ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1925.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: biodiesel; glycerol; purification; etherification.
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:27:07 CET)
The production of biodiesel through transesterification routes generates large amounts of glycerol, approximately 10 m3 for every 90 m3 of the biodiesel produced. Taking into account this scenario, the valorization of glycerol using chemical routes that could be operated in biodiesel industry constitutes a promising approach to achieve added-value products. An interesting option is the production of ethers, which can be used as fuel additives in diesel engines to improve the combustion efficiency, reducing soot emission and increasing cetane index. In this study, a purification route was applied to crude glycerol and its valorization by etherification was evaluated. The glycerol contents of purified samples were above 98% wt. The purified and commercial glycerol was used to obtain ethers. Etherification reactions were carried out with different alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol) into a batch reactor, using small amount of Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst, at autogenous pressure and solvent-free conditions. The glycerol conversion, selectivity and yield to ethers were evaluated. A glycerol conversion of 97% wt. with selectivity of 80% to monoether was obtained when using ethanol. For isopropanol, the glycerol conversion was up to 95% (76% of monoether and 22% of diether). However, the selectivity to ethers for 3-methyl-1-butanol was negligible (<3% wt.). A process simulation for purification and etherification steps integrated with a biodiesel production was assessed in terms of productivity and energy consumption, considering different scenarios of glycerol/alcohol molar ratios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0671.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Electrospinning; Nanomaterials; Carboxymethyl cellulose; Water purification
Online: 21 April 2023 (05:19:58 CEST)
CMC/PVA composite nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrostatic spinning method, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as raw materials and glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The structure, morphology, thermal stability, and filtration performance of CMC/PVA nanofiber membranes were characterized by advanced instrumental analysis methods such as scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, ultraviolet analysis and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that the average fiber diameter decreases from 381 nm to 183 nm, when the spinning voltage is 23 KV and the jet speed is 2 µL/min. The obtained fiber has the smallest particle size and the most uniform distribution. Infrared spectroscopy analysis confirms that the adsorption behavior of nanofiber membranes on Cu2+ and Cr6+ is chemical adsorption. The retention rates of CMC/PVA nanofiber membranes for Cu2+ and Cr6+ reached 97% and 98%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioadsorbents; biodiesel; waste cooking oil; purification
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:03:26 CET)
The dry washing method is an alternative to replace water washing, thereby reducing the negative impacts of contamination. However, commercial adsorbents come from industrial processes that, due to their composition, may not be such a sustainable resource in the global biodiesel production process. In this study, the use of organic residues, such as sawdust, coconut fiber, nutshell, rice husk and water hyacinth fiber, were proposed as bioadsorbents for the purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). Quality parameters such as the acid value, water content, and free and total glycerin content were evaluated and compared with those of commercial resins such as Magnesol® and Amberlite™. Promising results were obtained using sawdust during the purification process, achieving a 31.6% reduction in the acid value compared to that of unpurified biodiesel, the reduction was 31.3% more efficient than Amberlite™. Sawdust adsorbed free glycerin at 55.8%, being more efficient than Amberlite™. The total glycerin values were similar between commercial resins and sawdust. A water content values were similar than Amberlite™ and better than that with Magnesol®, at 4.3% and 39.81%, respectively. These results show that sawdust can be used as an alternative bioadsorbent in a dry purification method for biodiesel being a residue with less environmental impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Metal organic frameworks; Photocatalysis; Water purification
Online: 16 November 2018 (10:44:33 CET)
This review analyzes the preparation and characterization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and their application as photocatalysts for water purification. The study begins by highlighting the problem of water scarcity and the different solutions for purification, including photocatalysis with semiconductors such as MOFs. It also describes the different methodologies that can be used for the synthesis of MOFs, paying attention to the purification and activation steps. The characterization of MOFs and the different approaches that can be followed to learn on the photocatalytic processes are also detailed. Finally, the work reviews literature focused on the degradation of contaminants from water using MOF-based photocatalysts under light irradiation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1381.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: TiO2; Air purification; Sustainable cities; Photocatalytic buildings
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:35:26 CEST)
TiO2-based building materials have air purification, auto-cleaning and sterilization functions, and these innovative green building materials have great potential for energy-saving and emission reduction applications in the future. However, there are still great challenges in improving photocatalytic efficiency and stability from laboratory to practical applications. In recent years, researchers have done a lot of work to improve the efficiency and stability of TiO2-based building materials. This paper briefly discussed the air purification principle by photocatalytic building, and the preparation techniques of TiO2-based building materials and the strategies to improve the efficiency of TiO2. Moreover, this paper has outlined the key factors that affect the photocatalytic building performance in practical applications, and analyzed the limitations and future development trends. Finally, we proposed some suggestions for further research on photocatalytic buildings and its application in practice, aiming to provide an efficient reference for developing highly efficient and stable photocatalytic building materials. The aim of this paper is to provide effective guidance for the application of TiO2-based photo-catalysts in the field of green buildings, helping to develop more efficient and stable low-carbon buildings for the development of sustainable cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0053.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Oyster; Escherichia coli; purification process; sanitary control
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:04:07 CEST)
This study evaluated the microbiological quality of farm oysters, cultivated in an estuary in northeastern Pará, Brazil, before and after purification process. Water and oyster samples were collected in June, August, October, and December 2019. Oysters underwent purification for up to 36 h in a small-scale adapted debugger. Microbiological analyses were performed in oysters and water depuration collected at different times of purification (0 h pre-treatment, 6 h, 12 h, 2 4h, and 36 h), using the multiple tube technique, to determine the most probable number (MPN) of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant coliforms - TTC, and total coliforms - TC. Bacterial isolation was used to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. Before purification, oysters had E. coli counts above the limit allowed by Brazilian legislation (≤ 230 MPN/100g). High TTC, and TC counts were observed in all the months of the study, and Salmonella spp. was present in August. All water samples were contaminated by TTC beyond the level allowed (> 43 MPN/100mL) in two months. The purification process of 36 h was effective in reducing the load of E. coli, TTC, and TC and eliminating Salmonella spp. in oysters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: isolation; purification; phage; T4; c2; phiX174; phi29
Online: 13 June 2019 (13:33:30 CEST)
The human gut microbiome (GM) plays an important role in human health and diseases. However, while substantial progress has been made in understanding the role of bacterial inhabitants of the gut, much less is known regarding the viral component of the GM. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses attacking specific host bacteria and likely play important roles in shaping the GM. Although metagenomic approaches have led to the discoveries of many new viruses, they largely remain uncultured as their hosts have not been identified, which hampers our understanding of their biological roles. Existing protocols for isolation of viromes generally require relatively high input volumes and are generally more focused on extracting nucleic acids of good quality and purity for down-stream analysis and less on purification of still infective viruses. Here we report the development of an efficient protocol requiring low sample input yielding purified viromes containing still infective phages which also are of sufficient purity for genome sequencing. We validated the method through spiking of known phages followed by plaque assays, qPCR and metagenomic sequencing. The protocol should facilitate the culturing of novel viruses from the gut as well as large scale studies on gut viromes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: fumaric acid; purification; spent sulfite liquor; biorefineries
Online: 1 March 2017 (09:41:31 CET)
