ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:47:36 CET)
Recent reports have it that over 85\% of data breaches are still caused by the human element, of which healthcare is one of the suitable organizations mostly targeted by cybercriminals. The work of healthcare staff is often associated with high workloads, high emergency cases, and a broad range of psychological, social, and cultural factors. The significance of these factors could undermine conscious care information security (IS) practice leading to serious violations. This study comprehensively examined the correlation between the psycho-social-cultural factors, work factors with IS and privacy behaviour in a hospital that has fully adopted electronic health records (EHR) management system. The findings are to facilitate the decision-making process towards improving the cyber-security practice in healthcare. A quantitative approach was adopted where we collected responses from 212 healthcare staff through an online questionnaire survey. A broad range of constructs was selected from psychological, social, cultural perception and work factors based on earlier review work. These were therefore related to some security practices, to assess the IS knowledge, attitude and behaviour gaps among healthcare staff in a comprehensive way. From the study, IS self-reported conscious care behaviour (ISCCB) risk was relatively higher as compared to information security knowledge (ISK) risks and information security attitude (ISA) risk. Furthermore, the study revealed that work emergency has a positive correlation with ISCCB (r=1.95, p-value =0.001) risk. Conscientiousness also had positive correlation with ISCCB risk (r=0.157, p-value=0.05) however agreeableness negatively correlated with ISK risk (r=-0.166, p-value =0.05), and ISA risk (r=-0.140, p-value =0.05). Based on these findings, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation methods combined with cutting-edge technologies can be explored to discourage IS risks behaviours while enhancing conscious care security practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Suicide; questionnaire; validity; reliability
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:17:37 CET)
Objective: Our goal is to develop an online questionnaire to survey the prevalence of suicidal behavior. Methods: We developed a questionnaire with 51 variables and proceeded with validations. Validations were performed using face validity, content validity, and construct validity. Reliability was performed by test-rest. Results: The face validity was 1.0 and the content validity was 0.91. The exploratory factor analysis got KMO = 0.86 and extracted one principal factor. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates RMSEA= 0.000 and CFI=1.000. The test-retest had an intraclass correlated coefficient of 0.98. Conclusion: The adequate development questionnaire was validated, and we have an instrument to survey suicide behaviors in the pandemic time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0326.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: violence; young athletes; sport; self-report; questionnaire; magnitude
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:21:37 CEST)
Initiatives to safeguard athletes from interpersonal violence (IV) are rapidly growing. In Belgium, the knowledge on the magnitude of IV in sport is based on one retrospective prevalence study from 2016 (n=2.043 adults), who participated in organized sport before 18 years. Data on victimization rates in current youth sport populations are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of IV in a sample of 769 athletes (13-21 years old), using the Violence Towards Athletes Questionnaire (VTAQ). All types of IV are prevalent in this sample, ranging from 27% (sexual violence) to 79% (psychological violence and neglect). Boys reported significantly more physical violence, while girls reported significantly more sexual violence. IV perpetrated by peer athletes was reported to the same degree as IV perpetrated by a coach (70%), while IV perpetrated by a parent in the context of sport was somewhat less common, but still prevalent (48%). These findings, including factors associated with elevated exposure rates, can serve as a baseline measurement to monitor and evaluate current and future safeguarding interventions in Belgian sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: university students; electronic cigarettes (ECs); questionnaire survey; Slovakia
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:37:40 CET)
Young adults are more likely to have experimented with electronic cigarettes (EC) and underestimate their risks. The on-line survey adapted from American Survey on Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products included questions about the personal use of EC, perceptions about the harms and their role in disease causation, education and cessation training and practices related to classical cigarettes (CC), electronic cigarettes (EC) and alternative tobacco products (ATP). The questionnaire filled in 577 medical students (71.9% women) from Comenius University in Bratislava, the average age was 23±2yrs. The sample comprised of 486 (84.2%) Slovak and 91 (15.8%) foreign students; 385 were (66.7%) non-smokers, 111 (19.3%) ex-smokers and 81 (14 %) current smokers. EC currently use 13.5 % medical students, more males than females (22.2% vs 10.12%; OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.55−4.13), more foreign students than Slovak students (24.2% vs 11.52; OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41−4.26), more smokers of classical cigarettes than non-smokers (46.9% vs 8.06%; OR 10.07, 95% CI 5.85−17.34). EC seems to be less harmful to 59.97 % students, mostly in the age groups ≤ 24 (61.76% vs 51.49%; OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03−2.07), 41.25% of students consider EC to be less addictive, 55.6% think they do not get enough education on EC during their medical study. The results show the high consumption of tobacco products and the lack of knowledge and awareness among medical students.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Validation; communication; questionnaire; healthcare attention; patient satisfaction; nursing.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:40:45 CET)
