CMV and CMV/HHV6. Also, our results show that multiplex PCR assay is close to single PCR assay in relation to specificity and sensitivity which in turn prove its validity for early diagnosis of herpes viral infection. Conclusions: Adopting multiplex PCR technique is helpful in screening of virus infections. It will save time, effort, cost effective and will assist in rapid diagnosis. However, the clinical relevance of the virus infection needs to be evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR which in turn will help patient's management by using appropriate antiviral treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Neuroendoscopy; ETV; Hydrocephalus; ETVSS; T2 flow void; Real-time MRI; Inspiration
Online: 11 January 2022 (14:08:02 CET)
Purpose: ETV is indicated for treating obstructions of major CSF pathways. The outcome evaluation often yields success rates of only +- 70% for shunt independency. Hence, compromised CSF absorption seems to occur more often than expected. We searched for parameters suitable to assess the involved CSF dynamics. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study in 58 paediatric patients (7.7 yrs. mean age) between 2000 and 2020 with aqueductal stenosis (11/58), obstruction of the aqueduct due to tumor growth (22/58),and connatal hydrocephalus (9/58). The average follow-up interval was 4.7 years. Head circumferences, Evans- and fronto-occipital horn ratios before and 3 months after ETV were obtained as Delta-indices. Furthermore ETV success score (ETVSS), the patency of the aqueduct pre- and postoperatively as well as of the stoma were assessed by flow void signs on MRI. Evaluation on MRI also included the shape of the floor of the 3rd ventricle and whether or not the septum pellucidum showed signs of perforation. Four patients were analysed pre- and postoperatively via real-time MRI. At least the educational status regarding protected or unprotected education was analyzed. Results:The prevalence of a bowing of the floor of the 3rd ventricle was 72%, and the ETVSS was 71.0%. In 26 children a septal perforations or an open aqueduct prior to ETV (19) could be identified. Mean ER and FOHR were reduced by 0.03 and 0.05 , respectively. Maintained open (flow void on postop MRI) or perforation could successfully be carried out during endoscopic surgery in 44 patients (79%). The disproportionate increase of head circumference abated in 79.4% of patients. New shunt insertion occurred in 16 patients (27.5%). Intraoperatively upward CSF flow was detected in all cases. Statistical analyses(ANOVA) showed significant results for unprotected education, postoperative ER and FOHR but not for open stoma. Conclusion: The identification of flow through the stoma on postoperative MRI seems to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for ETV success. In our study, ventricular volumes were used as parameters to determine success rates as well as unprotected education. Furthermore, enabling upward CSF flow driven by inspiration seems crucial for successful ETV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cellular Nonlinear Networks; Stochastic Logic; real time processing; image processing; memristors.
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:48:16 CET)
Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are a concept introduced in 1988 by Leon Chua and Lin Yang as a bio-inspired architecture, capable of massively parallel computation. Later on, CNN have been enhanced by incorporating designs that incorporate memristors to profit from their processing and memory capabilities. In addition, Stochastic Computing (SC) can be used to optimize the quantity of required processing elements; thus it provides a lightweight approximate computing framework, quite accurate and effective, though. In this work, we propose utilization of SC in designing and implementing a memristor-based CNN. As a proof of the proposed concept, an example of application is presented. This application combines Matlab and a FPGA in order to create the CNN. The implemented CNN has then been used to perform three different real-time applications on a 512x512 gray-scale and a 768x512 color image: storage of the image, edge detection, and image sharpening. It has to be pointed out that the same CNN has been used for the three different tasks, with the sole change of some programmable parameters. Results show an excellent capability with significant accompanying advantages, like the low number of needed elements further allowing for a low cost FPGA-based system implementation, something confirming the system’s ability for real time operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS gyroscopes; circuit phase delay; IQ coupling; real-time correction system
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:16:48 CEST)
With the development of designing and manufacturing level for micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes, the control circuit system becomes a key point to determine their internal performances. Nevertheless, phase delay of electron components may result in some serious hazards. This paper describes a real-time circuit phase delay correction system for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided to clarify the influences of circuit phase delay on the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) coupling characteristics and zero rate output (ZRO) utilizing force-to-rebalance (FTR) closed-loop detection and quadrature correction system. By deducing the relationship between amplitude-frequency, phase-frequency of MEMS gyroscope and the phase relationship of the whole control loop, a real-time correction system is proposed to automatically adjust the phase reference value of phase-locked loop (PLL) and thus compensate for the real-time circuit phase delay. The experimental results show that the correction system can accurately measure and compensate the circuit phase delay in real time. Furthermore, the unwanted IQ coupling can be eliminated and the ZRO is decreased by 755% to 0.095°/s. This correction system realizes a small angle random walk of 0.978°/√h, and a low bias instability of 9.458°/h together with a scale factor nonlinearity of 255 ppm at room temperature. Besides, the thermal drift of ZRO is reduced to 0.0034°/s/°C at a temperature range from -20°C to 70°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: D2D; 5G Cellular Networks; Real-Time Traffic; C2D Communication; Traffic Interference
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:46:01 CET)
In this paper, we propose a multi-zone service control scheme to maximize the performance of each service zone when a large number of cellular service zones and D2D (Device-to-Device) service zones are composed to 5G cellular network. This paper also improves performance of service zone by dividing traffic into real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic in order to minimize traffic interference. Real-time traffic and non-real-time traffic have a significant impact on communication performance. We propose a new self-detection traffic interference control technique to improve the QoS and throughput of D2D and C2D communication in a cellular network, STICS (Self-detecting Traffic Interference Control Scheme). The proposed STICS scheme distinguishes between short-term traffic congestion process and long-term traffic congestion process according to traffic characteristics to detect and control traffic. When the proposed scheme is applied to the 5G-based cellular network environment, it is expected that the traffic type will be efficiently classified by self-detecting the traffic according to the flow. Such classified traffic is less sensitive to communication between the D2D and C2D links, thereby reducing traffic overload. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation and show that the proposed scheme is more efficient than other comparison schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0260.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: evidence-based dentistry; public health dentistry; google trends; real-time analytics; predictive analytics