Fumaric acid is a chemical building block with many applications, namely in the polymer industry. The fermentative production of fumaric acid from renewable feedstock is a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based chemical synthesis. The use of existing industrial side-streams as raw-material within biorefineries potentially enable production costs competitive against current chemical processes, while preventing the use of refined sugars competing with food and feed uses and avoiding purposely grow crops requiring large areas of arable land. However, most industrial side streams contain a diversity of molecules that will add complexity to the purification of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. A process for the recovery and purification of fumaric acid from complex fermentation medium containing spent sulfite liquor (SSL) as carbon source was developed and is herein described. A simple two-stage precipitation procedure involving separation unit operations, pH and temperature manipulation and polishing through the removal of contaminants with activated carbon allowed the recovery of fumaric acid with 68.3% recovery yield with specifications meeting the requirements of the polymer industry. Further, process integration opportunities were implemented that allowed minimizing the generation of waste streams containing fumaric acid which enabled increasing the yield to 81.4% while keeping the product specifications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: metabolite synthesis; biocatalytic systems; product recovery; metabolite purification
Online: 18 August 2023 (08:26:56 CEST)
Methodologies for the synthesis and purification of metabolites, which have been developed following their discovery, analysis and structural identification, have been involved in numerous life science milestones. The renewed focus on the small molecule domain of biological cells has also created an increasing awareness of the rising gap between the metabolites identified and the metabolites which have been prepared as pure compounds. Due to the large number and molecular diversity of metabolites the design and engineering of resource-efficient and straightforward synthetic methodologies for their production have attracted much interest. The variety of metabolic pathways in biological cells provide a wonderful blueprint for designing simplified and resource-efficient synthetic routes to desired metabolites. Therefore, biocatalytic systems have become key enabling tools for the synthesis of an increasing number of metabolites, which can then be utilized as standards, enzyme substrates, inhibitors or products, or for the discovery of novel biological functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0655.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dialysis membrane; ectosomes; exosomes; FTIR; infrared spectroscopy; purification
Online: 27 July 2020 (00:46:38 CEST)
Recent years brought great focus in the field of development of extracellular vesicles (EVs) based drug-delivery systems. Considering possible applications of EVs as a drug carriers the isolation process is a crucial step. To solve problems related with EV isolation, we created and validated a new EVs isolation method – Low Vacuum Filtration (LVF) and compared it with two commonly applied procedures - differential centrifugation (DC) and ultracentrifugation (UC). EVs isolated from endothelial cells culture media have been characterized by a) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) b) nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), c) western blot and d) Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, the membrane surface have been imaged with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). We showed that LVF is reproducible and efficient method for EVs isolation form conditioned media. Additionally, we observed correlation between ATR-FTIR spectra quality and the EVs and proteins concentration. ESEM imaging confirmed that actual pore diameter are close to the values calculated theoretically. LVF method is an easy, fast and inexpensive EVs isolation method which allows for isolation of both ectosomes and exosomes from high volume sources with good repeatability. We think that it could be an efficient alternative for commonly applied methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0091.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: water purification, oligodynamic metal, moringa oleifera seed, copper
Online: 12 March 2018 (15:20:37 CET)
A simple, efficient and stand-alone method for purification of river water using moringa seed powder and copper is discussed. Coagulant property of the seed powder clears turbid raw water and the oligodynamic activity of copper completely destroys E.coli bacteria. Both raw and treated water samples were tested for contaminants to verify the efficacy of the system. Treated water has turbidity in the range 3 NTU - 5 NTU and non-detected (< 1 MPN/100 mL) E.coli count making it suitable for drinking. The technique is very cost effective and can be practiced anywhere using locally available materials. It does not require a power source or any technical assistance. Being a stand-alone system the technique exceptionally useful in providing drinking water as an immediate solution in disaster areas affected by cyclone or floods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0018.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Path Entanglement; Non-heralded; Bright Entangled Source; Entanglement Purification
Online: 1 June 2022 (11:33:33 CEST)
This paper discusses a means of making an extremely bright path entangled source. An initial laser source is preferred but any source of light: LED, sub-critical laser, coherent or thermal can be used. The light is dimmed by a beam expander until the relative number of |1> or |2> photons increases compared to higher photon states. The expanded beam is then passed through a 1:1 beamsplitter to generate path entanglement on the |1> and |2> photons. A further stage of “purification” can remove the non-entangled higher states by passing the output beams from the beamsplitter through one another, such that the correlated entangled photon electrical fields cancel in some region. In the said region, the uncorrelated non-entangled fields can be Faraday rotated and then absorbed by a polariser. The entangled photons pass through the region without rotation and attenuation. The output from the device then has copious quantities of 1 and 2 photon path entangled suitable for use in telecommunications engineering, secure transmission of data and quantum metrology. The wide beams can be beam-contracted to a thin bright beam and will keep the path entanglement of individual photons, as photons are bosons and so don’t interact, furthermore, all operations are unitary and linear, as by Maxwell’s equations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Environmental pollution; air purification; negative ion generators; particulate matter.
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:02:23 CEST)
Today, air quality is one of the global concerns that governments are facing. One of the main air pollutants is the particulate matter (PM) that affects human health. This article presents the modeling of a purification system by means of negative air ions (NAIs) for air pollutant removal, using computational intelligence methods. The system uses a high voltage booster output to ionize air molecules from stainless steel electrodes; its particle-capturing efficiency reaches up to 97%. With two devices (5 x 2 x 2.5 cm), 2 trillion negative ions are produced per second, and the particulate matter (PM 2.5) can be reduced from 999 to 0 mg / m3 in a period of approximately 5 to 7 minutes (in a 40 x 40 x 40 cm acrylic chamber). This negative ion generator is a viable and sustainable alternative to reduce polluting emissions, with beneficial effects on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bacterial resistance; Animal venom; Purification; Antibacterial and antibiofilm activity
Online: 6 July 2020 (04:00:43 CEST)
Introduction: Bacterial resistance is a worldwide public health problem, requiring new therapeutic options. An alternative approach to this problem is the use of animal toxins, such as phospholipases (PLA2) isolated from snake venom, which have important biological activities. Bothrops erythromelas is one of the snake species in the Northeast of Brazil that attracts great medical-scientific interest. Here we aimed to purify and characterize a PLA2 from B. erythromelas, searching for heterologous activities against bacterial biofilm. Methods: Venom extraction and quantification were followed by RP-HPLC in C18 column, MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry and sequencing by Edman degradation. All experiments were monitored by specific activity using 4-nitro-3 (octanoyloxy) benzoic acid (4N3OBA) substrate. In addition, hemolytic tests and anti-bacterial tests including action against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, were carried out. Moreover, tests of antibiofilm action against A. baumannii were also performed. Results: PLA2, after one purification step, presented 31 N-terminal amino acid residues, and molecular weight of 13656.4 Da with enzymatic activity confirmed in 0.06 µM concentration. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus (IC50 = 30.2 µM) and antibiofilm activity against A. baumannii (IC50 = 1.1 µM) were observed. Conclusions: This is the first time that PLA2 purified from B. erythromelas venom has appeared as an alternative candidate in studies of new antibacterial medicines.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Aspergillus sp.; extracellular laccase; production; purification; characterization; dye decolorization
Online: 8 December 2019 (17:24:19 CET)
Although laccase has been recognized as a wonder molecule, and green enzyme, the use of low yielding fungal strains, poor production, purification, and low enzyme kinetics have hampered its larger-scale applications. Hence the present research was aimed to select high yielding fungal strains and to optimize the production, purification, and kinetics of laccase of Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4. Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 produced a copious amount of laccase on under meso-acidophillic shaking conditions in a medium containing glucose and yeast extract. A 25 µM of CuSO4 enhanced the enzyme yield. The enzyme was best purified on Sephadex G-100 column. Purified enzyme resembled with the laccase of A. flavus. Kinetics of purified enzyme revealed the high substrate specificity and good velocity of reaction with ABTS as substrate. The enzyme was stable over a wide range of pH and temperature. The peptide structure of the purified enzyme resembled with the laccase of A. kawachii IFO 4308. The fungus decolorized various dyes independent of the requirement of a laccase mediator system (LMS). Aspergillus sp. HB_RZ4 came out as a potent natural producer of laccase, it decolorized the dyes even in absence of LMS and thus can be used for bioremediation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoretic deposition; photocatalysis; TiO2; reduced graphene oxide; water purification
