ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Neonate; qualitative research; Southeast Asia
Online: 29 September 2016 (11:17:06 CEST)
Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: energy transition; qualitative research; housing in Bulgaria; collective decision-making
Online: 7 February 2022 (15:57:42 CET)
Stemming from the Bulgarian case study developed within a European research project (ECHOES, Horizon 2020), the paper discusses the links between: (a) the urgent need to operationalize EU energy transition policy in the housing domain; (b) the complexity of factors influencing the policy implementation in different contexts – geographical, economic, and technical but also social and cultural; and (c) the important role of the urban level in policy implementation. Under the specific spatial planning context of Bulgaria, the local collective energy-related decision-making in the housing field evolves through the interaction – formal (at the municipal level of governance) and informal (individuals, households and homeowners’ associations taking decisions on self-organization and collective action). The authors claim that interdisciplinary context-sensitive research would contribute to a better understanding for the ongoing energy-related decision-making processes at the local level and would enable the development and implementation of effective and efficient policy instruments in support of energy transition in the housing sector in Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nicotine products; tobacco harm reduction; people living with mental illness; qualitative research; consumer preferences
Online: 17 October 2016 (10:49:07 CEST)
Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed, however preferences for nicotine products were idiosyncratic and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusion: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Social Robot; Empirical Research; Human-Robot Interaction; Human-Computer Interaction; Ethnomethodology; Robot development; HCI; HRI; Qualitative Research
Online: 8 April 2022 (12:48:04 CEST)
This study observes, interprets, and analyses the knowledge production in the research field of Human–Robot Interaction (HRI). It intends to foreground the hidden assumptions that are often taken for granted when roboticist design and conduct their research. By doing so, this study demonstrates how these assumptions influence the result of their research. Based on data collected through sociological field observation, this study argues that the current practise in HRI research is highly anthropocentric. In short, the robots are designed to be like human instead of for human. Therefore, the human–robot relationship embodies the existing power relations between human beings. These relations generate inequality, hierarchy, and dominance, which are the opposite of the common imagination of the robotised future among roboticists. For the purpose of enabling the robotised future closer to their ideal, this study suggests that HRI researchers to go beyond the conventional methodology, to allow a human–robot relationship that realises reciprocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: child; deafness; parents; qualitative research.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:29:25 CEST)
This study was carried out in a qualitative research type and phenomenological design since it was aimed to determine the life experiences of the parents of deaf children. The study sample consisted of 20 parents of deaf children registered in a special education and rehabilitation center who spoke Turkish and were literate and did not have hearing loss. The data were collected through in-depth interviews in Istanbul between December and January 2022. Colaizzi's phenomenological interpretation method was used in qualitative data analysis. It was determined that parents of deaf children experienced anxiety, sadness, and happiness during diagnosis. They lacked information at first, but then they gained knowledge in the process, and it was not easy to accept this process. They stated that having a deaf child requires more time, responsibility, and effort than other children, this situation affects their social life, and they experience interpersonal conflicts. When parents were asked how they coped, they said they did it through prayer, social support, or time to themselves. It can be recommended to apply psychosocial intervention programs to the parents of deaf children, especially their mothers, from the first diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1733.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: PIWI; innovation; organic; sustainability; qualitative.
Online: 25 May 2023 (04:08:58 CEST)
This study investigated the factors that influence consumer acceptance of fungus-resistant grape varieties (FRGV) in Germany. The qualitative research methodology involved conducting semi-structured interviews including sensory evaluation test with focus groups consisting of 48 consumers, and the data were evaluated using content analysis. The findings revealed that the attractiveness of a grape variety is determined by four distinct attributes. Furthermore, FRGV can be made more attractive to consumers by using denominations based on established grape varieties or by using and associating them with their sensory patterns. The sensory acceptance of FRGV varies significantly across consumer segments and vinification methods. Providing relevant information about the benefits of resistant grape varieties has a positive impact on consumer acceptance, and the level of interest and relevance varies by the target group. The study suggests that it is possible to enhance consumer acceptance by offering attractive grape varieties, targeting group-specific sensory profiles and engaging in storytelling campaigns that educate consumers about the advantages of resistant grapes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: qualitative comparative analysis; qualitative analysis; data mining; calibration; truth table; logical minimization; QMC; eQMC; CCubes
Online: 29 September 2023 (13:05:00 CEST)
Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed by Charles Ragin in 1987 for the comparative analysis of small data sets. The method has become widespread in sociological and economic research. There are examples of successful use of QCA in the field of medicine and epidemiology. The purpose of this review is to describe the key stages of QCA with a discussion the application of this method to the analysis of medical and epidemiological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: General Practitioner; Prevention; Suicide; Qualitative study
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:23:49 CEST)
Background: General Practitioners (GP) have an important role in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore their views and experiences of identifying and assessing suicidal ideation. Methods: Ten GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, based on accessibility, interest and willingness to participate. In-depth interviews were carried out and results transcribed ver-batim. Aspects of experiences with suicidal patients emerged through the thematic analyses process. Results: The GPs described the varied clinical picture when patients presented in their office. How they identified depressive symptoms apart from originally somatic complaints, formed a trusting relationship and addressed suicide ideation. They described customized interventions as well as obstacles and factors that facilitated communication: time, own personal traits, pa-tient’s disclosure and organizational barriers. Conclusions: The levels of the suicidal process among patients in general practice vary greatly. GPs adjust their appraisals to profundity understand and intervene in order to prevent a crisis to escalate into subsequent suicidal behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0789.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: catcalling, harassment; patriarchy; qualitative design; women
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:19:44 CEST)
Patriarchy culture is formed indirectly through a concept of a man as a head of family or the holder of the highest position. It leads to viewpoint that catcalling is assumed normally. Although catcalling seems like a compliment, but it is quite different with the exact compliment. The basic difference from them both is a compliment comes to sincerely from its giver, meanwhile catcalling is aimed to harass indirectly to women. This study aims to give an information and solution about the catcalling expansion in public areas especially by women community. The use of method to finish this study is qualitative design from literature sources for the last four years about problems of catcalling. The result of this study is giving information about catcalling by providing data and looking for solution related to catcalling phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0556.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Iran; active ageing; elderly; qualitative study
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:14:45 CET)
Background: Active ageing is a multidimensional, relative, and context-dependent concept with different paths and outcomes. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore personal active ageing strategies in a specific context. Method: Following a directed content analyze procedure, we conduct semi structured individual interview with 39 elder (men and women) between the ages of 60-97 years that selected with purposeful sampling .data collection and analysis were concurrent. We analyzed the data from interviews, written narratives, and field notes using directed content analyze. The Reliability of data was fulfilled in accordance Lincoln and Guba criteria. We stopped data collection when no new concept was added and data saturation occurred. Results: Based on the experience of elders, we identified 5 categories: 1) Preventive 2) Coping 3) Internal self-control 4) Coherence maintenance strategies 5) Opportunity exploiting strategies. These described the active ageing strategies when encountering with age related change. Utilizing these strategies, the elder accompanied the life time. Conclusion: The finding suggests that active ageing is a continuous process in confronting age related change. The identified strategies can help to promote active ageing by familiarizing older with opportunities of life and training them in how to use these strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1220.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: employees; interview; physical activity; qualitative research; workplace
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:36:02 CEST)
Abstract: Background: Exercise Training at work has the potential to improve employees’ produc-tivity, health, and well-being. However, exercise interventions to healthcare workers in hospitals may be challenged by a high time pressure and the ongoing workflow with patient care. Objective: The aim was to identify barriers and facilitators for participation in exercise training during work in a hospital department. Methods: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital employees of different staff groups, who participated in 12 weeks exercise twice weekly. The data analysis was a thematic approach based on the Theoretical Domains Framework and the COM-B factors in the Behavior Change Wheel. Results: Barriers and facilitators varied between different groups. Barriers included limited structure, busyness, and a discouraging culture. Facilitators in-cluded gaining a feeling of community, psychological and physical well-being. Seven contextual subthemes were vital for successful implementation of exercise in a hospital setting. Conclusions: The informants appreciated exercise training during work and wished to participate. Inpatient departments’ informants had difficulties participating in the intervention, whilst those with more administrative tasks found it easier. This study identified barriers and facilitators vital for a successful implementation of an exercise training intervention in a hospital department to improve health, wellbeing, and productivity amongst hospital employees. It explains how future interventions can improve reach, adoption, and implementation of exercise training interventions for hospital staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0371.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: COVID-19; digital data collection; qualitative; Zimbabwe
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:20:11 CEST)
The newly discovered coronavirus (COVID-19) has disrupted traditional methods of conducting research, particularly qualitative research. However, there remains a number of methods by which qualitative data can still be collected. These include the use of digital voice, video, and text-based tools, online surveys, and content analysis. Text-based sources can help to overcome the limitations of time and space, and also can be cost-effective. This chapter draws from data collected from 12 participants across Zimbabwe and demonstrates how these tools can be used to generate data or to sample data that is already available to satisfy research questions and meet research objectives. It recommends researchers to experiment with new ways of collecting qualitative data while also observing safety protocols and ethical considerations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Stroke; Qualitative; Narrative; Master Plot; Experience; Perception
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:10:28 CEST)
(1) Background; limited research exists which considers master plots expressed by individuals with Stroke. The literature so far has focused on identified pre-established illness narrative types; (2). Methods: A narrative method was selected and a purposive sample of individuals with Stroke are identified. A categorical-form analysis was undertaken; (3) Results: A narrative master plot named overcoming the monster is identified and explored for its components and located temporally for each participant; (4) Conclusions: Health care professionals need to understand the importance of understanding the master plot overcoming the monster. This research supports the need for health care professionals to recognise and support narratives by listening in a non-directive way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Qualitative research; Regulations; Ethical issues; Sustainable production
Online: 7 December 2020 (15:21:23 CET)
Italy is the leading European producer of rice. The transition to organic farming could represent a solution for environmental protection, as well as for the economic sustainability of farms, consumer safety and as a measure of climate mitigation, but it currently displays several weaknesses in the control and certification system. The objective of the current study is to propose advice for improving the control and certification scheme in the organic rice sector. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative methodology based on participant observation at stakeholders’ meetings, focus groups, community-led workshops and deep interviews with relevant local actors. Findings show that there are some solutions to mitigate the weakness of the Italian certification scheme. The study also produces managerial implications to improve the Italian organic rice system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: qualitative, mindfulness, meditation, chronic illness, adolescents, eHealth
Online: 27 July 2018 (15:34:58 CEST)
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve health and well-being in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Because they are most often delivered in person in a group setting, there are several barriers that limit access to MBIs for youth with limited mobility or who cannot access in-person MBIs in their communities. The objective of this study was to determine if eHealth is a viable platform to increase accessibility to MBIs for teens with chronic illnesses. This study reports the qualitative results of a mixed method randomized trial describing the experience of the Mindful Awareness and Resilience Skills for Adolescents (MARS-A) program, an 8-week MBI, delivered either in person or via eHealth. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 with a chronic illness recruited at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Toronto, Canada. Individual semi-structured post-participation audio-video interviews were conducted by a research assistant. A multiple-pass inductive process was used to review interview transcripts and interpret emergent themes from the participants’ lived experiences. Fifteen participants completed post-participation interviews. Four distinct themes emerged from participants in both the in-person and eHealth groups: creation of a safe space, fostering peer support and connection, integration of mindfulness skills into daily life and improved well-being through the application of mindfulness. Results from this study suggest that eHealth may be an acceptable and feasible mode of delivery for MBIs in adolescents with chronic illnesses. EHealth should be considered in future studies as a promising avenue to increase access to MBIs in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0960.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: fibromyalgia syndrome; sexuality; female sexual dysfunction; qualitative research