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:34:04 CET)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological sciences have been evolving at an exponential rate paralleled only by the comparable growth within the discipline of data science. Digital epidemiological studies are playing a vital role in medical science analytics for the past few decades. To date, there are no published attempts at deploying the use of real-time analytics in connection with the disciplines of Dentistry or Medicine. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES We deployed a real-time statistical analysis in connection with topics in Dental Anatomy and Dental Pathology represented by the maxillary sinus, posterior maxillary teeth, related oral pathology. The purpose is to infer the digital epidemiology based on a continuous stream of raw data retrieved from Google Trends database. MATERIALS AND METHODS Statistical analysis was carried out via Microsoft Excel 2016 and SPSS version 24. Google Trends database was used to retrieve data for digital epidemiology. Real-time analytics and the statistical inference were based on encoding a programming script using Python high-level programming language. A systematic review of the literature was carried out via PubMed-NCBI, the Cochrane Library, and Elsevier databases. RESULTS The comprehensive review of databases of the literature, based on specific keywords search, yielded 491813 published studies. These were distributed as 488884 (PubMed-NCBI), 1611 (the Cochrane Library), and 1318 (Elsevier). However, there was no single study attempting real-time analytics. Nevertheless, we succeeded in achieving an automated real-time stream of data accompanied by a statistical inference based on data extrapolated from Google Trends. CONCLUSION Real-time analytics are of considerable impact when implemented in biological and life sciences as they will tremendously reduce the required resources for research. Predictive analytics, based on artificial neural networks and machine learning algorithms, can be the next step to be deployed in continuation of the real-time systems to prognosticate changes in the temporal trends and the digital epidemiology of phenomena of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0172.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: ticks; cattle, rna viruses; next-generation sequencing; phylogeny; microfluidic real-time pcr technology; Caribbean; lips
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:29:36 CET)
Ticks transmit a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, parasites and viruses. Over the last decade, numerous novel viruses have been described in arthropods, including ticks, and their characterization has provided new insights into RNA virus diversity and evolution. However, little is known about their ability to infect vertebrates. As very few studies have described the diversity of viruses present in ticks from the Caribbean, we implemented an RNA-sequencing approach on Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from cattle in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Among the viral communities infecting Caribbean ticks, we selected four viruses belonging to the Chuviridae, Phenuiviridae and Flaviviridae families for further characterization and designing antibody screening tests. While viral prevalence in individual tick samples revealed high infection rates, suggesting a high level of exposure of Caribbean cattle to these viruses, no seropositive animals were detected. These results suggest that the Chuviridae- and Phenuiviridae-related viruses identified in the present study are more likely tick endosymbionts, raising the question of the epidemiological significance of their occurrence in ticks, especially regarding their possible impact on tick biology and vector capacity. The characterization of these viruses might open the door to new ways of preventing and controlling tick-borne diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: ph sensors; reticulorumen; blood gas; automatic milking system; real-time monitoring; precision livestock farming
Online: 10 January 2020 (10:08:05 CET)
We hypothesized possibility that inline registered reticulorumen pH can be as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of reticulorumen pH with biomarkers from automatic milking system (AMS) and some blood parameters and determinate reticulorumen pH as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. According to cows reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following four groups: 15-30 d. postpartum; 1-34 d. after insemination; 35 d. after insemination (non-pregnant); 35 d. after insemination (pregnant). According reticulorumen pH assay experimental animals were divided into four classes: 1) pH<6.22 (5.3% of cows), 2) pH - 6.22-6.42 (42.1% of cows), 3) pH - 6.42-6.62 (21.1% of cows), 4) pH >6.62 (10.5% of cows). Rumination time, body weight, milk yield, milk fat – protein ratio, milk lactose, milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk electrical conductivity of all quarters of udder were registered with the help of Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The pH, temperature of the contents of cow reticulorumens and cow activity were measured using specific smaX-tec boluses. Blood gas parameters were analyzed using a blood gas analyzer (EPOC, Canada). We found that pregnant cows has higher reticulorumen pH during insemination time, comparing with non-pregnant. Cows with lower reticulorumen pH has lowest milk fat – protein ratio, and lactose concentration, and highest SCC. Cows with lowest reticulorumen pH has lowest blood pH. With increase reticulorumen pH, increases blood potasium and hematocrit, decreases CO2, saturation and sodium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0456.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: brachypodium; neutral red; root; casparian bands; PEG-6000; osmotic stress; real time imaging; PDMS
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:05:36 CET)
To elucidate dynamic developmental processes in plants, live tissues and organs have to be visualized frequently and for long time periods. The development of roots is studied in depth at a cellular resolution not only to comprehend the basic processes fundamental to maintenance and pattern formation but also study stress tolerance adaptation in plants. Despite technological advancements, maintaining continuous access to samples and simultaneously preserving their morphological structures and physiological conditions without causing damage presents hindrances in the measurement, visualization and analyses of growing organs including plant roots. We propose a preliminary system which integrates the optical real-time visualization through light microscopy with a liquid culture which enables us to image at the tissue and cellular level horizontally growing Brachypodium roots every few minutes and up to 24 hours. We describe a simple setup which can be used to track the growth of the root as it grows including the root tip growth and osmotic stress dynamics. We demonstrate the system’s capability to scale down the PEG-mediated osmotic stress analysis and collected data on gene expression under osmotic stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0032.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Spike protein; COVID-19; Mutation; hACE2 Receptor; Real-time PCR; Vaccine
Online: 4 June 2020 (08:48:03 CEST)