Online: 15 July 2019 (11:59:23 CEST)
The preparation of immobilized graphene–based photocatalyst layers is highly desired for environmental applications. In this study, the preparation of an immobilized reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/TiO2 composite by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was optimized. It enabled quantitative deposition without sintering and without the use of any dispersive additive. The presence of rGO had beneficial effects on the photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in an aqueous solution. A marked increase in the photocatalytic degradation rate was observed, even at very low concentrations of rGO. Compared with the TiO2 and GO/TiO2 reference layers, use of the rGO/TiO2 composite (0.5 wt% of rGO) increased the first-order reaction rate constant by about 70%. This enhanced performance was due to the increased formation of hydroxyl radicals that attacked the 4-chlorophenol molecules. The direct charge transfer mechanism had only limited effect on the degradation. Thus, EPD-prepared rGO/TiO2 layers appear to be suitable for environmental application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0791.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Ultrasound; gas purification; agglomeration; acoustic field; resonant gap; vortex flow
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:47:39 CET)
The article is devoted to the study of ultrasonic agglomeration of PM2.5 in uniform and non-uniform ultrasonic fields. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of ultrasonic agglomeration by initiating acoustic streams in a resonant non-uniform ultrasonic field is shown. A non-uniform ultrasonic field with zones of high and low sound pressure levels formed using a bending-oscillating disk transmitter made it possible to initiate acoustic vortex-type streaming that promote the movement of particles into the nodal areas of a standing wave and between them. The efficiency of ultrasonic treatment was determined indirectly by the degree of inertial trapping of agglomerates. It has been established that the impact of an non-uniform ultrasonic field in comparison with the impact of a uniform ultrasonic field makes it possible to increase the efficiency of inertial capture of agglomerates PM2.5 from 89% to 95%, PM1.5 from 85% to 92%, PM0.5 from 76% to 85%. The results obtained made it possible to propose a design for an agglomeration chamber, which allows for a multiple increase in the productivity of ultrasonic processing of a gas-dispersed flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0857.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Distillation; Stripping; DME purification; SEDMES; Carbon dioxide; Stripping enhanced distillation
Online: 12 June 2023 (16:06:23 CEST)
The transition towards a CO2 neutral industry is currently spurring many new developments regarding processes for the conversion of CO2, or CO2-rich streams, into platform molecules such as methanol and dimethyl ether (DME). New processes give rise to new separation challenges, as well as novel opportunities for joint optimization of reaction and separation. In this context, the separation of CO2 and DME can be performed very efficiently using the newly developed concept of Stripping Enhanced Distillation (SED). SED is a distillation process that utilizes an additional stripping component (clearing gas) to promote the separation in the column. SED benefits from the utilization of the feedstock components as a clearing gas that can afterwards be recycled back to the conversion unit with the vapor distillate. Strongly improving the separation performance in the column, this approach also removes the need for external stripping mediums and in addition this recycle approach may significantly reduce the demand on the conversion unit upstream of SED. The benefits of using SED are demonstrated for two different processes for DME synthesis: (i) CO2 – DME separation after the Sorption Enhanced DME Synthesis (SEDMES) process, using hydrogen as clearing gas, and (ii) CO2 – DME separation after direct DME synthesis via dry reforming (DIDR), using methane as clearing gas. For the different cases, it is shown that, with minimal adaptations, the energy consumption for distillation is reduced by 20-30%, while product losses are minimized at the same time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: superantigen; T-cell; B-cell; cytokine storm; interface; antibody purification
Online: 19 August 2021 (19:25:42 CEST)
Superantigens are unconventional antigens which recognise immune receptors outside the usual binding sites e.g. complementary determining regions (CDRs), to elicit a response within the target cell. T-cell superantigens crosslink T-cell receptors and MHC Class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, leading to lymphocyte recruitment, induction of cytokine storms and T-cell anergy or apoptosis among many other effects. B-cell superantigens, on the other hand, bind immunoglobulin receptors on B-cells affecting opsonisation, IgG-mediated phagocytosis, and drive B-cells into apoptosis. Here, through a review of the structural basis for recognition of immune receptors by superantigens, we show that their binding interfaces share specific physicochemical characteristics when compared with other protein-protein interaction complexes. Given that antibody-binding superantigens have been exploited extensively in industrial antibody purification, these observations could facilitate further protein engineering to optimize the use of superantigens in this and other areas of biotechnology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Clinoptilolites; Acid modification; heavy metals; toxic substances; purification; lead removal.
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:14:51 CEST)
Four naturally occurring zeolites AZLB-Ca and AZLB-Na (Bowie, Arizona), NM-Ca (Winston, New Mexico), and NV-Na (Ash Meadows, Nevada) were studied to evaluate structural modifications after treatment with HCl acid. AZLB-Ca and AZLB-Na are chabazite-like species and become amorphous when boiled in concentrated HCl acid as confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. In contrast, NM-Ca and NV-Na which are clinoptilolite-like species withstood boiling in concentrated HCl acid. This treatment removes calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, aluminum, and iron atoms or ions from the framework while leaving the silicon framework intact as confirmed via X-ray fluorescence and diffraction. SEM images on calcined and HCl treated NV-Na were obtained. BET surface area analysis confirmed an increase in surface area for the two zeolites after treatment, NM-Ca (20.0(1) to 111(4) m2/g) and NV-Na (19.0(4) to 158(7) m2/g). 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR were performed on the natural and treated NV-Na zeolite and the data for the natural NV-Na zeolite suggested a Si:Al ratio of 4.33 similar to that determined by X-Ray fluorescence of 4.55. Removal of lead ions from solution decreased from the native (NM-Ca, 0.27(14), NV-Na, 1.50(17) meq/g) compared to the modified zeolites (30 min HCl treated NM-Ca 0.06(9) and NV-Na, 0.41(23) meq/g) and also decreased upon K+ ion pretreatment in the HCl modified zeolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: poliovirus 2A protease (PV2Apro); expression; purification; MALDI-TOF; 3D structure
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:41:00 CET)
Poliovirus 2A protease (PV2Apro) plays a vital role in viral replication and down-regulation of host cell protein synthesis. In order to understand more concerning PV2Apro, the protein was over-expressed in bacteria following amplification using sense and antisense primers and cloning in pET15b. Several expression hosts were tested and BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells gave the best expression of PV2Apro with minimal unwanted protein expression following IPTG induction. The 2Apro protein was purified to homogeneity using column chromatography, its solubility determined and its molecular weight and composition determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protease was found in the insoluble fraction and the purified protein had a slightly lower molecular weight than predicted. Moreover, three dimensional structure was modelled using template 1z8r with 58% identity and validated using ramachandran plot. Results revealed that most of the residues lie in favoured and allowed regions. These findings could help in a better understanding of PV2Apro structure and inhibition thus, highlighting potential targets for antiviral drug development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: thymidylate synthase (TYMS); dimer; octamer; biochemical reconstitution; overexpression and purification
Online: 2 April 2018 (09:37:29 CEST)
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is an essential enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP and has been a primary target for cancer chemotherapy. Although the physical structure of TYMS and the molecular mechanisms of TYMS catalyzing the conversion of dUMP to dTMP have been conducted thorough studies, oligomeric structure remains unclear. Here, we show that human TYMS not only exists in dimer but also octamer by intermolecular Cys43-disulfide formation. We optimize the expression condition of recombinant human TYMS using Escherichia coli system. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we show that purified TYMS has catalytic activity for producing dTMP. In the absence of reductant β-mercaptoethanol, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed size of TYMS protein is about 35 KDa, 70 KDa, and 280 KDa. While the Cys43 was mutated to Gly, the band of ~280 KDa and the peak of octamer disappeared. Therefore, TYMS was determined to form octamer, dependent on the presence of Cys43-disulfide. By measuring Steady-State Parameters for monomer, dimer and octamer, we found the kcat of octamer is increased slightly than monomer. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that octamer in the active state might have a potential influence on the design of new drug targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: ice-binding proteins; antifreeze proteins, cold finger, ice affinity purification.