Background: Healthcare attention is sometimes considered purely technical, but communication has proven to be closely related to clinical results and patient satisfaction. Therefore, evaluation of communication in the scope of healthcare is a priority. The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt, if necessary, the Spanish version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) in a sample of nursing professionals. (2) Methods: The sample was made up of 2313 nursing professionals selected at random from various medical centers in Spain, and is therefore a sample actively employed at the time data were acquired. We started out from the Communication Style Inventory, a questionnaire for evaluating the predominance of certain individual communication behaviors on six scales (expressiveness, preciseness, verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality and impression manipulativeness). (3) Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the model proposed showed god fit indices. The reliability of the model shown by the Cronbach’s alpha of α=.81 was adequate, and so was single-level and aggregate consistency. Finally, in the analysis of variance by type of contract, configural, metric and scalar invariance was acceptable, but not strict invariance. (4) Conclusions: This instrument progresses in measuring non-technical attributes, such as communication styles, in nursing personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0564.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: orthographic literacy; questionnaire research; Croatian orthography; (de)standardisation
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:05:51 CEST)
This paper discusses the impact of orthographic manuals on the state of literacy, i.e. the relation of orthographic literacy and orthographic standardisation. The established hypothesis claims that frequent changes of orthographic rules during the pupils’ primary and secondary education do not have any considerable impact on their orthographic habits. In other words, the quantity of orthographic mistakes observed during a longer period of time and in conditions of changed orthographic rules would not show significant oscillations in their spelling. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a questionnaire was conducted encompassing 41 tests among 526 students of a technical study programme during four consecutive academic years, pursuant to whose results a writing uniformity index and a categorisation of orthographic controversy into six classes is established. The Croatian language has been selected for the observation due to multiple orthographic changes in the last 30 years in the three major orthographic points: writing of the covered r, writing of d and t in front of c and č in declination of words ending in -tak, -tac, -dak and -dac, and the issue of compound or separate spelling of the negation particle and the auxiliary biti (to be). Moreover, the paper methodologically and quantitatively establishes criteria according to which the second established hypothesis on evolutionary orthographic literacy can be confirmed. The conclusions are expected to be able to contribute to the better understanding of orthographic planning and application of orthographic norms in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: systems thinking; privacy; questionnaire reliability; skills evaluation; systems engineers
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:19:52 CET)
Systems thinking is a valuable skill that may be required for an individual to be promoted in the business arena to managerial or leading positions. Thus, assessing systems thinking skills is an essential transaction for decision-makers in the organization as a preceding step to the promotion decision. One of the well-known and validated tools for this task is a questionnaire. However, because some of the questions invade the employee / candidate’s privacy, the answer may be biased. In this paper, we consider this potential bias, a phenomenon that is becoming more and more significant as privacy concerns and awareness continuously increase in the modern digital world. We propose a formal methodology to optimize the questionnaire based on the privacy sensitivity of each question, thereby providing a more reliable assessment. We conducted an empirical study (n=142), and showed that a systems skills questionnaire can be enhanced. This research has a significant contribution to improving the systems skills assessment process in particular, and also lays the foundations for improving the evaluation of other skills / traits.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0512.v1
Subject: Keywords: MSDs; exoskeleton; upper limb assistance; EMG; balance test; subjective questionnaire
Online: 26 November 2021 (18:09:02 CET)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Hapo ms, a passive upper limbs exoskeleton developed to assist workers for tasks with arms in front of the body. Twelve participants had to perform a static task, a manual handling task and a load carrying task two times: with and without the exoskeleton. In all cases subjective (perceived effort in arm and back areas, comfort) and objective (muscular activity, postural balance) criteria were evaluated. Results have shown a decrease in anterior deltoid (-12 to -18% depending of the task) and in biceps brachii (-19% to -33% depending of the task) muscular activity. No significant difference was pointed out in back muscle and postural balance was not significantly perturbed due to the wear of the exoskeleton. Finally, perceived effort reduction was observed during the three tasks (except in back area for task 1). To conclude, the Hapo ms seems well adapted to assist upper arms during tasks with arms in front of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse
