ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rain gauge; weather radar rain retrievals; ordinary Kriging; water budget; Central Italy
Online: 2 November 2022 (08:58:20 CET)
Accurate knowledge of the rain amount is an crucial driver in several hydro-meteorological applications. This is especially true in complex orography territories, which are typically impervious, thus leaving ungauged most of the mountain areas. Thanks to their spatial and temporal coverage, weather radars can potentially overcome such an issue. However, weather radar, if not accurately processed, can suffer from several limitations (e.g., beam blocking, altitude of the observation, path attenuation, indirectness of the measurement) that can hamper the reliability of the rain estimates performed. In this study, a comparison between rain gauge and weather radar retrievals is performed in the target area of the Abruzzo region in Italy, which is characterized by a heterogeneous orography ranging from the sea side to Apennine ridge. Consequently, the Abruzzo region has an inhomogeneous distribution of the rain gauges, with station density decreasing with the altitude reaching up to approximately 1500 m a.s.l. Notwithstanding, pluviometric inflow spatial distribution shows a sub-regional dependency as a function of four climatic and altimetric factors: coastal, hilly, mountain, and inner plain areas (i.e., Marsica). Such areas are used in this analysis to characterize the radar retrieval vs. rain gauge amounts in each of those zones. Compared to previous studies on the topic, the analysis presented an attention to the importance of an accurate selection of the climatic and altimetric sub-regional areas where undertake the radar vs. rain gauge comparison. This aspect is not only of great importance to correct biases in radar retrievals in a more selective way, but it also paves the way for more accurate hydro-meteorological applications (e.g., hydrological model initialization, quantify the aquifers recharge etc.) which, in general, require the accurate knowledge of rain amounts upstream of a basin. To fill the gap caused by the uneven rain gauge distribution, Ordinary Kriging has been applied on a regional scale to obtain 2D maps of rainfall data, which are cumulated on a monthly and yearly base. Weather radar data from the Italian mosaic are considered as well, in terms of rain rate retrievals and cumulations performed on the same time frame used for rain gauges. The period considered for the analysis is two continuous years: 2017 and 2018. The output of the elaborations are raster maps for both radar and interpolated rain gauges, where every pixel contains a rainfall quantity. Although the results show a general underestimation in the weather radar data especially in mountain and Marsica areas, even though within the 95% confidence interval of the OK estimation. Our analysis highlights that the average bias between radar and rain gauges, in terms of precipitation amounts, is a function of altitude and is almost constant in each of the selected areas. This achievement suggests that after a proper selection of homogeneous target areas, the radar retrievals can be corrected using the denser network of rain gauges typically distributed at lower altitudes and extend such correction at higher altitudes without loss of generality.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1149.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Forestry; Grasses; Herbicide; Simulated rain
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:54:33 CEST)
The Eucalyptus genus is the most planted forest crop in the world, with Brazil being one of the countries with the greatest productive potential. However, the occurrence of weeds can cause losses in productivity. Chemical control is widely used, but the efficiency of herbicides depends on factors such as the presence of straw in the soil and the occurrence of rainfall. Due to the scarcity of results regarding the interaction between herbicide, straw, and water depth in the forest sector, the objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of S-metolachlor + glyphosate in the control of grasses in different densities of eucalyptus straw and with simulated rain after the application of the product. The experiment was conducted in DBC, factorial 3×3×2, with four replications. The first factor represented 0, 50 and 100% of the commercial dose of S-metolachlor + glyphosate, the second 0, 5, and 10 ton ha-2 of straw, and the third 25 and 50mm of water depth applied in soil with a mix of grasses previously sowed. The rainfall simulation was performed 24 hours after herbicide application on each straw volume. The fresh mass of the aerial part of the grasses was collected 43 days after sowing and dried in an oven to determine the dry mass. Visual analyzes of the percentage of control were performed with scales ranging from 0 to 100, where 0 represents no control and 100 efficient control. The fresh and dry mass and the grasses' dry mass/water ratio decreased with increasing herbicide dosage and straw density. The dosage of 2.12 + 1.59 kg i.a. ha-1 of S-metolachlor + glyphosate resulted in greater control of grasses, and the treatments without straw and with the application of the herbicide had the highest percentages of control. Applying different water depths (25 mm or 50 mm) did not influence the control. Despite the control of grasses, the efficiency of the herbicide mixture was affected by the presence of vegetation cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0357.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: dew rain evolution map; evapotranspiration evolution map; climate change; dew rain chemistry; northwestern Africa; Morocco
Online: 24 October 2022 (09:58:48 CEST)
In the context of global warming and reduction in fresh water availability is presented a study of the evolution of dew, rain and evapotranspiration in the NW of Africa. The time periods are concerned with the years 2005-2020, using existing data, and years 2020-2100, using the low and high emissions representative concentration pathway scenarios RCP 2.6/8.5 from the Cordex database. A continuous decrease in rain precipitation is observed, on order of -14 mm/decade for the more credible scenario RCP 8.5. The amplitude is maximum on the coast and on the foothills of Atlas. A clear decrease in dew yields is also observed along a NW/SE axis, strongly correlated with a corresponding decrease in relative humidity (up to 7%). Chemical dew and rain data in the representative site of Mirleft correspond to the major cations Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, similar to a local spring water. Concentrations in rain are about two times less than in dew water. Ionic concentrations are compatible with WHO standards. The seasonal variations of the ionic concentrations in dew and rain follow a volume dilution dependence. The expected diminution in dew and rain volumes according to the RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 should increase the dew and rain ionic concentrations in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: AquaCrop model; maize; rain fed; Uganda
Online: 26 July 2018 (11:16:23 CEST)