Online: 16 January 2018 (07:56:40 CET)
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have several functions that permit their hosts to thrive in the presence of ice. The ability of IBPs to control ice growth makes them potential additives in various industries ranging from food storage and cryopreservation to anti-icing systems. For IBPs to be used in commercial applications, however, methods are needed to produce sufficient quantities of high-quality proteins. Here, we describe a new method for IBP purification, termed falling water ice purification (FWIP). The method is based on the affinity of IBPs for ice. A crude IBP solution is allowed to flow continuously over the large chilled vertical surface of a commercial ice machine. The temperature of the surface is lowered gradually until ice crystals are produced, to which the IBPs bind but other solutes do not. As in other ice affinity methods, FWIP does not require molecular tags and is suitable for purifying recombinant IBPs as well as IBPs from natural sources. The advantage of FWIP over other ice affinity methods is that it exploits an ice machine designed to produce large volumes of clear ice daily. This system can be easily scaled up and suits the purification of industrial quantities of IBPs. The FWIP method significantly advances the use of IBPs in research and industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Solanum nigrum; anthocyanins purification; HPLC-MS/MS; antioxidant capacity; SnMYB
Online: 15 May 2017 (17:31:53 CEST)
Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally available as a material of beverage due to its nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols and anthocyanins. Here has rarely reported on the characterizaton of the components and the regulatory mechanism of Anthocyanins in S. nigrum. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared the similar HPLC profiles, but the different contents and total antioxidant activities for Anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanins extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extract from S. nigrum fruits reached to 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB, was also cloned for the first time by RACE-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins was shown a good correlation (r = 0.93) with the expression levels of SnMYB during the fruits developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB successfully produced high anthocyanins contents (1.03 mg/g) when SnMYB was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanins extraction and SnMYB is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanins biosynthesis in S. nigrum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: extracorporeal blood purification therapies; ex vivo lung perfusion; cytokine adsorption; hemoadsorption.
Online: 1 November 2023 (12:28:25 CET)
Cytokine adsorption can resolve different complications characteristic of transplantation medicine, such cytokine storm activation, blood immuno- and AB0- incompatibilities but can also be performed for the treatment of various life-threatening conditions, such as sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cardiogenic shock, all of which can contribute to adverse clinical outcomes during transplantation. After surgery, dysmetabolism and stress response limit successful graft survival and can lead to primary (PGD) or secondary graft dysfunction. In this clinical context, and given that a major problem in transplant medicine is that the demand for organs far exceeds the supply, a technological innovation such as a hemoadsoption system could greatly contribute to increasing the number of usable organ donors. The objectives of this review are to describe the specific advantages and disadvantages of the application of cytokine adsorption in the context of transplantation and also to examine, before and/or after organ transplantation, the benefits of addition of a complementary cytokine adsorption therapy protocol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Heat-stable proteins; Heat treatment; Hyperthermophilic proteins; Heat stability; Protein purification
Online: 9 August 2020 (22:00:46 CEST)
Proteins possess complex three-dimensional structures, and these structures are stable only within specific ranges of temperature which mostly correspond to the temperature ranges of the host organisms. However, few exceptional proteins, called heat-stable proteins, are stable at temperatures that are substantially higher than those tolerated by the host organisms themselves. Most of the heat-stable proteins possess heat stability to perform their functions at high temperatures, but some of them are intrinsically heat-stable due to their structure. Heat-stable proteins are usually divided into three or four groups depending upon the intricacies of their structures and thermal behaviors. Their peculiar property, i.e. heat-stability, makes them very valuable in applications such as polymerase chain reaction, industrial processes requiring high temperature, and protein engineering. Heat-stability also makes it feasible to purify such proteins, from the rest of the heat-labile proteins, using a simple heat-treatment method. Moreover, heat treatment can be used as a combined cell-lysis and protein purification step which, as compared to conventional methods, can result in a higher yield of heat-stable proteins. Furthermore, some special heat-stable proteins, i.e. intrinsically disordered proteins (which include the proteins involved in important neurodegenerative diseases), need heat-treatment step, in some cases, as the only way for their successful purification and study. Hence, this paper provides a first-ever comprehensive review of all major aspects of heat-stable proteins, i.e., their structure, evolution, classification, significance, and heat-treatment mediated purification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0257.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Papaver somniferum L.; lipoxygenase; purification; lipoxygenase products; positional specificity; HPLC analysis
Online: 22 November 2019 (07:20:28 CET)
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is an ancient medicinal plant producing pharmaceutically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. In the present work we focused on the study of enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX, EC 188.8.131.52) from opium poppy cultures. LOX is involved in lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids have a significant role in regulation of growth, development and plant defence responses to biotic or abiotic stress. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize LOX enzyme from opium poppy callus cultures. LOX was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by hydrophobic chromatography using Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and hydroxyapatite chromatography using HA Ultrogel sorbent. SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblotting revealed that LOX from opium poppy cultures was a single monomeric protein showing the relative molecular weight of 83 kDa. To investigate the positional specificity of the LOX reaction, purified LOX was incubated with linoleic acid and the products were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. LOX converted linoleic acid primarily to 13-hydroperoxy-(9Z,11E)-octadecadienoic acids (78%) and to a lesser extent to 9-hydroperoxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoic acids (22%). Characterization of LOX from opium poppy cultures provided valuable information in understanding of LOX involvement in regulation of signalling pathways leading to biosynthesis of secondary metabolites with significant biological activity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; protein purification; protein labelling; seleno-methionine; DNA-protein interactions
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:03:26 CEST)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an pathogenic and opportunistic Gram-positive bacteria that is the leading cause of community acquired respiratory diseases, varying from mild- to deathly- infections. Appearance of antibiotic resistant isolates has prompted the search for novel targets. One of the most promising approaches is the structure-based knowledge of possible targets in conjunction to rational design and docking of inhibitors of the chosen targets. A useful technique to help solving protein structures is to label them with a heavy atom, like selenium, that facilitates tracing of the some of the amino acid residues. We have chosen two pneumococcal DNA-binding proteins, namely the relaxase domain of MobM protein from plasmid pMV158, and the RelB-RelE antitoxin-toxin protein complex. Through the update of a previous protocol  that uses seleno-L-methionine, we could achieve 100% labelling of the proteins. Furthermore, the labelled proteins retained full activity as judged from relaxation of supercoiled plasmid DNA and from gel-retardation assays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0509.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: PLLA nanofibers membranes; electrospinning; PPC; PHB; plasticizer; biopolymer blends; water purification
Online: 30 August 2018 (04:16:50 CEST)
Water pollution in developing countries affects the public health of humans and the environment. It is therefore essential to develop environmentally friendly biopolymer, sustainable and low-cost membranes. Biopolymer nanofiber membranes are made by an electrospinning process of polylactic acid (PLLA) with additives. The main objective of this study is to manufacture biodegradable nanofiber membranes for use in filtering the suspended elements in wastewater at the level of drinkable or in agricultural fields. It is known that PLLA is brittle and therefore it is difficult to apply in industry. To solve this problem and enhance its flexibility. Flexible biopolymer polypropylene carbonate (PPC) and plasticizer are the addition in PLLA to reduce its glass transition and enhance its crystallization by adding Poly(3-hydroxy butyrate) PHB. In this work, 20 wt% of PPC was added to PLLA matrix to improve its elasticity and elongation at break. DSC shows that the addition of PPC, PHB, and TEC did affect the thermal properties like Tg, Tcc and Tm of the PLLA blends. The position of the Tg, Tcc, and Tm is shifting, the consequence the chain mobility is increased, therefore the crystallinity is enhanced. Electrospun fibers of PLLA/PPC/PHB/TEC were successfully manufactured. Tensile tester showed the increase in elongation at break of PLLA blend films, the elongation at break increases by 285 times. It observed with the increasing the elongation at break, a decrease in stress strength. After improving the mechanical properties with the higher elongation at break values, this blend is optimal for filtrations process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; acetylcholinesterase; β-Lactam; 2-Azetidinone; enzyme inhibition; enzyme purification
Online: 30 September 2016 (05:38:45 CEST)
