ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0130.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: GNSS-R; multipath; radiative transfer equation model; vegetation; simulation
Online: 17 May 2017 (11:02:49 CEST)
GNSS have been widely used in navigation, positioning and timing. Nowadays, the multipath errors previously considered detrimental may be re-utilized for the remote sensing of geophysical parameters (soil moisture, vegetation and snow depth), e.g. GPS- Multipath Reflectometry (GPS-MR). In this paper, a new element describing bistatic scattering properties of vegetation is incorporated into the traditional GPS-MR model. This new element is the first-order radiative transfer equation model. The new forward GPS multipath simulator is able to explicitly link the vegetation parameters with GPS multipath observables (signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), code pseudorange and carrier phase observables). The trunk layer and its corresponding scattering mechanisms are ignored since GPS-MR is not suitable for high forest monitoring due to the coherence of direct and reflected signals. Based on this new model linking the GPS observables (SNR, phase and pseudorange) with detailed vegetation parameters, the developed simulator can present how the GPS signals (L1 and L2 carrier frequencies, C/A, P(Y) and L2C modulations) are transmitted (scattered and absorbed) through vegetation medium and received by GPS receivers. Simulation results show that wheat will decrease the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables, if we increase the vegetation moisture contents or the scatters sizes (stem or leaf), the amplitudes of GPS multipath observables (SNR, phase and code) decrease. Although the Specular-Ground component dominates the total specular scattering, vegetation covered ground soil moisture has almost no effects on the final multipath signatures. Our simulated results are consistent with published results for environmental parameter detections with GPS-MR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0252.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: radiative heat transfer; radiative exchanges; form factors; aerospace technology sustainability of curved geometries; retrofit of Architectural Heritage
Online: 15 February 2023 (03:25:55 CET)
The exact determination of radiative exchanges between solids and surfaces has been a long sought-for question in heat transfer science. Being the canonical equation that rules such phenomena, a fourfold integral, it is extremely difficult to obtain an accurate solution like a formula or abacus. Over the last thirty years, the author has tried to integrate the canonical expression by sundry procedures and they have published two books and a dozen of articles on the matter, recently by virtue of computational geometry and graphic algorithms as a new way to solve the finite-difference problems that arise on complex geometries. In architectural engineering curved radiant emitters are customary since antiquity, especially in domes and vaults and their oculus, However, a consistent procedure to handle them was not readily available. The principles that are described hereby based on Cabeza-Lainez’ first principle for spherical fragments offer a complete panorama on the manner in which surface sources related or contained in spheres can be interpreted and accounted for without resorting to integration. The main advance is that a variety of unexplained problems of radiative heat transfer, applicable to aerospace engineering, meteorological, architectural and medical sciences can be sorted out as exactly as quickly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0644.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Diversity mapping; Imaging spectroscopy; Leaf traits; Radiative transfer; DART; PROSPECT
Online: 23 April 2021 (13:47:28 CEST)
Optical remote sensing can contribute to biodiversity monitoring and species composition mapping in tropical forests. Inferring ecological information from canopy reflectance is complex and data availability suitable to such a task is limiting, which makes simulation tools particularly important in this context. We explored the capability of the 3D radiative transfer model DART to simulate top of canopy reflectance acquired with airborne imaging spectroscopy in complex tropical forest, and to reproduce spectral dissimilarity within and among species, as well as species discrimination based on spectral information. We focused on two factors contributing to these canopy reflectance properties: the horizontal variability in leaf optical properties (LOP) and the fraction of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPVf). The variability in LOP was induced by changes in leaf pigment content, and defined for each pixel based on a hybrid approach combining radiative transfer modeling and spectral indices. The influence of LOP variability on simulated reflectance was tested by considering variability at species, individual tree crown and pixel level. We incorporated NPVf into simulations following two approaches, either considering NPVf as a part of wood area density in each voxel or using leaf brown pigments. We validated the different scenarios by comparing simulated scenes with experimental airborne imaging spectroscopy using statistical metrics, spectral dissimilarity (within crowns, within species, and among species dissimilarity) and supervised classification for species discrimination. The simulation of NPVf based on leaf brown pigments resulted in the closest match between measured and simulated canopy reflectance. The definition of LOP at pixel level resulted in conservation of the spectral dissimilarity and expected performances for species discrimination. Our simulation framework could contribute to better understand performances for species discrimination and relationship between spectral variations and taxonomic and functional dimensions of biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0062.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery, Machine Learning, Atmospheric Compensation, Autoencoders, Radiative Transfer Modeling
Online: 7 June 2019 (14:45:54 CEST)
The increasing spatial and spectral resolution of hyperspectral imagers yields detailed spectroscopy measurements from both space-based and airborne platforms. Machine learning algorithms have achieved state-of-the-art material classification performance on benchmark hyperspectral data sets; however, these techniques often do not consider varying atmospheric conditions experienced in a real-world detection scenario. To reduce the impact of atmospheric effects in the at-sensor signal, atmospheric compensation must be performed. Radiative Transfer (RT) modeling can generate high-fidelity atmospheric estimates at detailed spectral resolutions, but is often too time-consuming for real-time detection scenarios. This research utilizes machine learning methods to perform dimension reduction on the transmittance, upwelling radiance, and downwelling radiance (TUD) data to create high accuracy atmospheric estimates with lower computational cost than RT modeling. The utility of this approach is investigated using the instrument line shape for the Mako long-wave infrared hyperspectral sensor. This study employs physics-based metrics and loss functions to identify promising dimension reduction techniques. As a result, TUD vectors can be produced in real-time allowing for atmospheric compensation across diverse remote sensing scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1031.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: bound-state equation; one-electron atom; two-electron atom, radiative transitions