Uganda’s agriculture depends mainly on rainwater. As farmers are trying to increase on the food output to match the demands of a fast growing population, they are susceptible to make losses due to fluctuating weather patterns which are being caused by the global climate change. Therefore, it is necessary to explore ways of improving water use efficiency in rainfed agricultural systems to save farmers labour and input costs in situations where the grain harvest would be zero due to crop failure. The water driven FAO AquaCrop model is used as a support tool for making informed decisions during planning and situation analysis. In this study, AquaCrop model was evaluated for prediction of maize growth and yields at MUARIK in Uganda, for rainfed agriculture in three growing seasons. The model efficiency (E) and root mean square value (RMSE) for the maize canopy simulation during the September–December 2015 season was 0.945 and 7.24 respectively. The deviation of the simulated final biomass from measured data ranged from −15.4 to 11.6%, while the deviation of the final yield ranged from −2.8 to 2.0. The results suggest that the model can be used in the prediction of rainfed agricultural outputs, hence helping in guiding on management practices to increase food production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall; rain gauge; kriging; trend detection
Online: 31 October 2016 (01:37:36 CET)
Precipitation during 2001-2016 over the northern and central part of Tuscany was studied in order to characterize the rainfall regime. The dataset consisted of hourly cumulative rainfall series recorded by a network of 801 rain gauges. The territory was divided into 30x30 km square areas, the annual, seasonal and daily Average Cumulative Rainfall (ACR) in all areas was estimated along with its uncertainty. The trend analysis of ACR time series was performed by means of the Mann-Kendall test. Four climatic zones were identified: the north-western was the rainiest, followed by the north-eastern, north-central and south-central. An overall increase in precipitation was identified, more intense in the north-west, and determined mostly by the increase in winter precipitation. On the entire territory, the ACR, number of rainy days, mean precipitation intensity and sum of daily ACR in four intensity groups were evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. The main result was a magnitude of the ACR trend evaluated as 35 mm/year, due mainly to an increase in light and extreme precipitations. This result is in contrast with the decreasing rainfall detected in the past decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Kakamega Rain Forest; Conservation; Biodiversity; Complementarity; Agroforestry
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:14:00 CET)
A primary challenge facing conservationists is reconciling the human needs of forest adjacent communities with the needs of conserving forest biodiversity, especially in tropical regions with growing populations of rural poor. Agroforestry has the potential to simultaneously provide for human needs and enhance forest biodiversity, but the complex interactions and feedbacks between the social and natural dimensions are relatively undescribed and thus systematic implementation is rare. The attributes of trees on farms required for human needs and conservation value may conflict. For example, exotic species in monoculture may provide the most economic value for farmers, while relic or planted indigenous tree mixtures may be more valuable for biological conservation. The objective of this study was to explore whether agroforestry practices in a moist tropical forest ecosystem in Kenya can simultaneously provide timber and fuelwood value to small-holder farmers while extending forest tree biodiversity. We described the agroforestry attributes on farms around a tropical forest, assessed the relationship between number and biomass of timber/fuelwood trees and tree biodiversity, and explored the relationships between forest tree diversity attributes and farm tree diversity attributes on a landscape scale using spatial analysis. We found that the diversity and number of trees on farms in this area are extensive yet variable, but that no significant relationship exists between the number of timber/fuelwood trees and tree diversity. This suggests that the two values of agroforestry may not be in conflict, due mainly to the high diversity of trees used for fuelwood. We also found that trees on farms in the larger landscape add to the conservation value of forest tree biodiversity and could be important components in conservation management. If agroforestry is to play an increasingly active role in conserving biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes, particularly in areas of dense subsistence farmer populations, increase recognition needs to be given to farmer’s perception of the value of trees and their selection of what trees to plant or maintain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0011.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rain cell; tracking; PIV; feature-based verification
Online: 1 August 2019 (10:16:12 CEST)
This study proposes a new algorithm termed rain cell identification and tracking (RCIT) to identify and track rain cells from high resolution weather radar data. Previous algorithms have limitations when tracking non-consequent rain cells owing to their use of maximum correlation coefficient methods and their lack of an alternative way to handle the variation stages of rain cells during their life cycles. To address these deficiencies, various methods are implemented in the new algorithm. These include the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method for motion estimation and the rain cell matching rule to obtain the stage changes of rain cells. High resolution (5-min and 1-km) radar reflectivity data from three rainy days over the German federal state North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) are used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The performance of the new algorithm is compared with a radar reflectivity map and verified by two object-oriented methods: structure–amplitude–location (SAL) and geometric index. The verification results suggest that the performance of the new algorithm is good. Application of the RCIT algorithm to the selected cases shows that the inner structure of rainfall events in the experimental region present extreme value distributions, with most rainfall events having a short duration with less intensity. The new algorithm can effectively capture the stage changes of rain cells during their life cycles. The proposed algorithm can serve as the basis for further hydro-meteorological applications such as spatial and temporal analysis of rainfall events and short-term flood forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0540.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban waterlogging risk; extreme rain; drainage capacity; Shanghai
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:55:36 CEST)
Waterlogging induced by rain in urban areas has a potential risk impact on property and safety. This paper focuses on the impact of rain on waterlogging and evaluates the waterlogging risk in the central city of Shanghai. A simplified waterlogging depth model is developed in different areas with different drainage capacity and rainfall in consumption of simplifying the effect of complex terrain characteristics and hydrological situation. Based on urban waterlogging depth and its classification collection, a Rain-induced Urban Waterlogging Risk Model(RUWRM) is further established to evaluate waterlogging risk in the central city. The results show that waterlogging depth is closely linked with rainfall and drainage, with a linear relationship between them. More rainfall leads to higher waterlogging risk, especially in the central city with imperfect drainage facilities. Rain-induced urban waterlogging risk model can rapidly gives the waterlogging rank caused by rainfall with a clear classification collection. The results of waterlogging risk prediction indicate that it is confident to get the urban waterlogging risk rank well and truly in advance with more accurate rainfall prediction. This general study is a contribution that allows the public, policy makers and relevant departments of urban operation to assess the appropriate management to reduce traffic intensity and personal safety or strategy to lead to less waterlogging risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0477.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rain cells; atmospheric attenuation; microwave radar; Ka-band; altimetry