β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was also examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a-k) were 0.44-6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93-8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0.25-1.13 nM against AChE. Our findings indicate that β-lactams (2a-k) inhibit both CA isoenzymes and AChE at low nanomolar concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1733.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Adversarial robustness; adversarial attacks; adversarial purification; knowledge distillation; image classification; convolutional autoencoders
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:39:42 CEST)
Despite the impressive performance of deep neural networks on many different vision tasks, they have been known to be vulnerable to intentionally added noise to input images. To combat these adversarial examples (AEs), improving the adversarial robustness of models has emerged as an important research topic, and research has been conducted in various directions including adversarial training, image denoising, and adversarial purification. Among them, this paper focuses on adversarial purification, which is a kind of pre-processing that removes noise before AEs enter a classification model. The advantage of adversarial purification is that it can improve robustness without affecting the model’s nature, while another defense techniques like adversarial training suffer from a decrease in model accuracy. Our proposed purification framework utilizes a Convolutional Autoencoder as a base model to capture the features of images and their spatial structure. We further aim to improve the adversarial robustness of our purification model by distilling the knowledge from teacher models. To this end, we train two Convolutional Autoencoders (teachers), one with adversarial training and the other with normal training. Then, through ensemble knowledge distillation, we transfer the ability of denoising and restoring of original images to the student model (purification model). Our extensive experiments confirm that our student model achieves high purification performance(i.e., how accurately a pre-trained classification model classifies purified images). The ablation study confirms the positive effect of our idea of ensemble knowledge distillation from two teachers on performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: nickel electrolysis; copper removal; iminodiacetic acid chelating resin; electrochemical purification; isostere principle
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:31:47 CEST)
Various methods including electrochemical purification, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange resins, have maturely been used for removal of copper from nickel anolyte. Interestingly, these approaches of copper removal from nickel anolyte by precipitation are well used as the primary industrial method in nickel production again. However, these methods suffer from several severe drawbacks in industrial practices. One is that a small amount of nickel precipitates with copper in slags，resulting in slag treatment difficulties. Second, this process requires an extremely high activity of the sulfide-based copper removal agents which results in high production costs; the short storage period of the copper removal agent is another drawback of this method. These have been the key challenges in the smelting process of nickel. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of the nickel removal methods used for nickel anolyte purification, electrochemical purification, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and ionexchange resins. The advantages and feasibilities of each technique in industrial applications are also explored and analyzed. Finally, we demonstrate that ion-exchange resin-based extraction method can pave a new path for metallurgical research on nickel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0289.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: chickens; IGF-1 gene; TGFβ2 gene; DNA extraction; purification; sequencing and bioinformatics
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:17:40 CEST)
Molecular analysis is an easier means to identify and isolate a specific gene which has imperative function for growth, body composition , fat deposition, metabolic and skeletal traits as well as the molecular genetics selection on individual genes is a very efficient method to genetically improve economically important traits in chickens. Insulin- like growth factor 1 ( IGF-1)is a member of a heterogeneous group of peptides with important growth.Transforming growth factorβ ( TGF-β) belongs to a large family of growth and differentiation factors that play a pivotal role in a great variety of biological activities including morphogenesis, development and differentiation. DNA was extracted from 48 chickens sampled from three strains Lohman (17) , Sinai (24) and Gimmizah (7) IGF-1 gene and TGFβ2 gene were amplified using PCR protocol. Electrophoresis was carried out on the products of PCR , bands viewed on transilluminator. The size of IGF-1 gene was 675 bp while the size of TGFβ2 gene was 188bp. Sharp bands were purified and sequenced and used the dendrogram to show the relationships between other vertebrate species
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: water purification; developing countries; SDG-6; microbiological contamination; public health; membrane filtration
Online: 16 September 2019 (17:23:23 CEST)
Introduction: In rural communities in regions with limited resources the provision of clean water remains challenging. Fecal contamination of water is very common and results in a high incidence of diarrhea, subsequent acute kidney injury and mortality particularly in the very young and old. Membrane filtration is a practical solution to this problem and recent innovation allows membrane filtration using recycled hemodialyzers. We, Easy Water for Everyone, have quantified the systematic effect on health outcomes. Material and Methods: Between 02/2018 and 12/2018, 4 communities in rural Ghana (in the Greater-Accra region) were each provided with a high-volume membrane filtration devices (NUF 500; NuFiltration using recycled hemodialyzers). Health data from montly household surveys and chart review in local healthcare facilities were collected with approval from Ghana Health Services. Specifically, data was collected on gastrointestinal disease, acute kidney injury and therapeutic interventions. Incidence rates for a five-months period before and after implementation of the device were calculated and compared to rates during the same months from 4 neighboring communities that were not yet provided with the device. Results: Acceptance of the devices and the purified water in the studied villages was good and self-reported data of 1130 villagers over 10 months from 9 studied communities in rural Ghana (11% younger than 5 years and 14 % older than 65 years) were included in this analysis. The overall monthly incidence rate of diarrhea showed a decline following the implementation of the device in the 4 study villages from a mean of 0.18 to 0.05 cases per person-month for a reduction in rates by 72% (rate ratio = 0.27). By contrast, the control group of 4 villages in the same region showed no decline in mean rates during the same months as the study period with mean rates changing not significantly from 0.11 to 0.08 cases per person-month. Discussion: Provision of a hemodialyzer membrane filtration device markedly improves health outcomes as measured by diarrhea incidence within rural communities. While our data awaits confirmation in a larger population and further statistical analyses accounting for village characteristics, seasonality and subject demographics, the obvious decline in incidence rates supports widespread use of hemodialyzer membrane filtration devices, particularly in rural regions. Rollout of the device in further sites will likely increase our understanding in terms of risk and other preventive factors modifying the incidence of diarrhea and subsequent acute kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: drogen purification; CO2/H2 separation; PIL–IL composite membranes; gas permeation properties
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Considering the high potential of hydrogen (H2) as a clean energy carrier, the implementation of high performance and cost-effective biohydrogen (bioH2) purification techniques is of vital importance, particularly in fuel cell applications. In this context, membrane technology is a potentially energy-saving solution to obtain high-quality biohydrogen. The most promising poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) - ionic liquid (IL) composite membranes previously studied by our group for CO2/N2 separation, containing pyrrolidinium-based PILs with fluorinated or cyano-functionalized anions, were chosen as starting point to explore the potential of PIL–IL membranes for CO2/H2 separation. The CO2 and H2 permeation properties at the typical conditions of biohydrogen production (T =308 K and 100 kPa of feed pressure) were measured and discussed. PIL–IL composites prepared with [C(CN)3]– anion showed higher CO2/H2 selectivities and H2 diffusivities compared to those containing [NTf2]– anion. All the membranes revealed CO2/H2 separation performances above the upper bound for this specific separation, highlighting the composite incorporating 60 wt% of [C2mim][C(CN)3] IL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0214.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: immunomagnetic separation (IMS); bacterial pathogen; 3D printing; preconcentration; DNA purification; molecular diagnostics
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:26:04 CEST)
Molecular detection of pathogens in clinical samples often requires pretreatment techniques, including immunomagnetic separation and magnetic silica bead (MSB)-based DNA purification to obtain the purified DNA of pathogens. These two techniques usually rely on handling small tubes containing a few millilitres of the sample and manual operation, implying that an automated system encompassing both techniques is needed for larger quantities of the samples. Here, we report a 3D-printed microfluidic platform that enables bacterial preconcentration and genomic DNA (gDNA) purification for improving the molecular detection of target pathogens in blood samples. The device consists of two microchannels and one chamber, which can be used to preconcentrate pathogens bound to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs) and subsequently extract gDNA using magnetic silica beads (MSBs) in a sequential manner. The device was able to preconcentrate very low concentrations of pathogens and extract their genomic DNA in 10 mL of 10% blood within 30 min, and thus allowed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR to detect 1 colony forming unit of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in 10% blood. The results suggest that the 3D-printed microfluidic platform is highly useful for lowering the limitations on molecular detection in blood by preconcentrating the target pathogen and isolating its DNA in a large volume of the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: biogas purification; coconut shells; biomass valorization; textural characterization; adsorption isotherms; breakthrough curves.