Online: 15 August 2023 (03:36:50 CEST)
The invariant mass of free particles is used to derive a bound-state equation for several particle atomic systems at rest. This relativistic-kinematic bound-state equation is applied to the hydrogen and helium atoms. The derived equation has the well-known solutions for the single-electron bound states of the hydrogen atom, and the two-electron states of the helium atom. For the hydrogen atom, existence of the two-particle bound states, for which the electron and the proton kinetic energies are of the same order of magnitude, is predicted. The three-particle bound states with the same feature of the kinetic energies can exist in the helium atom. Radiative operators for processes involving the hydrogen two-particle bound states, are obtained. It is discussed that these new two- and three-particle bound states should be optically inactive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0750.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: forest model; radiative transfer; vegetation indices; individual based; forest reflectance
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:41:12 CEST)
To understand forest dynamics under today’s changing environmental conditions, it is important to analyze the state of forests at large scales. Forest inventories are not available for all regions, so it is important to use other additional sources of information, e.g. remote sensing observations. Increasingly, remotely sensed data based on optical instruments and airborne LIDAR are becoming widely available for forests. There is great potential in analyzing these measurements and gaining an understanding of forests state. In this work, we combine the new generation radiative transfer model mScope with the individual-based forest model FORMIND to generate reflectance spectra for forests. Combining the two models allows us to account for species diversity at different height layers in the forest. We compare the generated reflectances for forest stands in Finland, in the region of North Karelia, with Sentinel-2 measurements. We investigate which level of forest representation gives the best results. For the majority of the forest stands, we generated good reflectances with all levels forest representation compared to the measured reflectance. Good correlations were also found for the vegetation indices (especially NDVI with R²=0.62). This work provides a forward modelling tool for relating forest reflectance to forest characteristics. With this tool it is possible to generate a large set of forest stands with corresponding reflectances. This opens the possibility to understand how reflectance is related to succession and different forest conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Atmospheric path-radiance; change analysis; detail injection modeling; haze; data fusion; normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI); pan-sharpening; radiative transfer; vegetation.
Online: 9 May 2018 (15:11:25 CEST)
Whenever vegetated areas are monitored over time, phenological changes in land cover should be decoupled from changes in acquisition conditions, like atmospheric components, sun and satellite heights, and imaging instrument. This especially holds when the multispectral (MS) bands are sharpened for spatial resolution enhancement by means of a panchromatic (Pan) image of higher resolution, a process referred to as pansharpening. In this paper, we provide evidence that pansharpening of visible/near-infrared (VNIR) bands takes advantage from a correction of the path radiance term introduced by the atmosphere, during the fusion process. This holds whenever the fusion mechanism emulates the radiative transfer model ruling the acquisition of the Earth’s surface from space, that is, for methods exploiting a multiplicative, or contrast-based, injection model of spatial details extracted from the panchromatic (Pan) image into the interpolated multispectral (MS) bands. The path radiance should be estimated and subtracted from each band before the product by Pan is accomplished. Both empirical and model-based estimation techniques of MS path radiances are compared within the framework of optimized algorithms. Simulations carried out on two GeoEye-1 observations of the same agricultural landscape at different dates highlight that the de-hazing of MS before fusion is beneficial for an accurate detection of seasonal changes in the scene, as measured by the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0084.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: mathematics applied to lighting and radiative transfer; configuration factors; computational geometry; parametric design; new solutions for equations of geometric optics; numerical computation of quadruple integrals.
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:05:02 CET)
Several problems of radiative transfer are yet unsolved because of the difficulties of the calculations involved in them, especially if the intervening shapes are geometrically complex. The main goal of our investigation in this domain is to convert the formulas that were previously derived, into a graphical interface based on the projected solid-angle principle. Such procedure is now feasible by virtue of several widely diffused programs for Algorithms Aided Design (AAD). Accuracy and reliability of the process is controlled by means of the analytical software DianaX developed at an earlier stage by the authors. With this new approach the often cumbersome procedure of lighting and thermal exchange calculations can be simplified and made available for the neophyte, with the undeniable advantage of reduced computer time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0258.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: radiative transfer; snow; atmosphere
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:26:56 CEST)
The optical signals detected on multiple satellite platforms over snow surfaces are determined by the optical properties of snow surface and atmosphere. The solution of both direct and inverse problems of an atmosphere – underlying snow system requires simple relationships between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance R and microphysical/optical characteristics of both snow and atmosphere. The task of this paper is to present a simple analytical relationship between the value of R as detected on a satellite with atmosphere/snow properties. Such a relationship can be established using a numerical solution of integro - differential radiative transfer equation (RTE) (Liou, 2022). However, this path is quite complicated and time consuming. The analytical solutions of RTE are needed for the solution of various applied atmospheric and snow optics problems (Cachorro et al., 2022; Mei et al., 2020, 2022; Kokhanovsky, 2021). This is the main driver of this work. To simplify the problem under study we consider the case of Antarctica, where both snow and atmosphere are almost free of pollutants. This work is focused on the simulation of the moderate spectral resolution TOA measurements (1nm or so) and the spectral range 400-1000nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0794.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Casimir friction force, quantum friction force, radiative heating
