ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: ESL Reading; ELLs; reading strategies; reading aloud; silent reading
Online: 10 December 2019 (06:45:51 CET)
Research has shown that second language reading is the bridge that leads to developing otherlanguage skills such as speaking, writing, and vocabulary acquisition. Hence, the present studyaimed to explore adult language learners’ perspectives regarding the most effective andbeneficial reading strategies that can be used to develop their reading competency. Using aqualitative research method, the study examined what specific reading strategies languagelearners believe is effective in developing their reading skills. Analysis of the focus groupsrevealed five different reading strategies mentioned by the participants. These strategies were:Reading Aloud, Silent Reading, Shared Reading, Scanning or Skimming, and Timed Reading. Findings suggest that understanding the use of different reading strategies is important, solanguage teachers need to devote more learning time to introduce reading strategies during ESL classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0082.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: at-risk readers; elementary reading; reading remediation; orthographic mapping; reading fluency; reading comprehension; accelerated learning
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:39:03 CET)
Reading proficiency is requisite in our read-to-learn educational system, yet two-thirds of American students are not proficient readers. Assuring educational equity means supporting all learners with multiple component reading interventions that individually scaffold students while remediating weak literacy skills and providing intensive and sustainable intervention early. This study (N = 855) measured the efficacy of two different multiple component reading programs for students in grades three, four, and five. Grade levels of students were assigned to either the treatment intervention or the typical practice condition; and all students were pre-and post-tested using EasyCBM Reading Benchmarks. Students scoring at/below the 30th percentile on either benchmark were also assessed with the WRMT-3 Passage Reading Comprehension and Oral Reading Fluency measures. Students in the treatment condition received Readable English and students in typical practice condition continued to receive Amplify CKLA during their regular ELA times for 45—60 hours. Students receiving Readable English significantly outperformed students in the typical practice condition on measures of oral reading fluency, reading rate, accuracy, and passage comprehension. Raw scores, growth scale values, and grade equivalents are reported, and implications for practice are discussed. In a school year fraught with pandemic instructional interruptions and learning loss, elementary students in the intervention condition averaged a year’s worth of growth in reading fluency and nine months of growth in reading comprehension compared to three- and five-months fluency and comprehension growth in the typical practice condition. Students in the Readable English condition experienced meaningful gains in reading rate and accuracy that will give exponential word reading volume dividends to students able to read text faster and more accurately going forward. This study adds to accumulating evidence that multiple component reading programs designed to reinforce fluency skills also support reading comprehension gains for all students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: adult reading; working memory; aphasia; acquired reading disorder
Online: 30 April 2023 (09:36:21 CEST)
(1) Background: Many processes play a key role in how language functions, and these processes are strongly related to reading. The aim of our research was to explore the relationship between reading impairment associated with adult acquired cognitive-linguistic impairment (aphasia) and the components of verbal working memory involved in language functioning. (2) Methods: We measured the reading abilities of a total of twenty-two adults diagnosed with aphasia using the Adult Acquired Reading Assessment. To assess working memory, we applied the measurement procedures available in Hungarian for measuring verbal working memory. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between reading and the components of working memory involved in processing verbal information. In order to explore this relationship as comprehensively as possible, the results were analysed quantitatively through group-level analyses and qualitatively through case studies. (3) Results: The results suggest that the functioning of phonological short-term memory and verbal working memory is crucial for the reading of vowels, for certain word reading sub-processes such as reading complex words and pseudowords, and for text comprehension tasks, in particular for the processing of implicit text-level infor-mation. (4) Conclusions: The data support a strong relationship between reading and working memory, but not all mechanisms are related with the same weighting. The data will contribute to the understanding of the relationship between reading and working memory, which is important in order to see which cognitive components are dominant in reading instruction and which other cognitive mechanisms are affected in poor readers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0645.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Lip Reading; Multiclass Classification; Turkish Lip Reading Dataset; Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Networks; Lip Detection
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:07:48 CEST)