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:19:09 CEST)
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a nonarticular rheumatic syndrome which presents as chronic musculoskeletal pain, stiffness and body aches. FMS affects approximately 2.5% of the population, mostly women. FMS causes physical and psychological problems and reduces quality of life. The objective of this study is to identify qualitative evidence about experiences of women diagnosed with FMS about their sexuality. Methods: Metasynthesis of qualitative studies. The search included articles published between 2000 and June 2023 on the PubMed, WOS, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and SCIELO databases. Results: 450 articles were found through the initial search, of which, only 9 fulfilled the criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. From this analysis, three main themes emerged: (1) “I want to, but I can’t”: FMS causes a shift in feminine sexuality. (2) Resetting sex life and intimacy. (3) Taking charge of a “new sexuality.” Conclusions: Women with FMS suffer from limitations of their sexuality that affect their partner. Pain, stiffness and a loss of desire make sexual encounters difficult. Becoming aware of this and striving not to lose their sexuality is key to coping with this problem. Women and their sexual partners can change roles and encourage communication, games, foreplay or touching. The use of lubricants, physical exercise and complementary therapies, along with social, professional and partner support, are key to coping with FMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1434.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: chronic disease; self-management; elder patients; qualitative study
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:52:39 CEST)
Living with a chronic disease involves a variety of daily life limitations that severely affect people in their daily life. Identifying and promoting self-management strategies may improve health outcomes and increase patients’ autonomy. The purpose of the present study was to explore the perceived limitations and self-management strategies of elder patients suffering from chronic diseases. An inductive content analysis was applied, with a purposive sampling of 21 patients living with chronic conditions. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Two main-categories were emerged from content analysis, namely “Limitations of daily life” and “Disease Management”. Physical restrictions and negative feelings were referred to as daily burdens, while scheduling and self-care, supporting environment and technology were related to disease management. Information, training and provision of digital literacy may increase patients' self-efficacy in managing their chronic condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1380.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Review; Grounded Theory; Social Constructivism; Meta-ethnography; Qualitative
Online: 20 June 2023 (03:14:41 CEST)
Objective: The objective of this review was to establish a modified meta-ethnography framework by integrating the traditional phases with methods from social constructivist grounded theory. The modified version was required to identify methods which can ensure analytic generalisability and honour critical inquiry. Method: A narrative synthesis review was undertaken using 4 electronic databases. Articles were located that described the methods and methodologies of meta-ethnography and social constructivist grounded theory. A synthesis was undertaken which integrated the methods of social constructivist grounded theory. Results: The meta-ethnography was undertaken in 5 phases: (1) The positionality of the researcher and the area of interest identified. (2) Identifying what is relevant. (3) Reading the study and determining how studies are related. (4) The iterative process of idea generation required for theory generation. And (5) Expression of the theory, model, or process. Conclusion: The current study provides a useful tool to support the development of a substantive theory (a theory in one area) which can be used then to consider its application in other areas. This approach will help create new lines of research and aid the explanation of problems in other areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0822.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: pesticides; regulation; pollution; intoxication; qualitative and quantitative analysis
Online: 24 April 2023 (04:44:34 CEST)
The inappropriate use of pesticides in the world and particularly in Africa, explains their presence in various environmental compartments. This presence in the environment has harmful consequences on living beings, especially humans. This review, based on scientific publications, aims to analyze the problem of pesticides in Africa. From a corpus of 81 articles published in Africa on this topic between 1996 and 2019, we have outlined the issues relating to phytosanitary practices, environmental pollution, food contamination, intoxication of farmers and consumers, qualitative and quantitative analysis methods used, as well as the regulations on the subject and their application in Africa. Based on an analysis of the factors that are at the root of the problems of environmental pollution, contamination and health that they cause in Africa, possible solutions were proposed to produce healthy products and preserve our common environmental heritage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0787.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: irregular migrant women,; metasynthesis; qualitative data; public health
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:41:00 CEST)
Migratory movements are a political, social and public health issue on a global scale. Access to sexual and reproductive health services for irregular migrant women (IMW) is a public health issue. The aim of this study is to identify qualitative evidence on IMW's experiences of sexual and reproductive health care in emergency and primary care settings. Methods: meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Synthesis includes assembling and categorising findings based on the simili-arty in meaning. The search was conducted between January 2010 and June 2022 using PubMed, WOS and CINAHL databases. Results: of 131 articles found in the initial search, only 9 articles met the criteria and were included in the review. Four main themes were established: (1) The need to focus emergency care on sexual and reproductive health, (2) Unsatisfactory clinical experiences, (3) Forced reproduction, (4) Alternating between formal and informal healthcare services. Con-clusions: IMW’s attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health are influenced by culture, ed-ucational level, fear, barriers and the attitude of healthcare providers. Healthcare institutions need to be aware of the IMW’s experiences to understand the specific difficulties they face. IMW call for socially and culturally sensitive health care, cultural mediators, improved communication and safe environments that ensure confidentiality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0571.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: university; HEI; students; sustainability; UBC; qualitative study; perception
Online: 26 July 2021 (11:48:43 CEST)
As sustainability gains significance within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) worldwide, the University of British Columbia (UBC) stands as one of the global champions of sustainability. In 2019, Times Higher Education ranked UBC as number one in the world for taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts and ranked one in Canada for making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable. Over the years, UBC students have been instrumental to sustainability on the UBC campus by advocating for divestment, climate justice, and other sustainability commitments and projects in the university. Hence, this qualitative study examines students’ engagement with or their perception of the university’s sustainability programs and image. The study found that students acknowledged and commended the university’s sustainability efforts in teaching, research, providing sustainability-related opportunities for students, and in sustainability operations. However, students also addressed hesitation on the part of university administration in championing climate justice and bolder climate action. The conclusion is that continued support and engagement with students are critical for UBC to achieve its climate action plans and sustainability goals in general. The study contributes to the ongoing discourse on the influential role of young people and the youth climate movement in catalyzing ambitious global climate action at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0726.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Carboxymethylcellulose; Pectin; Plum; Qualitative attributes; Enzymatic activity; Postharvest
Online: 31 July 2020 (03:04:33 CEST)
Polysaccharide-based edible coatings are served as an attractive preservation method for postharvest maintenance of most fruits. The current study examined the effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)- and pectin (Pec)- based edible coatings on weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), pH¬, titratable acidity (TA), vitamin C (vit C), total phenolics, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents, total antioxidant capacity (based on DPPH) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) enzymes during cold storage. The results showed that each coating and their combinations caused positive effects in all measured parameters except weight loss. The applied coatings preserved firmness and improved total phenols, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and POD activity. In addition, the coatings retarded TSS and pH enhancement and TA and vit C loss and decreased PPO and PG activities. It could be stated that CMC at 1 % and Pec at 1.5 % separately demonstrated the best results at most measured parameters; and among the combinations 0.5 % Pec + 1.5 % CMC acted better than the other treatments. Henceforth, application of CMC and/or Pec and/or their combinations would be considered as favorable approaches to improve postharvest quality characteristics of plum fruit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0241.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: vegetable intake; vegetable cultivation; qualitative study; Japanese, adults
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:49:20 CET)
Objective: We examined the reasons why vegetable cultivation increases or does not increase vegetable intake among adult Japanese vegetable growers.Materials and Methods: A qualitative cross-sectional study using a self-completed anonymous questionnaire was sent to participants (aged 20–74 years residing in three areas of a city in Gunma Prefecture, Japan) in September 2016. The questionnaire addressed perceptions of whether vegetable cultivation would increase vegetable intake, with four possible answers: strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree. Respondents were then asked reasons for their view, with free-text responses. We also asked about participants’ characteristics and whether they found that growing vegetables had changed their vegetable intake and access to vegetables. We categorized the free-text answers by content.Results: We analyzed 442 answers, and reasons for vegetable growing increasing vegetable intake were grouped into five categories: “availability,” “purpose of cultivation,” “quality,” “increased positive emotions toward vegetables,” and “unconsciousness”; for it not increasing intake were also grouped into five categories: “limited quantities,” “negative emotions toward vegetables,” “cultivation for a purpose other than eating vegetables,” “access to vegetables from other sources,” and “limits associated with self-cultivation.”Conclusion: We found five main reasons why vegetable growing may and may not increase vegetable intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Patient Safety Climate Attitudes, Hospital Emergency Department, Qualitative
Online: 12 February 2019 (11:36:02 CET)
Introduction: The attitudes of doctors and nurses toward patient safety is a significant factor in hospital safety climates and medical error rates. Yet, there are very few studies of patient safety attitudes in Saudi hospitals and none conducted in hospital emergency departments. Aims: The current study aims to investigate the discrepancy between the patient safety attitudes of doctors and nurses in a Saudi hospital emergency department. Materials and Method: The study employed a qualitative research designvia semi-structured interviews with Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses working in a Saudi hospital emergency department to determine their attitudes and experiences about the patient safety climate. Results: The findings showed doctors and nurse held some similar safety attitudes, however, nurses reported issues with doctors with respect to their teamwork, communication, and patient safety attitudes. Moreover, several barriers to the patient safety climate were identified such as limits to resources, teamwork, communication, and incident reporting. Conclusion: The findings provide one of the few research contributions to knowledge on the differential patient safety attitudes of Saudi and non-Saudi doctors and nurses and suggest the application of such knowledge would enhance positive patient outcomes in emergency departments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0164.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pre-hospital emergency; review; qualitative study; patient satisfaction
Online: 25 December 2017 (06:41:26 CET)
Objective. To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods. A qualitative study conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified. A majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies neither reviewed the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency with the satisfaction. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. This qualitative approach yielded assistance targets to be improved. Conclusions. Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to the no face to face attention, taking into account the patient’s emotional needs or maintaining contact with the patient until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of the satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2096.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: bytes and beliefs; cultural dynamics; digital ethnography; qualitative method
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:10:43 CEST)
In an era characterized by the ever-shifting landscapes of the digital realm, this paper intricately examines the interplay between digital culture, cultural dynamics, and beliefs in academia. Utilizing insights from cutting-edge language models, the study uncovers nuanced cultural expressions among Arts and Sciences students navigating the digital domain. Employing qualitative methods including interviews, observations, in-depth literature reviews, and thematic analysis, findings highlight digital interactions' transformative impact on cultural narratives and the potential of digital ethnography as a lens for understanding intricate cultural phenomena. This research enriches digital ethnography and cultural dynamics, offering fresh perspectives on the symbiotic relationship between digital culture and traditional beliefs, underscored by data from a maximum purposeful sampling of thirty (30) participants. Overall, this exploration emphasizes digital culture's dynamic role in shaping and reflecting cultural convictions, contributing to the understanding of cultural dynamics and evolving digital ethnography in the academic landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1336.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: palliative sedation; terminal care; nursing; palliative care; qualitative research
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:20:02 CEST)
Knowing the symbolizations constructed in people's consciousness, based on lived experiences, is crucial to understanding how they structure their lives. Palliative Sedation (PS) integrates treatment in terminal palliative care, with the purpose of offering support and relief of refractory symptoms that may occur at the end of life. This study aimed at interpreting psychic fantasies that permeate thoughts, as reported by a sample of nurses when administering palliative sedation to patients in the final stage of life. This is a clinical-qualitative study conducted in a large hospital in the city of São Paulo (state of São Paulo, Brazil), a national reference in oncology. The study included 11 nurses working in the care of cancer patients. For data collection, we used the technique of SDIOQD – Semi-Directed Interview with Open-ended Questions in-Depth. The treatment by CQCA - Clinical-Qualitative Content Analysis is grounded on psychodynamic concepts. The interpretation of the meaning cores found in the interviews, complemented by observation of the para-verbal and nonverbal manifestations of the interviewees, led to the construction of three categories: (1) to symbolically serve death on a tray; (2) the act of sedation and its unfortunate coincidences; (3) palliative sedation as an agent of mercy death. This study suggests that nurses face dilemmatic situations, going through periods of self-questioning and moments of the ambivalence of feelings of beneficence and maleficence. When sedating a patient, the nurses envision to be offering dignity in death. Euthanasia fantasies in the process of administering sedation are latent in consciousness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0060.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: secondary metabolites; pharmacological activities; qualitative and quantitative analysis; techniques