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:35:34 CEST)
The Casimir–Lifshitz friction force and the heating rates of two metal plates with a narrow vacuum gap between them during nonrelativistic motion of one of them are calculated analytically and numerically within the framework of fluctuation electrodynamics. Changes in material properties are taken into account using the Bloch-Grüneisen and modified Bloch-Grüneisen (with finite residual resistance) resistivity models within the Drude approximation. It is shown that identical plates with the same initial temperature have the same heating rate, determined by the power of the friction force, and the possibility of measuring the friction force from the heating kinetics of nonmagnetic metal plates with temperatures of 1–10 K is substantiated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: dust aerosols; radiative forcing; regional climate; rainfall; RegCM
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:05:00 CEST)
Pre-monsoon dust aerosols over Indian regions are closely linked to the monsoon dynamics and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Past observational studies have shown a decline in dust loading over the Indian landmass potentially caused by changing rainfall patterns over the desert regions. Such changes are expected to have far reaching impact on regional energy balance and monsoon rainfall. Using a regional climate-chemistry model, RegCM4.5 with an updated land module, we have simulated the long-term (2001-2015) changes in dust over the arid and semi-arid dust source regions of the North-Western part of the sub-continent. It is found that the area-averaged dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the arid and semi-arid desert regions has declined by 17% since the start of this millennium. The rainfall over these regions exhibits a positive trend of 0.1 mm day-1year-1 and a net increase of > 50%. The wet deposition is found to be dominant and ~5 fold larger in magnitude over dry deposition and exhibits total changes of ~ 79 % and 48% in the trends in atmospheric dust. As a response, significant change in the surface (11%), top of the atmosphere radiative forcing (7%), and widespread atmospheric cooling are observed in short wave domain of radiation spectrum, over the Northern part of the Indian landmass. Such quantification and long term change studies are necessary for understanding the regional climate change and the water cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0004.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: SPCE; SPP; plasmonics; diamond; bullseye; radiative decay rate
Online: 2 January 2017 (11:07:29 CET)
For distances less 10 nm, a total energy transfer occurs from a quantum emitter to a nearby metallic surface, producing evanescent surface waves that are plasmonic in nature. When investigating a metallic nanohole supported on an optically dense substrate (such as diamond with NV-), the scattering occurred preferentially from the diamond substrate towards the air for dipole distances less 10 nm from the aperture. In addition, an enhancement to the dipole's radiative decay rate was observed when resonance of the aperture matched the emitters wavelength. The relationship between an emitter and a nearby resonant aperture is shown to be that of the resonance energy transfer where the emitter acts as a donor and the hole as an acceptor. In conjunction with the preferential scattering behavior, this has led to the proposed device that operates in transmission mode, eliminating the need for epi-illumination techniques and optically denser than air superstrates in the collection cycle, hence making the design simpler and more suitable for miniaturization. A design criterion for the surface grating is also proposed to improve the performance, where the period of the grating differs significantly from the wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons. Response of the proposed device is further studied with respect to changes in NV's position and its dipolar orientation to identify the crystallographic planes of diamond over which the performance of the device is maximized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1715.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Sun: corona; Sun: magnetic field; instrumentation: polarimeters; radiative transfer
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:32:53 CEST)
Measuring magnetic fields in the inner corona, the interface between the solar chromosphere and outer corona, is of paramount importance if we aim at understanding the energetic transformations taking place there and which is at the origin of processes that lead to coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, and of most of the phenomena relevant to space weather. However, these measurements are more difficult than mere imaging because polarimetry requires differential photometry. The Coronal Magnetograph mission (CMAG) has been designed to map the vector magnetic field, line-of-sight velocities, and plane-of-the-sky velocities of the inner corona with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions from space. This will be achieved through full vector spectropolarimetric observations using a coronal magnetograph as the sole instrument on board a spacecraft, combined with an external occulter installed on another spacecraft. The two spacecraft will maintain a formation flight distance of 430 meters for coronagraphic observations, which requires a 2 m occulter disk radius. The mission will be preferentially located at the Lagrangian L5 point, offering a significant advantage for solar physics and space weather research. Existing ground-based instruments face limitations such as atmospheric turbulence, solar scattered light, and long integration times when performing coronal magnetic field measurements. CMAG overcomes these limitations by performing spectropolarimetric measurements from space with an external occulter and high-image stability maintained over time. It achieves the necessary sensitivity and offers a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcseconds and a temporal resolution of approximately one minute, in its nominal mode, covering the range from 1.02 solar radii to 2.5 radii. CMAG relies on proven European technologies and can be adapted to enhance any other solar mission, offering potential significant advancements in coronal physics and space weather modeling and monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0764.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: GaN; micro-LED; non-radiative recombination; EQE; size effect
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:20:54 CEST)
GaN-based micro-size light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) have a number of appealing and distinctive benefits for display, visible-light communication (VLC), and other novel applications. The smaller size of LEDs affords them the benefits of enhanced current expansion, less self-heating effects, and higher current density bearing capacity. Low external quantum efficiency (EQE) resulting from non-radiative recombination and quantum confined stark effect (QCSE) is the serious barrier for applications of µLEDs. In this work, the reasons for the poor EQE of µLEDs are reviewed, as well as the optimization techniques for improving the EQE of µLEDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: snow remote sensing; cloud screening; atmospheric correction; radiative transfer