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:32:59 CEST)
The impact of large atmospheric attenuation events on data quality and availability is a critical aspect for future altimetry missions based on Ka-band altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa mission and its Ka-band nadir altimeter offer a unique opportunity to assess this impact. Previous publications (Tournadre et al. 2009, 2015) already analyzed the impact of rain on the waveforms at Ka-band and proposed a definition of an elaborate rain flag. This notion tends to give a simpler black and white view of the atmospheric attenuation when the effect on the altimeter measurement is intense. But in practice, there is continuum of measurements that may be partially distorted or corrupted by rain events. The present study proposes a wider point of view , the ACECAL approach providing statistics on rain cells occurrences as well as their amplitude and their size, as guidelines for future Ka-band missions concerning the impact of the atmosphere. At global scale, 1 % of the measurements are affected by an attenuation larger than 23 dB and 10 % of the atmospheric attenuation events have a size larger than 40 km. This study demonstrates that the data quality and availability over some regions of particular interest for oceanography as Gulf Stream, North Pacific and Brazil currents could be affected compared to global statistics. It also opens some perspectives on the benefits that the community could be drawn from the systematic distribution of the rain cells parameters as secondary products of altimetry missions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0321.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Intra–Seasonal rain fall characteristics; Short rains; WRF Model
Online: 30 August 2019 (09:57:58 CEST)
Rainfall is a major climate parameter whose variation in space and time influences activities in different weather sensitive sectors such as agriculture, transport, and energy among others. Therefore, accurately forecasting rainfall is of paramount importance to the development of these sectors. In this regard, this study sought to contribute to quantitative forecasting of rainfall over Eastern Uganda through assessing the Weather Research and Forecasting model’s ability to simulate the intra–seasonal characteristics of the September to December rain season. These were: onset and cessation dates; wet days and lengths of the wet spells. The data used in the study included daily ground rainfall observations and lateral and boundary conditions data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) final analysis at 1 0 horizontal resolution and at a temporal resolution of 6 hours for the entire study period were used to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The study considered four weather synoptic weather stations namely; Jinja, Serere, Soroti and Tororo. The results show that the WRF model generally simulated fewer wet days at each station except for Tororo. Also, the WRF model simulated earlier onset and cessation dates of the rainfall season and overestimated the length of the wet spells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: snake demography; moonlight; rain; temperature; climate change in Osa
Online: 11 August 2019 (05:35:15 CEST)
Introduction: studies in the last two decades have found declining snake populations in both temperate and tropical sites, including informal reports from Drake Bay, Costa Rica. Objective: to investigate if reports of decreasing snake populations in Drake Bay had a real basis, and if environmental factors, particularly temperature, rain and light, have played a role in that decrease. Methods: we worked at Drake Bay from 2012 through 2017 and made over 4000 h of transect counts. Using head flashlights we surveyed a transect covered by lowland tropical rainforest at an altitude of 12–38 m above sea level, near the Agujas River, mostly at 1930–2200 hours. We counted all the snakes that we could see along the transect. Results: snake counts increase from August to September and then decline rapidly. The May snakes/rainfall peaks coincide, but the second snake peak occurs one month before the rain peak; we counted more snakes in dry nights, with the exception of Imantodes cenchoa which was equally common despite rain conditions. We saw less Leptodeira septentrionalis on bright nights, but all other species were unaffected. Along the six years, the number of species with each diet type remained relatively constant, but the number of individuals declined sharply for those that feed on amphibians and reptiles. We report Rhadinella godmani, a highland species, at 12–38 m of altitude. Conclusion: night field counts of snakes in Drake Bay, Costa Rica, show a strong decline from 2012 through 2017.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0475.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Pb; turbidity; pH; rain water; filtration; absorbtion; public health
Online: 22 October 2018 (06:06:19 CEST)
Pb found in rain water is not only caused by tin roof on houses but also caused by the pollution of industrial activities, vehicles and land clearing activity by fire. Pb pollutant dissolves and enters into rain water storages and it’s consumed as drinking. Pb can cause bad impact to human, for example disruption of enzyme, anemia and low intelligence. The purposes of this research are (1) to evaluate Pb, pH and turbidity level in rain water, (2) to analyze the effectiveness of mollusk sand filtration and the absorption of activity carbon to decrease Pb, turbidity and pH, and (3) to analyze the correlation of Pb, length of stay and smoking habit on public health. This research is an experimental by using pre and post test designs with control and observational by using cross sectional design. The research was conducted in urban and rural areas of Pontianak and Kubu Raya regency. The sampling was done in determining the number of samples of Pb, pH and turbidity in rain water. The analyzing the data by using computer program. The results show that: (1) the average of Pb, pH and turbidity level before treatment is considered high at 131.7 µg/L on Pb, turbidity at 20 NTU and low pH at 5.2. After the treatment was the Pb has decreased to 0.71 µg/L and turbidity has to 5.66 NTU, pH to 6.9 and (2) Rain water treatment is very effective to decrease Pb for 99.4% and turbidity for 72%, and (3) there is a correlation among Pb found in rain water, length of stay and smoking activity to public health. Recommends that: the residents of Pontianak and Kubu Raya to process rain water before consuming. The rain water treatment can be done by applying mollusk sand filtration and absorption of active carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0859.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; weather; automotive; modelling; precipitation; rain; snow; dimensional analysis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:25:45 CEST)