Online: 7 June 2018 (16:27:12 CEST)
Biomass is a widely distributed and renewable source of carbon. The main objective of this work is to produce an activated carbon from coconut shells with suitable characteristics to separate CO2 from biogas. The textural characterization of the adsorbent has been determined. Pure component adsorption isotherms of CO2 and CH4 at 30, 50 and 70 °C have been measured. Moreover, the performance of the produced activated carbon, as potential adsorbent for CO2 capture from a CO2/CH4 gas mixture has been evaluated under dynamic conditions in a purpose-built fixed-bed setup.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Affinity chromatography; matrix; solid support; resin; support materials; glass filter; glass frit; high-pressure; HPLC; FPLC; antibodies; immunoglobulins; purification; downstream processing; protein purification; preparative; analytical; separation; clean-up; automation
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:37:01 CET)
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 minute. Due to the glass material's excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: diatomite; bio-composites; , mechanical properties; fractionation; purification of diatomaceous earth; bio-raw materials
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:44:48 CET)
The authors of this paper use an original method of diatomaceous earth fractionation, which allows for obtaining a filler with a specific particle size distribution. The method makes it possible to separate small, disintegrated and broken diatom frustules from those which maintained their original form in diatomaceous earth. The study covers a range of tests conducted to prove that such a separated diatomic fraction shows features different from the base diatomite used as an epoxy resin filler. We have examined mechanical properties of a series of diatomite/resin composites considering the weight fraction of diatoms and the parameters of the composite production process. The studied composites of Epidian 601 epoxy resin cross-linked with amine-based curing agent Z-1 contained 0 to 70% vol. of diatoms or diatomaceous earth. Samples were produced by casting into silicone moulds in vacuum degassing conditions and, alternatively, without degassing. The results have shown that the size and morphology of the filler based on diatomaceous earth affects mechanical and rheological properties of systems based on epoxy resin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Protein A; Heptapeptide; M13 Phage-Display; ELISA; Fc; purification; docking; molecular dynamics simulations
Online: 4 June 2018 (12:03:52 CEST)
Purification of biologically-derived therapeutics is a major cost contributor to the production of this rapidly growing class of pharmaceuticals. Monoclonal antibodies comprise a large percentage of these products therefore new antibody purification tools are needed. Small peptides, as opposed to traditional antibody affinity ligands such as Protein A, may have advantages in stability and production costs. Multiple heptapeptides that demonstrate Fc binding behavior that have been identified from a combinatorial peptide library using M13 Phage Display are presented herein. Seven unique peptide sequences of diverse hydrophobicity and charge were identified. All seven peptides showed strong binding to the four major human IgG isotypes, human IgM, as well as binding to canine, rat, and mouse IgG. These seven peptides were also shown to bind human IgG4 from DMEM cell culture media with 5% FCS and 5 g/L ovalbumin present. These peptides may be useful as surface ligands for antibody detection and purification purposes. Molecular docking and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms and energetics for the binding of these peptides to the Fc region. The binding site was found to be located between the two glycan chains inside the Fc fragment. Both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were found to be crucial for the binding interactions. Excellent agreement for the binding strength was obtained between experimental results and simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: refurbishment plasterboard waste; demolition plasterboard waste; gypsum waste recycling; acid leaching purification; wastewater treatment and valorization
Online: 21 November 2023 (09:35:46 CET)
Industries are required to utilize treatment technologies to reduce contaminants in wastewater prior discharge and valorize by-products to increase sustainability and competitiveness. Most acid leaching gypsum purification studies have obviated the treatment of the highly acidic wastewater produced. In this work, acidic wastewater from acid leaching purification of post-consumer gypsum was treated to recover a valuable solid product and reusable water. The main aims of this work were to determine the impact of recirculating acidic and treated wastewaters on the efficiency of the acid leaching purification process and to valorize the impurities in the wastewater. Samples were characterized through X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. SimaPro 9.5 and ReCiPe 2016 midpoint method were used for the life cycle assessment of three wastewater management approaches. The reuse of the acidic wastewater did not improve the chemical purity of gypsum. Soluble impurities were precipitated at pH 10.5 as a magnesium-rich gypsum that could be commercialized as fertilizer or soil ameliorant. The alkaline treated water was reused for 6 acid leaching purification cycles without impacting the efficiency of the purification process. An acid leaching-neutralization-filtration-precipitation approach demonstrated superior overall environmental performance. Barriers and enabling measures for the implementation of an in-house wastewater treatment were identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1211.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Uranyl Cations; Dendritic Polymers; Silica Xerogels; Composites; Nanoparticles; water purification; radioactive wastewater; Uranium removal; Dendrimers; Biomimetic
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:48:19 CEST)
Two different silica conformations (Xerogels and Nanoparticles) both formed by the mediation of dendritic poly (ethylene imine) were tested at low pHs on the problematic uranyl cation sorption. The effect of crucial factors i.e., temperature, electrostatic forces, adsorbent composition, accessibility of the pollutant to the dendritic cavities and MW of the organic matrix was investigated to conclude the optimum formulation for water purification under these conditions. This was attained with the aid of UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ-potential; Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) porosimetry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Results highlighted that both adsorbents have extraordinary sorp-tion capacity. Xerogels are cost-effective since they approximate the performance of na-noparticles with much lesser organic content. Furthermore, they are more practicable materials since they may penetrate the pores of a metal or ceramic solid substrate in the form of a precursor, gel-forming solution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0451.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Dendritic Polymers; Dendrimers; Metal Nanoparticles; Photocatalysis; Water Purification; dye discoloration; pollutant degradation; nanoparticle catalysis; decomposition; semicoductors
Online: 28 December 2021 (14:19:11 CET)
Radially polymerized dendritic compounds are nowadays an established polymer category next to their linear, branched and cross-linked counterparts. Their uncommon tree-like architecture is characterized by adjustable internal cavities and external groups. They are therefore exceptional absorbents and this attainment of high concentrations into their interior renders them ideal reac-tion media. In this framework they are applied in many environmentally benign implementa-tions. One of the most important among them is water purification though pollutant decomposi-tion. Simple and composite catalysts and photo-catalysts containing dendritic polymers and ap-plied in water remediation will be discussed jointly with some unconventional solutions and fu-ture prospects.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0410.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phage Purification; phage isolation; phage characterization; jumbo bacteriophages; top agar; double agar overlay; high throughput sequencing
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:53:32 CET)
In the post antimicrobial era, increasing attention is paid towards using bacteriophage (phage in short) therapy to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The first step in phage therapy applications is isolating highly efficient lytic phages or phage cocktails from various sources. When a double-layer- agar with around 0.7% agar in top agar is employed, it results in a low number of phage isolation with a poor resolution, and in many cases, you miss the phage. To address this problem, a low concentration of agar in top agar is examined for better phage isolation. Here, our results proved the efficiency of isolating phage upon formulating a double-layer agar with 0.3% agar in top agar. A sewage sample was collected then phages were isolated, purified, and spotted on a top layer agar with 0.3% agar. The results showed the possibility of isolating a higher number of phages on 0.3% top agar than 0.7%. The finding advocates using 0.3% top agar for the double-layer agar, as it will provide fast, better, and easy phage screening and isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0580.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: lithium carbonate; lithium nitrate; radiochemical purification; co-precipitation; membrane filtration; sorption; MnO2-based inorganic sorbent; AMoRE experiment