Online: 2 November 2022 (13:47:27 CET)
Plant secondary metabolites are organic compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, steroids, lignins, terpenes) produced by plant for self-defense during growth and development in order to protect them from harmful agents. As population is increasing and quality of life is reducing couple with outbreak of some diseases that are posing threat on the economy, a lot of medicinal plants have attracted interest of researchers because of the usefulness of these metabolites in pharmaceuticals, food and cosmetic industries. In this review, the pharmacological activities of some medicinal plants that are rich in secondary metabolites were studied, means of identifying and quantifying using spectrophotometry and chromatography techniques were also discussed. However, this will assist to reduce the uses and dependent on the synthetic drug and the onset of the age related diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: endometriosis; qualitative research; gynaecology; infertility; illness experience; health service
Online: 20 September 2021 (16:14:24 CEST)
Background: Endometriosis affects between 1% to 10% of women worldwide; it is associated with a significant burden on the woman, her relationships, productivity, mental health, family and society. Aim:To contribute to the current understanding of the impact of endometriosis on women’s lives by integrating qualitative research findings to explore the illness experiences of women living with endometriosis. Study design:Synthesis of qualitative data using Britten’s meta-ethnography.Methods:Six bibliographic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycINFO) and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed papers published in English language from inception of until August 6th 2021. Results: Fifteen studies were included in the data synthesis. The review included a total of 354 women from fourteen countries (including South Africa, Iran, England, Australia and United States of America), of age range 16-78 years. Subjects represented diverse ethnicities, cultures and native languages distributed across socioeconomic classes. Representation of all stages of endometriosis was included.Findings incorporate the following nine categories into a conceptual model: disease symptoms; health services experience; isolation and limited social participation; limited physical functioning; a coterie of emotions; sex and intimate relationships; infertility; work life and education; coping strategies and support. Diagnostic delays, persistent symptoms, healthcare costs and inadequate education to patients about the disease; all intersect into a web of struggles and incoherence for patients. Conclusion:Women with endometriosis living in various countries report similar illness experiences; although gender roles, culture and socio-economic status may act as mediating factors that shape an individual’s illness experience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: child; play; risky play; adventurous play; school; qualitative synthesis
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:27:45 CEST)
Adventurous play, defined as exciting, thrilling play where children are able to take age-appropriate risks has been associated with a wide range of positive outcomes. Despite this, it remains unclear what factors might aid or hinder schools in offering adventurous play opportu-nities. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesise findings from qualitative studies on the perceived barriers and facilitators of adventurous play in schools. A total of nine studies were included in the final synthesis. The review used two synthesis strategies: a meta-aggregative syn-thesis and narrative synthesis. Findings were similar across the two syntheses, highlighting that key barriers and facilitators were: adults’ perceptions of children; adults’ attitudes and beliefs about adventurous play and concerns pertaining to health; and, safety and concerns about legis-lation. Based on the findings of the review, recommendations for policy and practice as provided to support adventurous play in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dancing; dual-task; older adults; qualitative study; Zumba; cognition
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:10:45 CEST)
Despite the popularity of Zumba in several countries, research is scarce about its impact on older adults. Meanwhile, the integration of cognitive tasks with physical exercises, known as dual-tasking, is an evolving strategy to facilitate activities for older people. This study investigated the perceptions of older adults regarding Zumba and the potential of implementing it in a dual-task program. We conducted a qualitative-descriptive research involving 44 Filipino older adults from August to November 2020. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. Four themes were identified: moving towards match or mismatch; balancing benefits with burdens; dual-tasking as innovative yet potentially challenging; and overcoming barriers with enablers. While Zumba is an inclusive and beneficial activity, individual and contextual limitations could hinder its suitability for older people. Dual-tasking in Zumba was also recognized as an innovative approach, although challenges should be addressed to promote its utility. Several strategies could support the design of these programs in communities. This is the first study to explore older adults’ perceptions towards Zumba and its potential utilization as a dual-tasking program. Findings could guide the implementation of appropriate Zumba and dual-tasking activities that seek to integrate cognitive and physical training for older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial Resistance; Community pharmacist; Qualitative research; Jordan
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:05:40 CET)
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization issued a practical approach and Global Action Plan to control the threatening emerging antibacterial resistance. One of the main basis of this plan is the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). This study aimed to evaluate community pharmacists’ awareness and perception towards antimicrobial resistance and ASPs in Jordan. Thus, a qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with twenty community pharmacists. Convienience sampling was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the data yielded four themes and eleven sub-themes. All the respondents showed good understanding about the causes of antimicrobial resistance. The most important causes reported by them was the non-restricted prescription of antimicrobials. Most of the pharmacists believed that they are competent to provide ASPs, however, they believed that there are several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Barriers demonstrated by the pharmacists, including organizational obstacles, resources obstacles, and personal obstacles. As a conclusion, this study revealed several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Incorporating ASPs in the community pharmacy settings requires proper pharmacist training, several academic disciplines team efforts, and good pharmacy practice of antimicrobial guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ageing; Qualitative Research; Primary Health Care; Loneliness; Social Capital.
Online: 25 December 2020 (10:38:50 CET)
Loneliness is a frequent negative feeling among older people. A programme aimed at alleviating loneliness among older people by promoting social capital, i.e. social support and participation, was conducted in primary health care centres in Spain. We aimed to explore participants’ experiences of loneliness and social participation before the programme, perceived programme effects and contextual influences. A descriptive-interpretative qualitative design was used. 41 persons were included comprising older people, health and social care professionals, and volunteers. Data were collected through three focus groups, 36 semi-structured interviews and participant-observation of the intervention. A thematic content analysis was applied. Older persons with diverse profiles of loneliness and participation decreased their loneliness, increased their knowledge and participation in local community assets, and developed companionship, a sense of belonging, peer support and friendship. Their mental wellbeing increased and participants could deal better with health or family problems. An empowerment process was observed. However, loneliness persisted among some widowed participants and health and social vulnerabilities hampered some impacts. Conflicts and exclusion were occasional unintended effects. The promotion of social capital in ageing to alleviate loneliness involves complex processes interrelated with health and socio-economic factors. Future programmes should be adapted to local contexts and participants’ characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0447.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: socio-environmental vulnerability; Barcelona; spatial analysis; qualitative methodology; GIS
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:33:48 CEST)
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize and / or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to illuminate the complementary role that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: parents; children; asthma; qualitative research; psychological distress; psychological adjustment
Online: 22 May 2018 (12:21:47 CEST)
Many parents have difficulty managing childhood asthma. In Hong Kong (HK), while medication is the primary form of treatment, traditional Chinese medicine is another favored option. In addition, HK follows a dual-track healthcare system, which may pose unique experiences for Chinese parents in childhood asthma management. This qualitative descriptive study aimed to explore the experiences of HK Chinese parents in caring for their children with asthma. Methods: Fourteen HK Chinese mothers of children (aged 3-10) suffering from asthma were purposively sampled to participate in individual, semi-structured interviews. A realist approach following conventional content analysis was used to interpret the interviews. Results: The mothers expressed feelings of uncertainty, fear of asthma crises, and searching for ways to cope. These feelings triggered various strategies to control their child’s asthma. As long as the child’s asthma symptoms recurred, the mothers’ distress continued. Their distress was sometimes exacerbated by self-doubt and worries about whether they would receive adequate support from their family and healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Helping parents to understand their limits may help them be more open to varied aspects of their caregiving experiences, and thus to cope better. Psychological interventions together traditional educational training may help to alleviate parents’ psychological difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0429.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: credit decision; determinants of credit; qualitative variables; financials; service sector
Online: 6 July 2023 (11:33:22 CEST)
The service sector, whose value has started to increase in recent years, has gained momentum with the acceleration of economic developments especially after the 2000s in Turkey. In a world where competition is increasing and social purchase perception is changing, companies started to differentiate in the service sector to create a competitive advantage. Companies that would like to grow in the industry and aspire to a greater proportion need credit to extend. There are many factors to consider in order to allocate the credit. Banks make financial and non-financial analysis to make credit decisions. This study has been prepared to assess the effect of financial and non-financial features of middle segment companies that need credit in the service sector on the credit decision to be allocated by banks. The group of variables that explain the credit decision at the highest level in these companies are non-financial variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0363.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: young caregivers; pandemic; service providers; qualitative; social determinants of health
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:37:18 CEST)
This empirical research is part of a larger project beginning in 2020 and ongoing until 2023 exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young caregivers aged 5-25 years and their families in Canada. Utilizing the social determinants of health as a conceptual framework, this case study emphasizes the voices of professionals offering services to young caregiver clients during the pandemic, and explores their perspectives on the impact of the pandemic on young caregivers and their families. Across three (3) different organizations offering programs and services to young caregiver clients in Ontario, six (6) individual interviews were conducted with directors/program managers and four (4) group interviews were conducted with thirteen (13) staff members who worked directly with young caregivers and their families. Nineteen (19) service providers participated in total. The results of this study highlight five (5) primary themes that emerged through data analysis: i) the role of service providers, ii) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organizations and service providers supporting young caregivers and their families, iii) barriers for service users, iv) helpful resources for service providers and organizations, and v) resources needed/preferred by service providers and organization. The pandemic significantly impacted young caregivers and their families, as reported by professionals, and organizations working with young caregivers and their families were tasked with addressing increased service demands and adapting service delivery to follow public health guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0295.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; rumours; poultry; chicken meat; egg; qualitative research
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:14:23 CEST)
Introduction: The COVID-19 severely marred the Indian poultry industry, worth approximately one trillion INR. Hence, this study was conducted to understand the COVID-19 related factors that harmed the poultry production and distribution network and explore their varied impact on its actors in Gujarat, India. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, was conducted with 34 poultry stakeholders in Gujarat. The data were thematically analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Results: The study revealed that COVID-19 and the associated lockdown had hugely impacted the production, distribution and consumption of poultry products. The first COVID-19 lockdown disrupted the supply of production inputs and the distribution of poultry and poultry products because of movement restrictions. Rumours also played a crucial role in decreasing the consumption of poultry products between March and June 2020. The market situation, including the prices and availability of poultry products, was found to be improved post-lockdown as there was an increase in consumption; however, the profits were not sufficient to immediately compensate for the losses incurred during the lockdown. Conclusion: The first COVID-19 lockdown restricted the production and distribution of essential goods and influenced the perception of consumers regarding poultry products. COVID-19 resulted in many short- and medium-term challenges in the poultry sectors in India, which need to be addressed to make this sector more resilient to face any such crisis in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: cervical cancer screening; barriers; recommendations; slum; low-resource settings; qualitative
Online: 22 September 2022 (07:31:38 CEST)