Currently, entire world is crumbled due to COVID-19 caused by novel SARS-CoV-2. Globally, over 5 million people are infected by SARS-CoV-2 with 6% fatality rate. The surface spike (S) protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 by mediating viral entry through human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptors on the host cell and there is a big global race to find viral neutralizing antibodies and vaccine against S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Since SARS-CoV-2 evolved into 10 different clades in a very short span, a study on sipke protein mutation is essential to have effective vaccine coverage globally. Based on the mutation analysis of S protein from 166 Indian SARS-CoV-2 genome, a total of 40 different SNPs comprising of 14 synonymous and 26 non-synonymous mutations were observed, and notably, Indian S protein diverged into two major clusters, D614 and G614, with 11 different types. Majority of Indian strains fall in A2a and O clusters. Alarmingly, we have observed six SNPs at RBD and notably two of them at RBM (S438F and S494P). S494P SNP, similar to Bat–SARS like-CoV, may indicate a low ACE2 binding affinity. Interestingly 38% of Indian strains harbor a characteristic D614G SNP which was found predominantly in A2a cluster, mostly comprising USA and European strains with high disease severity. The association of disease severity with D614G SNP is well-correlated in states with high death rate except Maharashtra. Notably, more than 50% of D614G mutation were observed in Northern part of India and 14% in Southern part but not in Kerala and Tamil Nadu strains. Highly conserved motif, D614 (608-VAVLYQDVNCT-618) in upstream and also few downstream, of S1/S2 furin cleavage site may indicate specific key role in efficient interaction with host proteases in pathogenesis. Further studies are warranted to clarify the impact of SD614G SNP association to disease severity . Interestingly, C2367T (Y789Y) synonymous SNP is observed in 37% of Indian strains and notably similar SNPs with degeneracy bases were observed which is a key indication for the possibility of misdiagnosis by Real-Time PCR and revised strategies are needed for the precise diagnosis. Circulation of high number of signature SNPs [D614G and C2367T (Y789Y)] in certain states may be an early indication of emergence of community transmission in India. Further large genome sequence data from India will aid in deep understanding on the diversity of circulating SASR-Cov-2 and its impact on disease severity, origin of imported cases to India, community spread, effect on diagnosis and vaccine coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0440.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Scrub typhus; qRT PCR; Quantitative PCR; real time PCR; IgM ELISA; North-East India
Online: 27 May 2020 (07:51:25 CEST)
Scrub typhus is a life-threatening infectious disease and always creating a diagnostic dilemma in terms of rapid turnaround time and accuracy, qRT PCR can become a very good option to achieve the desired result with the molecular level of accuracy and boost up the rapid patient management. This study was performed to evaluate the performance of qRT PCR in comparison to commonly used IgM ELISA and Weil-Felix tests to diagnose scrub typhus, as well as to look for the demographic and clinical profile of the disease in North-East India. It was a hospital-based prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India, over a period of 1 year, in which all the samples from suspected scrub typhus cases were screened by Weil-Felix test as per institute’s diagnostic protocol after which IgM ELISA for Scrub Typhus was performed. All the IgM positive samples and 20 highly suspected but ELISA negative samples were subjected to qRT PCR, targeting 56 kDa type-specific gene of O. tsutsugamushi. Statistical analysis was done by MS-Excel for Windows v2013® and MedCalc® v17.9 for Windows (MedCalc Software, Acacialaan 22, B-8400 Ostend, Belgium). In this study, we have successfully evaluated the performance of qRT PCR kit for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Out of 54 samples tested, 24 IgM ELISA positive samples and 3 IgM ELISA negative samples have shown the presence of bacterial DNA with quantification of DNA copies. It has also been observed that 21 out of 27 PCR positive samples (77.8%) were detected within the 1st 7 days of illness. All the demographic, as well as clinical data, were also analysed. The performance of the commercial qRT PCR kit used in our study is satisfactory, which provides the extra advantage of quantification of DNA copies and increases diagnostic accuracy within the 1st week of fever.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0641.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: entry; kinetics; luciferase; real-time; live assay, vesicular stomatitis virus; Ebola; Lassa; chikungunya; coronavirus.
Online: 25 November 2020 (13:05:59 CET)
Viral entry is the first stage in the virus replication cycle and, for enveloped viruses, is mediated by virally encoded glycoproteins. Viral glycoproteins have different receptor affinities and triggering mechanisms. We employed vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a BSL-2 enveloped virus that can incorporate non-native glycoproteins, to examine the entry efficiencies of diverse viral glycoproteins. To compare glycoprotein-mediated entry efficiencies of: VSV G, SARS-CoV-2 S, EBOV GP, LASV GP, and CHIKV E we produced recombinant VSV (rVSV) viruses that produce the five glycoproteins. The rVSV virions encoded a nano luciferase-PEST (NLucP) reporter gene, which we used in combination with the live-cell substrate Endurazine™ to monitor viral entry kinetics in real time. Our data indicate that rVSV particles with glycoproteins that require more post-internalization priming typically demonstrate delayed entry in comparison to VSV G. In addition to determining the time required for each virus to complete entry, we also used our system to evaluate viral cell surface receptor preferences, monitor fusion, and elucidate endocytosis mechanisms. This system can be rapidly employed to examine diverse viral glycoproteins and their entry requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0248.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sensor fusion; sensor noise; optimization; feedback; real-time optimization; velocity-based controller
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:27:25 CET)
Classical and optimal control architectures for motion mechanics with fusion of noisy sensors use different algorithms and calculations to perform and control any number of physical demands, to varying degrees of accuracy, precision, and cost. Their performances are tested for the purpose of comparison through the means of a Monte Carlo simulation that simulates how different parameters might vary under noise, representing real-world imperfect sensors. We find that improvements in one figure of merit often come at a cost in the performance in the others, especially depending on the presence of noise in the system sensors. If sensor noise is negligible, open-loop optimal control performs the best. However, in the overpowering presence of sensor noise, using a control law inversion patching filter performs as the best replacement, but has significant computational strain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0740.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: balance training; real-time visual feedback; smart wearable devices; center of pressure
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:00:33 CEST)