With advances in the development of autonomous vehicles (AVs), more attention has been paid to the effects caused by adverse weather conditions on them. It is well known that the performance of self-driving vehicles is reduced when they are exposed to stressors that impair visibility or generate water or snow accumulation on sensor surfaces. This paper proposes a model to quantify weather precipitation, such as rain and snow, perceived by moving vehicles based on outdoor data. The modelling covers a wide range of parameters, such as varying wind direction and realistic particle size distributions. The model allows the calculation of precipitation intensity on inclined surfaces of different orientations and on a circular driving path. The modelling results were partially validated against direct measurements carried out by a test vehicle. The model outputs showed strong correlation with the experimental data for both rain and snow. Mitigation strategies for heavy precipitation on vehicles can be developed and correlations between precipitation rate and accumulation level can be traced using the presented analytical model. Dimensional Analysis of the problem has highlighted the critical parameters that can help the design of future experiments. The obtained results highlight the importance of the angle of the sensing surface on the perceived precipitation level. The proposed model is used to analyze optimal orientations for minimization of the precipitation flux, which can help to determine the positioning of sensors on the surface of autonomous vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0721.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: COVID-19; Dilla; Emergency water demand; Ethiopia; Rain Water Harvesting
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:15:32 CEST)
Rainwater harvesting could be an optional water source to fulfil the emergency water demand in different setups. The aim was to assess if the rainwater harvesting potential for households and selected institutions were sufficient to satisfy the emergency water demand for the prevention of COVID-19 in Dilla town, Southern, Ethiopia. Rain water harvesting potential for households and selected institutions were quantified using 17 years’ worth of rainfall data from Ethiopian Metrology Agency. With an average annual rainfall of 1464 mm, households with 40 and 100 m2 roof sizes have a potential to harvest between 15.71-31.15 m3 and 41.73-82.73 m3 of water using Maximum Error Estimate. Meanwhile 7.2-39.7 m3 and 19.11-105.35 m3 of water can be harvested from the same roof sizes using Coefficient of Variation for calculation. Considering mean monthly rainfall, the health centres and Dilla University can attain 45.7% and 77% of their emergency water demand, while the rest of the selected institutions in Dilla Town can attain more than 100 % of their demand using only rainwater. Rain water can be an alternative water source for the town in the fight against COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0644.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Lagrangian particle microphysics; polarimetric radar; outer rain bands; hurricane Dorian
Online: 26 July 2020 (16:59:15 CEST)
The availability of high quality surface observations of precipitation and volume observations by polarimetric operational radars make it possible to constrain, evaluate and validate numerical models with a wide variety of microphysical schemes. In this article, a novel particle-based Monte-Carlo microphysical model (called “McSnow”) is used to simulate the outer rain bands of Hurricane Dorian which traversed the densely instrumented precipitation research facility operated by NASA at Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain bands showed steady stratiform vertical profiles with radar signature of dendritic growth layers near −15 °C and peak reflectivity in the bright band of 55 dBZ along with polarimetric signatures of wet snow with sizes inferred to exceed 15 mm. A 2D-video disdrometer measured frequent occurrences of large drops >5 mm and combined with an optical array probe the drop size distribution was well-documented in spite of uncertainty for drops <0.5 mm due to high wind gusts and turbulence. The 1D McSnow control run and four numerical “experiments” were conducted and compared with observations. One of the main findings is that even at the moderate rain rate of 10 mm/h collisional breakup is essential for the shape of the drop size distribution.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: MIRA35c; diurnal variation; DSD parameters; convective rain and bright band
Online: 6 September 2019 (03:49:02 CEST)
The present study uses the 3 years of data from a vertically pointed profile Radar (VPPR) at the mountain site (Huancayo at 3.2 km msl; HYO) in Peru to investigate the precipitation characteristics/patterns including diurnal variation, bright band (BB) characteristics and vertical structure of rain (VSR). VPPR provides continuous 1min profiles of radar reflectivity (Ze), rain rate (RR), liquid water content (LWC) and Doppler velocity. At the same time, field campaign data are used to investigate the role of the surface and atmospheric variables in generating the rainfall and organization of the cloud systems over HYO. The precipitation shows the bimodal distribution; frequent and higher RR during afternoon and nighttime. The BB height also shows a diurnal pattern and BB height is higher during the afternoon and nighttime compared; and follows the diurnal heating of the Andes. More than 70% BB height lies between ~4.34.7 km and only 20% BB has altitude higher than 5 km. The austral summer monsoon (December to March months) have higher intense vertical profiles (higher Z e ) compared to pre monsoon seasons (September to November) and shows the negative gradient for most of the altitude. The RR and LWC show the opposite characteristics, and both have a positive gradient below the 6 km altitude and then negative gradient above 6 km altitude. The raindrop size distribution (DSD) parameters show most of the variation below the freezing level, and a higher concentration of large sized of hydrometeors are observed for higher RR, however the dominant modes of Dm are less than 1 mm. The changes in the VSR in DSD parameters are significant for the RR>20 mm/h, whereas for RR<2 mm/h the vertical structure in DSD parameters do not have much differences during monsoon and premonsoon seasons. Satellite and reanalysis data reveal the short periods of convective activity with higher ac cumulated rainfall over HYO compared to stratiform precipitation, which is more common in the nighttime and sustain for many hours. Wet spells (higher rainy days) have low pressure circulation, which favours the transport of moisture from the Amazon to the central Sierra of Peru, while the anticyclonic circulation at high levels favours the divergence at higher pressure levels and, enhances the convective in the region. During the dry spells, low level weaker circulation at the west of Brazil, restricts the transport of moisture to the central Sierra, while the circulation at high levels does not favor rain processes. The improved understanding of the tropical Andes precipitation would be very important for assessing climate variability and changes as well as to forecast precipitation using the numerical models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: satellite; rainfall; estimates; rain gauge; uncertainties; topography; seasonality; East Africa
Online: 2 November 2016 (09:25:04 CET)
Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better planning and decision making. However, estimation of accurate spatial rainfall is limited by sparse rain gauge distributions. Satellite rainfall products can thus potentially play a role in spatial rainfall estimation but their skill and uncertainties need to be under-stood across spatial-time scales. This study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial performance of seven satellite products (TARCAT (Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite and ground-based observations (TAMSAT) African Rainfall Climatology And Time series), Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-3B43), Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Morphing (CMORPH), the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks- Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR), CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) using gridded (0.05o) rainfall data over East Africa for 15 years(1998-2012). The products’ error distributions were qualitatively compared with large scale horizontal winds (850 mb) and elevation patterns with respect to corresponding rain gauge data for each month during the ‘long’ (March-May) and ‘short’ (October-December) rainfall seasons. For validation only rainfall means extracted from 284 rain gauge stations were used, from which qualitative analysis using continuous statistics of Root Mean Squared Difference, Standard deviations, Correlations, coefficient of determinations (from scatter plots) were used to evaluate the products’ performance. Results revealed rainfall variability dependence on wind flows and modulated by topographic influences. The products’ errors showed seasonality and dependent on rainfall intensity and topography. Single sensor and coarse resolution products showed lowest performance on high ground areas. All the products showed low skills in retrieving rainfall during ‘short’ rainfall season when orographic processes were dominant. CHIRPS, CMORPH and TRMM performed well, with TRMM showing the best performance in both seasons. There is need to reduce products’ errors before applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precipitation monitoring; rainfall measurement biases; rain gauge; measurement error; hydrological forecast
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:58:36 CEST)
Tipping bucket rain gauges (TBRs) have been, and apparently will continue to be one of the most widely used pieces of equipment for rainfall monitoring, being frequently used for the calibration, validation and downscaling of radar and remote sensing data, due to their major advantages–low cost, simplicity, and low energy consumption. Thus, many works have focused and continue to focus on their main disadvantage–measurement biases (mainly in wind and mechanical underestimations). However, despite arduous scientific effort, calibration methodologies are not frequently implemented by monitoring networks operators or data users, propagating bias in databases and in the different applications of such data, causing uncertainty in the modeling, management, and forecasting in hydrological research, mainly due to a lack of knowledge. Within this context, this work presents a review of the scientific advances in TBR measurement uncertainties, calibration, and error reduction strategies from a hydrological point of view, by describing different rainfall monitoring techniques in Section 2, summarizing TBR measurement uncertainties in Section 3, focusing on calibration, and error reduction strategies in Section 4, a discussion and perspectives in Section 5, and conclusions in Section 6, providing an overview of the of the state of the art and future perspectives of the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0811.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Djibouti; rainfall; precipitation datasets; categorical metrics,; quantitative metrics; reliability; rain gauges
Online: 11 May 2023 (07:18:45 CEST)
The Republic of Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa and, as in most developing countries, rain gauges are sparse and data are scarce. This study aims to report on the reliability of gridded precipitation datasets (P datasets) across the Republic of Djibouti through direct comparisons with rain gauge measurements from the annual to the daily time scales. Our specific objective is to be able to use such products in the context of hydrological modeling at a daily time step. Given the scarcity of available data in the Republic of Djibouti, our study was carried out on two time windows (1980-1990 and 2008-2013) and two gauge networks with different spatial resolutions: the southeast of the Republic of Djibouti (5000 km2) and the Ambouli catchment (794 km2), which drains the city of Djibouti. The reliability of these products is analyzed with quantitative metrics and categorical metrics, exclusively at a daily time step for the latter. The performance of the P datasets degrades from the annual time scale to the daily time scale. Even though the same products exhibit the best performance at the various time scales, the performance of most of the products differs from one spatial scale to another. Our results demonstrate the importance of the temporal and spatial windows, as the same products can perform differently according to the scale. For all the spatiotemporal scales, the most reliable product is MSWEP v.2.2. This P dataset is derived from a combination of satellite products (multiple sensors such as infrared and passive microwave), reanalysis products, and rain gauge observations. A strong discrepancy between rain gauge observations and P datasets is revealed according to the categorical metric at a daily time step. The analysis of rainfall events triggering runoff, using a 10 mm rainfall threshold showed that the most efficient products were unable to accurately detect such events at a daily time step, with a significant underestimation of rainfall events higher than 10 mm. None of these products, even the most reliable, can be used for a calibration/validation of a hydrological model at a daily time step.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Amaryllidaceae alkaloids; Biological activities; Traditional medicines; Yellow rain lily; Zephyranthes citrine
Online: 5 May 2022 (12:41:44 CEST)
Zephyranthes citrina Baker is a bulbous herb, commonly known as yellow rain lily belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. It is a native of tropical and subtropical America but nowadays it is cultivated as a popular ornamental herb in several parts of the world including India. This herb represents one of the richest sources of phytochemicals, especially alkaloids and possesses great potential for pharmaceutical applications. It shows remarkable antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer, cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and dye removal activities. This review is an effort to give a detailed study of the literature on the biological activities of Zephyranthes citrina. This review concludes that Zephyranthes citrina has a great potential to treat various diseases and could be used as a source for novel healthcare products in the near future, which requires further experimentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Bayesian bias correction; satellite rainfall; rain gauge; climate studies; East Africa
Online: 17 April 2018 (11:29:28 CEST)