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women globally despite being a largely treatable and preventable malignancy. Developing countries account for over 80% of all new cases of cervical cancer. Women residing in low-resource settings such as those residing in slums have a higher risk of cervical cancer, and lower uptake of cervical cancer screening. Diverse barriers influence the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low-resource settings. Objectives: This qualitative study was carried out prior to a cervical cancer screening program and explored women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, and their perceived barriers and recommendations for the program.Method: Four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among 35 women between the ages of 21 – 65 years residing in two urban slums in Lagos, Nigeria. Each FGD was limited to 8-10 participants of women of similar ages. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysis was done using thematic analysis.Results: Most of the women were not aware of cervical cancer and none knew the symptoms or risk factors of cervical cancer. The participants felt that the cervical cancer screening program would be well accepted in the community, however, they expressed concerns about the cost of the screening test and the sex of the person performing the test. The recommendations proffered for a successful cervical cancer screening program include; reducing the cost of the test or providing the test free of charge, having people that speak the local language as part of the team, using female health care providers, using a private location within the community or nearby PHC, and publicizing the program with the use of SMS, phone calls, town crier, and health talks. It was recommended that organizing health education sessions would help improve women’s poorly perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer.Conclusion: Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in low resource settings need to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer and address the barriers to cervical cancer screening such as cost, distance, and as much as possible, sex of the healthcare provider should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0332.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Innovation in teaching; Electromagnetic induction; High school students; Qualitative methods
Online: 24 June 2022 (07:43:23 CEST)
We present here a five hours experimentation of a didactical path about the electromagnetic induction addressed to students of the last year of an Italian scientific high school and oriented to better understand the physical origin of the induced electromotive force. The expression of the induced electromotive force as the sum of the term linked to the time variation of the magnetic field and of the motional one has been obtained in a detailed way, still suitable for presentation at high school. Many examples have been proposed to the students in order to clarify the conceptual physical knots. The students’ responses to a 6-questions multiple choice questionnaire have been analyzed. It emerged that our approach is concretely feasible although we find the well-known difficulties in calculating flux and circulation of a vector field. Furthermore, it emerged that an integral approach to the problem masks the understanding of the nature of the forces acting locally on the charges. Hence our proposal of a “redefinition” of the induced electric field in terms of the magnetic vector potential is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0130.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Kenya; COVID-19; community representatives; self-testing; diagnostics; qualitative research
Online: 10 May 2022 (09:38:58 CEST)
Rapid SARS-CoV-2 self-tests have the potential to expand access to COVID-19 testing and improve community-level case detection, particularly in resource-constrained countries such as Kenya. However, prior to their introduction, their acceptability must be assessed. This qualitative study explored key decision-takers’ values towards SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya. Healthcare workers, representatives of civil society, and potential implementors from Mombasa and Taita-Taveta were selected as decision-takers. Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data on their values towards self-testing. A thematic analysis approach was applied. Most informants considered that the Kenyan public is equipped to accept and use self-testing safely as an approach to help to reduce workload at public healthcare facilities, and know one’s COVID-19 status in a private manner. The informants emphasized the need to provide counselling to end-users, to support those needing to self-isolate, and to engage different civil society stakeholders in information provision on self-testing. Fear of stigma and of forced isolation were noted as potential deterrents to self-testing uptake for some individuals. In conclusion, there is high acceptability of self-testing in Kenya among decision-takers. However, enhanced education, counselling, and addressing deterrents to testing would be helpful to ensure effective use of SARS-CoV-2 self-testing in Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0416.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Goal setting; goal adjustment; lockdown; qualitative survey; reflexive thematic analysis
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:27:26 CET)
Since the end of 2019 and throughout 2020 the world has been devastated by the SARS COVID-19 pandemic. The sport world suddenly had to deal with a massive reorganization of events with important implications on the physical and psychological preparation of athletes and coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore how these changes impacted coaches’ and athletes’ goal setting strategies and their experience of goal adjustment. As part of a wider mixed-method project involving 2162 coaches and 1354 athletes, an online qualitative survey was used, and data collected were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Findings highlighted three overarching themes, in response to goal adjustment: “Moving on toward new goals”, “Letting go of goals”, and “Trying to hold on”, with several themes and sub-themes identifying different nuances of athletes’ and coaches’ experience. The implications of such findings for the mental preparation of high-level athletes are discussed in two ways. Firstly, in light of existing literature on goal setting from an applied perspective; secondly, in the broader perspective of the sport culture and the application of our themes to other challenging moments that sport professionals might encounter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition program; vendor system; qualitative study; obesity; non-communicable diseases
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:10:10 CET)
Globally, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) were responsible for 41 million deaths in 2016, with the majority of these occurring in low and middle-income countries. These diseases were on the rise as a result of unhealthy, low-quality, and unbalanced diets, which resulted in overweight and obesity. The National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) was created to regulate the foods sold to schoolchildren. To ascertain school management teams' perspectives on the relationship between the NSNP and the development of lifestyle diseases. A phenomenological qualitative study using Focus Group Discussions among 16 purposively selected members of the School Management Teams were conducted in Mt Frere, Eastern Cape in 2016. The narrative data was analyzed using Tesch's eight-phase thematic analysis approach. The data analysis revealed two themes (NSNP and the vendor system) and six sub-themes. The NSNP was viewed as making a significant contribution to children's food security, thereby improving academic output. However, reengineering of the NSNP was need through improved budgeting and inclusion of breakfast in the menu to control NCDs risk factors. The current implementation of the vendor system did not support reduction of NCDs risk factors. Improved implementation of the guide to vendor system is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0280.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: information; end of life; humanisation; health care system; qualitative research
Online: 23 May 2019 (06:09:36 CEST)
Health information and communication are key elements that allow patients and family members to make decisions about end-of-life process and guarantee a death with dignity. Objective: To understand carers’ experiences regarding health information and communication during the illness and death of family members. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in Andalusia based on the paradigm of hermeneutic phenomenology. Participants were carers who had accompanied a family member at the end of life for over 2 months and less than 2 years. Five nominal groups and 5 discussion groups were established, and 41 in-depth interviews with 123 participants were conducted. Atlas.ti 7.0 software was used to analyse the discourses. Results: Four dimensions of the dying process emerged: differences in carers’ perceptions of information and communication, a conspiracy of silence, consequences of the absence or presence of information, and the need for a culture change. Conclusions: Poor management of health information and communication at the end of life suffering and discomfort patients and their families. The culture of denying and avoiding death is still present today. A change in education about death would better enable health professionals to care for patients at the end of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0711.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: pornography; qualitative research; sexual behavior; sex education; sexual health; young women
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:05:39 CEST)
This study explores female university students' attitudes and concerns toward pornography, based on their experience watching it and on sexual encounters with men. It used a qualitative descriptive design. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 participants between March and April 2020. Thematic data analysis was performed using COREQ reporting guidelines. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) the sexual learning process, 2) the role of pornography in women’s sexuality, and 3) sexual experiences. Participants reported how they learned about sexuality and how pornography influenced sexual experiences. Self-esteem issues and societal norms regarding hair removal, and difficulty saying “no” to unwanted or humiliating sexual practices were found. Young women were not comfortable with women’s representations in mainstream pornography. They blame pornography for negative sexual experiences and claim it influences them and young men. Participants usually assumed submissive roles during sex and permitted aggressive sexual behaviors. The study reveals valuable information on how young women learn about sex, difficulty in refusing unwanted sexual activities, and even aggressive practices. Sexual education programs should include assertiveness training to improve sexual health, consent, and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0099.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: diabetes; survey; sub-Saharan Africa; coronavirus; vaccine; hesitancy; refusal; qualitative; lockdown
Online: 15 June 2022 (05:56:25 CEST)
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with severe COVID-19 infection and complications. This study assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in diabetes and explored reasons for nonvaccinating. This was a web-based cross-sectional survey using a mixed-method approach conducted between March-May 2021 corresponding to most SSA countries' early vaccine rollout period. Participants were those aged ≥18 years with self-reported DM in 11 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Responses to comments on reasons for vaccine hesitancy and facilitators for vaccine uptake were analyzed. Of the 73 participants with DM, 65.8% were males older than 35 years (86.3%), had post-secondary education (90%), and a significant proportion was from South Africa (39.7%), Nigeria (28.8%) and Ghana (13.7%). 64.4% had COVID-19 symptoms, 46.6% were tested for COVID-19, of which 19.2% tested positive. Few participants (6.8%) had taken the COVID-19 vaccination, 65.8% were willing to take the vaccine, while 26.0% either refused or hesitated to take the vaccine. The main reasons identified for not taking the vaccine were: advice from religious leaders, concerns about the vaccine safety, its effects, and efficacy, mistrust of the pharmaceutical companies, the conspiracy theories around the vaccines, the process of production, and the personal belief of the participants. However, participants stated they would take the vaccine if given more education about it, receive positive feedback from those vaccinated, are rewarded for taking the vaccine or if vaccination becomes a condition for travel and employment. The findings of this study showed that uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine was very low in this high-risk group. It is imperative that efforts to increase the uptake of vaccines, such as the provision of education and relevant information, are made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: clinical psychology; cultural psychology; ethic and professionalism; holistic medicine; qualitative methods
Online: 2 July 2019 (09:39:40 CEST)
This study aimed to explore how Indonesian clinical psychologists (CPs) address aspects of spirituality and religion (SR), particularly their attitudes towards and experience of it, on the mental health context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 CPs in public health centres in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Data were anyalsed using deductive thematic analysis and they generated ten sub-themes which were merged into three central themes. The first theme was experiences related to SR, particularly in Indonesian sociocultural context. The second theme concentrated on participants’ clinical experience related to SR integration into clinical practice. The last theme highlighted the effort made by participants to create holistic mental health services. The originality of this study was represented by the interview quote in the title, “Doing my profession is also part of worship”. It was found that SR is part of culture and belief among Indonesian people, including CPs and mental health treatment clients. In summary, participants genuinely acknowledged that they were not able to completely detach SR from their professional practice. However, participants also pointed out that they were different with spiritual-religious healers (SRHs) and favourably welcomed future collaboration with credible SRHs. This positive attitude embodied a holistic care approach that recognises the diverse biopsycho-social-spiritual needs of clients. Therefore, professional organisations and psychology faculties should establish regulations and education of SR in psychology curricula and conventional psychotherapy to achieve this holistic mental health services in Indonesia.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: patient care; pharmacists; pharmacy curriculum; pharmacy education; public health; qualitative method
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:34:46 CET)
1) Public health remains a tiny portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and the material is integrated into other modules. The objective of this study is to describe the UK undergraduate pharmacy curriculum, including its public health content; 2) Methods: A qualitative method (content analysis of websites) was used to describe the UK undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and teaching and learning policy. This involved selecting relevant concepts and then quantifying their presence and the relationships between them. The NVivo software was used to carry out ‘group queries’ and visualisation of results; 3) Results: Public health remains an optional module in the curricula of many UK schools of pharmacy. Several public health-related topics are often integrated into other modules, but UK undergraduate pharmacy curricula are still dominated by traditional pharmacy modules; and 4) Conclusions: Most of the curricula analysed were dominated by traditional pharmacy modules designed to enhance students' knowledge and skills. The skill set of UK pharmacy students with respect to macro-level public health activities needs to be improved in order to enhance pharmacists’ contribution to public health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: qualitative research; infant feeding; complementary feeding; breast feeding; low income country
Online: 8 August 2017 (12:00:26 CEST)
Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors that are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A systematic review and synthesis of available qualitative research related to infant and young child dietary patterns and practices from the perspective of parents and families in low income settings is presented, with a focus on barriers and facilitators to achieving international recommendations. Data from both published and grey literature from 2006-2016 was included in the review. Quality assessment consisted of two phases (CASP guidelines and assessment using GRADE-CERQual), followed by synthesis of the studies identified, and subsequent thematic analysis and interpretation. The findings indicated several categories of both barriers and facilitators, spanning individual and system level factors. The review informs efforts aimed at improving child health and nutrition, and represents the first such comprehensive review of the qualitative literature, uniquely suited to understanding complex behaviors leading to infant and young child dietary patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1609.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: lucid dreaming practice; creativity; insights; martial arts; sport; interview; qualitative; lucid dreaming