Automated lip reading is a research problem that has developed considerably in recent years. Lip reading is evaluated both visually and audibly in some cases. The lip reading model is a field of use for detecting specific words using images from security cameras, but it is not possible to use audio-visual databases in this situation. It is not possible to obtain the sound input of the pronounced word in all cases. We collected a new Turkish dataset with only the image in this study. The new dataset is produced using Youtube videos, which is an uncontrolled environment. For this reason, images have difficult parameters in terms of environmental factors such as light, angle, color, and personal characteristics of the face. Despite the different features on the human face such as mustache, beard, and make-up, the visual speech recognition problem was developed on 10 classes including single words and two-word phrases using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) without any intervention on the data. The proposed study using only-visual data obtained a model which is automated visual speech recognition with a deep learning approach. In addition, since this study uses only-visual data, the computational cost and resource usage is less than in multi-modal studies. It is also the first known study to address the lip reading problem with a deep learning algorithm using a new dataset belonging to the Ural-Altaic languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Down syndrome; Kinect sensor; reading skills
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:14:16 CEST)
People with Down syndrome present cognitive difficulties that affect their reading skills. In this study we present results about the use of gestural interaction with Kinect sensor to improve the reading skills of students with Down syndrome. Following a case of study method for small samples with disabilities, measuring different variables related to reading skills in an experimental group and in a control group. We found improvements in the visual association, visual comprehension, sequential memory, and visual integration after this stimulation in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, we found that the number of error and delay time of interaction decrease between sessions in the experimental group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0254.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: working memory; reading span; white matter; DTI
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:18:07 CET)
Although working memory (WM) is crucial for intellectual abilities, not much is known about its brain underpinnings, especially the structural connectivity. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to look across the whole brain for the white matter integrity correlates of the individual differences in the reading span (verbal WM capacity during reading) in healthy adults. Right-handed healthy native Russian speakers (N = 67) underwent DTI on a 3T Philips Ingenia scanner. Verbal WM was assessed with the Daneman-Carpenter reading span test (Russian version). Fractional anisotropy maps from each participant were entered into the group tract-based spatial statistics analysis with the reading span as a covariate; the results were TFCE-corrected. After taking into account effects of age, sex, education and handedness, reading span positively correlated with the white matter integrity in multiple sites: the body, the genu and the splenium of corpus callosum; bilateral corona radiata (anterior, posterior, and superior); bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus; several tracts in the right hemisphere only, including the internal and external capsule; bilateral superior parietal and frontal white matter. Although the left hemisphere is central for verbal processing, we revealed the important role of the right hemisphere white matter for the verbal WM capacity. Our finding indicates that larger verbal working memory span may originate from additional processing resources of the right hemisphere.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: accessory protein; alternate reading frame; nomenclature; open reading frame; ORF3b; ORF3d; ORF9a; ORF9b; overlapping ORF; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 2 December 2020 (08:04:06 CET)
At least six small alternate-frame open reading frames (ORFs) overlapping well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 genes have been hypothesized to encode accessory proteins. Researchers have used different names for the same ORF or the same name for different ORFs, resulting in erroneous homological and functional inferences. We propose standard names for these ORFs and their shorter isoforms, developed in consultation with the Coronaviridae Study Group of the ICTV. We recommend calling the 39 codon Spike-overlapping ORF ORF2b; the 41, 57, and 22 codon ORF3a-overlapping ORFs ORF3c, ORF3d, and ORF3b; the 33 codon ORF3d isoform ORF3d-2; and the 97 and 73 codon Nucleocapsid-overlapping ORFs ORF9b and ORF9c. Finally, we document conflicting usage of the name ORF3b in 32 studies, and consequent erroneous inferences, stressing the importance of reserving identical names for homologs. We recommend that authors referring to these ORFs provide lengths and coordinates to minimize ambiguity due to prior usage of alternative names.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: connectivity; coherence; neurofeedback; reading disorder; learning disorder; dyslexia
Online: 23 August 2021 (10:45:25 CEST)
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) of children with reading disorder (RD) are characterized by higher power and coherence in slow frequencies (delta and theta bands) and lower power and coherence in the alpha band compared to EEGs of typically developed children. Neurofeedback (NFB) is useful for treating learning disorders by reinforcing the reduction of the theta/alpha ratio. This efficacy is supported by EEG power normalization and cognitive-behavioral improvement. To further explore brain changes in isolated areas, this study aimed to explore the effects of this NFB protocol on functional connectivity (coherence) in children with RD. Twenty children with RD and an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio underwent 30 sessions of NFB. After treatment, 90% of par-ticipants learned to decrease their theta/alpha ratio, and on average, children increased their reading accuracy and comprehension scores. Interhemispheric coherence diminished in the delta, theta and beta bands, mainly between frontopolar regions. Intrahemispheric coherence decreased in delta, theta and beta bands and increased in alpha band. The reduction in theta coherence be-tween the left frontal area and other regions of the left hemisphere had particular relevance for reading. These results suggest that this NFB treatment could positively impact reading-related functions in the brain networks of children with RD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: distributed energy resources; meter reading; microgrids; NB-PLC; noise