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:38:42 CET)
We present the update of the Snow and Ice (SICE) property retrieval algorithm proposed initially by Kokhanovsky et al. (2019). The algorithm is based on the spectral measurements of Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) onboard Sentinel-3 satellites combined with the asymptotic radiative transfer theory valid for weakly absorbing turbid media. The main improvements include the introduction of a new atmospheric correction, retrieval of snow impurity load and properties, retrievals for partially snow-covered ground and also accounting for various thresholds to be used to assess the retrieval quality. The algorithm is available as python and Fortran packages at https://github.com/GEUS-SICE/pySICE. The technique can be applied to various optical sensors (satellite and ground-based) operated in the visible and near infrared regions of electromagnetic spectra.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0266.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: relativistic atomic structure; radiative corrections; quantum electrodynamics; numerical methods
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:31:08 CEST)
Relativistic atomic and molecular structure calculations start from very different premises to quantum electrodynamics (QED). QED predicts radiative corrections that can nly be approximated crudely in today's atomic structure programs. This paper describes rigorous simple algorithms for including accurate vacuum polarization and self-energy corrections in the GRASP programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0002.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: aerosols; dust; direct radiative effects; solar energy; Mediterranean basin
Online: 1 February 2022 (10:58:53 CET)
The direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols are essential for climate, as well as for other societal areas, like the energy sector. The goal of the present study is to exploit the newly devel-oped ModIs Dust AeroSol (MIDAS) dataset for quantifying the direct effects on the downwelling surface solar irradiance (DSSI), induced by the total and dust aerosols amount, under clear-sky conditions and the associated impacts on solar energy for the broader Mediterranean basin, over the period 2003 – 2017. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and dust optical depth (DOD) derived by the MIDAS dataset, along with additional aerosol and dust optical properties and atmospheric variables were used as inputs to radiative transfer modeling to simulate DSSI components. A 15-year climatology of AOD, DOD and of clear-sky Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) was derived. The spatial and temporal variability of the aerosol and dust effects on the different DSSI components was assessed. Aerosol attenuation of annual GHI and DNI range from 1-13% and 5-47%, respectively. Significant attenuation by dust 2-10% and 9-37% was found over North Africa and the Middle East, contributing to 45-90% of the total aero-sol effects. The mean GHI and DNI attenuation during extreme dust episodes reached values up to 12% and 44%, respectively, for different areas. After 2008 a decline of aerosol effects on DSSI was found, attributed mainly to the dust component. Sensitivity analysis using different AOD/DOD inputs from Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) reanalysis dataset, revealed CAMS underestimation of aerosol and dust radiative effects compared to MIDAS, due to slight AOD and stronger DOD underestimation, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0100.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Dust storm; Aerosols; Satellite remote sensing; Radiative forcing; Thermodynamics
Online: 5 July 2021 (13:16:28 CEST)
This paper investigates the characteristics and impact of a major Saharan dust storm during June 14th -19th 2020 to atmospheric radiative and thermodynamics properties over the Atlantic Ocean. The event witnessed the highest ever aerosol optical depth (close to 2 during the peak of the storm) for June since 2002. The satellites and high-resolution model reanalysis products well captured the origin, spread and the effects of the dust storm. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) profiles, lower angstrom exponent values (~ 0.12) and higher aerosol index value (> 4) tracked the presence of elevated dust. It was found that the dust AOD was as much as 250-300% higher than their climatology resulting in an atmospheric radiative forcing ~200% larger. As a result, elevated warming ( 8-16 %) was observed, followed by a drop in relative humidity(2-4%) in the atmospheric column, as evidenced by both in-situ and satellite measurements. Quantifications such as these for extreme dust events provide significant insights that may help in understanding their climate effects, including improvements to dust simulations using chemistry-climate models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0183.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: aerosols; CAMS; NWP; ALADIN-HIRLAM; MUSC; direct radiative effect
Online: 17 January 2020 (09:53:01 CET)
The direct radiative effect of aerosols is taken into account in many limited area numerical weather prediction models using wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depths of a range of aerosol species. We study the impact of aerosol distribution and optical properties on radiative transfer, based on climatological and more realistic near real-time aerosol data. Sensitivity tests were carried out using the single column version of the ALADIN-HIRLAM numerical weather prediction system, set up to use the HLRADIA broadband radiation scheme. The tests were restricted to clear-sky cases to avoid the complication of cloud-radiation-aerosol interactions. The largest differences in radiative fluxes and heating rates were found to be due to different aerosol loads. When the loads are large, the radiative fluxes and heating rates are sensitive to the aerosol inherent optical properties and vertical distribution of the aerosol species. Impacts of aerosols on shortwave radiation dominate longwave impacts. Sensitivity experiments indicated the important effects of highly absorbing black carbon aerosols and strongly scattering desert dust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0108.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: AGN; jets; polarisation; linear; circular; radio; polarised radiative transfer
Online: 31 August 2017 (15:25:30 CEST)