Advances in remote sensing have led to use of satellite-derived rainfall products to complement the sparse rain gauge data. Although globally derived and some regional bias corrected, these products often show large discrepancies with ground measurements attributed to local and external factors that require systematic consideration. Decreasing rain gauge network however inhibits continuous validation of these products. We propose to deal with this problem by the use of Bayesian approach to merge the existing historical rain gauge information to create a consistent satellite rainfall data that can be used for climate studies. Monthly Bayesian bias correction is applied to the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS v2) data to reduce systematic errors using a corresponding gridded (0.05°) rain gauge data over East Africa for a period of 33 (1981–2013) years of which 22 years are utilized to derive error fields which are then applied to an independent CHIRPS data for 11 years for validation. The bias correction is spatially and temporally assessed during the rainfall wet months of March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) and October–December (OND) in East Africa. Results show significant reduction of systematic errors at both monthly and yearly scales and harmonization of their cumulative distributions. Monthly statistics showed a reduction of RMSD (29–56)% and MAE (28–60)% and an increase of correlations (2–32) %, while yearly ones showed reductions of RMSD (9-23)%, and MAE (7–27)% and increase of correlations (4–77)% for MAM months, reduction of RMSD (15–35)% and MAE (16–41)% and increase in correlations (5–16)% for JJA months, and reduction of RMSD (3–35)% and MAE (9–32)% and increase of correlations (3–65)% for OND months. Systematic errors of corrected data were influenced by local processes especially over Lake Victoria and high elevated areas. Large-scale circulations induced errors were mainly during JJA and OND rainfall seasons and were reduced by the separation of anomalous years during training. The proposed approach is recommended for generating long-term data for climate studies where consistencies of errors can be assumed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Weather radar; rain gauge; rainfall; QPE; RADOLAN; RADKLIM; GIS; radar climatology; uncertainties
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:42:56 CET)
Precipitation is a crucial driver for many environmental processes and weather radars are capable of providing precipitation information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) are also subject to various potential uncertainties. This study explores the development, uncertainties and potentials of the hourly operational German radar-based and gauge-adjusted QPE called RADOLAN and its reanalysed radar climatology dataset named RADKLIM in comparison to ground-truth rain gauge data. The precipitation datasets are statistically analysed across various time scales ranging from annual and seasonal aggregations to hourly rainfall intensities in regard to their capability to map long-term precipitation distribution, to detect low intensity rainfall and to capture heavy rainfall. Moreover, the impacts of season, orography and distance from the radar on long-term precipitation sums are examined in order to evaluate dataset performance and to describe inherent biases. Results revealed that both radar products tend to underestimate total precipitation sums and particularly high intensity rainfall. But our analyses also showed significant improvements throughout the RADOLAN time series as well as major advances through the climatologic reanalysis regarding the correction of typical radar artefacts, orographic and winter precipitation as well as range-dependent attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0284.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: raindrop shapes; asymmetric rain drops; scattering calculations; polarimetric radar; 2D-video distrometer
Online: 25 October 2019 (04:22:52 CEST)
Tropical storm Nate, which was a powerful hurricane prior to landfall along the Alabama coast, traversed north towards our instrumented site in Hunstville, AL. The rain bands lasted 18 h and the 2D-video disdrometer (2DVD) captured the event which was shallow and indicative of pure warm rain processes. Measurements of raindrop size, shape and velocity distributions are quite rare in pure warm rain and are expected to differ from cold rain processes. In particular, asymmetric shapes due to drop oscillations and their impact on polarimetric radar signatures in warm rain have not been studied so far. Recently, the 2DVD data has been used for 3D reconstruction of asymmetric raindrop shapes but their fraction (relative to the more common oblate shapes) in warm rain has yet to be ascertained. Here we compute the scattering matrix drop-by-drop using Computer Simulation Technology integral equation solver for drop sizes>2.5 mm. From the scattering matrix elements, the polarimetric radar observables are simulated by integrating over 1 minute consecutive segments of the event. These simulated values are compared with dual-polarized C-band radar data located at 15 km range from the 2DVD site to evaluate the contribution of the asymmetric drop shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0168.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: avulsion, civil defence, dispersal barrier, flood, Rio Madeira, rain forest, species distribution
Online: 10 September 2018 (11:59:52 CEST)
The scene for regional biogeography and human settlements in Central Amazonia is set by the river network, which presumably consolidated in the Pliocene. However, we present geomorphological and sediment chronological data showing that the river network has been anything but stable. Even during the last 50 kyr, the tributary relationships have repeatedly changed for four major rivers, together corresponding to one third of the discharge of the Amazon. The latest major river capture event converted the Japurá from a tributary of the Rio Negro to a tributary of the Amazon only 1000 years ago. Such broad-scale lability implies that rivers cannot have been as efficient biogeographical dispersal barriers as has generally been assumed, but that their effects on human societies can have been even more profound. Climate change and deforestation scenarios predict increasing water levels during peak floods, which will likely increase the risk of future river avulsions. This may have disastrous consequences for the local human societies, especially in those areas where the current floodplains are at only marginally lower elevations than the nearest water divide. We suggest that the prevailing paradigm of rivers as principal structuring elements of Amazonian biogeography needs to be re-evaluated, and that land use planning and civil risk assessment should take the possibility of river avulsions into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0515.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: balsam fir; white spruce; seedlings; partial cut; plantation; naturals stands; light; seed rain
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:36:10 CEST)
This study documents the conditions associated to white spruce and balsam fir regeneration after partial cutting. Measurements were collected 9 to 30 years after partial cutting in 12 natural fir stands and 5 white spruce plantations. We estimated seed input, measured light reaching the undergrowth, recorded seedlings (<150 cm) and their age on 6 different seedling establishment substrates: mineral soil, moss, rotten wood, litterfall, herbaceous and dead wood. Partial cutting generally favours the establishment and growth of seedlings. The number of fir and spruce seedlings is always greater in natural stands than in plantations, a trend likely associated with the reduced abundance of preferential establishment substrate in the latter. White spruce significantly prefers rotten wood while fir settles on all types of substrates that cover at least 10% of the forest floor. There is a strong relationship between light intensity and the median height of spruce seedlings, but this relationship is non-significant for fir. Seedlings of both species can survive at incident light intensities as low as 3%, but an intensity of 15% or more seems to offer the best growth conditions. The conditions for successful forest regeneration proposed in this study should be applied when the goal is to establish a new stand prior to clear cutting or to convert stand structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0032.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: triggering of debris flows; overland flow; infiltration; laboratory experiments; modelling; rain intensity-duration threshold curves