Online: 27 September 2016 (15:44:03 CEST)
Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through MAC layer analysis. Results show that the commutation frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0118.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Lip reading; Visual speech recognition; Turkish dataset; Face parts detection
Online: 7 December 2022 (06:50:33 CET)
The promised dataset was obtained from the daily Turkish words and phrases pronounced by various people in the videos posted on YouTube. The purpose of collecting the dataset is to provide detection of the spoken word by recognizing patterns or classifying lip movements with supervised, unsupervised, semi-supervised learning and machine learning algorithms. Most of the datasets related with lip reading consist of people recorded on camera with fixed backgrounds and the same conditions, but the dataset presented here consists of images compatible with machine learning models developed for real-life challenges. It contains a total of 2335 instances taken from TV series, movies, vlogs, and song clips on YouTube. The images in the dataset vary due to factors such as the way people say words, accent, speaking rate, gender and age. Furthermore, the instances in the dataset consist of videos with different angles, shadows, resolution, and brightness that are not created manually. The most important feature of our lip reading dataset is that we contribute to the non-synthetic Turkish dataset pool, which does not have wide dataset varieties. Machine learning studies can be carried out in many areas, such as the defense industry and social life, with this dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0212.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: font; spatial periodicity; discomfort; reading speed; autocorrelation; Fourier amplitude spectrum
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:47:43 CET)
The speed with which text can be read is determined in part by the spatial regularity and similarity of vertical letter strokes as assessed by the height of the first peak in the horizontal autocorrelation of the text. The height of this peak was determined for two passages in 20 fonts. The peak was unaffected by the size of the text or its content but was influenced by the font design. Sans serif fonts usually had a lower peak than serif fonts because the presence of serifs resulted in a more even spacing of letter strokes. There were small effects of justification and font- dependent effects of font expansion and compression. The visual comfort of images can be estimated from the extent to which the Fourier amplitude spectrum conforms to 1/f. Students were asked to adjust iBooks to obtain their preferred settings of font and layout. The preference was predicted by the extent to which the Fourier amplitude spectrum approximated 1/f, which in turn was jointly affected by the design of the font, its weight and the ratio of x-height to line separation. The above algorithms can be usefully applied to any orthography to estimate likely speed and comfort of reading.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Reading Comprehensio; Descriptive Answer; Extractive answer; Multiple-choice answers; Datasets
Online: 8 October 2019 (10:40:09 CEST)
Machine reading comprehension aims to teach machines to understand a text like a human, and is a new challenging direction in Artificial Intelligence. Datasets play an important role while describing or building an algorithm for machine reading comprehension. The type of answers we required from developed algorithm depends on datasets.The datasets are classified into two types, namely datasets with extractive answers and datasets with descriptive answers. This article summarize both datasets with an example of each type to get better insight of datasets in machine reading comprehension and which datasets to use depending the requirements.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: pulse wave analysis; mental stress; harmonic analysis; Eastern pulse reading
Online: 10 September 2019 (05:19:15 CEST)
Background: This research presents the use of photoplethsmography combined with Traditional Tibetan Pulse reading for the estimation of the three energies of a person: Activity, Transformation and Stability. The growing interest to revive traditional finger pulse reading attests of the need to find alternative ways to approach complex multi-source diseases as well as individualised diagnostic wearable or portable cost effective systems. Method: Our work is presented in two studies. The first study presents the development of the technique of photoplethsmography to classify the three energies. The second study presents a validation of this methodology on mental stress and relaxation. Results: Energies classification achieved a sensitivity above 85% and specificity above 72%. Mental stress and relaxation could be significantly discriminated from baseline condition. Harmonic analysis gave further insights into the dynamic of the pulse wave under stress/relaxation. Conclusion: The photoplethsmogram contains information pertaining to the mental and physiological state of a person as interpreted with the Eastern energies concepts. The implication of this work points towards a holistic understanding and impact of human activities, health and its environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Internet-assisted; English reading teaching; innovative designs; impact; constructivism theory