The polarised emission from AGN jets carries information about the physical conditions at the emitting plasma elements while its temporal evolution probes the physical processes that introduce variability and dynamically modify the local conditions. Here we present the analysis of multi-frequency radio linear and circular polarisation datasets with the aim to exactly quantify the conditions in blazar jets. Our analysis includes both the careful treatment of observational datasets and numerical modelling for the reproduction of synthetic polarisation curves that can be compared to the observed ones. In our approach the variability is attributed to traveling shocks. The emission from the cells of our jet model is computed with radiative transfer of all Stokes parameters. The model also accounts for Faraday effects which map the low-energy particle populations. We present two extreme cases in terms of the significance of Faraday conversion in the production of circular polarisation. As we show, in both regimes the model gives realistic reproduction of the observed emission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0113.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; daylighting simulation; radiative exchanges; design strategies; healthy architecture
Online: 12 April 2022 (12:24:36 CEST)
The beneficial effects of solar radiation on human health are well documented. One necessary mechanism triggers the production of vitamin D whose insufficiency has been linked to a variety of disorders like diabetes, hypertension and more recently amyloidosis and Alzheimer disease. However, there are few architectural designs capable on ensuring adequate provision of solar radiation inside buildings. Conventional fenestration is not sufficient to provide for significant doses of sunlight even to prevent seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this paper we discuss the effect of new design alternatives for skylights, especially in the refurbishment of obsolete facilities. After such complex retrofit is executed, we have analyzed the performance of a building in warm and sunny climates as is the case of southern Spain. It has been considered as a priority the study of the factors that relate sunlight and energy, as well as, to a certain extent, other aspects like ventilation and insulation. Many architectural designs are presented as correct if the thermal requirements alone are met, even at the risk of later energy waste in lighting devices and visual or physical discomfort. On the other hand, large glazed areas allow more daylight into a space, but they may also allow excessive heat gains or losses which increase the air-conditioning cooling or heating load. To avoid these problems, we have considered the combined effect of daylight and energy from the beginning of the skylight design-process. A daylighting software based on configuration factors that we have apply in former researches to study the problems of direct sun over architectural structures have been used. This question cannot be treated adequately with conventional programs for overcast skies. The skylights have already been constructed and on-site measurements in the offices have been taken to complement the computer simulations data. The results show that it is possible to achieve energy saving and high radiation levels in winter without increasing heat loads during the summer. All this is considered beneficial to improve the condition of users with cognitive diseases as Alzheimer’s disease by virtue of adapted spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0402.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Solar Irradiance; SSA; Ultraviolet; Aerosols; Radiative Transfer; Absorption; UVA; UVB;
Online: 25 June 2018 (17:02:41 CEST)
The Absorbing/scattering nature of aerosols affects the total radiative forcing and this absorption to total extinction ratio is quantified by single scattering albedo (SSA). Effect of SSA in the Ultraviolet (UV) irradiance is less studied and limited measurements are available. SSA retrieved at Athens, Greece during 2009-2014 from Ultraviolet Multifilter Radiometer (UVMFR) at 332 and 368 nm, were used to calculate incoming UV irradiance, alongside with ones from AERONET at visible wavelengths, from OMI satellite at 342.5 nm and from AEROCOM climatological database at 300 nm. UVA and UVB irradiances were estimated using a Radiative Transfer Model and we found that relative differences could be as high as 20%, while average relative differences varied from 2% to 8.7 % for the whole experimental period. Both UVA and UVB drop by a rate of ~12% for 0.05 aerosol absorption optical depth compared to ones estimated using SSA at visible range. Brewer irradiance measurements at 324nm were used to validate simulated irradiances and a better agreement was found when UVMFR SSAs were used with an average difference of 0.86%, while when using visible or climatological input, relative differences were estimated +4.91 and +4.15% accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0242.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: phytoplankton; PFT; ocean colour; satellite radiometry; radiative transfer; optical modelling
Online: 14 June 2018 (16:36:46 CEST)
There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in phytoplankton community dynamics as the growing environmental problems of water quality (particularly eutrophication) and climate change demand attention. This has led to a pressing need for improved biophysical and causal understanding of Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) optical signals, in order that satellite radiometry may be used to detect ecologically relevant phytoplankton assemblage changes. This understanding can best be achieved with biophysically and biogeochemically consistent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models, as it is only via modelling that phytoplankton assemblage characteristics can be examined systematically in relation to the bulk optical waterleaving signal. The Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model is used here to investigate the source and magnitude of size- and pigment- driven PFT signals in the water-leaving reflectance, as well as the potential to detect these using satellite radiometry. This model places emphasis on explicit biophysical modelling of the phytoplankton population as a holistic determinant of IOPs, and a distinctive attribute is its comprehensive handling of the spectral and angular character of phytoplankton scattering. Selected case studies and sensitivity analyses reveal that phytoplankton spectral scattering is the primary driver of the PFT-related signal. Key findings are that the backscattering-driven signal in the 520 to 600 nm region is the critical PFT identifier at marginal biomass, and that while PFT information does appear at blue and red wavelengths, it is compromised by biomass/gelbstoff ambiguity in the blue and low signal in the red, due primarily to absorption by water. These findings are hoped to provide considerable insight into the next generation of PFT algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0960.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: snow remote sensing; radiative transfer; light scattering; ice grain size; snow albedo
Online: 26 April 2023 (05:01:24 CEST)
The paper presents the first retrievals of clean snow properties using spaceborne hyperspectral The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) observations. The location close to the Dome C in Antarctica has been selected. At this location the atmospheric effects except molecular light scattering and absorption are weak and the simplified atmospheric correction scheme can be applied. The ice grain size, snow specific surface area and snow spectral and broadband albedos have been retrieved using single view EnMAP measurements. In addition, we propose the technique to retrieve trace gas concentrations (e.g., water vapor, ozone) from EnMAP observations over the snow surfaces. Close correspondence of satellite and ground measured parameters has been found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0085.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: The Sun; Solar Flare; Solar Core; Solar Interior layers; Radiative Zone; Convection Zone