Online: 8 September 2023 (10:33:02 CEST)
The possibility of deep radiochemical purification of Li2CO3 has been examined in the frame of the purification program of AMoRE collaboration. In this experiment, commercial Li2CO3 was converted into LiNO3. Co-precipitation with inorganic salt-based carriers followed by membrane filtration and sorption using MDM inorganic sorbent methods were tested for the removal of alkaline-earth and transition metals, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, uranium, thorium, and radium. The calcium molybdate-based carrier was the most efficient for removing Th, U, and K. Subsequently, the radium, calcium, and barium contaminations were removed with MDM sorbent. After the impurities’ removal, the final Li2CO3 product was synthesized with NH4HCO3 sludge. The separation factors were derived by means of ICP-MS and HPGe analyses of the initial material, intermediate and final products. The study showed the optimum conditions of co-precipitation and sorption to reach a high yield and radiopurity of lithium carbonate used for low radioactive background experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: air purification; animal production; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; livestock health,; livestock biosecurity; swine diseases; ultraviolet light
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:08:23 CET)
Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), "excimer" UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0.0882 and 0.048 mJ/cm2, based on one-stage and two-stage models, respectively. However, the cost of 222-nm excimer lamps is still economically prohibitive for scaling-up trials. The UV-A (365 nm) lamps could not reduce PRRSV titers for tested doses up to 4.11 mJ/cm2. Pilot-scale or farm-scale testing of UV-C on PRRSV aerosols simulating barn ventilation rates are recommended based on its effectiveness and reasonable costs comparable to HEPA filtration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Nymphaea lotus L.; stamen; ultrasound-assisted extraction; macroporous resin (MPR) purification; in vitro; in cellulo; antioxidant; flavonoids
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:59:58 CEST)
Nymphaea lotus L. is the medicinal plant that has long been used as food, cosmetic and traditional medicines in Africa and Asia since the ancient time. Its flavonoids and other interesting phytochemical compounds from rhizome, leaf, and the whole flowers have been reported in the previous published researches. However, stamens, which are essential for reproductive functions, may also represent new alternative sources of potential antioxidant flavonoids as investigated in this study. The innovative green chemistry method i.e. ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) as well as macroporous resin (MPR) purification procedure were employed in this current research. The optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction condition is 90 % (v/v) aqEtOH with 34.65 khz ultrasonic frequency and 46 minutes of extraction time. Comparing with heat reflux extraction (HRE) conventional method, the significant gain of 1.35 total flavonoids content was obtained using optimized USAE conditions, jumping to 2.80 when this USAE associated with MPR purification. Not only in vitro cell free antioxidant activity of N. lotus stamen extracts, but also in cellulo antioxidant investigation using yeast model showed the same trend to indicate that the best antioxidant flavonoid can be found in USAE coupled with MPR purification. Moreover, the key antioxidant genes expression in yeast model such as SIR2 and SOD2 were also expressed at the highest level in yeast cell treated with the extract from USAE together with MPR purification. Consequently, it can be seen that the USAE combined with MPR purification can help to enhance the flavonoids antioxidant potential of the stamens extract from this medicinal species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: nanocomposites; ultralong carbon nanotubes; catalytic chemical vapor deposition; purification; catalyst removal; water vapor treatment; thermal analysis; Raman spectroscopy
Online: 9 December 2022 (13:11:58 CET)
Ultralong carbon nanotubes (UCNTs) are highly demanded for nanocomposites applications because of their magnificent physical and chemical properties. UCNTs are synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method and, before using as fillers in nanocomposites, should be purified from residual catalyst and non-CNT particles without significant destruction or scissoring of UCNTs. The role of water vapor for purification of UCNTs is investigated, the importance of water assistance in this process is confirmed. It was shown that wet air treatment of products of UCNTs CCVD synthesis under mild conditions can be used to decrease sufficiently residual catalyst content without significant carbon losses in comparison with the results obtained with dry air, while the residual iron content was shown to influence heavily on the subsequent oxidation of different forms of carbons, including UCNTs. The increasing of D/G ratio of Raman spectra after wet air treatment of products of UCNTs CCVD synthesis makes it possible to conclude that iron catalyst particles transform into iron oxides and hydroxides that caused inner structural strains and destruction of carbon shells improving removal of the catalyst particles by subsequent acid treatment. UCNTs purification with water assistance can be used to develop economically and ecologically friendly methods for obtaining fillers for nanocomposites of different applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibacterial proteins; encapsulating protein; high molecular-weight bacteriocins; insect patho-genic bacterium; phage tail-like protein; purification methods
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:00:10 CEST)
Brevibacillus laterosporus (Bl) is a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium belonging to the Brevibacillus brevis phylogenetic cluster. Globally, insect pathogenic strains of the bacterium have been isolated, characterised, and some activities patented. Two isolates, Bl 1821L and Bl 1951, exhibiting pathogenicity against the diamondback moth and mosquitoes, are under development as a biopesticide in New Zealand. However, due to the suspected activity of putative antibacterial proteins (ABPs), the endemic isolates often grow erratically. Various purification methods including size exclusion chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, and ammonium sulphate precipitation employed in this study enabled the isolation of two putative antibacterial proteins of ~30 kD and ~48 kD from Bl 1821L and one putative antibacterial protein of ~30 kD from Bl 1951. Purification of the uninduced cultures of Bl 1821L and Bl 1951 also yielded the protein bands of ~30 kD and ~48 kD on SDS-PAGE which indicated their spontaneous induction. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antagonistic activities of the putative ABPs. Subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination of purified putative antibacterial protein-containing solution showed the presence of encapsulin (~30 kD) and polysheath (~48 kD) like structures. Although only the ~30 kD protein was purified from Bl 1951, both structures were seen in this strain under TEM. Furthermore, while assessing the antibacterial activity of some fractions of Bl 1951 against Bl 1821L in size exclusion chromatography method, population of Bl 1821L persister cells was noted. Overall, this work added a wealth of knowledge for the purification of the HMW proteins (bacteriocins) of the Gram-positive bacteria including Bl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: thrombosis; kinetic parameters; cell growth; protein purification; biomass production; Chlorophyceae; agro-industrial sub-product; extraction methods; molecular weight; chromatography
Online: 4 August 2023 (10:49:13 CEST)
Thrombosis is characterized by the pathological formation of fibrin clots within a blood vessel, leading to the obstruction of blood flow. Fibrinolytic enzymes from microorganisms have exhibited promising effects to dissolve clots in a more efficient and safe way. Then, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biomass and fibrinolytic enzyme production of Tetradesmus obliquus under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions using different concentration of corn steep liquor (CSL). Different extraction and precipitating methods were tested, and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography. More advantageous culture condition was mixotrophic using 0.25% CSL, showing the highest values of biomass productivity (Px = 169.3 ± 44.36 mg∙L-1day-1) and specific growth rate (µmax = 0.17 ± 0.00 day-1), and significant fibrinolytic production (391.34 ± 40.03 U∙mg-1). Moreover, fibrinolytic activity was higher when extracted by homogenization and precipitated using acetone, which exhibited clear zone of fibrin degradation in the fibrinolytic plate assay. Additionally, the purified enzyme showed specific activity of 1176.90 ± 140.37 U∙mg-1 and molecular weight around 97 kDa. Finally, the enzyme has higher enzymatic activity than various fibrinolytic enzymes, and the obtained enzyme has potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent in thrombosis treatment. Additional studies are need to investigate the biochemical properties and biological profile of this enzyme.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: galectin purification; glycoprotein; galectin fusion protein; Gal-1; Gal-3; Gal-8N; Gal-8C; ELISA; SNAP-tag; extracellular matrix protein
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:26:25 CET)