Online: 9 September 2019 (07:55:44 CEST)
With the development of Internet technology, teachers are constantly seeking innovative teaching methods to match the potential of enhanced technology. Although many studies have been performed before , they aren’t enough in this field. The purpose of this paper is to explore innovative teaching designs and examine the impact of Internet-assisted English teaching of reading based on constructivism. The case is carried out in NO.9 middle school of Bengbu, a underdeveloped area of China, most of students aren’t interested in learning English .We compared Internet-assisted with traditional textbook literature methods to improve the reading proficiency of students, using a questionnaire survey,pre-test and post-tests comparisons. The result showed Internet-assisted English reading teaching is better than textbook. It can arouse students' interest and motivation,reading proficiency and exam result of students have been improved significantly, created a positive learning situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0382.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: statistical machine reading; metabolic engineering; concepts; terms and phrases; computational complexity
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:27:54 CEST)
The world of science is drowned in a wealth of information. How to make sense of this wealth of published articles, blog posts and abstracts has become an important challenge given the importance of science to different aspects of societal function. At the crux of the issue lies the increasing trend where scientific discovery informs decision making at the societal level. One example, is the elucidation of the ozone hole to the promulgation of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, and documenting increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration led to climate action and signing of the Paris Agreement in 2015. Hence, understanding a research field becomes an important need for many decision makers across different sectors of society. But, the scientific literature is cryptic and esoteric, and presents a significant barrier to comprehension. One approach to ameliorate the problem is statistical machine reading, which provides the critical capability of identifying key concepts that underpins a research field. Such important concepts help provide an incision point to gain further understanding of the field and initiating further conversation about the field. This work sought to validate the concept of whether applying statistical machine reading to a body of literature comprising short blog posts and abstracts of published articles help in understanding the field of metabolic engineering. One important angle pursued in this research is whether the tabulated list of terms and phrases identified by statistical machine reading could be creatively analyzed to gain a deeper understanding of the research field. For example, the most frequently occurring terms and phrases could describe key concepts of the research field. Moving down in frequency occurrence would be terms and phrases that describe methodologies and approaches of the field. Finally, less frequently occurring terms and phrases may be tools and resources used in the research field. Results validated the utility of statistical machine reading in identifying important terms and phrases associated with the research field. But the small dataset of blog posts and abstracts used in this study severely hampered the identification of most of the key concepts of metabolic engineering, which is a fairly broad field of research. Overall, statistical machine reading shows utility in identifying terms and phrases that could describe a field. However, the level of understanding is closely tied in to the breadth and depth of reading material available, which meant that the methodology is data intensive in nature. Future use of supercomputing or quantum computing could help alleviate constraints of computational capacity, and help tackle the exponential rise in computational complexity as the size of the reading material for machine reading expands.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0527.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: implicit prosody; rhythm sensitivity; event related potentials; reading achievement; musical aptitude
Online: 23 October 2018 (08:30:00 CEST)
Recent evidence suggests the existence of shared neural resources for rhythm processing in language and music. Such overlaps could be the basis of the facilitating effect of regular musical rhythm on spoken word processing previously reported for typical children and adults, as well as adults with Parkinson’s disease and children with developmental language disorders. The present study builds upon these previous findings by examining whether musical rhythmic priming also influences visual word processing, and the extent to which such cross-modal priming effect of rhythm is related to individual differences in musical aptitude and reading skills. EEG was recorded while participants listened to a rhythmic tone prime, followed by a visual target word with a stress pattern that either matched or mismatched the rhythmic structure of the auditory prime. Participants were also administered standardized assessments of musical aptitude and reading achievement. ERPs elicited by target words with a mismatching stress pattern showed an increased fronto-central negativity. Additionally, the size of the negative effect correlated with individual differences in musical rhythm aptitude and reading comprehension skills. Results support the existence of shared neurocognitive resources for linguistic and musical rhythm processing, and have important implications for the use of rhythm-based activities for reading interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: erythroparvovirus, tetraparvovirus, protein sequence analyses, overlapping genes, overlapping reading frames VP1, capsid