Online: 13 June 2018 (08:37:32 CEST)
Many studies, which try to analyze conditions for debris flow development, ignore the type of initiation. Therefore this paper deals with the following questions: What type of hydro-mechanical triggering mechanisms for debris flows can we distinguish in upstream channels of debris flow prone gullies? Which are the main parameters controlling the type and temporal sequence of these triggering processes and what is their influence on the meteorological thresholds for debris flow initiation? A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume, 8 m long and with a width of 0.3 m. to detect the conditions for different types of triggering mechanisms. The flume experiments show a sequence of hydrological processes triggering debris flows, namely erosion and transport by intensive overland flow and by infiltrating water causing failure of channel bed material. On the basis of these experiments an integrated hydro-mechanical model was developed, which describes Hortonian and Saturation overland flow, maximum sediment transport, through flow and failure of bed material. The model was calibrated and validated using process indicator values measured during the experiments in the flume. Virtual model simulations, carried out in a schematic hypothetical source area of a catchment show that slope angle and hydraulic conductivity of the bed material determine the type and sequence of these triggering processes. It was also clearly demonstrated that the type of hydrological triggering process and the influencing geometrical and hydro-mechanical parameters may have a great influence on rainfall intensity-duration threshold curves for the start of debris flows.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0080.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ROS; snow; rain; flood; WRF; numerical weather forecast; energy balance; discharge estimation; early alert system
Online: 22 February 2017 (04:26:49 CET)
From June 18 to 19, 2013, the Ésera river in the Pyrenees, Northern Spain, caused widespread damage due to flooding as a result of torrential rains and sustained snowmelt. We estimate the contribution of snow melt to total discharge applying a snow energy balance to the catchment. Precipitation is derived from sparse local measurements and the WRF-ARW model over three nested domains, down to a grid cell size of 2 km. Temperature profiles, precipitation and precipitation gradient are well simulated, although with a possible displacement regarding the observations. Snowpack melting was correctly reproduced and verified in three instrumented sites, and according to satellite images. We found that the hydrological simulations agree well with measured discharge. Snowmelt represented 33% of total runoff during the main flood event and 23% at peak flow. The snow energy balance model indicates that most of the energy for snow melt during the day of maximum precipitation came from turbulent fluxes. This approach forecast correctly peak flow and discharge during normal conditions at least 24h in advance and could give an early warning of the extreme event 2.5 days before.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1586.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Rain gauge; observations; satellite-based precipitation; spatio-temporal; TMPA; CHIRPS; ARC2; and North Darfur State; Sudan
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:36:57 CEST)
Accurate rainfall measurement is vital when investigating spatial and temporal precipitation variability at different scales. However, there are many regions around the world, such as North Darfur State in Sudan, where ground-based observations are few. Satellite-based precipitation products can fill such regions' spatial and temporal rainfall data gaps. Six satellite rainfall prod-ucts, namely the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), African Rainfall Climatology Version 2 (ARC2.0), Climate Hazards Group In-frared Precipitation with Station Data (CHIRPS2.0), the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) Final Run v 6 (GPM IMERG6), Precipitation Estima-tion from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR), and the Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite and ground-based observations (TAMSAT) v3.1 were evaluated to assess their accuracy in estimating rainfall amounts variability trends in the study area. The global-based satellite rainfall products were assessed at monthly and annual time scales by applying a point-to-pixel comparison with ground-based rain gauge data for the period 2000–2019. Based on the overall statistical results at monthly and temporal yearly scales, five satellite precipitation products (TMPA, CHIRPS, GPM IMERG6, PERSIANN-CDR, and TAMSATv3.1) overestimated rainfall amounts by values ranging from 1.49% to 82.69%. In contrast, the ARC2 product underestimated rainfall amounts by values ranging from-16.9% to-20.25%. The TAMSATv3.1, CHIRPS, and TMPA performed relatively better, showing stronger correlations and higher values of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. This study showed that the TAMSATv3.1 and CHIRPS products could reasonably estimate rainfall amounts in the North Darfur State.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Satellite Communication; Signal Propagation; Rain Attenuation; Urban area ground station; SNR, ITU-R; LSTM, Neural network
Online: 2 December 2021 (11:18:57 CET)
Free-space communication is a leading component in global communications. Its advantages relate to a broader signal spread, no wiring, and ease of engagement. Satellite communication services became recently attractive to mega-companies that foresee an excellent opportunity to connect disconnected remote regions, serve emerging machine-to-machine communication, Internet-of-things connectivity, and more. Satellite communication links suffer from arbitrary weather phenomena such as clouds, rain, snow, fog, and dust. In addition, when signals approach the ground station, it has to overcome buildings blocking the direct access to the ground station. Therefore, satellites commonly use redundant signal strength to ensure constant and continuous signal transmission, resulting in excess energy consumption, challenging the limited power capacity generated by solar energy or the fixed amount of fuel. This research proposes LTSM, an artificial recurrent neural network technology that provides a time-dependent prediction of the expected attenuation level due to rain and fog and the signal strength that remained after crossing physical obstacles surrounding the ground station. The satellite transmitter is calibrated accordingly. The satellite outgoing signal strength is based on the predicted signal strength to ensure it will remain strong enough for the ground station to process it. The instant calibration eliminates the excess use of energy resulting in energy savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; Computing radial power spectra using radar Doppler spectra; Vertical pointing Doppler rain observations.