Online: 26 September 2023 (02:52:24 CEST)
Lucid dreaming is a dream in which one is aware that they are dreaming while dreaming as well as being able to influence the dream. It is utilized in scientific research to explore dreaming, in clinical context to treat nightmares, and in private settings to have fun, solve problems, and to train various skills. In this paper, based on an interview with a lucid dreamer, a fascinating, yet hardly described way to use lucid dreaming in sports and martial arts is presented. The dreamer used his lucid dreams to explore new movements and new possibilities in martial arts. For the interview, the guide from Schädlich and Erlacher  was used. The interviewee’s lucid dream experience is compared to interviews of other lucid dreamers and their experience and to contemporary research on lucid dreams. While the potential of lucid dreaming is explored, the interviewee also mentions the possible shortcomings of lucid dreaming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0592.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education sector; management in government; citizen experience; qualitative research; public sector reforms
Online: 8 August 2023 (04:01:28 CEST)
This is a case study in the domain of public sector management or management in government, with particular reference to education as a sector as a whole. Bangladesh has shown persistent upward trends in development indicators during the last four decades. In the education sector also, many indicators improved - literacy, the female proportion of literacy, number of educational institutions, etc. Quantity wise investment and indicators increased and improved at all levels and dimensions like primary, secondary, tertiary, technical, and so on. But qualitative improvement remained mysteriously low, despite government intention to increase quality of teaching, learning, and administration. This paper aimed to draw an overall picture of qualitative scenario of the education sector. Analyzing secondary sources like public media, and primary sources like citizen interactions, this qualitative study consolidated the problems of the education sector in a coherent whole. It argues that many problems of education sector are not education problems or budget problems, rather purely and simply ‘management’ problems, and so, can effectively be solved with basic but thorough understanding of the basic technicalities of management as a discipline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1761.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: type 1 diabetes mellitus; qualitative research; patient experience; self-management; diabetes care
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:54:04 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes imposes a complex and challenging routine on patients and caregivers. Therefore, considering individual experiences and personal facilitators to promote assertive interventions is crucial. However, no studies have addressed these perspectives in the Brazilian adult population. We aimed to identify psycho-behavioral characteristics perceived as facilitators for coping with the condition. We used a biographical method to conduct semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews for each participant. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants (n = 22) were aged 18–57 years (mean: 30.2, standard deviation (SD): 8.7), and the duration since diagnosis was approximately 20.6 years (SD: 4.6). Twelve (54.4%) were women, 13 (59.1%) used insulin pumps, 14 (63.6%) had at least a college degree, and 13 (59.1%) had HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) levels above 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Five major themes emerged: 1) peer learning, 2) ownership, 3) welcoming experiences, 4) equity, and 5) reframe the path (P.O.W.E.R.). All themes appeared in the lived experiences shared by participants with HbA1C levels below 58 mmol/mol (7.5%). Improved glycemic control can be achieved, and the challenges encountered in diabetes care within similar socioeconomic contexts can be addressed, by an interdisciplinary care team that takes P.O.W.E.R into consideration when providing person-centered care strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Type 1 diabetes; mental-health; COVID-19; adolescents; qualitative research; narratives; NVivo
Online: 30 December 2022 (09:16:21 CET)
Background: The global prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents has increased considerably during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mental health problems may compromise glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes; however, evidence of improved glycemic control in adolescents with T1D appeared early during the pandemic. This qualitative study aimed to provide a more in-depth understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic affected adolescents with type 1 diabetes routines, experiences, T1D management, behaviors, and mental health. Methods: 24 adolescents, aged 15-18 years, with DM1, joined the discussion of focus groups in the context of the summer camp for diabetes. Word frequency and thematic analysis were conducted on adolescents’ narratives. Results: The word Frequency Analysis identified 'friends', 'family', and 'home' as the most frequent terms. Seven themes were identified: (1) COVID-19 and T1D; (2) emotional reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic; (3) changes in daily life; (4) feelings of loss; (5) coping with the COVID-19 pandemic; (6) the COVID-19 pandemic as an opportunity; (7) return to (new) normality. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic may have represented a more stressful condition for adolescents with DM1, facing additional challenges compared to their healthy peers. The results offer directions to the diabetes care team for a customized intervention while the consequences of the pandemic on adolescents’ health continue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0332.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: school meals; nutrition policies; food preferences; healthy meals; children; norway; qualitative methods
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:53:50 CET)
School meals can have a key function in promoting children’s health. However, simply providing a free school meal is not a guarantee that pupils will actually eat the food. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes in Oslo The study has a qualitative research design, inspired by grounded theory. Data were collected through interviews with pupils, teachers and parents, and participant observations in two schools participating in a pilot project funded by Oslo Municipality. Line-by-line coding, memo writing and a constant comparative technique were used to analyse the data. One primary school and one lower-secondary school in different districts in Oslo that were implementing two different free school meal models. 39 pupils (5th–10th grade), 15 parents and 12 school employees were included. Four main factors related to pupils’ participation to free school meals emerged from the analysis: the popularity of the food served, the attraction to the nearby shopping centre, social aspects and predictability. To promote pupils’ participation in free school meal schemes, schools need to solve the challenges of balancing between healthy food and popular but often unhealthy food. Children and parents involvement, regularity of the meals provision, a good flow of information and the creation of a friendly eating environment are recommended
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0022.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Wildfire; Private Forest; Reforestation; Southeast Germany; Qualitative Study; Pine Monoculture; Mixed Forest
Online: 4 May 2021 (14:13:31 CEST)
Due to climate change, droughts have been occurring more frequently in Germany in recent years. More frequent and prolonged drought affects the health of trees and increases the risk of forest fires. A large-scale forest fire broke out near Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, in the summer of 2018 in pine monospecific forests. In addition to evaluating the damage caused, future reforestation is discussed, which is related mainly to the expectations of the forest owners. A telephone survey of seven affected forest owners was conducted using a semi-structured guided interview. The results from our interview demonstrated the support of private forest owners for mixed forests over monospecific pine forests. Most forest owners do not prioritize economic benefit with the forest land as forestry was not the primary source of income. Instead, the ownership of the forest tends to be linked to idealistic, cultural, and family values. The motives for reforestation vary but are often externally influenced. Different goals of forest owners lead to the challenge of finding consensus among them. We conclude that forestry advice by the federal and state governments is essential, especially on how climate change can affect local forests, to sensitize private forest owners to this problem.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Sugars; Sweeteners; Sweet Taste; Sweetness; Attitudes; Focus Groups; Qualitative Research; Thematic Analysis
Online: 25 March 2021 (17:14:44 CET)
Worldwide initiatives currently aim to reduce free sugar intakes, but success will depend on consumer attitudes towards sugar and the alternatives. This work aimed to explore attitudes towards sugar, sweeteners and sweet-tasting foods in the general public of the UK, including attitudes towards personal consumption and related policies. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 34 adults (7 males, ages: 18-65 years). Thematic analysis identified six themes: ‘Value’ (e.g. pleasure, emotions), ‘Angle’ (e.g. disinterest), ‘Personal Relevance’ (to be concerned and/or change one’s own behaviour), ‘Personal Responsibility’ (one has an active relationship with these food items), ‘Understanding’ (the acquisition, comprehension and application of information surrounding these food items) and ‘It’s Not Up to Me’ (a passive approach towards these food items, because intake is subjected to other factors). Both positive and negative attitudes towards sugar, sweeteners and sweet-tasting foods were expressed in all themes, largely dependent on the individual. Potential strategies for reducing free sugar intakes were also reported, but differences in likely value were suggested by different individuals. Future work should assess associations between attitudes and intakes. For greatest population benefit, evidence of the dominant attitudes in those in greatest need of reduced free sugar intakes would be of value.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Maternal diet; Dietary behaviour change intervention; Nutrition education; Balanced plate; Qualitative methods
Online: 9 July 2020 (16:15:13 CEST)
Social, cultural, environmental and economic factors closely regulate the selection, allocation and consumption of maternal diets. We developed a nutrition behaviour change intervention to promote a balanced diet in pregnancy through practical demonstration in rural Bangladesh and tested the impact with a cluster randomised controlled trial. This paper presents the findings of the process evaluation and describes the strategies that worked for intervention compliance. We conducted in-depth interviews with pregnant women, women who birthed recently, and their husbands; focus groups with mothers and mothers-in-law; key-informant interviews with community health workers, and observation of home visits. We identified six key areas within the intervention strategy that played a crucial role in achieving the desired adherence. These included practical demonstration of portion sizes; addressing local food perceptions; demystifying animal-source foods; engaging husbands and mothers-in-law; leveraging women’s social networks; and harnessing community health workers’ social role. Practical demonstration, opportunity to participate and convenience of making of the plate with the food available in their kitchen or neighbours’ kitchen were the most commonly mentioned reasons for acceptance of the intervention by the women and their families. The balanced plate intervention helped women through practical demonstration to learn about a balanced meal by highlighting appropriate portion sizes and food diversity. The women needed active involvement of community health workers in mobilising social support to create an enabling environment essential to bring changes in dietary behaviours. Programs to promote a nutritious maternal diet should focus on encouraging the use of healthy foods through practical demonstration of portion sizes and engagement of the women and family instead of replicating the traditional information-based counselling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0126.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR); sustainability; complementarity; fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)
Online: 12 November 2019 (10:00:45 CET)
We examined how combinations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities lead to high performance in Korean companies. This study addressed two related questions to expand our limited knowledge in this area. The first was what combinations of CSR activities achieve high performance. The second was to identify how CSR activities form an interdependent system, depending on different corporate situations. Korean Economic Justice Institute index data, from 2012 to 2018, were used with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, and the results revealed several effective CSR activity factor combinations under given strategies and management environments. Companies with high performance exhibit complementarity between social contribution, environmental management, fairness, and employee satisfaction. By contrast, companies with low corporate performance show no complementarity between relatively unrelated activity factors. For companies whose CSR activities lead to low financial performance, most of the causal pathways focused only on activities at the primary stakeholder level, with weak diversity of CSR activities’ combinations at the primary and secondary stakeholder levels. These results indicate not only the appropriateness of CSR activity factor combinations for companies’ strategy and management environment contexts, but also their effectiveness, and are expected to provide companies with significant implications for CSR activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0013.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; thematic analysis; Outcomes assessment; Qualitative Research; Patient reported outcome measures
Online: 3 January 2017 (11:32:52 CET)
Background. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. Methods. Forty persons with RA were purposefully recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were then analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. Conclusions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: management in government; public sector reforms; improvements in government; field research; qualitative research
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:28:31 CEST)
Purpose: When it comes to improving citizen service delivery standard and processes, or broadly, management in government (MIG), many reform programs and improvement efforts are ongoing across different ministries, departments, and agencies. This paper is part of a larger empirical research where we are interested to know what those programs and projects are, and how they are doing, and what the gaps are. Design/methodology/approach: Analyzing the publicly available data on the government portal and donors’ website, this article provides an overall idea of current reforms in various places of government. In parallel, field research was conducted through visiting agency offices, observing office environment and mechanisms, and interviewing public managers who are working at district and sub-district level offices of directorates or agencies.Findings: As a trend, state-led development process and the traditional mode of administration have moved to New Public Management based quality and performance approach. All donors have their own strategy framework document like ‘Country Assistance strategy’, ‘Country Operations and Business Plan’, Logical Framework Document, Focus or Priority Streams, etc. Many of the projects are sectoral and agency or ministry specific and have an inherent limitations, due to ‘cadre’ based organizational structural arrangement. So, it is common ‘not to own the projects’, rather ‘using the fund as much as possible anyway within the given project duration’. When the fund ends, implementing units, either government or NGOs, abandon the projects. That is why many projects are actually half done without significant and sustained direction.Originality/value: We can conclude that the typical ‘top-down’ or ‘trickle down’ conception is still dominant in design and implementation of reforms programs and service quality efforts. So, how to reach systemically at the bottom where public managers provide services to citizens, needs even more deliberation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0884.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: food for special medical purposes; FSMP; qualitative research; nutritional needs for oncology patients