Online: 6 April 2020 (14:20:35 CEST)
30 years ago, researchers noticed that the capsid (VP1) gene of B19 parvovirus might encode a second protein, called "X", in an overlapping reading frame. Since then, experimental approaches failed to detect it. In contrast, sequence analyses can reliably predict whether a protein is expressed from an overlapping frame, provided that it is beneficial to the virus and thus under selection pressure. We used a dedicated software, Synplot2, to identify regions of VP1 likely to encode functional proteins in overlapping frames. Synplot2 detected the X open reading frame and confirmed it is under highly significant selection pressure. We discovered that the X protein is homologous to the ARF1 protein of human parvovirus 4, another suspected protein encoded in a frame overlapping VP1. These findings provide compelling evidence that the X protein must be expressed and functional. We predict that it contains a predicted transmembrane region. We found that the X frame contains a potential AUG start codon in parvovirus B19 and in all related species. Yet no currently known viral transcript has the potential to encode the X protein in a monocistronic fashion. Therefore, the X protein is probably expressed either from an unmapped monocistronic mRNA, or translated by a non-canonical mechanism from the VP1 mRNA or from a short transcript, R3, which has no currently known function. Finally, Synplot2 also detected proteins likely to be expressed from a frame overlapping VP1 in species distantly related to parvovirus B19: porcine parvovirus 2 and bovine parvovirus 3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0219.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Large Language Model; natural language processing; reading comprehension; computational lin-guistics; information retrieval; BM25
Online: 30 March 2023 (03:51:37 CEST)
Large language model (LLM) is a representation of a major advancement in AI, and has been used in multiple natural language processing tasks. Nevertheless, in different business scenarios, LLM requires fine-tuning by engineers to achieve satisfactory performance, and the cost of achieving target performance and fine-tuning may not match. Based on the Baidu STI dataset, we study the upper bound of the performance that classical information retrieval methods can achieve under a specific business, and compare it with the cost and performance of the participating team based on LLM. This paper gives an insight into the potential of classical computational linguistics algorithms, and which can help decision-makers make reasonable choices for LLM and low-cost methods in business R&D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040079
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: translation; children literacy; fostering reading; Arab countries; MSA or dialect; UAE; primary schools
Online: 22 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Globalization has had an impact on the education system in the UAE, where increased use of bilingual curriculum (Arabic-English) is held in high regard. Nevertheless, literacy among Emirati children and teenagers remains low. This study uses a 15-item, open-ended questionnaire completed by Emirati parents and an 8-item, open-ended questionnaire completed by Emirati primary school children from 8 to 11 years of age, and compares the translation of The Little prince into Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and into the Emirati dialect. The results suggest that not only the Emirati dialect, but any Arabic dialect (in its respective Arab country) could be used in primary schools to motivate children to read in Arabic and bridge the gap between their spoken language (dialect) and formal written Arabic. Not only must an Arab child learn how to read, but also, they have to understand a very formal language system that they are not used to speaking at home, i.e., Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Having books in their own dialects may make children more interested in reading, as they can understand them more easily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0737.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensorhub; reading in children; developmental differences; background colours; overlay colours; eeg; ecg; eda; eyetracking
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:34:36 CET)
The study investigated the influence of white vs 12 background and overlay colours on the reading process in school age children. Previous research reported that colours could affect reading skills as an important factor of the emotional and physiological state of the body. The aim of the study was to assess developmental differences between second and third grade students of elementary school and to evaluate differences in electroencephalography (EEG), ocular, electrodermal activities (EDA) and heart rate variability (HRV). Our findings showed a decreasing trend with age regarding EEG power bands (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Theta) and lower scores of reading duration and eye-tracking measures in younger children compared to older children. As shown in the results, HRV parameters showed higher scores in 12 background and overlay colours among second than third grade students which is linearly correlated to the level of stress and readable from EDA measures as well. The existing study showed the calming effect on second graders in turquoise and blue background colours. Considering other colours separately for each parameter, we assumed that there are no systematic differences in Reading duration, EEG power band, Eye-tracking and EDA measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cognitive impairment screening; cognitive reserve; subjective memory complaints; Internet; television; reading; marital status; sleep.