Online: 10 June 2022 (10:21:15 CEST)
It has been shown that the Micro-Rain Radar (MRR) can be used to derive rainfall rates every 10 m over a depth of 1.28 km using the mean vertical air velocity corrected Doppler raindrop fall speed spectra. Furthermore, it has been shown that by assuming a reasonable advection velocity for the rain, these data can be analyzed to produce spatial radial power spectra often readily fit using a power function. Previous work has shown, however, that each spectrum applies only to each particular set of data and usually lacks the statistical qualifications necessary to be considered generally applicable. However, this limitation does not preclude the potential existence of other generalizations that can be used to explore the rainfall formation processes. The intent of this study, then, is to perform an initial look for such possible behaviors using time-height profiles of the rainfall rate. It is found that once the rainfall rate, R, exceeds about 20 mm h-1, there is, apparently, an associated flattening of the spectra with increasing R so that the smaller scales play an ever increasingly important role in such rain near the ground perhaps reflecting the increasing importance of such scales in the formation of pockets of more intense convective rain. The true generality of this finding needs additional scrutiny using more data particularly from two spatially separated MRR as is currently under preparation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0373.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; computing radial power spectra using radar Doppler spectra; vertical pointing Doppler rain observations
Online: 29 March 2022 (04:04:49 CEST)
A realistic approach for gathering high-resolution observation of the rainfall rate, R, in the vertical plane is to use data from vertical pointing Doppler radars. After accounting for the vertical air velocity and attenuation, it is possible to determine the fine, spatially resolved drop size spectra and to calculate R for further statistical analyses. The first such results in a vertical plane are reported here. Specifically, we present results using MRR-Pro Doppler radar observations at resolutions of ten meters in height over the lowest 1.28 km as well as ten seconds in time over four sets of observations using two different radars at different locations. Both correlation functions and power spectra are useful for translating observations and numerical model outputs of R from on one scale down to other scales that may be more appropriate to particular applications such as flood warnings and soil erosion, for example. However, it was found in all cases that while locally applicable radial power spectra could be calculated, because of statistical heterogeneity, most of the power spectra lost all generality and proper correlation functions could not be computed in general except for one 17 minute interval. Nevertheless, these results are still useful since they could be combined to develop catalogs of power spectra over different meteorological conditions and in different climatological settings and locations. Furthermore, even within the limitations of these data, this approach is being used to gain a deeper understanding of rainfall to be reported in a forthcoming paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0462.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; Removing vertical air motion from radar Doppler spectra; Vertical pointing Doppler rain observations
Online: 26 April 2021 (14:09:33 CEST)
It is important to understand the statistical-physical structure of the rain in the vertical so that observations aloft can be translated meaningfully into what will occur at the surface. In order to achieve this understanding, it is necessary to gather high temporal and spatial resolution observations of rain in the vertical. This can only be accomplished using radars. It can be achieved by translating radar Doppler spectra into drop size distributions which can then be integrated to calculate variables such as the rain fall rate. A long-standing difficulty in using such measurements, however, is the problem of vertical air motion which can shift the Doppler spectra, and, therefore, significantly alter the deduced drop size distributions and integrated variables. In this work, we illustrate the improvement in measured rain structures using a new approach for removing the effect of mean vertical air motion. It is demonstrated that the new approach proposed here not only produces what appear to be better estimates of the rainfall rates, but, also as a consequence, provides estimates of the temporal and spatial regionally coherent updraft and downdrafts occurring in the precipitation. Furthermore, the technique is readily applicable to other radars especially those operating at non-attenuating frequencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1772.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: baseband channel; GeoSurf constellation; interference; linear distortions; millimeter wavelengths; passband channel; rain attenuation; synthetic storm technique; time delay; ultra–wideband channels
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:22:47 CEST)
Keywords: Baseband, GeoSurf Constellation, Interference, Linear Distortions, Passband, Time Delay, Rain attenuation, Synthetic Storm Technique, ultra–wideband.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: group A rotavirus gastroenteritis; emerging zoonotic viral diseases; leopardus tigrinus and leopardus pardalis; endangered neotropical rain forest felids; rehabilitation of injured or orphaned native wild cats
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:06:31 CEST)
Rotaviruses are highly infectious and typically transmitted by fecal-oral route via in the tropics and leading the cause of diarrheal deaths in children of developing countries, besides causing significant economic impacts like neonatal disease agents of domestic animals. This present report aims to present the clinical and diagnostic findings of two confirmed cases of rotavirus (RV) infection in orphaned Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the first register of the infection by group A rotavirus in these species. Both felids were rescued in the Pará State Amazon Brazil by the IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources), and treated by veterinarians into intensive care ward in a public Environmental Park of Belém city. After the adaptation period to the quarantine, these animals showed non-specific symptoms of acute fulminant gastroenteritis. Rotavirus group A antigen was identified in blood and faecal samples of L. tigrinus analyzed by immunochromatography (ICG) and immunoassay methods (ELISA) at the Virology Laboratory of the Institute Evandro Chagas. The animals died within few days during the clinical exacerbation unresponsive to current treatment, its necropsies and histopathological analysis were performed in the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA). Despite the compatible pathologic findings of rotavirus infection in both animals, the atypical hemorrhagic character was a curious finding, considering the presumed etiology.