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:01:14 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate Romanian physicians' awareness, recommendation practices, and opinions regarding using Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMPs) products. A total of ten physicians were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and their responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. The study found that physicians were aware of FSMPs and recommended them to their patients based on nutritional deficits, weight loss, or deglutition impairments. In addition, disease stage, treatment scheme, taste, affordability, and availability were identified as factors influencing the recommendation and use of FSMPs. While physicians generally did not consult clinical trials, clinical experience was deemed essential for recommending FSMPs to patients. Patients' feedback regarding the usage and sourcing of FSMPs was generally positive, with some expressing concerns about the availability of different flavours and the costs of purchasing the products. The study concludes that physicians play a vital role in recommending FSMPs to patients and ensuring they have the necessary nutritional support during treatment. However, more patient education materials and collaboration with nutritionists may be required to improve patient outcomes and reduce patient financial burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: young caregiver; baseline interviews; pandemic; qualitative; COVID-19; longitudinal; social determinants of health
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:09:48 CEST)
This qualitative research study is a part of a larger research project exploring the experiences of young caregivers aged 5-26 years and their families navigating the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 to 2023. Data was collected from 14 young caregivers who participated in baseline interviews. The central research question guiding this study: What was, is, and will be the impact of changing public health restrictions on young caregivers and their families during the pandemic and pandemic recovery? Seven themes emerged through analysis: 1) Navigating Care During the Height of Public Health Restrictions, 2) Neighbourhood and Built Environment During the Pandemic, 3) Perceptions Towards COVID and Public Health Restrictions/Efforts, 4) The Impact of Public Health Restrictions on Relationships, 5) Mental Health Challenges of Being a Young Caregiver During a Pandemic, 6) Navigating Formal Services and Supports and 7) Recommendations from Young Caregivers. The findings from this empirical research suggest that young caregivers found it easier to navigate their caregiving responsibilities when public health restrictions and work-from-home mandates were initially implemented, however, this later changed due to challenges in finding respite from caregiving, maintaining social connections with friends, creating personal space at home, and finding adequate replacements of programs once offered in-person.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: work-related stress; burnout; well-being; teachers; self-efficacy; psychological interrvention; qualitative research
Online: 23 February 2023 (02:45:40 CET)
This study analyses key aspects of the professional life of primary school teachers in a southern European context. In the social changes of last two decades profoundly impacted the well-being of teachers putting a strain on their ability to adapt to sometimes unfair working conditions. For this purpose twenty teachers (M = 38.85; DS = 9.17) were interviewed from different areas of Italy, data were analyzed using the Grounded Theory Method. Through data analysis were summa-rize and emphasize eight core themes. The results show the effects of a gradual impoverishment of the recognition of the role of teacher, highlighting the difficulty for teachers of renegotiating more flexible workload assessments and of reinforcing psycho-emotional skills for the development of a teaching methodology attentive to the psycho-emotional needs of pupils. Schools emerge as a rigid working context, in which a competent organizational function is often absent. Practical psychological implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0569.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecosystem dynamics; discrete-event model; qualitative modelling; boolean model; state-and-transition model
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:39:11 CET)
Sub-Saharan social-ecological systems are undergoing changes in environmental conditions, including modifications in rainfall pattern and biodiversity loss. Consequences of such changes depend on complex causal chains which call for integrated management strategies whose efficiency could benefit from ecosystem dynamic modelling. However, ecosystem models often require lots of quantitative information for estimating parameters, which is often unavailable. Alternatively, qualitative modelling frameworks have proved useful for explaining ecosystem response to perturbations, while requiring fewer information and providing more general predictions. However, current qualitative methods have some shortcomings which may limit their utility for specific issues. In this paper, we propose the Ecological Discrete-Event Network (EDEN), an innovative qualitative dynamic modelling framework based on "if-then" rules which generates many alternative event sequences (trajectories). Based on expert knowledge, observations and literature, we use this framework to assess the effect of permanent changes in surface water and herbivores diversity on vegetation and socio-economic transitions in an East African savanna. Results show that water availability drives changes in vegetation and socio-economic transitions, while herbivore functional groups had highly contrasted effects depending on the group. This first use of EDEN in a savanna context is promising for bridging expert knowledge and ecosystem modelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0310.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: carers; community meals; home-delivered meals; Meals on Wheels; older adults; qualitative research; referral
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:17:25 CEST)
Meals on Wheels (MoWs) provide access to daily meals and social contact to adults with care and support needs.MoWs could be essential for the increasing rates of an ageing population and adults living with complex needs in England, yet many do not know that the service exists. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of MoWs service users, and people who refer them to MoWs (‘referrers’), with accessing and setting up the service in England, and what information would be valued when considering accessing MoWs services.Semi-structured interviews were conducted in May-July 2022 with seven service users and 21 referrers, recruited from four MoWs providers across England. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants indicated various pathways into the service, but referrers (family members) were more likely to be the ones enquiring about, and setting up, MoWs for service users. Once an enquiry about MoWs had been made, the service was perceived as straightforward to set up.However, existing preconceptions and stereotypes about the service (e.g. bringing to mind ‘school meals’, aimed solely at older adults) were perceived to act as barriers to accessing MoWs.Information that participants deemed important to have available when deciding on whether to access MoWs related to the meals (e.g. nutritional value, variety, need for any preparation, catering for individual needs), the specific services provided (e.g. wellbeing checks, daily social contact), the reliability and flexibility of delivery, and the cost of services. These findings could inform MoWs providers’ public awareness strategies about MoWs, in order to facilitate referrals to the service for adults with care and support needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1092.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: food insecurity; food access; food assistance; SNAP; barriers; text message; information; nudge; qualitative; interview
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:57:59 CEST)
Background: Food insecurity is an ongoing problem in the U.S. with implications for health problems and social disadvantages. Past food insecurity intervention studies have targeted barriers to accessing healthy food. Although, information barriers have not been adequately addressed by food insecurity interventions. Methods: This qualitative study involved testing a text message as an informational nudge through interviews among adults in the southwest U.S. (n = 10). Interview questions focused on the message content, persuasiveness, relevancy, clarity, and details that participants liked and disliked. A qualitative content analysis of interview responses then highlighted any necessary modifications to the text message. Results: Interview responses highlighted that the message conveyed details about how to access food assistance resources. The message was perceived as informative, clear, and friendly. Participants highlighted the need for better spacing in the message layout, more details about the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and why SNAP is relevant. Conclusion: Text message readability and informativeness were common concerns raised during interviews. Participant-informed modifications to the text message were applied in preparation for using the message in a food insecurity intervention. Future food insecurity research efforts should similarly test novel interventions to ensure the intervention is acceptable for the target population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: model developement, TB–HIV integrated model, TB and HIV, model, quantitative and qualitative data
Online: 11 April 2023 (05:39:06 CEST)
Few studies have examined the pros and cons of integrated TB and HIV service delivery in public healthcare facilities, and even fewer have proposed conceptual models for improved integration. This study intends to fill that vacuum by outlining the development of a facility-based paradigm for integrating TB, HIV and patients services. The design of the proposed model were in stages that involved the evaluation of existing TB-HIV integration model and synthesis of both quantitative and qualitative data from the study sites which were selected public healthcare facilities at both rural and peri-urban settings in Oliver Reginald (O.R) Tambo District Municipality in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary data on 2009-2013 TB-HIV clinical outcomes were obtained from multiple sources for quantitative analysis. Qualitative data involved focus group discussions among patient and heath care staff, which was thematically analysed. The development of a possibly better model and validation of this model show that the district's health system was reinforced by the model's guiding principles, which placed a strong emphasis on inputs, processes, outcomes, and integration effects.The model is adaptable to different healthcare delivery systems but will require support from healthcare stakeholders and professionals to be successful.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: qualitative analysis; deconversion; case study; Faith Development Interview; subjective religiosity; narrative identity; content analysis
Online: 9 May 2022 (10:02:48 CEST)
This article addresses the question how the religious narrative identity and subjective religiosity change over the course of 15 years. The cases portrayed are deconverts who have changed their religious affiliations multiple times. It will be carved out what led to their deconversion and what remains as a core of their faith after they have turned away from organized religion for good. Interviews have been conducted at three time points and are analyzed using content analysis. It will become clear that the needs and expectations of the two individuals differ highly, as well as the reasons for turning away from a religious community; yet what is a common core in this joint faithful journey is their need to live their religiosity, now in a private setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0481.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academia; affective dimension; doctoral education; mock defense; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; viva; viva voce
Online: 29 September 2021 (09:10:34 CEST)
The doctoral defense is an important step towards obtaining the doctoral degree. As such, preparing for the event is necessary. Anecdotal evidence highlights that there is a wide variety of ways in which doctoral candidates prepare for the defense. In this work, I want to explore if there is a relation between the way in which a doctoral candidate prepares for the defense and two important aspects of the defense: the outcome of the defense, and the student perception during and after the defense. For this purpose, I first reviewed the literature on the topic of the preparation for the doctoral defense. Then, I carried out an international survey on the doctoral defense and analyzed the data of the 204 completed surveys with respect to the preparation for the defense using quantitative and qualitative methods. The methods I used included the statistical tests of the correlation between on one hand the preparation and on the other hand the defense outcome and student perception. I used inductive thematic analysis of the open-ended survey questions to gain deeper insight in the way candidates prepared for their defense. I found that candidates most often prepare by making their presentation, reading their thesis, and practicing. The most effective measure is the mock defense, followed by a preparatory course. Reading blogs, books, and chapters is a less effective preparation measure. The conclusion of this work is that doctoral candidates need to understand the format of their defense in order to be able to prepare properly, and that universities should explore either individual pathways to the defense or pilots using a mock defense and/or preparatory course to give their doctoral candidates the necessary tools to prepare for their doctoral defense.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intuitive Meditation; Consciousness; Inner Balance technology 3; Coherence; Feeling; Thinking; HeartMath; Wellbeing; Self; Qualitative
Online: 21 June 2021 (09:53:57 CEST)
An introductory course of Arka Dhyana, also known as Intuitive Meditation (IM), consisting of five sessions, was offered to an international audience via Zoom technology. Participants were shown how to connect to their deeper self, essence or soul by bringing their I-ego-awareness from the thinking mind, often associated with the frontal part of the brain, to 19 energetic stations in the body including the heart centre. In this limited study, evaluation was both process and outcome orientated and included HeartMath (HM) Inner Balance or emWave2 electronic technology to measure mean coherence and achievement before and after each session. A highly significant increase in both coherence and achievement in six participants was found, which was also reflected in a reported increase in wellbeing related to feelings in qualitative statements indicating changes in levels of consciousness and individual transformative experiences as predicted by the Theory of the Six Main Levels of Consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0086.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: iterated function; asymptotic analysis; discretization; stability theory; metric space; qualitative theory of differential equations
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:09:07 CEST)
By defining a constant probabilistic orbit of and iterated functions, the stability dynamics of these functions in possible interactions through connectivity provides the formation of a dynamic fixed point as a metric space between both iterated functions. The presence of a dynamic fixed point identifies qualitatively phases of iteration time lengths and interaction orbits of the event. Qualitative results show that the greater the average distance from one of the functions to the fixed point of the other (all possible solutions), the higher the iteration expression on time (false asymptotic effect) of one of the functions and in the opposite hand, the lower the average distance, the higher orbit’s interactions proximity between iterated functions (stability). This feature reveals asymptotic (well-defined) behavior between functions f and g within a well-defined Lyapunov stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine; integrative medicine; knowledge; training and education; psychology; mental health; qualitative
Online: 26 June 2019 (05:31:14 CEST)