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:25:24 CEST)
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) would correspond to a preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to find associations between lifestyle individual factors compatible scores with cognitive impairment (CI) in SCD people. Methods: This is a case-control study to detect SCD, CI and potential associated factors in 497 patients over 50 years in Community Pharmacies. Three screening tests detected possible CI and patients with at least one test compatible with CI were referred to Primary Care to be evaluated. Results: In self-complaint patients statistically significant with depressive feelings were found (86.8%) with benzodiazepines consumers (83.9%) and female patients (81.2%). Thirty percent of our sample obtained scores compatible with CI. Being older than 70 years old increased the odds of obtaining scores compatible with CI. High level education, reading and internet use were able to reduce the odds of positive scores compatible with CI (37%-91%, 7%-18% and 67%-86%), whereas, one extra hour television/day increased the risk in 8%-30%. Reading was able to nullify the effect of both internet and TV consumption. Conclusion: Not just the age but also modifiable lifestyle factors are acting in favour of a cognitive decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0296.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: reading comprehension; speech-in-noise recognition; nature F0 contours; flattened F0 contours; Chinese character decoding
Online: 10 June 2021 (13:36:17 CEST)
Theories of reading comprehension emphasize decoding and listening comprehension as two essential components. The current study aimed to investigate how Chinese character decoding and context-driven auditory semantic integration contribute to reading comprehension in Chinese middle school students. Seventy-five middle school students were tested. Context-driven auditory semantic integration was assessed with speech-in-noise tests in which the fundamental frequency (F0) contours of spoken sentences were either kept natural or acoustically flattened with the latter requiring a higher degree of contextual information. Statistical modelling with hierarchical regression was conducted to examine the contributions of Chinese character decoding and context-driven auditory semantic integration to reading comprehension. Performance on Chinese character decoding and auditory semantic integration scores with the flattened (but not natural) F0 sentences significantly predicted reading comprehension. Furthermore, the contributions of these two factors to reading comprehension were better fitted with an additive model instead of a multiplicative model. These findings indicate that reading comprehension in middle schoolers is associated with not only character decoding but also the listening ability to make better use of the sentential context for semantic integration in a severely degraded speech-in-noise condition. The results add to our better understanding of the multi-faceted reading comprehension in children. Future research could further address the age-dependent development and maturation of reading skills by examining and controlling other important cognitive variables, and apply neuroimaging techniques such as functional magmatic resonance imaging to reveal the neural substrates for the contribution of auditory semantic integration and the observed additive model to reading comprehension.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: children beaux-arts consumption; parents’ education; cultural capital theory; children educational performance; children reading behavior
Online: 24 July 2020 (06:07:34 CEST)
One of the robust explanation related to sociological educational inequality is Bourdieu’s cultural reproduction theory. Admittedly, prior work investigated that children’s cultural capital (CC) have significant effects on educational success. Although, it remain unclear in the context of developing countries specifically Vietnam. Also, how children’s conversion mechanism of CC works and drive educational success. Meanwhile, Bourdieu theory argue that CC effects educations outcomes largely via teachers biasness by using support of school grades, in contrast some of the scholars argue that absorption of children’s CC may directly transmit into educational abilities and skill development. This study employed partial least square structural equation modelling to analyze 5th grades students’ data collected from educational policy and data center. This study argue that conversion mechanism grounded on CC dimensions. This study provide implications for the policy makers and future researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0160.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Keywords: Developmental dyslexia; attentional dyslexia; Hebrew; migrations between words; phonological output buffer; orthographic-visual analyzer; reading
Online: 20 March 2023 (04:08:07 CET)
Abstract: Letter migrations between words in reading aloud (e.g., reading "cane love" as "lane love" or "lane cove") are known to result from a deficit in the visual-orthographic analysis and characterize attentional dyslexia. In spontaneous speech, individuals with impairment in the phonological output buffer may show migrations of phonemes between words. The purpose of this study was to examine whether migrations between words in reading aloud can also result from a deficit in the phonological output buffer, to explore the characteristics of migrations resulting from orthographic input and from phonological output deficits, and to examine methods to distinguish these two sources. Using tasks of reading aloud of 92-182 word pairs, we identified 18 adults and adolescents with developmental dyslexia who made between-word letter migrations in reading aloud, significantly more than age-matched controls (372 adults and 26 7th-graders). To distinguish between orthographic-input and phonological-output sources for these migrations, we administered a test assessing orthographic-input without spoken-output (written-semantic-decision on 140 migratable word pairs) and a test of repetition of 36 auditorily-presented migratable word pairs, assessing spoken output without orthographic-input (and word span tests). These tests indicated that the migrations of ten of the participants with dyslexia resulted from an orthographic-input deficit, and for the other eight