This study aims to explore the effect of real-time visual feedback (VF) information of the pres-sure of center (COP) provided by intelligent insoles on balance training in a one leg stance (OLS) and tandem stance (TS) posture. Thirty healthy female college students were randomly assigned to the visual feedback balance training group (VFT), non-visual feedback balance training group (NVFT), and control group (CG). The balance training includes: OLS, tandem Stance (dominant leg behind, TSDL), tandem stance (non-dominant leg behind, TSNDL). The training lasted 4 weeks, the training lasts 30 minutes at an interval of 1 days. There was a sig-nificant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p<0.05) for OLS. There was no significant difference in the interaction effect between Groups*Times of the COP parameters (p>0.05) for TS. The main effect of the COP parameters was a significant difference in Times (p<0.05). The COP displacement, velocity, radius, and area in VFT significantly decreased after training (p < 0.05). Therefore, the visual feedback technology of intelligent auxiliary equipment during balance training can enhance the benefit of training. The use of smart wearable devices in OLS balance training may improve the visual and physical balance integration ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0047.v1
Subject: Keywords: flow surface velocity; handbook; non-contact river monitoring; low-cost; real-time
Online: 5 February 2019 (10:01:28 CET)
Acquisition of real-time hydraulic data is an essential component for flood forecasting. However, we frequently face difficulties in obtaining discharge data using classical contact methods during high magnitude floods and for systems experiencing rapid hydro-geomorphological adjustment. Therefore, we developed low-cost, non-contact sensors and platforms that are designed to overcome these difficulties. These advances enable flood flow properties to be monitored at multiple locations across a river catchment, at low-cost, and communicated in near real-time by using an image velocimetry method. This is an optics-based approach for stream flow measurement using commercially available near-infrared digital cameras to acquire video footage in full HD (30fps). Video footage is then subjected to optical flow tracking techniques based on cross-correlation, and feature-based tracking, enabling the displacement rates of detected features (for example natural foam, seeds, woody debris, and turbulent structures) to be computed. This manual provides step by step guidance to install an image-based gauging station. It contains the list of necessary components, the calibration process of a new camera and the assembly procedure of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0009.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: 3D semantic mapping; incremental fusion; global optimization; real time; naturalistic road scenes
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:03:24 CET)
Fast 3D reconstruction with semantic information on road scenes is of great requirements for autonomous navigation. It involves issues of geometry and appearance in the field of computer vision. In this work, we propose a method of fast 3D semantic mapping based on the monocular vision. At present, due to the inexpensive price and easy installation, monocular cameras are widely equipped on recent vehicles for the advanced driver assistance and it is possible to acquire semantic information and 3D map. The monocular visual sequence is used to estimate the camera pose, calculate the depth, predict the semantic segmentation, and finally realize the 3D semantic mapping by combination of the techniques of localization, mapping and scene parsing. Our method recovers the 3D semantic mapping by incrementally transferring 2D semantic information to 3D point cloud. And a global optimization is explored to improve the accuracy of the semantic mapping in light of the spatial consistency. In our framework, there is no need to make semantic inference on each frame of the sequence, since the mesh data with semantic information is corresponding to sparse reference frames. It saves amounts of the computational cost and allows our mapping system to perform online. We evaluate the system on naturalistic road scenes, e.g., KITTI and observe a significant speed-up in the inference stage by labeling on the mesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0277.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Real-time systems; Industrial networks; calibration; measurements; access point; IEEE 802.11; WLAN
Online: 30 March 2018 (16:33:11 CEST)
In factory automation systems, hybrid wired/wireless networks are often deployed to connect devices of difficult reachability such as those mounted on mobile equipment. A widespread version of these networks makes use of Access Points (APs) to implement wireless extensions of Real--Time Ethernet (RTE) networks via the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN (WLAN). Unfortunately, APs may introduce random delays in packet forwarding, mainly related to the their internal behaviors (e.g. code processing times) that negatively impact on the whole performance of the automation systems. Consequently, the knowledge of these delays represent a crucial design information. This paper presents an original and effective method to measure the delays introduced by APs, exploiting a hybrid loop-back link and a simple set-up with moderate instrumentation requirements. The method, which requires an initial calibration by means of a reference AP, has been successfully tested on some commercial APs. As it will be shown, the proposed measurement procedure is general and, as such, can be profitably adopted in even different scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Photovoltaic; Power-Hardware-In-Loop-Simulator; Supervisory control algorithm; Real-time processing;
Online: 22 September 2017 (16:13:11 CEST)
A programmable DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS)-based photovoltaic (PV) Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL) simulators have been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of PV Inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for PV PHIL simulator with non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution of high cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with conventional algorithm which is used in RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV Inverter. Therefore proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to the constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit, DC power supply and also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of simulator. A mathematical models of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests using a PV PHIL simulator which is applied proposed algorithm connected a PV inverter are carried out and proved superiority and utility of this method against conventional methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Real-time MR imaging; CSF; cilia sensing; aquaporin; nitric oxide; amyloid-ß; glymphatic system; hydrocephalus
Online: 15 March 2021 (10:36:20 CET)
With the advent of real-time MRI, the motion and passage of cerebrospinal fluid can be visualized without gating and exclusion of low-frequency waves. This imaging modality gives insights into low-volume, rapidly oscillating cardiac-driven movement as well as sustained, high-volume, slowly oscillating inspiration-driven movement.Inspiration means a spontaneous or artificial increase in the intrathoracic dimensions independent of body position. Alterations in thoracic diameter enable the thoracic and spinal epidural venous compartments to be emptied and filled, producing an upward surge of cerebrospinal fluid inside the spine during inspiration; this surge counterbalances the downward pooling of venous blood toward the heart.Real-time MRI, as a macroscale in vivo observation method, could expand our knowledge of neurofluid dynamics, including how astrocytic fluid preloading is adjusted and how brain buoyancy and turgor are maintained in different postures and zero gravity.Along with these macroscale findings, new microscale insights into aquaporin-mediated fluid transfer, its sensing by cilia and its tuning by nitric oxide will be reviewed. By incorporating clinical knowledge spanning several disciplines, certain disorders—congenital hydrocephalus with Chiari malformation, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and adult idiopathic hydrocephalus—are interpreted and reviewed according to current concepts, from the basics of the interrelated systems to their pathology.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Artificial intelligence; machine learning; real-time probabilistic data; for cyber risk; super forecasting; red teaming;