Online: 5 October 2021 (10:57:49 CEST)
There is a need to assess the knowledge of healthcare providers on the use of maternal analgesics during lactation, while a valid instrument is not yet available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire on the knowledge of analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone) during lactation, using a prospective, stepwise approach. To generate a pool of item subgroups, literature was assessed as first step. This preliminary version was subsequently reviewed in two focus groups [midwives (n=4), pediatric nurses (n=6)], followed by an expert panel (n=7, 2 rounds) to confirm content validity [item-level and scale content validity]. This resulted in a instrument consisting of 33 questions, and 5 clincial case descriptions specific for both disciplines. Based on known-groups validity between midwives and pediatric nurses (assuming an a priori difference related to their curricula), high construct validity was subsequently demonstrated in a pilot e-survey (86 midwives, 73 pediatric nurses). We therefore conclude that an instrument to assess knowledge on lactation-related exposure to analgesics was generated, that can be further developed and validated. Furthermore, pilot findings suggest suboptimal knowledge for both professions, so that adaptations in their curricula and postgraduate training are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; cystitis; patient-reported outcome; questionnaire; women
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:02:05 CEST)
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a patient self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis and patient-reported outcome (PRO) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC). The aim of the current study (part II) was the clinical validation of the Greek ACSS questionnaire. After linguistic validation according to internationally accepted guidelines and cognitive assessment (part I), the clinical validation was performed after ethical approval by using the Greek ACSS study version in 92 evaluable female participants including 53 patients with symptoms suspicious of AC and 39 controls. The clinical outcome using the ACSS questionnaire at different time points after the start of treatment was demonstrated as well. The age (mean±SD) of the 53 patients (44.7±17.0) and 39 controls (49.3±15.9) and their additional conditions at baseline visits, such as menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes mellitus, were comparable. There was, however, a significant difference (p<0.001) between patients and controls at baseline visit regarding sum score of the ACSS domains, such as typical symptoms and quality of life. The clinical outcome of up to 7 days showed a fast reduction of the symptom scores and improvement of quality of life. The optimal thresholds for the patient-reported outcome of successful therapy could be established. The linguistically and clinically validated Greek ACSS questionnaire can now be used for clinical or epidemiological studies and also for patient’s self-diagnosis of AC and as a PRO measure tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0429.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Mixed forests; Questionnaire Survey; Ecosystem Services; Stepwise Regression; Climate Change
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:48:31 CEST)
Scientific studies had shown that mixed forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provide higher ecosystem services than monospecific forests. Mixed forests are known for their high resilience to climate change impacts and superior biodiversity compared to monospecific forests. In many countries, promotion of mixed forests in forest management is becoming a government policy since they can contribute to fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nation, respectively Goal 13 and 15. However, not much is known about public perceptions on mixed forests compared to monoculture forests. Our study on ecosystem services provided by mixed and monospecific forests in southwest Germany fill this gap. Based on a survey with 520 valid responses we analyzed people’s perception on 18 different supporting, cultural, regulating and provisioning ecosystem services measured by Likert scale. Stepwise regression analyses show relations between social profiles (gender, age, education, profession) and preferences on respondents’ perceptions. Our findings show that people perceive that mixed forests provide better cultural, regulating and supporting ecosystem services than monospecific forests of fir and beech whereas provisioning services were perceived as being equally or better provided by monospecific forests. Significant effects towards a positive perception on ecosystem services provided by mixed forests were mainly influenced by the perceived abundance of old trees, feeling of pleasantness in mixed forests, age, profession, and education. Our findings indicate that there is a high public support for the promotion of silver fir and beech mixed forests in Southwest Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: brown-throated sloth; human-animal interactions; questionnaire; urban wildlife; Bradypus variegatus
Online: 8 May 2018 (10:53:37 CEST)