participants, migrations resulted from a phonological-output deficit. We identified several differences between the two types of between-word errors: first, whereas the individuals with attentional dyslexia made omissions of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, the phonological output buffer group did not make such omissions. In addition, the groups differed in the origin of migration: orthographic input migrations involve letters that are orthographically adjacent, whereas phonological output migrations involve phonemes that have just been spoken or that are prepared together in the phonological buffer for production. This was manifested in that migrations from the line below and from two lines above occurred only in the orthographic input deficit group, and migrations occurred from a word vertically close to the target in the orthographic input group but from a word that has just been spoken (placed diagonally to the target) in the phonological output group. This study thus indicates that between-word migrations in reading-aloud can result not only from attentional dyslexia, but also from a phonological output buffer deficit, and offers ways to distinguish between the two.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0442.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; children; background colour; overlay colour; text colour; sensors; physiological parameters; EEG; ECG; EDA; eye tracking
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:31:47 CET)
Reading is one of the essential processes during the maturation of an individual. It is estimated that 5-10% of school-age children are affected by dyslexia, the reading disorder characterised by difficulties in the accuracy or fluency of word recognition. There are many studies which have reported that colour overlays and background could improve the reading process, especially in children with reading disorders. As dyslexia has neurobiological origins, the aim of the present research was to understand the relationship between physiological parameters and colour modifications in the text and background during reading in children with and without dyslexia. We have measured differences in electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate variability (HRV), electrodermal activities (EDA), and eye movement of the 36 school-age children (18 with dyslexia and 18 of control group) during the reading performance in 13 combinations of background and overlay colours during the reading task. Our findings showed that the dyslexic children have longer reading duration, fixation count, fixation duration average, fixation duration total, and longer saccade count, saccade duration total, and saccade duration average while reading on white and coloured background/overlay. It was found that the turquoise, turquoise O, and yellow colours are beneficial for dyslexic readers, as they achieved the shortest time duration during the reading tasks when these colours were used. Also, dyslexic children have higher values of beta and the whole range of EEG while reading in particular colour (purple), as well as increasing theta range while reading on the purple overlay colour. We have observed no significant differences between HRV parameters on white colour, except for single colours (purple, turquoise overlay and yellow overlay) where the control group showed higher values for Mean HR, while dyslexic children scored higher with Mean RR. Regarding EDA measure we have found systematically lower values in children with dyslexia in comparison to the control group. Based on present results we can conclude that both colours (warm and cold background/overlays) are beneficial for both groups of readers and all sensor modalities could be used to better understand the neurophysiological origins in dyslexic children.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0659.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Timing Deficits; Magnocellular Deficits; Remediating Cognitive Skills; Cortical Plasticity; Reading, Attention, Memory, and Executive Control Networks; Perceptual Learning
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:09:31 CEST)
(1) Background: Substantial evidence that neural timing deficits are prevalent in developmental disorders, aging, and concussions resulting from a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is presented. We show that if timing deficits are remediated using low-level movement discrimination training, then high-level cognitive skills, including reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory improve substantially. (2) Methods: Two case studies are presented using MEG source imaging on an adult dyslexic, and a healthy older adult observed before and after training on movement discrimination two times/week for 8 weeks for adult dyslexic. (3) Results: We found improvements in reading, attention, processing speed, and working memory on neuropsychological tests. Substantial MEG signal increases in visual Motion Networks (V1, V3, MT, MST), Attention Networks (ACC, dlPFC, vlPFC and precuneous/ PCC areas) and Memory Networks (dlPFC). (4) Conclusions: Improving neural timing deficits before cognitive exercises to improve specific cognitive skills provides a rapid and effective method to improve cognitive skills. Improving the timing and sensitivity of low-level dorsal pathways, improving feedforward and feedback pathways, is essential to improve high-level cognitive skills. This adaptive training with substantial feedback shows cognitive transfer to tasks not trained on, significantly improving a person’s quality of life rapidly and effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; magnocellular neurons; vision; hearing; phonology; sequencing; timing; temporal processing; transient; coloured filters; rhythm; music; omega 3s
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:15:33 CET)
Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems. I discuss how the ‘magnocellular theory’ attempts to do this in terms of slowed and error prone temporal processing which leads to dyslexics’ defective visual and auditory sequencing when attempting to read. I attempt to deal with the criticisms of this theory and show how it leads to a number of successful ways of helping dyslexic children to overcome their reading difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0158.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; accessory protein; mapping; structure; Open reading frame, Orf.