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:18:14 CEST)
Multiple governmental agencies and private organisations have made commitments for the colonisation of Mars. Such colonisation requires complex systems and infrastructure that could be very costly to repair or replace in cases of cyber-attacks. This paper surveys deep learning algorithms, IoT cyber security and risk models, and established mathematical formulas to identify the best approach for developing a dynamic and self-adapting system for predictive cyber risk analytics supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning and real-time intelligence in edge computing. The paper presents a new mathematical approach for integrating concepts for cognition engine design, edge computing and Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to automate anomaly detection. This engine instigates a step change by applying Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning embedded at the edge of IoT networks, to deliver safe and functional real- time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. This will enhance capacities for risk analytics and assists in the creation of a comprehensive and systematic understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning technologies are migrated to the periphery of the internet and into local IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0291.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: relativistic energy; energy conservation law; Einstein’s principle of relativity; rest mass in wave motion; relativity of simultaneity; time dilation; Lorentz contraction; mechanical transverse wave; special relativity
Online: 16 September 2021 (14:20:57 CEST)
We study the effect of the generation of the mechanical transverse wave (MTW) travelling in the opposite direction (OD) to a moving medium (MM) on the relativistic energy conservation law (RECL). From the viewpoint of the relativity of simultaneity (RS), the time on the coordinate coinciding with the advance end of the wave (AEW) travelling toward the rear of the MM passes faster than that on the coordinate coinciding with the wave source (WS). Then the AEW in the MM travels forward compared to that in the rest frame of reference (RFR) which is stationary relative to the medium when the time on the coordinate coinciding with the WS is same for each inertial frame of reference (IFR). Hence, the coordinate interval (CI) between the AEW and WS in the MM is observed to be larger than that between them in the RFR. We show that this difference holds true for the CI of any portion having transverse velocities mutually converted by the Lorentz transformation (LT). This difference in the CI leads to that in the rest mass (RM). We demonstrate that the RM included in wave motion (WM) in the MM is larger than one included in WM in the RFR when comparing the portions having transverse velocities mutually converted by the LT. This relation holds true for all portions in WM. Therefore, the total coordinate interval of the portion (CIP) and total RM (TRM) included in WM in the MM (WMMM) are large compared to them included in WM in the RFR. Furthermore, we compare the relativistic kinetic energy (RKE) of the MTW travelling in the OD to the MM (ODMM) with that of the MTW propagating in the direction vertical to the moving direction of the medium. We prove that the CIP and RM included in the former MTW are larger than them included in the latter MTW when comparing each portion with the same transverse velocity (TV). Moreover, the total CIP and TRM included in the former MTW are also large compared to them included in the latter MTW. The reason for these is that the latter CIP and RM are equal to them in the RFR when comparing the portions having transverse velocities mutually converted by the LT. On the other hand, the energy supplied to generate each MTW is the same. From these, we demonstrate that the RKE of the MTW travelling in the ODMM can be larger than the total relativistic energy (TRE) of the MTW propagating in the direction vertical to the moving direction of the medium. Consequently, we propose a violation of the RECL and Einstein’s principle of relativity (EPR) because the TRE is not necessarily conserved in the IFR in which the medium is moving.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: space-time lattice; simulation hypothesis; grand unifying theory; foundations of physics; quantum information theory; relational quantum theory
Online: 18 February 2021 (11:13:58 CET)
Whether the universe is a computer simulation, or whether we wish to efficiently model our universe in a computer simulation, there would be benefits to modeling it in a fashion analogous to computer spreadsheet, each lattice cell can be conceived as containing all the mathematical formula necessary to continuously compute its state relative to changes in all its neighboring cells, and by progression, in relation to all the cells of entire space-time lattice. Alternatively, the “real” universe may itself be built on a space cell lattice, an irregular foam of space cells, in which each cell may be conceived as a multidimensional cell of distortable space, the shape of which fully describes (a) the four basic forces (gravity, electromagnetic, strong, weak) observed at that cell of space, and (b) the probability (or weight distribution) of any quantum states overlapping the cell and its neighbors. At an appropriate scale, it would appear that this conceptual model would resolve apparent conflicts between general relativity and quantum physics. It would also provide a new interpretation of Planck’s constant as description of the number of space cell events associated with any set of observable events. If formulae operating at a lattice cell level can be improve our ability to understand and model larger scale phenomena, this would be strong evidence in favor of the theory that mathematics is not just a human invention but rather an inherent feature of space-time itself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0227.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real-time intelligent monitoring; zigbee protocol; Internet of Things (IoT); office security system; security-threats
Online: 13 July 2018 (05:25:50 CEST)
Internet of Things (IoT) opens new horizons by enabling automated procedures without human interaction using IP connectivity. IoT deals with devices, called things which are represented as any item from our daily life that is enhanced with computing or communication facilities. Among various mobile communications, Zigbee communication is broadly used in controlling or monitoring applications due to its low data rate and low power consumption. Securing IoT systems have been the main concern for the research community. In this paper, different security-threats of Zigbee networks in IoT platform have been addressed to predict the potential security threats of Zigbee protocol and a Security Improvement Framework (SIF) has been designed for intelligent monitoring in an office environment. Our proposed SIF can predict and protect various potential malicious attacks in the Zigbee network and respond accordingly through a notification to the system administrator. This framework (SIF) is designed to make automated decisions immediately based on real-time data which are defined by the system administrator. Finally, the designed SIF has been implemented in an office security system as a case study for real-time monitoring. This office security system is evaluated based on the capacity of detecting potential security attacks. The evaluation results show that the proposed SIF is capable of detecting and protecting several potential security attacks efficiently enabling more secure way of intelligent monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0083.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: deformation; interferometry; geotechnical models; non‐linear problem; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); time‐series