Online: 5 August 2022 (14:59:45 CEST)
The Sun is a huge gaseous body. However, we cannot observe events in the inner Sun due to the convection zone opacity according to previous models. Therefore, the flares originate from the front surface of the Sun. But the current study relied on the distance distribution of X-Ray solar flares, which concluded that the inner layers have much lower opacity than expected. It is even less than what was expected by the latest models based on helioseismology. This means that the flares may originate from the solar interior or solar core, and perhaps from the backside surface, and even appear to us from the frontside surface. Which the re-estimate and correct the currently listed solar flare’s location is needed. Additionally, the flare’s distance illustrations the solar interior layers and appears their boundaries from the core to the photosphere. This method allows us to monitor the variation of the core’s radius with time. The model of the flare’s distance has been developed in current study. But this needs to redevelopment after re-estimating the solar flares locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0248.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: tandem; solar cell; multi-junction; performance ratio; spectrum; modeling; radiative coupling; luminescence coupling
Online: 14 October 2019 (09:56:10 CEST)
The highest efficiency solar cell won in the efficiency race does not always give the most excellent annual energy yield in the real world solar condition that the spectrum is ever-changing. The study of the radiative coupling of the concentrator solar cells implied that the efficiency could increase by the recycle of the radiative recombination generated by the surplus current in upper junction. Such configuration is called by a super-multi-junction cell. We expanded the model in the concentrator solar cell to non-concentrating installation. It was shown that this super-multi-junction cell configuration was found robust and can keep the maximum potential efficiency (50 % in realistic spectrum fluctuation) up to 10 junctions. The super-multi-junction cell is also robust in the bandgap engineering of each junction. Therefore, the future multi-junction may not be needed to tune the bandgap for matching the standard solar spectrum, as well as relying upon artificial technologies like ELO (Epitaxial lift-off), wafer-bonding, mechanical-stacking, and reverse-growth, but merely uses up-right and lattice-matching growth technologies. We have two challenging techniques; one is the optical cap layer that may be the directional photon coupling layer in the application of the photonics technologies, and another is the high-quality epitaxial growth with almost 100 % of the radiative efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0397.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: aerosol profile; aerosol extinction coefficient; aerosol radiative effects; spectral solar radiation; solar radiation profile
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:52:00 CET)
Default aerosol extinction coefficient profiles are commonly used instead of measured profiles in radiative transfer modelling, increasing the uncertainties in the simulations. The present study aims to determine the magnitude of these uncertainties and contribute towards the understanding of the complex interactions between aerosols and solar radiation. Default, artificial and measured profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient are used to simulate the profiles of different radiometric quantities in the atmosphere for different surface, atmospheric, and aerosol properties and for four spectral bands: ultraviolet-B, ultraviolet-A, visible, and near infrared. Case studies are performed over different areas in Europe and North Africa. Analysis of the results shows that under cloudless-skies, changing the altitude of an artificial aerosol layer has minor impact on the levels of shortwave radiation at the top and the bottom of the atmosphere, even for high aerosol loads. Differences up to 30% were however detected for individual spectral bands. Using measured instead of default profiles for the simulations leads to more significant differences in the atmosphere, which become very large during dust episodes (10 – 60% for actinic flux at altitudes between 1 and 2 km, and up to 15 K/day for heating rates depending on site and solar elevation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Selective Solar Absorber; refractive index; high vacuum flat panels; thermal conversion efficiency; radiative properties
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:35:21 CEST)
Multilayer absorbers based on Cr2O3 and Cr, designed to improve the Solar-to-thermal conversion efficiency at mid temperatures in high vacuum flat thermal panel, are fabricated via sputtering deposition on bulk copper substrates and characterized by thermal and optical analysis. The refractive index of the single layers has been measured and used to estimate absorber thermal efficiency at the operating temperatures. Multilayers have been produced via sputtering deposition on bulk copper substrates. The absorber multilayers can be 10% more efficient than the commercial alternative at 250 °C operating temperatures, reaching 380 °C stagnation temperature without Sun concentration. The thermal stability has been checked at temperature of 400 °C in vacuum for four hours. High vacuum flat thermal collectors, equipped with the produced selective solar absorbers can obtain unprecedented performances and can give important contribution to the energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy for efficient heat production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC); radiative transfer equation solver; optical path loss; tropical cyclone
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:01:08 CEST)
Underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) have attracted considerable attention in recent years as an alternative means for acoustic communication. However, optical path loss of light propagation from attenuation is large due to absorption and scattering in various water conditions. Identification of environmental effects especially tropical storms on underwater optical path loss is the key to the success of using optics for UWOC. Underwater inherent optical properties (IOPs) such as the beam attenuation coefficient for 470 nm light in the western North Pacific Ocean were measured from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office sea gliders with being deployed after Super Typhoon Guchol (7-20 June 2012)‘s passage during 25-30 June 2012 and no any typhoon passage during 9 January – 28 February 2014. The observed two sets (with and without super typhoon) of IOPs are taken as input into a recently developed Radiative Transfer Equation solver. The simulated normalized received powers for the two durations show large impact of typhoon passage on UWOC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0073.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: land surface temperature; thermal infrared; calibration; generalized split-window; mono-window; database; radiative transfer