Online: 3 November 2022 (10:27:01 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic first observed in December 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has influenced every individual on the planet. The virus has influenced our lifestyle, education, economy and the environment. Though the vaccines against COVID-19 have provided protection against the disease; new strains of the virus have lowered the efficiency of the vaccines. There is still no effective therapy for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the protein structure of the virus may lead to the development of effective therapies for the disease. We recently mapped the structural proteins and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The accessory proteins (Open reading frames, Orfs) of SARS-CoV-2 modulate the host environment to favor virus replication. This paper reports mapping the accessory proteins (Orfs) of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: epitope; monoclonal antibodies; open reading frame 3 protein; apoptosis; p53; porcine circovirus type 2; thimerosal; interfere; antibody binding; lymphocyte
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:20:27 CET)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a small non-enveloped DNA virus that causes swine immunosuppression by inducing apoptosis in lymphocytes. The ORF3 protein plays a major role in PCV2-induced apoptosis in porcine kidney cells, but there is little information regarding this protein in PCV2-infected lymphocytes. In this study, hybridoma screening and epitope mapping were determined by using an indirect ELISA. The mAb 7D3 against ORF3 peptide (residues 35–65) of PCV2 were generated in this study. In vivo situation, the mAb 7D3 recognized ORF3 protein existed in PCV2-infected apoptotic porcine PBMCs. It is noteworthy that thimerosal interfered with the binding of mAb 7D3 to epitope and it was diminished by adding cysteine. Additionally, thimerosal interacting with cysteine-containing peptide was demonstrated by the PTI assay. Furthermore, thimerosal specifically interacted with the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3. This study suggested that thimerosal blockade the occlusion of the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3 to bind ORF3 peptide (residues 35–65) via thimerosal interacting with cysteine residues which should be located within the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3. Overall, the mAb 7D3 has been characterized and it will be a valuables tool in future studies of ORF3 function and the wider mechanism of cell apoptosis caused by PCV2 infection. Similarly, these techniques will be useful for applications in detecting thimerosal too.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0036.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: varicella-zoster virus; latency; reactivation; sensory ganglia; VZV latency-associated transcript; open reading frame 63; RNA-sequencing; epigenetics; immunity
Online: 4 June 2018 (11:49:09 CEST)
Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes varicella (chickenpox) and the establishment of a lifelong latent infection in ganglionic neurons. VZV reactivates in about one-third of infected individuals to cause herpes zoster, often accompanied by neurological complications. The restricted host range of VZV and, until recently, the lack of suitable in vitro models to study VZV latency have seriously hampered molecular studies of viral latency. Nevertheless, recent technological advances facilitated a series of exciting studies that resulted in the discovery of a VZV latency-associated transcript (VLT) and have redefined our understanding of VZV latency and factors that initiate reactivation. Together, these findings pave the way for a new era of research that may finally unravel the precise molecular mechanisms that govern latency. In this review, we will summarize the implications of recent discoveries in the VZV latency field from both a virus and host perspective and provide a roadmap for future studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0377.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aa = amino acids; ACE-2 = receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cDNA = complementary DNA; mRNA = messenger RNA; orf = open reading frame; RBD = receptor binding protein; S-protein = Spike protein; SARS-CoV-2 = severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Vaccines.
Online: 22 June 2021 (11:53:34 CEST)
The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome)-CoV (Coronavirus)-2 S(spike)-protein mRNA/cDNA currently being used as vaccines are antigenic but not antigens against SARS-CoV-2, that causes COVID (Coronavirus Disease) -19. Furthermore, the mRNA and cDNA antigenic vaccines also have potentials for homologous as well as heterologous recombination, primarily into the somatic cell DNA of the vaccine recipients. On the contrary, a SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein antigen, a part of the S-protein, will directly stimulate antibody production against SARS-CoV-2. Hence, a vaccine composed of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-protein as a safer, fast acting, and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and thus against COVID-19. This is also useful for some immune compromised individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: image quality assessment; image quality metrics; NR-IQAs; D-IQA; OCR accuracy; OCR prediction; OCR improvements; visual aids; visually impaired; reading aids; document images; text-based images
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:21:49 CEST)
For Visually impaired People (VIPs), the ability to convert text to sound can mean a new level of independence or the simple joy of a good book. With significant advances in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in recent years, a number of reading aids are appearing on the market. These reading aids convert images captured by a camera to text which can then be read aloud. However, all of these reading aids suffer from a key issue – the user must be able to visually target the text and capture an image of sufficient quality for the OCR algorithm to function – no small task for VIPs. In this work, a Sound-Emitting Document Image Quality Assessment metric (SEDIQA) is proposed which allows the user to hear the quality of the text image and automatically captures the best image for OCR accuracy. This work also includes testing of OCR performance against image degradations, to identify the most significant contributors to accuracy reduction. The proposed No-Reference Image Quality Assessor (NR-IQA) is validated alongside established NR-IQAs and this work includes insights into the performance of these NR-IQAs on document images.