Galectins are β-galactosyl-binding proteins that fulfill essential physiological functions. Recently, we introduced galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) as fusion proteins of a His6-tag, a SNAP-tag, and a fluorescent protein. We characterized their binding in ELISA-type assays and their application in cell-surface binding. In the present study, we have constructed further fusion proteins of galectins with fluorescent protein color code. The fusion proteins of Gal-1, Gal-3, and Gal-8 were purified by affinity chromatography. For this, we have prepared glycoprotein affinity resins based on asialofetuin (ASF) and fetuin and combined this in a two-step purification with Immobilized Metal Affinity chromatography (IMAC) to get pure and active galectins. Purified galectin fractions were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography. The binding characteristics to ASF of solely His6-tagged galectins and galectin fusion proteins were compared. As an example, we demonstrate a 1.6-3-fold increase in binding efficiency for HSYGal-3 (His6-SNAP-yellow fluorescent protein-Gal-3) compared to the HGal-3 (His6-Gal-3). Our results reveal an apparent higher binding efficiency for galectin SNAP-tag fusion proteins compared to His6-tagged galectins which are independent of the purification mode. This is also demonstrated by the binding of galectin fusion proteins to extracellular glycoconjugates laminin, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Our results indicate the probable involvement of the SNAP-tag in apparently higher binding signals, which we discuss in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0614.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Am-241 and U-232; dendritic polymers; silica xerogels; composites; dendrimers; water purification; radioactive wastewater; radionuclide removal; thermodynamic; environmental remediation; water decontamination
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:25:25 CEST)
The binding of actinide ions (Am(III) and U(VI)) in aqueous solutions by hybrid silica-hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) nanoparticles (NP) and xerogels (XG) has been studied by means of batch experiments at different pH values (4, 7 and 9) under ambient atmospheric conditions. Both materials present relatively high removal efficiency at pH 4 and pH 7 (> 70%) for Am(III) and U(VI). The lower removal efficiency for the nanoparticles is basically associated with the compact structure of the nanoparticles and the lower permeability and access to active amine groups compared to xerogels, and the negative charge of the radionuclide species formed under alkaline conditions (e.g. UO2(CO3)34- and Am(CO3)2-). Generally, the adsorption process is relatively slow due to the very low radionuclide concentrations used in the study and is basically governed by the actinide diffusion from the aqueous phase to the solid surface. On the other hand, the adsorption is favored with increasing temperature assuming that the reaction is endothermic and entropy-driven, which is associated with increasing randomness at the solid-liquid interphase upon actinide adsorption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on hybrid silica-hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) nanoparticle and xerogel materials used as adsorbents for americium and uranium at ultra-trace levels. Compared to other adsorbent materials used for binding americium and uranium ions, both materials show far higher binding efficiency. Xerogels could remove both actinides even from seawater by almost 90%, whereas nanoparticles could remove uranium by 80% and americium by 70%. The above, along with their simple derivatization to increase the selectivity towards a specific radionuclide and their easy processing to be included in separation technologies, could make these materials attractive candidates for the treatment of radionuclide/actinide contaminated water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Soft Sensors; Industry 4.0; Smart Manufacturing; Cyber-Physical System; Crude Oil Distillation; Debutanization; LPG Purification
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:43:08 CEST)
Refineries execute a series of interlinked processes, where the product of one unit serves as the input to another process. Potential failures within these processes affect the quality of the end products, operational efficiency, and revenue of the entire refinery. In this context, implementation of a real-time cognitive module, referring to predictive machine learning models, enables to provide equipment state monitoring services and to generate decision-making for equipment operations. In this paper, we propose two machine learning models: 1) to forecast the amount of pentane (C5) content in the final product mixture; 2) to identify if C5 content exceeds the specification thresholds for the final product quality. We validate our approach by using a use case from a real-world refinery. In addition, we develop a visualization to assess which features are considered most important during feature selection, and later by the machine learning models. Finally, we provide insights on the sensor values in the dataset, which help to identify the operational conditions for using such machine learning models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus; purification; affinity extraction; affinity chromatography, CCMV-binding peptide; virus-like particles; VLP, plant virus, nanotechnology, nanoparticles; virus production; safety issues; ultracentrifugation-free protocol; molecular dynamics
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:09:14 CET)
Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is a plant virus explored as a nanotechnological platform. The robust self-assembly mechanism of its capsid protein allows for drug encapsulation and targeted delivery. Additionally, the capsid nanoparticle can be used as a programmable platform to display different molecular moieties. In view of future applications, efficient production and purification of plant viruses is a key step. In established protocols, the need for ultracentrifugation is a significant limitation due to cost, difficult scalability, and safety issues. In addition, the purity of the final virus isolate often remains unclear. Here, an advanced protocol for the purification of CCMV from infected plant tissue was developed, focusing on efficiency, economy, and final purity. The protocol involves precipitation with PEG 8000, followed by an affinity extraction using a novel peptide aptamer. The efficiency of the protocol was validated using size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, reversed-phase HPLC, and sandwich immunoassay. It was demonstrated that the final eluate of the affinity column is of exceptional purity (98.4%) determined by HPLC and detection at 220 nm. The scale-up of our proposed method seems to be straightforward, which opens the way to the large-scale production of such nanomaterials. This highly improved protocol may facilitate the use and implementation of plant viruses as nanotechnological platforms for in vitro and in vivo applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: aluminum oxide; sapphire; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; nickel chelate; EDTAD; protein affinity enrichment; hexaHis-Tag; his6; 6xHis; his8; bioseparation; IMAC purification; immunocapture; enrichment; affinity chromatography; solid phase; carrier; material; corundum; nickel; recombinant protein; Escherichia coli; bacterial lysates; protein A/G; cytoplasm
Online: 6 April 2023 (12:37:55 CEST)
Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) is a popular and valuable method for the affinity purification of polyhistidine-tagged recombinant proteins. However, it often shows practical limitations, which might require cumbersome optimizations, additional polishing, and enrichment steps. Here, we present functionalized corundum particles for the efficient, economical, and fast purification of recombinant proteins in a column-free format. The corundum surface is first derivatized with the amino silane APTES, then EDTA dianhydride, and subsequently loaded with nickel ions. The Kaiser test, well-known in solid-phase peptide synthesis, was used to monitor amino silanization and the reaction with EDTA dianhydride. In addition, ICP-MS was performed to quantify the metal-binding capacity. His-tagged protein A/G (PAG), mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA), was used as a test system. The PAG binding capacity was around 3 mg protein per gram of corundum. Cytoplasm obtained from different E. coli strains was examined as an example of a complex matrix. The imidazole concentration was varied in the loading and washing buffers. As expected, higher imidazole concentrations during loading are usually beneficial when higher purities are desired. Even when higher sample volumes, such as one liter, were used, recombinant protein down to a concentration of 1 µg/mL could be isolated selectively. Comparing the corundum material with standard Ni-NTA agarose beads indicated higher purities of proteins isolated using corundum. His6-MBP-mSA2, a fusion protein consisting of monomeric streptavidin and maltose-binding protein in the cytoplasm of E. coli, was purified successfully. To show that this method is also suitable for mammalian cell culture supernatants, purification of the SARS-CoV-2-S-RBD His8 expressed in human Expi293F cells was performed. The material cost of the nickel-loaded corundum material (without regeneration) is estimated to be less than 30 cents for 1 gram of functionalized support or 10 cents per milligram of isolated protein. Another advantage of the novel system is the corundum particles' extremely high physical and chemical stability. The new material should be applicable in small laboratories and large-scale industrial applications. In summary, we could show that this new material is an efficient, robust, and cost-effective purification platform for the purification of His-tagged proteins, even in challenging, complex matrices and large sample volumes of low product concentration.