Online: 16 September 2016 (13:12:09 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is routinely retrieved from remote sensing instruments using semi-empirical relationships between top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances and LST, using ancillary data such as total column water vapor or emissivity. These algorithms are calibrated using a set of forward radiative transfer simulations that return the TOA radiances given the LST and the thermodynamic profiles. The simulations are done in order to cover a wide range of surface and atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries. This work analyses calibration strategies, considering some of the most critical factors that need to be taken into account when building a calibration dataset, covering the full dynamic range of relevant variables. A sensitivity analysis of split-windows and single channel algorithms revealed that selecting a set of atmospheric profiles that spans the full range of surface temperatures and total column water vapor combinations that are physically possible seems beneficial for the quality of the regression model. However, the calibration is extremely sensitive to the low-level structure of the atmosphere indicating that the presence of atmospheric boundary layer features such as temperature inversions or strong vertical gradients of thermodynamic properties may affect LST retrievals in a non-trivial way. This article describes the criteria established in the EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis – Satellite Application Facility to calibrate its LST algorithms applied both for current and forthcoming sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0293.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Black carbon; Aethalometer; Black summer wildfires 2019-2020; Radiative forcing; Aerosol direct effect; Aerosol indirect effect
Online: 17 February 2023 (03:17:15 CET)
The emission of black carbon (BC) particles, which cause atmospheric warming by affecting radiation budget in the atmosphere, is the result of an incomplete combustion process of organic materials. The recent wildfire event during the summer 2019-2020 in South-Eastern Australia was unprecedented in scale. The wildfires lasted for nearly 3 months over large areas of the two most populated states of New South Wales and Victoria. This study on the emission and dispersion of BC emitted from the biomass burnings of the wildfires using the Weather Research Forecast – Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is aimed to determine the extent of the BC spatial dispersion and ground concentration distribution and the effect of BC on air quality and radiative transfer at the top of the atmosphere, the atmosphere and on the ground. The predicted aerosol concentration and AOD are compared with the observed data from the New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment (DPE) aethalometer and air quality network and from remote sensing data. The BC concentration as predicted from WRF-Chem model is in general less than the observed data as measured from the aethalometer monitoring network, but the spatial pattern corresponds well, and the correlation is relatively high. The total BC emission into the atmosphere during the event and the effect on radiation budget were also estimated. This study shows that the summer 2019-2020 wildfires affect not only the air quality and health impact on the east coast of Australia but also short-term weather in the region via aerosol interactions with radiation and cloud.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0664.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: radiative transfer equation; improved mono-window; generalized single-channel; split-window; LANDSAT-8; urban land surface temperature
Online: 27 September 2020 (04:59:36 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation has been studied for several purposes, while the optimal method of estimating the LST has not been criticized yet. This research explores the optimum method in Land Surface Temperature (LST) estimation using LANDSAT-8 imagery data. Four different LST retrieval approaches, the Radiative Transfer Equation-based method (RTE), the Improved Mono-Window method (IMW), the Generalized Single-Channel method (GSC), and the Split-Window algorithm (SW), were calculated to present the LSTs over Buriram Town Municipality, Thailand. The calculated LSTs from these four methods were compared with the ground-based temperature data, taken on the same date and time of the employed LANDSAT-8 images. For this reason, the optimum method of the LST calculation was justified by considering the lowest normalized root means square error (NRMSE) values. As a result, the SW algorithm presents an optimum method in LST estimation. Regarding the SW, this algorithm requires not only the atmospheric profiles during satellite acquisition but also the retrieval of several coefficients. Besides, the LST retrieval method based on the SW algorithm is sensitive to water vapor content and coefficients. Although the SW algorithm is an optimum method explored in this study, it is emphasized that the adjustable values of coefficient response to the atmospheric state may be recommended. With these conditions, the SW algorithm can generate the land-surface temperature over the mixed land-use and land cover on the LANDSAT-8 images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0555.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: internal year-to-year variability; anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects; decadal trend distributions; annual mean map with significance tests
Online: 8 November 2023 (13:56:53 CET)
The model internal year-to-year variability (hereafter, internal variability) is a significant source of uncertainty when estimating anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF). In this study, we investigate the impact of internal variability using large ensemble simulations (600 years in total) with the same climate model under prescribed anthropogenic aerosol forcings. A comparison of the magnitudes (i.e., standard deviation, Std) of these influences confirms that internal variability has negligible impacts on the instantaneous radiative forcing (RF) diagnosed by double radiation calls but has considerable impacts on estimating ERF through rapid adjustments (ADJ). Approximately half of the model grids exhibit strong internal variability influence on ERF (Std > 5 W m−2). These strong internal variabilities lead to a 50% probability that 30-year linear change can reach 2 W m−2, and 10-year linear change can reach 4 W m−2. A 50-year simulation can provide a relatively stable annual mean map of ERF (ERF = ADJ + RF), but it fails for ADJ. The statistically significant areas in the annual mean maps of both ERF and ADJ from a 10-year simulation exhibit instability with evident chaotic features. These analyses contribute to the setup of comparative experiments and a more comprehensive understanding of the modeled anthropogenic aerosol ERF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0331.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Snow surface albedo, Radiative Forcing, Light-absorbing particles in snow, remote sensing, Black Carbon, Chilean Central Andes Mountains.