Online: 8 August 2016 (14:50:19 CEST)
This paper is aimed at studying the temporal evolution of the surface displacements occurred over the past few years in the ocean-reclaimed platforms of the Shanghai megacity (China), which are mainly ascribable to consolidation processes of large dredger fills and alluvial deposits. With respect to previous analyses carried out over the same area, this work provides a joint multi-platform differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) analysis, based on the application of the advanced Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm. This led us to retrieve long-term deformation time-series that are helpful for a better understanding of the on-going deformation phenomena. To this aim, we have exploited two sequences of SAR data collected by the ASAR/ENVISAT and by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) sensors, respectively, spanning the whole time period from 2007 to 2016. Unfortunately, the large time gap (of about three years) existing between the available ASAR/ENVISAT and CSK datasets gave rise to additional difficulties for their combination. Nevertheless, this problem has been faced by benefiting from the knowledge of a time-dependent model describing the temporal evolution of the expected deformations affecting the Shanghai ocean-reclaimed platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0326.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: zero-point energy; quantized time-space static electromagnetic field; gravity field; weak interaction; strong interaction; masses of W and Z; mass of a neutrino; β collapse; quantized Einstein gravity equation
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:13:51 CEST)
We propose a new theory beyond the standard model of elementary-particle physics. Employing the concept of a quantized spacetime, our theory demonstrates that the zero-point energy of the vacuum alone is sufficient to create all the fields, including gravity, the static electromagnetic field, and the weak and strong interactions. No serious undetermined parameters are assumed. Furthermore, the relations between the forces at the quantum-mechanics level is made clear. Using these relations, we quantize Einstein’s gravitational equation and explain the Dark Energy in our universe. Beginning with the zero-point energy of the vacuum, and after quantizing Newtonian gravity, we combine the energies of a static electromagnetic field and gravity in a quantum spacetime. Applying these results to the Einstein gravity equation, we substitute the energy density derived from the zero-point energy in addition to redefining differentials in a quantized spacetime. We thus derive the quantized Einstein gravitational equation without assuming the existence of macroscopic masses. This also explains the existence of the Dark Energy in the universe. For the weak interaction, by considering plane-wave electron and the zero-point energy, we obtain a wavefunction that represents a β collapse. In this process, from a different point of view than Weinberg-Salam theory, we derive the masses of the W and Z bosons and the neutrino, and we calculate the radius of the neutron. For the strong interaction, we previously reported an analytical theory for calculating the mass of a proton by considering a specific linear attractive potential obtained from the zero-point energy, which agrees well with the measurements. In the present study, we calculate the strong interaction between two nucleons, i.e., the mass of the pi-meson. The resulting calculated quantities agree with the measurements, which verifies our proposed theory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; real-time MRI; hydrocephalus; space flight disease; aquaporin; spontaneous intracranial hypotension; neural tube defect
Online: 14 December 2020 (10:21:21 CET)
New experimental and clinical findings question the historic view of hydrocephalus and its 100-year-old classification. In particular, real-time MRI evaluation of CSF flow and detailed insights into brain water regulation on the molecular scale indicate the existence of at least three main mechanisms that determine the dynamics of neurofluids. (i) Inspiration is a major driving force (ii) Adequate filling of brain ventricles by balanced cerebrospinal fluid upsurge is sensed by cilia (iii) The perivascular glial network connects the ependymal surface to the pericapillary Virchow-Robin spaces. Hitherto, these aspects have not been considered a common physiologic framework improving knowledge and therapy for severe disorders of normal-pressure and post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus, spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spaceflight disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0320.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever virus; laboratory diagnosis; commercial real-time PCR; performance; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 21 December 2021 (09:24:26 CET)
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the major threats to pig production, and real-time PCR (qPCR) protocols are integral part of ASF laboratory diagnosis. With the pandemic spread of ASF, commercial kits have risen on the market. In Germany, the kits have to go through an approval process and thus, general validation can be assumed. However, they were never compared to each other. In this study, 12 commercial PCR kits were compared to an OIE recommended method. Samples representing different matrices, genome loads, and genotypes were included in a panel that was tested under diagnostic conditions. The comparison included user-friendliness, internal controls, and the time required. All qPCRs were able to detect ASFV genome in different matrices across all genotypes and disease courses. With one exception, there were no significant differences when comparing the overall mean. The overall specificity was 100 % [95 % CI 87.66 - 100], and the sensitivity was between 95 % and 100 % [95 % CI 91.11 - 100]. As can be expected, variability concerned samples with low genome load. Concluding, all tests were fit for purpose. The test system can therefore be chosen based on compatibility and prioritization of the internal control system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0717.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current testing; thickness measurement; non-destructive testing; lift-off; real-time monitoring
Online: 29 September 2020 (15:05:41 CEST)
Previously, various techniques have been proposed for reducing the lift-off effect on the thickness measurement of the non-magnetic films, including the peak-frequency feature and phase feature in the Dodd-Deed analytical formulation. To realise a real-time feedback response on the thickness monitoring, the phase term in the Dodd-Deeds formulation must be taken off the integration. Previous methods were based on the slow change rate of the phase term when compared to the rest of the term – the magnitude term. However, the change rate of the phase term is still considerable for a range of working frequencies. In this paper, a high-frequency feature has been found. That is, the ratio between the imaginary and real part of the phase term is proportional to the integral variable under high frequencies. Based on this proportion relationship, the phase term has been taken out; and a thickness algorithm has been proposed. By combing the measured impedance from the custom-built sensor (three coils), the thickness of the metallic film can be reconstructed. Experiments have been carried out for the verification of the proposed scenario. Results show that the thickness of the metal film can be reconstructed with a small error of less than 2 %, and immune to a reasonable range of lift-offs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: itch; scratch; automated real-time detection; machine-learning based image classifier; image sharpness