Background and objectives: The inadequate knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among health professionals may put their clients in risky situation because they then would find information about CAM from unreliable sources. Clinical psychologists (CPs), as health professionals, have also the opportunity to provide psychoeducation on the latest CAM scientific research to their clients. The current study aimed to explore knowledge and educational needs of CAM among CPs in Indonesia because previous studies on exploring CAM knowledge and educational needs of CAM were primarily conducted in Western countries. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 43 CPs in public health centers (PHCs) in Indonesia. Most interviews were held at the PHCs where participants worked and interviews lasted for 55 minutes, on average. The interview recordings were transcribed and were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. Results: Five main themes emerged within participants’ responses regarding CAM knowledge and educational needs. First (CAM understanding), participants’ responses ranged from those with little or no prior knowledge of CAM treatments and uses, to those with much greater familiarity. Second (source of knowledge), participants’ access ranged widely in terms of references, from popular to scientific literature. Third (why is it important?), participants identified CAM essentially as part of Indonesian culture and it was therefore crucial to have this cultural knowledge. Fourth (the challenges and what is needed?), the challenges for improving participants’ knowledge came from personal and institutional levels. Fifth (what and how to learn?), participants advised that only CAM treatments that fit in brief psychotherapy sessions should be introduced in professional training. Conclusions: This qualitative study discovered that CAM was neither well-known nor understood widely. Participants advised that professional associations and health institutions should work together in enhancing knowledge of CAM and incorporating CAM education into psychology education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: social representations; natural hazard risk; Alpine hazards; risk communication; risk management; qualitative risk research;
Online: 16 November 2018 (13:35:01 CET)
The term “risk” is connoted with divergent meanings in natural hazard risk research and the practice of risk management. Whilst the technical definition is accurately defined, in practice, the term “risk” is often synonymously used with “danger”. Considering this divergence as a deficiency, risk communication often aims to correct laypersons’ understanding. We suggest in reference to Breakwell (2001) to treat the variety of meanings as a resource for risk communication strategies instead. However, there is no investigation so far, of what laypersons’ meanings of risk actually comprise. To address this gap, we examine the meanings of risk applying a social representations approach (Moscovici, 2001) in a qualitative case study design. Results of the study among inhabitants of Swiss mountain villages show that differences in meanings were found according to hazard experience and community size. We found commonly shared core representations, and single peripheral ones. We conclude with suggestions on how to make usage of the knowledge on SR in risk communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1206.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: savu sea; sustainable management of marine conservation area; Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), causal condition combination
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:06:44 CEST)
The Savu Sea holds significant importance as a conservation area in Indonesia, providing sustenance and livelihoods for local communities. It is situated within the Coral Triangle, a critical hotspot for marine biodiversity worldwide. However, the Savu Sea is currently facing various threats, including overfishing, pollution, and the impacts of climate change. Effective management of this conservation area relies heavily on the active participation of local communities. Therefore, this study aims to address this issue by analyzing how factors within these communities, such as the socio-economic condition of coastal households, environmental awareness, the existence of community-based conservation areas, attitudes towards activities within the conservation area, and participation in multistakeholder institutions, contribute to a positive perception of the benefits provided by the Savu conservation area. To determine the complex causal conditions that influence the outcome of perception, the study employs the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) method, specifically using crisp set QCA (csQCA). A survey was conducted among 22 coastal villages surrounding the Savu Sea, resulting in the identification of 14 different combinations of pathways that contribute to varying levels of perception regarding conservation. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this study to enhance the design of policies aimed at effectively managing the Savu conservation area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1641.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: emotional well-being; ideal university hostel; personal construct theory; qualitative repertory grid technique; students’ perceptions
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:34:46 CEST)
One of the ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic is that it has lent urgency to ongoing discussions on mental well-being. While standard techniques are available to diagnose mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress, ambiguity persists regarding the emotional aspect of well-being. Emotional well-being (EWB) is a recently developed concept that seeks to understand the contribution of emotions to one’s well-being. Interactive approaches for such investigations are recommended to understand people’s contextual experiences. In this study, we use a qualitative approach to examine the psychological impact of the built environment on its residents to formulate the desiderata for an ideal place based on their perceptions. We use personal construct theory and the associated qualitative repertory grid technique. We recruited 15 students from the United Arab Emirates University and obtained information on their perceptions of three built environments they experienced. The findings revealed information on the students’ emotional constructs that were associated with a set of design-related factors, and the way the ideal hostel should be characterized in response to these associations. These findings enrich our knowledge of EWB within built environments and can inform their future design by considering the emotional aspect of the well-being of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital alchemy; blended learning; literature and language education; constructivist learning theory; SAMR model; qualitative research
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:28:30 CEST)
This study investigates how digital alchemy can enhance literature and language teaching through a combination of online and face-to-face learning. It uses constructivist learning theory and the SAMR model to examine how digital tools and resources can transform learner engagement, critical thinking, and creativity. The study gathered data from interviews, focus groups, and document analysis with 30 participants from private HEI schools. The results show that digital alchemy through blended learning allows learners to personalize and collaborate in their exploration of various literary texts. However, the study also identifies some challenges related to resource availability and educator training. The study emphasizes the importance of using digital alchemy in literature and language teaching and suggests some ways for educators, administrators, and policymakers to effectively use digital tools and resources for student-centered teaching methods in the digital era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Keywords: vegetable cultivation; health; physical health; mental health; social well-being; qualitative study; adult; Japan
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:49:04 CEST)
The present short communication aimed to determine the effects of vegetable cultivation on health. We conducted a qualitative study using responses to an open-ended question that was part of a survey on regional differences on vegetable intake. Participants in this study were residents of Gunma Prefecture, Japan, and were aged between 20–74 years. In the questionnaire, we asked: “Aside from increasing vegetable intake, how does vegetable cultivation affect your health?” We were able to categorize the answers into six subcategories related to physical health, mental health, and social well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0538.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: large articulated vehicles; automated perpendicular parking; geometric path plans; empirical methods; articulation angles; qualitative kinematics; uncertainties
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:44:54 CEST)
Since large articulated vehicles have uncertainties in trailer articulation angle as well as dynamic complexity, it is not easy to accurately establish a reliable motion plan. In this paper, two geometric path plans constructed based on the empirical rules of driving experts are presented so that articulated vehicles can automatically perform perpendicular parking on a reverse path. By analyzing the empirical parking methods of professional drivers, these path plans were constructed by appropriately combining several standardized simple basic motions to facilitate implementation in real vehicles. In addition, path plans included appropriate complementary motions to effectively respond to uncertainties arising from articulation angles, etc. The complementary motions developed in this study are based on the results of qualitative analysis on the behavior of articulated vehicles. The usefulness of the proposed articulated vehicle parking method has been proven through hundreds of experimental tests using a 1:10 ratio model automated vehicle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Extended lumbar drainage; Hydrocephalus; Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus; neurodegenerative diseases; Qualitative neurocognitive tests; Quantitative neurocognitive tests
Online: 23 December 2022 (08:09:41 CET)
Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is a syndrome with neuroradiological findings and clinical pattern characteristic but not specific for the pathology. Since the prevalence is growing due to the rapidly aging society, standardized and validated protocol for diagnosis is needed, also because this condition may mimic other disorders among elderly such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Material and methods: We analysed data from 44 patients with suspect diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus with age > 60 years, clinical triad and neuroradiological pattern examined in our ward from November 2018 to November 2022. Neu-ropsychological assessment includes Mini Mental State Examination and Mental Deterioration Battery. Motor scores were collected from gait and balance tests. The evaluation was performed before and after an extended lumbar drainage last 48h. Patients who has scores improvement after the extended lumbar drainage, undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a programmable valve. Results: All patients undergo neuropsychological assessment and motor tests, only 2 patients were unable to perform motor tests because bedridden. 16 patients showed no benefit from the tests, in 2 cases even a worsening of cognitive performance. 28 patients showed an improvement in their performances, but in most cases the improvement involved only the neuropsychological as-sessment. All patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt have had a typical answers pattern in Mental Deterioration Battery test. We performed 9 ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 1 ventricu-lo-atrial shunt. Conclusions: Qualitative neurocognitive tests come out to be more sensitive compared to quantitative neurocognitive tests in identifying patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus benefiting from extended lumbar drainage test and then un-derwent surgical treatment. This could be considered a valid screening in elderly patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in order to minimize the number of invasive procedures. More studies are necessary to validate this tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: new materialism; assemblage; storyboarding; HIV; adherence; antiretroviral therapy; young people; perinatal infection; qualitative evidence synthesis; biopsychosocial
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:54:56 CEST)
Young people living with perinatal infections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (YLPHIV) face a chronic disease, with treatment including adherence to life-long antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of this QES was to explore adherence to ART for YLPHIV as an assemblage within the framework of the BPS model with a new materialist perspective. We searched up to November 2021 and followed the ENTREQ and Cochrane guidelines for QES. All screening, data extraction and critical appraisal was done in duplicate. We analysed and interpreted the findings innovatively, by creating images of meaning, a storyboard, and storylines. We then reported the findings in a narrative first person story. We included 47 studies and identified 9 storylines. We found that treatment adherence has less to do with humans’ preferences, motivations, needs and dispositions, and more to do with how bodies, viruses, things, ideas, institutions, environments, social processes, and social structures assemble. This QES highlights that adherence to ART for YLPHIV is a multisensorial experience in a multi agentic world. Future research into rethinking the linear and casual inferences we are accustomed too in evidence-based health care is needed if we are to adopt multidisciplinary approaches to address pressing issues such as adherence to ART.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0350.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lyme disease; clinical decision-making; medical history taking; physician-patient relation; primary health care; qualitative research
Online: 31 May 2022 (09:14:56 CEST)
Background: Media coverage of Lyme disease (LD) has led to an increase in consultations for presumed LD in Europe. However, LD is confirmed in only 10-20% of patients, with a significant number remaining in a diagnostic dead-end. Objectives: To reach a deeper understanding of how patients themselves contribute to the diagnostic process. To describe the genesis of the LD hypothesis in care pathways. Methods: In 2019, 30 patients from a prospective cohort consulting in the infectious diseases department at University Hospital in Marseille for presumed LD were recruited for semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were : suffering from subjective symptoms for 6 months, no clinical or paraclinical argument suggesting current LD. The patients’ medical trajectories were collected using a biographical approach. Results: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was primarily triggered by identification with personal testimonies found on the internet. Most of patients were leading their own diagnostic investigation. The majority of participants were convinced they had LD despite the lack of medical evidence and the scepticism of their referring GP. Conclusion: GPs should first systematically explore patients’ etiologic representations in order to improve adherence to the diagnosis especially in the management of medically unexplained symptoms. Long COVID-19 syndrome challenge offers an opportunity to promote active patient involvement in diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Inter-rater reliability; preservice teacher performance assessment; PACT; edTPA; weighted kappa; cognitive task analysis; qualitative; quantitative
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:51:52 CEST)
The Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) is a high stakes summative assessment that was designed to measure pre-service teacher readiness. We examined the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of trained PACT evaluators who rated 19 candidates. As measured by Cohen’s weighted kappa, the overall IRR estimate was .17 (poor strength of agreement). IRR estimates ranged from -.29 (worse than expected by chance) to .54 (moderate strength of agreement); all were below the standard of .70 for consensus agreement. Follow up interviews of 10 evaluators revealed possible reasons we observed low IRR, such as departures from established PACT scoring protocol, and lack of, or inconsistent, use of a scoring aid document. Evaluators reported difficulties scoring the materials that candidates submitted, particularly the use of Academic Language. Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) is suggested as a method to improve IRR in the PACT and other teacher performance assessments such as the edTPA.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: hotel housekeepers; stress; occupational health; job demands-resources model; qualitative research; work- life balance; gender perspective.