Free-range sloths living in an urban environment is rare. In this study, human opinions, attitudes and interactions with a population of Bradypus variegatus in a public square were investigated. A questionnaire was applied to people in the square where the sloths reside, and informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions were made. 95% of respondents knew of the sloths’ existence in the square and 87.8% likes their presence. Opinions about population size differed greatly and younger people were concerned if the square was appropriate place for them. Some human-sloth interactions showed the consequence of lack of biological knowledge. People initiated all sloth-human interactions. The fact that sloths are strictly folivorous has limited their interactions with humans and consequently minimised negative impact of the human-animal interaction on their wellbeing. These results demonstrate that while there is a harmonious relationship between people and sloths, actions in environmental education of the square’s public could be beneficial for the sloths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); pregnant women; questionnaire; urinary cotinine; oxidative stress parameters
Online: 15 March 2019 (14:03:35 CET)
Abstract: Background: Exposure to ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) is one of the most toxic environmental exposures. Objective: To investigate the impact of ETS on physiological, biochemical, psychological indicators, on the urine antioxidant capacity (AC) and oxidative damage to lipids in a pilot sample of healthy pregnant women. Methods: The exposure to ETS was investigated by a validated questionnaire, urine cotinine and the marker of oxidative damage to lipids - 8-isoprostane concentrations using an ELISA kit. Urine AC was determined by the spectrophotometric TEAC method. From the sample of pregnant women (n=319, average age 30.84 ± 5.09 years) in 80 the levels of cotinine and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results: From our sample, 5 % individuals (7.4 % objectified by cotinine) were current smokers and 25 % reported passive smoking in the household (18.8 % objectified by cotinine). The Kappa was 0.78 for smokers and 0.22 for ETS exposed non-smokers. Smokers as well as non-smokers had significantly higher (p<0.05) urine AC than ETS exposed non-smokers. Non-smokers had significantly lower levels of 8-isoprostane than smokers (p<0.01) and ETS-exposed non-smokers (p<0.05). Correlations between urine levels of cotinine and AC were positive in ETS exposed non-smokers. Conclusion: The harmful effect of active and passive smoking on oxidative stress parameters has been indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; positive pressure; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; moisture damage
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:06:04 CET)
This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants´ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5-7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants´ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased, and occupants´ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0439.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: oxytocin; CD38; OXTR; rs3796863; rs53576; polymorphism; adolescents; psychosocial characteristics; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:30:29 CEST)
Oxytocin (OT) is regarded as an extremely important prosocial neuropeptide that dramatically affects the establishment of social connections from infancy to adulthood. OT effects on the psychoemotional state are pretty individual and may be dependent on age, gender, ethnocultural factors, social environment, the presence of stress factors, and features of personality. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief psychopathological screening tool and is recommended for the detection and classification of psychosocial problems in adolescents. The current field school-based study, conducted among urban Siberian adolescents (n = 298 aged 12–18) explored the relation of SDQ scales in relation to genotypes of CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863, and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576. The results of our study show that during the adolescence period, OT pathway high activity can cause some negative effects, such as emotional instability in young (aged 12–14) adolescent girls in the case of carriage of the rs3796863 A allele and emotional disturbances in older (aged 15–18) adolescent boys who are carriers of a GG variant of rs53576. Our results support the hypothesis of OT-mediated excessive social sensitivity which can lead to some age-sex depending psychosocial problems during adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; urea albumin excretion; food frequency questionnaire survey; β-cryptoxanthin; fruits
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:44:24 CEST)
Background: The dietary factors and nutrients contributing to the prevention of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic nephropathy is unclear, so we investigated dietary factors affecting urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: 42 patients with type 2 diabetes were participated, the subjects were divided to a normal albuminuria group (urinary albumin / creatinine ratio of less than 30 mg / g Cr) and a microalbuminuria group of 30 mg / g to 299 mg / g Cr. We performed casual blood sampling and conducted a food frequency questionnaire survey. Results: There were no significant differences in age, BMI and other physiological and biochemical data, the average daily intake of energy and many of nutrients, while β-cryptoxanthin was significantly lower in the microalbuminuria group than in the normal group (506.4 ± 793.9 μg/day vs. 715.3 ± 500.3 μg/day, p <0.05). The intake of 17 food groups per day showed that the intakes of fruits were significantly lower in the microalbuminuria group than in the normal group (76.9 ± 134.1 g vs. 111.9 ± 84.5 g, p <0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that fruits and foods rich in β-cryptoxanthin would make it possible to prevent diabetic nephropathy progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0178.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: artificial intelligence; data mining; diagnostic decision support; rare diseases; questionnaire anamnesis; neuromuscular diseases; high latencies