Online: 19 January 2020 (03:13:48 CET)
A 'little brother' of pain, itch is an unpleasant sensation that creates a specific urge to scratch. To date, various machine-learning based image classifiers (MBICs) have been proposed for quantitative analysis of itch-induced scratch behaviour of laboratory animals in an automated, non-invasive, inexpensive and real-time manner. In spite of MBICs' advantages, the overall performances (accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) of current MBIC approaches remains inconsistent, with their values varying from ~50% to ~99%, for which the reasons underlying have yet to be investigated further, both computationally and experimentally. To look into the variation of the performance of MBICs in automated detection of itch-induced scratch, this article focuses on the experimental data recording step, and reports here for the first time that MBICs' overall performance is inextricably linked to the sharpness of experimentally recorded video of laboratory animal scratch behaviour. This article furthermore demonstrates for the first time that a linearly correlated relationship exists between video sharpness and overall performance (accuracy and specificity, but not sensitivity) of MBICs, and highlight the primary role of experimental data recording in rapid, accurate and consistent quantitative assessment of laboratory animal itch.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: millimeter wave imaging; orthogonal coded multiplexing; compressed sensing; real-time imaging; dynamic range
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:40:50 CET)
Millimeter wave wide-band imaging is widely studied for a variety of applications. However real-time millimeter wave wide-band imaging at frequencies above 30GHz for moving targets in a large field of view has not been realized commercially. A 2D sparse array with transmitter multiplexing is a promising solution to this problem. In this article, a method combining compressed sensing and orthogonal coded multiplexing was proposed, and the imaging performance was analyzed for different reconstruction algorithms and observation matrices by imaging simulation for a continuous object. Also the influence on the dynamic range of the original signal introduced by orthogonal coded multiplexing was studied. This work demonstrated that the proposed method was effective in reconstructing the image with a real-time capability. It is shown that different algorithms and matrices resulted in distinct performances, while the evaluation parameter selection also played a role. This work provided useful instructions for both the hardware and software design of a real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging system in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Lean, Just in Time, Pull System, Waste Management, Sustainable improvement, Waste flow Mapping.
Online: 13 June 2018 (14:33:00 CEST)
Lean is one of the systematic approach to achieve higher value for organizations through eliminate non-value-added activities. It is an integrated set of tools, techniques, and principles designed to optimize cost, quality and delivery while improving safety. In Vietnam, industry waste management and treatment has become serious issue. The aim of this research is to present the effective of Lean application for industrial wastes collecting and delivery improvement. Through a case study, this paper showed the way of Lean tools and principles applied for wastes management and treatment such as Value Stream Mapping, Pull system, Visual Control, and Andon.... to get benefit on both economic and environment. In addition, the results introduced a good experience for Vietnamese enterprises in cost saving and sustainable development in waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0156.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Haar-like features, real time, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), human detection, geolocation error, OpenCV
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:41:39 CET)
Human detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is gaining popularity in the field of disaster management, crowd counting, people monitoring. Real time human detection from UAV is a challenging task, because of many constraints involved. This study proposes a system for real time detection of humans on videos captured from UAVs addressing three of these constraints namely, flying height, computation time and scale of viewing. The proposed method integrated an android application with a binary classifier based on Haar-features to automatically detect human / non-human class from UAV images. The video frames were parsed and detected humans from image frames were geo-localized and visualized on Google Earth. The performance was evaluated for geo-localization accuracy, computation time and detection accuracy, considering human coverage – pixel size relationship for various heights and scale factor. Based on flying height - human size relationship and tradeoff between detection accuracy vs computation time, the study came up with optimal parameters for OpenCV’s cv2.cascadeClassifier. detectMultiScale function. This paper establishes a strong ground for further research relating to real time human detection from UAV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0117.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: goodness-of-fit; time series; copulas; GARCH models
Online: 16 March 2017 (09:38:24 CET)
In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of the sequential empirical process and the sequential empirical copula process, both constructed from residuals of multivariate stochastic volatility models. Applications for the detection of structural changes and specification tests of the distribution of innovations are discussed. It is also shown that if the stochastic volatility matrices are diagonal, which is the case if the univariate time series are estimated separately instead of being jointly estimated, then the empirical copula process behaves as if the innovations were observed; a remarkable property. As a by-product, one also obtains the asymptotic behavior of rank-based measures of dependence applied to residuals of these time series models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si alloy; isothermal holding time; powder sintering; density; weight loss; tensile properties
Online: 9 February 2017 (07:06:14 CET)
This work investigated the isothermal holding time dependence of the densification, microstructure, weight loss and tensile properties of Fe-Mn-Si powder compacts. Elemental Fe, Mn and Si powder mixtures with a nominal composition of Fe-28Mn-3Si (in weight percent) were ball milled for 5h and subsequently pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa. The compacted Fe-Mn-Si powder mixtures were sintered at 1200 ℃ for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. In general, the density, weight loss and tensile properties increased with the increase of isothermal holding time. A significant increase in density, weight loss and tensile properties occurred in the compacts isothermally holding for 1 h, as compared to those with no isothermal holding. However, further extension of isothermal holding time (2 and 3 h) only played a limited role in promoting the density and tensile properties. The weight loss of the sintered compacts was mianly caused by the sublimation of Mn in Mn depletion region on the surface layer of the sintered Fe-Mn-Si compacts. The length of the Mn depletion region increased as isothermal holding time increased. A single α-Fe phase was detected on the surface of all the sintered compacts, and the locations beyond the Mn depletion region were comprised of a dual dominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy systems integration; sector coupling; power gas simulation; day-ahead and real-time coordination; power gas interdependence