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:39:08 CEST)
Snow-covered regions are the main source of reflection of incident shortwave radiation (ISR) on Earth’s surface. The deposition of light-absorbing particles (LAPs) on these regions increases the capacity of snow to absorb ISR and decreases surface snow albedo (SSA), which intensifies the radiative forcing leading to accelerated snowmelt and modifications of the hydrologic cycle. In this work we investigate changes in SSA and radiative forcing (RF) induced by LAPs in the Upper Aconcagua River Basin (Chilean central Andes) using remote sensing satellite data (MODIS), in-situ spectral SSA measurements, and the ISR (Chilean Solar Explorer platform) during the austral-winter months (May to August) for the 2004-2016 period. To estimate the changes in SSA and RF, we define two spectral ranges: i) an enclosed range (Ecr) between 841-876 nm, which isolates effects of Black-Carbon, an important LAP derived from anthropogenic activities, and ii) a broadband range (Bbr) between 300-2500 nm. Our results show that percent variations in SSA in the Ecr are higher than in the Bbr, regardless of the total amount of radiation received, which may be attributed to the presence of LAPs as these particles have a greater impact on SSA at wavelengths in the Ecr band than in the Bbr band.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0554.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Remote Sensing; Ocean Colour; Retrievals; Fluorescence; Optical Properties; Satellite; Spectral; Radiative Transfer; optically complex waters; chlorophyll; absorption; scattering
Online: 23 September 2020 (16:39:53 CEST)
The retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is greatly beneficial to studies of marine phytoplankton biomass, physiology, and composition and is required for user applications and services. Customarily phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence is determined from satellite measurements through a fluorescence line-height algorithm using three bands around 680 nm. We propose here a modified retrieval, making use of all available bands in the relevant wavelength range with the goal to improve the effectiveness of the algorithm in optically complex waters. For the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) we quantify a Fluorescence Peak Height from fitting a Gaussian function and related terms into the top-of-atmosphere reflectance bands between 650 and 750 nm. This algorithm retrieves, what we call Fluorescence Peak Height from fitting a Gaussian function upon other terms to top-of-atmosphere reflectance bands between 650 and 750 nm. This approach is applicable to Level-1 and Level-2 data. We find a good correlation of the retrieved fluorescence product to global in-situ chlorophyll measurements, as well as a consistent relation between chlorophyll concentration and fluorescence from radiative transfer modelling and OLCI/in-situ comparison. The algorithm is applicable to complex waters without needing an atmospheric correction and vicarious calibration and features an inherent correction of small spectral shifts, as required for OLCI measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1702.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Triangular geometry. Radiative Heat Transfer; Form Factor Calculation Tools; Radiant interchanges. Design of radiators. Assessment and construction of LED emitters.
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:02:38 CEST)
Triangles are an ever present feature in nature, which the building construction industry duly echoes. However, an exact expression intended to offer the radiant field due to any triangle in an upright or inclined position had not been identified by previous research. In this case, the author has been able to solve by direct integration, the canonical expression of radiative transfer. This result alone confers a myriad of possibilities that had been inconceivable before, for studying in detail the three-dimensional heat transfer behavior of volumes and figures in which triangles do manifest, such as fins, windows, roof-gables and louvers of various kinds. Typically, shading devices, when tilted, give rise in their extremes to rhomboidal shapes which were difficult to take into account or had to be subject to discretization and subsequent Monte Carlo methods in order to perform an approximate calculation of their emission. This implied a lengthy and inexact procedure that induced many errors and consumed computing time. We can now avoid all the former downsides due to the advances hereby presented. As the novel expression can be converted into an algorithm it will be advantageously employed for simulation. This significant finding dovetails in the intricate puzzle of radiated heat and we believe that their consequences will greatly affect the conception and design of HVAC devices, aircraft manufacturing and specifically building or lighting industries among others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1863.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: emissions accounting; LULUCF; deforestation; avoided deforestation; carbon offsets; effective radiative forcing; carbon opportunity cost; emission sectors; animal agriculture; fossil fuel emissions.
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:46:56 CET)
Conventional greenhouse accounting inadequately describes land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) emissions, cooling emissions, and sequestration potential. As we enter the age of drawdown, we propose an accounting framework that offers greater consistency and transparency. By unfolding net accounting of LULUCF CO2 emissions; aggregating biosphere sinks; accounting for all emissions (heating and cooling); com-paring sectors with emissions-based Effective Radiative Forcing (ERF) rather than global warming potential; and including drawdown potential of land use carbon opportunity cost (COC), this reveals fresh insight into sector contributions and mitigation potential. Consistent gross emissions reporting of LULUCF CO2 emissions finds these to be at least 3.5 times greater than conventionally understood. Consolidating natural sequestration on ‘managed’ and ‘intact’ land, we find that since 1750 vegetation and the oceans have removed from the atmosphere an amount equivalent to 2.4 times cumulative fossil fuel CO2 emissions, demonstrating the immense drawdown potential of the biosphere. This accounting places deforestation (responsible for 77% of LULUCF emissions) as the main source of historic CO2 emissions, and attributes drawdown potential COC to sectors. The most extensive land use sector, animal agriculture, was found to have contributed the greatest warming (52% of net ERF since 1750) and to offer the greatest drawdown potential COC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: signal-to-noise ratio; nighttime light imaging; time sequence images; Luojia 1-01; radiative transfer model; radiometric calibration; in-orbit test
Online: 9 January 2019 (15:43:53 CET)
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is an important index to evaluate radiation performance and image quality of optical imaging systems under low illumination background. Under the nighttime lighting condition, the illumination of remote sensing objects is low and varies greatly, usually ranging from several lux to tens of thousands of lux. Nighttime light remote sensing imaging requires high sensitivity and large dynamic range of detectors. Luojia 1-01 is the first professional nighttime light remote sensing satellite in the world. In this paper, we took the nighttime light remote sensing camera carried on the satellite as research object, proposed an in-orbit SNR test method based on time series images to overcome the problem of low spatial resolution. We first analyzed the process of luminous flux transmission between objects and satellite and established a radiative transfer model. By combining the parameters of large relative aperture optical system and high sensitivity CMOS device, we established SNR model and specially analyzed the effect of exposure time and quantization bits on SNR. Finally we used the proposed in-orbit test method to calculate SNR of lighting images acquired by satellite. And the measured result is in good agreement with the model predicted data. Under the condition of 10lx illumination, the SNR of typical objects can reach 27.02dB, which is much better than the requirement of 20dB for engineering application.