Online: 14 March 2022 (08:58:29 CET)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals with symptoms other than cough or fever have refrained from seeking medical advice. However, a delay in treatment might lead to serious consequences. At the same time, digital health initiatives have emerged to overcome this bottleneck of healthcare. Herein, we report the results of a multi-center initiative using a combination of patient history and artificial intelligence (AI) to identify individuals with rare neuromuscular diseases. First, a questionnaire with 46 items was developed by interviewing patients with muscular dystrophies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Morbus Pompe, neuropathies, and myasthenia gravis. Second, patients with proven neurological diseases answered the questionnaire. Third, a combination of classifiers (artificial neural network, support vector, and random forest) was trained and, finally, the system was challenged with new questionnaires. Users with an abnormal questionnaire pattern received a unique code for data privacy and contact details for a neurologist for further advice. The neurologists confirmed or refuted the AI-based diagnosis. The questionnaire was accessed 3122 times, leading to 853 unique codes. Only for a few patients the computer-based diagnoses and the confirmed final diagnoses were reported to us. However, for these few patients, the genetic testing and high CK levels finally ended their long-lasting diagnostic odyssey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; eating habits; physical activity; MEDAS-14; Emotional eating questionnaire (EEQ) and university population.
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:52:17 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, eating and physical activity behaviours, in a University population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary and physical activity behaviour; questionnaire of the Mediterranean Diet (MEDAS-14) and the emotional eater questionnaire Garaulet (EEQ). (3) Results: A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire 66.7% women, from Spain 79.2%, 76.8% students, living in family home 76.2% and in normal weight 66.1% . Our population did the grocery 1 or less per week (76.8%); decreased or stay the same the consumption of fruits (57.1%), vegetables (58.9%), dairy products (74.4%), pulses (73.2%), fish/seafood (76.8%), white meat (83.3%), red and processed meat (91.1%), snacks (78.6%), rice/pasta/potatoes (78.6%), nuts (83.9%), low alcohol drinks (89.3%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%) . Increased cooking time (73.2%) and decreased or stay the same their physical activity (63.7%). University Employees increased more weight (1.01±0.02) than students (0.99±0.03) (p<0.05). 79.8% of the participant obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in women group (p<0.01). (4) Conclusions: In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the group of women and University Employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0495.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: agency; smart devices; IoT; device agency; user agency; human computer interaction; HCI; questionnaire; exploratory analysis; anova
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:51 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the relationship people have with their smart devices. We use the concept of agency to capture aspects of users’ sense of mastery as they relate to their device. This study gives preliminary evidence of the existence of two independent dimensions of agency for modeling the interaction between humans and smart devices: (i) user agency and (ii) device agency. These constructs emerged from an exploratory factorial analysis conducted on a survey data collected from 587 participants. In addition, we investigate the correlation between user agency and device agency with background variables of the respondents. Finally, we argue that mapping the users’ dynamics with their device into user agency and device agency fosters a better understanding of the needs of the users and helps in designing interfaces tailored for the specific capabilities and expectations of the users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Perception-based questionnaire; principal component analysis (PCA); Linear regression model; social panic; social conflict
Online: 22 April 2020 (09:55:38 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic situation, disease intensity, weak healthcare facilities, unawareness, and misinformation led people to fear and anxiety in Bangladesh. This study intended to get peoples’ perception on psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental crisis amidst the pandemi. An online questionnaire was surveyed nationwide (respondents no.1066). Datasets were analyzed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA), Pearson’s correlation matrix (PCM), Linear regression analysis (LRA), and psychometric characteristics were included in the Classical Test Theory (CTT) analysis. There were good associations among the psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental parameters. A significant association between fear of COVID-19 with struggling healthcare system (p<0.05) was found. Also, negative association between fragile health system and government’s ability to deal with the pandemic (p<0.05) revealing poor governance. Again, a positive