Online: 19 November 2020 (15:11:33 CET)
Tourism is the main economic sector in the Balearic Islands (Spain) and hotel housekeepers (HHs) are a large occupational group, in which stress is becoming a major issue. This study aims at exploring in-depth factors perceived as stressors by HHs and key-informants, and their effects on work-life balance (WLB). A qualitative design with phenomenological approach was used, conducting six focus groups with 34 HHs and 10 individual interviews with key-informants. Results were analyzed adopting the job demands-resources model and a gender perspective. High demands –e.g work overload, time pressure, physical burden...-, lack of enough resources and little control –derived from role conflict, unexpected events...- were the most important factors explaining HHs’ stress. Additionally, this imbalance was perceived as leading to health problems –mainly musculoskeletal disorders-. Working schedule was mentioned as a facilitator to WLB, whereas an imbalance between job demands and resources led to work-home conflict –preventing them from enjoying leisure time-. Multiple roles at work and at home increased their stress. HHs experienced their job as invisible and unrecognised. Regarding practical implications, our recommendations for hotel organization include reducing workload and increasing resources, which would improve the job demands-resource balance, diminish negative mental and physical outcomes and improve WLB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0080.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: implementation; adoption; health interventions; community prevention; obesity prevention interventions; system dynamics; systems thinking; endogenous dynamics; qualitative modeling; case studies
Online: 27 July 2017 (17:54:29 CEST)
In this study, we present case studies to explore the dynamics of implementation and maintenance of health interventions. We analyze how specific interventions are built and eroded, how the building and erosion mechanisms are interconnected, and why we can see significantly different erosion rates across otherwise similar organizations. We use multiple comparative obesity prevention case studies to provide empirical information on the mechanisms of interest, and use qualitative systems modeling to integrate our evolving understanding into an internally consistent and transparent theory of the phenomenon. Our preliminary results identify reinforcing feedback mechanisms, including design of organizational processes, motivation of stakeholders, and communication among stakeholders, which influence implementation and maintenance of intervention components. Over time, these feedback mechanisms may drive a wedge between otherwise similar organizations, leading to distinct configurations of implementation and maintenance processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1926.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Blood gas analysis; Point-of-care diagnostic; Qualitative research; Situation awareness; User-centered design; Visualization; Visual Blood
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:14:04 CEST)
Blood gas analysis plays a central role in modern medicine. Advances in technology have expanded the range of available parameters and increased the complexity of their interpretation. By applying user-centered design principles, it is possible to reduce the cognitive load associated with interpreting blood gas analysis. In this international, multicenter study, we explored anesthesiologists' perspectives on Visual Blood, a novel visualization technique for presenting blood gas analysis results. We conducted interviews with participants following two computer-based simulation studies: the first utilizing Virtual Reality (VR) (50 participants) and the second without VR (70 participants). Employing the template approach, we identified key themes in the interview responses and formulated six statements, which were rated using Likert scales: from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) in an online questionnaire. The most frequently mentioned theme was the positive usability features of Visual Blood. The online survey revealed that participants found Visual Blood to be an intuitive method for interpreting blood gas analysis (median 4, IQR 4-4, p<0.001). Participants noted that minimal training was required to effectively learn how to interpret Visual Blood (median 4, IQR 4-4, p<0.001). However, adjustments are necessary to reduce visual overload (median 4, IQR 2-4, p<0.001). Overall, Visual Blood received a favorable response. The strengths and weaknesses derived from these data will help optimize future versions of Visual Blood to improve the presentation of blood gas analysis results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early childhood education; play and learning; educational transitions; educational setting; research with children; visual methodologies; qualitative research
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:03:38 CET)
Based on a reflection on the tensions between play, education, and learning in early childhood, this article aims to identify and analyze the factors that limit or negatively condition the possibilities for play at school during the transition between Early Childhood Education and Primary Education in Chile. The study was conducted in four Chilean schools, with the Transition Levels of Chilean Early Childhood Education (children aged 4 and 5) and the first two levels of Primary Education (children aged 6 and 7). Based on an ethnographic approach, we combined 22 ethnographic observation days spread over two consecutive years and 59 interviews of various types with children, educators, and parents. The results show structural-material limitations on school play that mainly affect children in Primary Education. Beyond, factors associated with routines, indications, and statements governing functioning and participation in this level tend to limit or prevent play, often considered a "non-legitimate" activity. Conclusions highlight the potentialities that children's restricted or resisted play can present in terms of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: intensive horticulture; bush habit; qualitative characteristics of berries; sintering and shedding of berries; yield; technologies; mechanized harvesting
Online: 6 February 2023 (08:37:14 CET)
The cultivation of berry crops by the type of "intensive plantings" is an economic and scientific approach in modern horticulture. The principles of forming a red currant assortment adapted to mechanized harvesting are considered. The bush should be compact for mechanized harvesting and have a straight-growing or slightly spreading shape. The morphological structure of the bush is a feature determined by the genotype. The ripening period of berries and the mechanical parameters of berries assess the effectiveness of the berry harvesting process. With the help of agrotechnical techniques, the mechanical parameters of berries cannot be improved and are de-termined by weather, soil, water, and climatic factors. The present study was conducted in the 2021-2022 season using 14 red currant genotypes of different geographical and genetic origins to assess cultivars' suitability for machine harvesting. In most of the studied cultivars, berry quality indicators, the parameters of separation force (Fs) and crushing force (Fc) decreased by the time of biological maturity of the genotype. Several cultivars have shown a non-simultaneous decrease in Fs and Fc. A minor limiting feature determines the duration of harvesting. The high correlation of Fs and Fc (R=0.75-0.85) allows us to predict the most significant period for the high-quality operation of a mechanized harvester. There was no dependence of the strength of the attachment of berries to the peduncle on the thickness of the skin of the berries. Jonkheer Van Tets, Red Lake, Rovada, Rolan, Vika, Asya, and Niva can be attributed to technological cultivars as sources of compact and erect bush habit, Jonkheer Van Tets, Rovada, Rolan, Vika, and Asya are recommended for mechanized harvesting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: regenerative higher education; podcasting as qualitative inquiry; ecological university; sustaina-bility transitions; regenerative education practices; regenerative education design
Online: 28 June 2022 (03:57:41 CEST)
Abstract Universities have the potential, and the responsibility, to take on more ecological and relational approaches to facilitating learning-based change in times of interconnected socio-ecological crises. Signs for a transition towards these more regenerative approaches of higher education (RHE) that include more place-based, ecological, and relational, ways of educating can already be found in niches across Europe (see for example the proliferation of education-based living labs, field labs, challenge labs). In this paper, the results of a podcast-based inquiry into the design practices and barriers of enacting such forms of RHE are shown. This study revealed seven educational practices that occurred across the innovation niches. It is important to note these practices are enacted in different ways, or are locally nested in unique expressions, For example, while the ‘practice’ of Cultivating Personal Transformations was represented across the included cases, the way these transformations were cultivated were unique expressions of each context. These RHE-design practices are derived from twenty-six narrative-based podcasts as interviews recorded in the April through June 2021 period. The resulting podcast (The Regenerative Education Podcast) was published on all major streaming platforms from October 2021 and included 21 participants active in Dutch Universities, 1 in Sweden, 1 in Germany, 1 in France, and 3 primarily online. Each episode engages with a leading practitioner, professor, teacher, and/or activist that is trying to connect their educational practice to making the world a more equitable, sustainable, and regenerative place. The episodes ranged from 30 to 70 minutes in total length and included both English (14) and Dutch (12) interviews. These episodes were analyzed through transition mapping a method based on story analysis and transition design. The results include seven design practices such as Cultivating Personal Transformations, Nurturing Ecosystems of Support, and Tackling Relevant and Urgent Transition Challenges, as well as a preliminary design tool that educational teams can use together with students and local agents in (re)designing their own RHE to connect their educational praxis with transition challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: adolescence; substance use; cannabis use; ordered logistic regression; fuzzy set theory; fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis; Boolean functions.
Online: 18 February 2022 (11:49:13 CET)
The literature on substance use usually extracts conclusions from data with correlational methods. Our study shows the usefulness of complementing ordered logistic regression (OLR) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to assess factors inducing cannabis consumption in a sample of 1,935 teenagers. OLR showed a significant influence of gender (odd ratio (OR) =0.383, p<0.0001), parental monitoring (OR=0.587, p=0.0201); religiousness (OR=0.476, p=0.006); parental tolerance to substance use (OR=42.01, p<0.0001) and having close peers that consume substances (OR=5.60, p<0.0001). FsQCA has allowed fitting linkages between factors from a complementary perspective. (1) Coverage (cov) and consistency (cons) attained by solutions explaining use (cons=0.808, cov=0.357) are clearly lower than by recipes of non-use (cons=0.952, cov=0.869) (2) The interaction of gender, a tolerant family to use and the attitude toward substances by peers is very consistent to explain cannabis use. (3) The most important recipe explaining resistance to cannabis is simply parental disagreement with substance consumption (cons=0.956, cov=0.861) (4) Factors as gender, religiosity, parental monitoring and age show also a relevant impact on attitude toward cannabis use. However, whereas some of them impact symmetrically on use and non-use this does not follow in factors such as parental monitoring or age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0219.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Logic-based models; Boolean models; executable models; qualitative dynamical modelling; omic data integration; in silico simulations; formal verification
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:05:03 CEST)
Discrete, logic-based models are increasingly used to describe biological mechanisms. Initially introduced to study gene regulation, these models evolved to cover various molecular mechanisms, such as signalling, transcription factor cooperativity, and even metabolic processes. The abstract nature and amenability of discrete models to robust mathematical analyses make them appropriate for addressing a wide range of complex biological problems. Recent technological breakthroughs have generated a wealth of high throughput data. Novel, literature-based representations of biological processes and emerging algorithms offer new opportunities for model construction. Here, we review up-to-date efforts to address challenging biological questions by incorporating omic data into logic-based models, and discuss critical difficulties in constructing and analysing integrative, large-scale, logic-based models of biological mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; mass testing; social isolation; social distancing; mental health; students; focus groups; qualitative
Online: 20 January 2021 (13:03:57 CET)
We aimed to explore university students’ perceptions and experiences of SARS-CoV-2 mass asymptomatic testing, social distancing and self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study comprised of four rapid online focus groups conducted at a higher education institution in England during high alert (tier 2) national COVID-19 restrictions. Data were analysed thematically. Participants were purposively sampled university students (n = 25) representing a range of gender, age, living circumstances (on/off campus) and SARS-CoV-2 testing/self-isolation experiences. Six themes with 16 sub-themes emerged from the analysis of the qualitative data: ‘Term-time Experiences’, ‘Risk Perception and Worry’, ‘Engagement in Protective Behaviours’, ‘Openness to Testing’, ‘Barriers to Testing’ and ‘General Wellbeing’. Students described feeling safe on campus, believed most of their peers are adherent to protective behaviours and were positive towards asymptomatic testing in university settings. University communications about COVID-19 testing and social behaviours need to be timely and presented in a more inclusive way to reach groups of students who currently feel marginalised. Barriers to engagement with SARS-CoV-2 testing, social distancing and self-isolation were primarily associated with fear of the mental health impacts of self-isolation, including worry about how they will cope, high anxiety, low mood, guilt relating to impact on others and loneliness. Loneliness in students could be mitigated through increased intra-university communications and a focus on establishment of low COVID-risk social activities to help students build and enhance their social support networks. These findings are particularly pertinent in the context of mass asymptomatic testing programmes being implemented in educational settings and high numbers of students being required to self-isolate. Universities need to determine the support needs of students during self-isolation and prepare for the long-term impacts of the pandemic on student mental health and welfare support services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0325.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Vaccination decision; Decision-making; Vaccination behavior; Nigeria; Vaccine hesitancy; Immunization demand; Immunization uptake; Vaccination; Caregivers; Mothers; qualitative research; focus groups
Online: 6 September 2023 (02:41:06 CEST)
Background: Since 2000, vaccine coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has surpassed multiple milestones. Its contribution to global health, especially in low-middle-income countries is one of the achievements in global governance of modern medicine, averting 2-3 million child deaths every year. However, in Nigeria, vaccine-preventable-diseases still account for one in eight child deaths before their fifth-year birthday and remains one of the ten countries where 4.3 million children under five are without complete immunization. The reasons for declining childhood vaccine demand are unclear. Therefore, the goal of this contribution is to shed light on the reasons to set a foundation for future interventions. Methods: Four focus group discussions were conducted. The primary targets were mothers of children 0 – 12 months old in Nigeria. A simplified quota sampling approach was used to select mothers in four geographical clusters of Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory. At least six mothers from each cluster were randomly included, giving a total of 24 participants. An interview guide developed from the 5C psychological antecedence model was used (assessing confidence, complacency, calculation, constraints, collective responsibility); two additional variables were included that had proved meaningful in previous work (religion and masculinity). The data were analyzed using meta-aggregation approach such as framework synthesis, which summarized data in a stepwise fashion. Results: The sample was generally relatively positive towards vaccination. Still, mothers reported low trust in vaccine safety and the healthcare system (confidence). Yet, they had great interest in seeking additional information during antenatal visits (calculation), difficulties in prioritizing vaccination over other equally competing priorities (constraints) and were aware that vaccination translates into overall community health and wellbeing (collective responsibility). They had a bias towards God as ultimate giver of good health (religion) and reported that their husbands played a dominant role in vaccination decision-making (masculinity). Mothers perceived their children vulnerable to disease outbreaks, which motivated them to get them vaccinated (complacency). Conclusion: The 5C model and the added determinants provided a useful qualitative tool for understanding mothers’ vaccination decision-making in low resources settings.