Online: 16 April 2018 (06:46:31 CEST)
The operation of electricity and natural gas transmission networks in the U.S. are increasingly interdependent, due to the growing number of installations of gas fired generators and the penetration of renewable energy sources. This development suggests the need for closer communication and coordination between gas and power transmission system operators in order to improve the efficiency and reliability of the combined energy system. In this paper, we present a co-simulation platform for examining the interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks based on a direct current unit-commitment and economic dispatch model for the power system and a transient hydraulic gas model for the gas system. We analyze the value of day-ahead coordination of power and natural gas network operations and show the importance of considering gas system constraints when analyzing power systems operation with high penetration of gas generators and renewable energy sources. Results show that day-ahead coordination contributes to a reduction in curtailed gas during high stress periods (e.g., large gas offtake ramps) and a reduction in energy consumption of gas compressor stations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; enhanced surveillance; real-time forecasts; phenomenological models; sub-exponential growth; Kadiogo; Burkina Faso
Online: 19 April 2020 (05:23:40 CEST)
On 9 March 2020, two cases of COVID-19 were reported in Burkina Faso. As of 10 April 2020, a total number of 484 cases (404 cases in the Kadiogo province) were reported nationwide. Real-time forecasts of COVID-19 are important to inform decision-making in the country. Here, we propose an approach that tests the performance of four models (Exponential Growth model, the Generalized Growth model (GGM), the Generalized Logistic Growth, and Richards Growth model) to select the model that best fit data and to generate short-term forecasting (5-, 10-, and 15-day forecasts from 11 to 25 April 2020) in Kadiogo, the epicenter of the outbreak. Using daily number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, the results suggests that GGM performed the best out of the 4 models. Overall, our GGM predictions suggested an average total number of cumulative cases of 514 (95% CI, 464–559), 629 (95% CI, 559–691), and 750 (95% CI, 661–840) between 11 to 15 April, 16 to 20 April, and 20 to 25 April 2020, respectively. COVID-19 in this province was best approximated by sub exponential growth rather than exponential or logistic growth. Current data suggest that COVID-19 cases would continue to increase over the next 15-days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; real-time RT-PCR; COVID-19 symptoms; COVID-19 hematological findings; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:47:03 CEST)
Objective: SARS-Cov-2 infection or COVID-19 is a global pandemic. From the time of identification to till, multiple clinical symptoms and parameters have been identified by the researchers of various countries and regions regarding the diagnosis and presentations of COVID-19 disease. In this manuscript, we investigated the primary symptoms and basic hematological presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the Bangladeshi patients. Methodology: We have collected the disease history of mild to moderate degree of COVID-19 patients; hematological and biochemical on admission reports of moderate degree COVID-19 patients. All of them were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in different institutes in Bangladesh. Results: According to this study though COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh commonly presented with fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sore throat, but symptoms like myalgia, diarrhea, skin rash, headache, Abdominal pain/cramp, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and a higher temperature of >1000F have a greater presentation rate and more frequent than other published studies. CRP and Prothrombin time was found to increase in all the patients. Serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, and D-Dimer were found increased among 53.85%, 80.43, 44%, and 25% patients respectively. 17.39% of the patients had leukocytosis and neutrophilia. 28.26% of patients presented with lymphocytopenia. 62.52% of patients had mild erythrocytopenia. Conclusion: Despite some similarities, our study has evaluated a different expression in presenting symptoms in the case of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. CRP, Prothrombin time, serum ferritin, ESR, SGPT, D-Dimer, erythrocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia can be initial diagnostic hematological findings and assessment for prognosis COVID-19 disease. Also, gender variations have a different scenario of clinical and laboratory appearance in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Real-time cell characterization; electrode polarization; cell membrane capacitance; cytoplasm resistance; dendritic gold nanostructures
Online: 16 December 2021 (11:39:56 CET)
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is a promising cell screening method that can be used for diagnostic and drug discovery purposes. The primary challenge of using DS in physiological buffers is the electrode polarization (EP) that overwhelms the impedance signal within a large frequency range. These effects further amplify with miniaturization of the measurement electrodes. In this study, we present a microfluidic system and the associated equivalent circuit models for real-time measurements of cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance in physiological buffers with 10s increments. The current device captures several hundreds of biological cells in individual microwells through gravitational settling and measures the system’s impedance using microelectrodes covered with dendritic gold nanostructures. Using PC-3 cells (a highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line) suspended in cell growth media (CGM), we demonstrate stable measurements of cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance in the device for over 15 minutes. We also describe a consistent application of the equivalent circuit model, starting from the reference measurements used to determine the system parameters. The circuit model is tested using devices with varying dimensions, and the obtained cell parameters between different devices are nearly identical. Further analyses of the impedance data have shown that accurate cell membrane capacitance and cytoplasm resistance can be extracted using a limited number of measurements in the 5 MHz to 10 MHz range. This will potentially reduce the timescale required for real-time DS measurements below 1s. Overall the new microfluidic device can be used for dielectric characterization of biological cells in physiological buffers for various cell screening applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0072.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sporadic tasks; fault tolerance; scheduling; real time system; virtualized clouding; petri net; distributive systems
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:50:40 CET)
Scheduling of real time tasks are very important aspect in systems as processes should complete its task at a specific time. There is a need of high energy efficiency and low response time in large data stream so for this energy efficient resources and optimized frameworks are needed. Both hard real time and mixed critically systems are targeted. Soft deadline can be handled while hard deadlines are difficult to cater. Different algorithms are used to schedule tasks like rate monotonic, earliest deadline first, deadline monotonic etc.