association of shutdown and social distancing with fear of losing life, and due to lack of health treatment (p<0.05) reveals that shut down hampers normal activities which may lead to mental and economic stress. However, a positive association of socio-economic impact of the shutdown with poor people’s suffering, the price hike of basic need, hamper of formal education (p<0.05) may lead to severe socio-economic and health crisis. There is a possibility of climate-induced disaster during/after the pandemic, which will create severe food insecurity (p<0.01). Daily wage earners and poors will suffer most by food and nutritional deficiency, and the country may face huge economic burden. Proper risk assessment and communications is needed to alleviate fear and anxiety. Thus, financial support and mental boosting is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; lactate threshold, physical fitness; International Physical Activity Questionnaire
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:32:02 CEST)
Adequate energy intake is critical for the healthy longevity of older adults, and the estimated energy requirement is determined by total energy expenditure (TEE). We aimed to identify the relationship between measured aerobic capacity and TEE, activity energy expenditure (AEE) or physical activity level (PAL) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) methods in the advanced older adults. A total of 12 physically independent older adults (10 males and 2 females) aged between 81 to 94 years participated in this study. Aerobic capacity was evaluated according to the lactate threshold (LT). TEE under free-living conditions was assessed using the DLW method, and self-reported physical activity was obtained through the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). LT was significantly positively correlated with TEE, AEE, and PAL after adjustment for age and sex (ρ= 0.77 (P<0.01), 0.86 (p<0.01), and 0.86 (p<0.01), respectively). We found the LT as an aerobic capacity is positively and independently correlated with TEE, AEE or PAL. The present results suggest that maintaining aerobic capacity is an important factor for preventing frailty, although further research is needed to multisite studies and many samples.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: physical activity; exercise; green cover; open space; Metabolic Equivalent of Task; International Physical Activity Questionnaire; health promotion
Online: 20 March 2019 (10:46:23 CET)
1) Background: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to understand how green cover and accessibility of common public open spaces in compact urban areas affect physical activeness of resident. 2) Methods: A total of 554 residents completed a structured questionnaire on quality-of-life, physical activity level, and healthy eating practice. 3) Results: The sampled population lived with green cover averaged 10.11 ± 7.95% (ranged 1.56–9.88), whereas majority (90%) of the residents performed physical activities at medium and high levels. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/week was associated with the green cover percentage (Pearson r = 0.092; p < 0.05). Irrespective of age and physical activity level, active residents commonly used public open spaces within district for performing exercise, especially parks and promenade were mostly used by older residents while sports facilities by the younger groups. 4) Conclusions: Current findings suggested promotion of exercise could be achieved by the design or redesign of built environment to include more parks accessible to the residents with the increase of vegetation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sodium; potassium; nutrition; diet; urine spot; food frequency questionnaire; cardiovascular disease; childhood cancer survivors; Swiss childhood cancer registry; Europe
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:25:07 CEST)
Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), common in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), may be affected by diet. We assessed sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and morning urine spots, and its associations with cardiovascular risk in CCSs. We stratified CCS into three risk profiles based on A) personal history (CVD, CVD risk factors, or CVD risk free), B) body mass index (obese, overweight, or normal/underweight), and C) cardiotoxic treatment (anthracyclines and/or chest irradiation, or neither). We obtained a FFQ from 802, and sent a spot urine sample collection kit to 212, of which 111 (52%) returned. We estimated Na intake 2.9 g/day based on spot urine and 2.8 g/day based on FFQ; estimated K intake was 1.6 g/day (spot urine) and 2.7 g/day (FFQ). CCSs with CVD risk factors had a slightly higher Na intake (3.3 g/day), than CCSs risk free (2.9 g/day) or with CVD (2.7 g/day, p = 0.017), and obese participants had higher Na intake (4.2 g/day) than normal/underweight CCSs (2.7 g/day, p<0.001). Daily Na intake was above, and daily K intake below national recommended levels. Adult survivors of childhood cancer need dietary assistance to reduce Na and increase K intake.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: physical activity; depression; elderly people living alone; Patient Health Questionnaire-10; flexibility exercise; muscular strength exercise; complex sample logistic regression
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:10:17 CET)
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-10(PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past one week, days of flexibility exercise in the past one week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past one week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past one week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p <0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.